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Kassir, Radwan; Debs, Tarek; Blanc, Pierre; Gugenheim, Jean; Ben Amor, Imed; Boutet, Claire; Tiffet, Olivier
The epidemic in obesity has led to an increase in number of so called bariatric procedures. Doctors are less comfortable managing an obese patient after bariatric surgery. Peri-operative mortality is less than 1%. The specific feature in the obese patient is that the classical signs of peritoneal irritation are never present as there is no abdominal wall and therefore no guarding or rigidity. Simple post-operative tachycardia in obese patients should be taken seriously as it is a WARNING SIGNAL. The most common complication after surgery is peritonitis due to anastomotic fistula formation. This occurs typically as an early complication within the first 10 days post-operatively and has an incidence of 1-6% after gastric bypass and 3-7% after sleeve gastrectomy. Post-operative malnutrition is extremely rare after restrictive surgery (ring, sleeve gastrectomy) although may occur after malabsorbative surgery (bypass, biliary pancreatic shunt) and is due to the restriction and change in absorption. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely carried out during the same procedure as the bypass. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis after bariatric surgery is a diagnosis which should be considered in the presence of any postoperative abdominal pain. Initially a first etiological assessment is performed (measurement of antithrombin III and of protein C and protein S, testing for activated protein C resistance). If the least doubt is present, a medical or surgical consultation should be requested with a specialist practitioner in the management of obese patients as death rates increase with delayed diagnosis.
Asplin, John R.
Bariatric surgery as a means to treat obesity is becoming increasingly common in the United States. An early form of bariatric surgery, the jejunoileal bypass, had to be abandoned in 1980 due to numerous complications, including hyperoxaluria and kidney stones. Current bariatric procedures have not been systematically evaluated to determine if they cause hyperoxaluria. Presented here are data showing that hyperoxaluria is the major metabolic abnormality in patients with bariatric surgery who form kidney stones. Further studies are needed to assess the prevalence of hyperoxaluria in all patients with bariatric surgery.
Karmali, Shahzeer; Stoklossa, Carlene Johnson; Sharma, Arya; Stadnyk, Janet; Christiansen, Sandra; Cottreau, Danielle; Birch, Daniel W.
Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the management of bariatric surgical patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, as well as PubMed US National Library, from January 1950 to December 2009. Evidence was levels I, II, and III. MAIN MESSAGE Bariatric surgery should be considered for obese patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality who have not achieved adequate weight loss with lifestyle and medical management and who are suffering from the complications of obesity. Bariatric surgery can result in substantial weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions, and improved quality of life. The patient’s weight-loss history; his or her personal accountability, responsibility, and comprehension; and the acceptable level of risk must be taken into account. Complications include technical failure, bleeding, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, excess loose skin, bowel obstruction, ulcers, and anastomotic stricture. Lifelong monitoring by a multidisciplinary team is essential. CONCLUSION Limited long-term success of behavioural and pharmacologic therapies in severe obesity has led to renewed interest in bariatric surgery. Success with bariatric surgery is more likely when multidisciplinary care providers, in conjunction with primary care providers, assess, treat, monitor, and evaluate patients before and after surgery. Family physicians will play a critical role in counseling patients about bariatric surgery and will need to develop skills in managing these patients in the long-term. PMID:20841586
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Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Background Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2.1 Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m2. An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999–2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the “normal” range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m2 and extend into the “overweight” range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their
Malli, Chrysoula P.; Sioulas, Athanasios D.; Emmanouil, Theodoros; Dimitriadis, George D.; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos
Obesity is a global epidemic with significant morbidity and mortality. Weight loss results in reduction of health risks and improvement in quality of life, thus representing a goal of paramount importance. Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious choice compared to conservative alternatives including diet, exercise, drugs and behavioral modification to treat obese patients. Following bariatric operations, patients may present with upper gastrointestinal tract complaints that warrant endoscopic evaluation and the various bariatric surgery types are often linked to complications. A subset of these complications necessitates endoscopic interventions for accurate diagnosis and effective, minimal invasive treatment. This review aims to highlight the role of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery to evaluate and potentially treat surgery-related complications and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27366025
Roerig, James L; Steffen, Kristine
Currently, it has been demonstrated that psychotropic drugs, particularly antidepressants, are frequently prescribed for patients who seek bariatric surgery. Many bariatric surgery patients have a history of a mood disorder. Unlike medications for diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, which are generally reduced and at times discontinued, postsurgery antidepressants use is only slightly reduced. The Roux-en-Y procedure is most frequently associated with alteration in drug exposure. Medication disintegration, dissolution, absorption, metabolism and excretion have been found to be altered in postbariatric patients, although data are sparse at this time. This paper will review the current evidence regarding the effect of bariatric surgery on drug treatment including mechanism of interference as well as the extent of changes identified to date. Data will be presented as controlled trials followed by case series and reports.
Aridi, Hanaa Dakour; Alami, Ramzi S; Fouani, Tarek; Shamseddine, Ghassan; Tamim, Hani; Safadi, Bassem
Vitamin D deficiency is common among obese patients presenting for bariatric surgery in Europe and North America. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this patient population in Lebanon and the Middle East has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of vitamin D deficiency in a cohort of patients presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon. American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Data was extracted from a prospective database of patients presenting for bariatric surgery at the American University of Beirut Medical Center from July 2011 until June 2014. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was determined using established cut-offs followed by analysis of the relationship between low vitamin D and certain patient characteristics. More than two thirds of all patients (68.9%) were vitamin D deficient (≤19.9 ng/mL), whereas 22.6% had insufficient levels (20-29.9 ng/mL) and only 8.6 % had sufficient levels (≥30 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were inversely associated with BMI>50 kg/m(2). Low vitamin D levels were also correlated with younger age, male gender, lack of physical exercise, and nonsunny season. No association was shown between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, osteoarticular disease, hypertension, or depression. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among patients with Class II or Class III obesity presenting for bariatric surgery in Lebanon. These findings emphasize the need for careful attention when evaluating patients before bariatric surgery and the importance of providing patients with adequate supplementation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dumon, Kristoffel R; Murayama, Kenric M
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of death, and morbid obesity carries a significant risk of life-threatening complications such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Bariatric surgery is recognized as the only effective treatment of morbid obesity. The estimated number of bariatric operations performed in the United States in 2008 was more than 13 times the number performed in 1992. Despite this increase, only 1% of the eligible morbidly obese population are currently treated with bariatric surgery.
Nicoletti, Carolina F; Cortes-Oliveira, Cristiana; Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nonino, Carla B
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance.
Manzoni, Ana Paula Dornelles da Silva; Weber, Magda Blessmann
Today, obesity is considered an epidemic all over the world and it is recognized as one of the major public health problems. Bariatric surgery is considered an appropriate therapeutic option for obesity with progressively increasing demands. The changes resulting from massive weight loss after bariatric surgery are related to numerous complications. This article will present the dermatological alterations that can be found after bariatric surgery. They will be subdivided into dermatoses that are secondary to metabolic and nutritional disorders, those derived from cutaneous structural modifications after major weight loss and the influence the latter may have in improving of certain dermatoses. PMID:25830984
Flanagin, Brody A; Mitchell, Myrosia T; Thistlethwaite, William A; Alverdy, John C
Bariatric surgery dramatically alters the normal stomach anatomy resulting in a significant incidence of hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Although the majority of patients remain asymptomatic, many complain of severe heartburn refractory to medical management and additional highly atypical symptoms. Here, we describe the diagnosis and treatment regarding four cases of symptomatic hiatal hernia following bariatric surgery presenting with atypical symptoms in the University Hospital, USA. Four patients presented following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or duodenal switch/pancreaticobiliary bypass (DS) with disabling and intractable midepigastric abdominal pain characterized as severe and radiating to the jaw, left shoulder, and midscapular area. The pain in all cases was described as paroxysmal and not necessarily associated with eating. All four patients also experienced nausea, vomiting, and failure to thrive at various intervals following laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Routine workup failed to produce any clear mechanical cause of these symptoms. However, complimentary use of multidetector CT and upper gastrointestinal contrast studies eventually revealed the diagnosis of hiatal hernia. Exploration identified the presence of a type I hiatal hernia in all four patients, with the stomach staple lines densely adherent to the diaphragm and parietal peritoneum. Operative intervention led to immediate and complete resolution of symptoms. The presence of a hiatal hernia following bariatric surgery can present with highly atypical symptoms that do not resolve without operative intervention. Recognition of this problem should lead to the consideration of surgery in cases where patients are dependent on artificial nutritional support and whose symptoms are poorly controlled with medication alone.
Xanthakos, Stavra A; Daniels, Stephen R; Inge, Thomas H
Bariatric surgery, although not a cure for obesity, can help selected extremely obese adolescents achieve significant weight loss and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, in conjunction with continued dietary and behavioral interventions. This article summarizes the current guidelines for selection of adolescent candidates for bariatric surgery and discusses the types of bariatric procedures presently available for this age group. Data on the complications and outcomes of bariatric surgery in this special population are reviewed.
Yu, Elaine W.
Bariatric surgery is a popular and effective treatment for severe obesity, but may have negative effects on the skeleton. This review summarizes changes in bone density and bone metabolism from animal and clinical studies of bariatric surgery, with specific attention to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Skeletal imaging artifacts from obesity and weight loss are also considered. Despite challenges in bone density imaging, the preponderance of evidence suggests that bariatric surgery procedures have negative skeletal effects that persist beyond the first year of surgery, and that these effects vary by surgical type. The long-term clinical implications and current clinical recommendations are presented. Further study is required to determine mechanisms of bone loss after bariatric surgery. Although early studies focused on calcium/vitamin D metabolism and mechanical unloading of the skeleton, it seems likely that surgically-induced changes in the hormonal and metabolic profile may be responsible for the skeletal phenotypes observed after bariatric surgery. PMID:24677277
The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062
Birch, Daniel W; Vu, Lan; Karmali, Shahzeer; Stoklossa, Carlene Johnson; Sharma, Arya M
The number of Canadians who self-refer for bariatric surgery outside of Canada or to private clinics within Canada remains undefined. The outcomes from this questionable practice have not been evaluated systematically to date. We completed a chart review of known cases referred to our center for complications related to medical tourism and bariatric surgery. We present a series of patients who have experienced complications because of medical tourism for bariatric surgery and required urgent surgical management at a tertiary care center within Canada. Complications have resulted from 3 commonly used procedures: adjustable gastric banding, gastric sleeve resection, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Because of this review, we propose that a medical tourism approach to the surgical management of obesity-a chronic disease-is inappropriate and raises clear ethical and moral issues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Although many smaller studies have addressed anaesthetic care for bariatric surgical patients, comprehensive systematic literature reviews have yet to be compiled, and much evidence includes expert panel opinion. This review summarises study results in bariatric surgical patients regarding pre-anaesthesia evaluation, the perioperative impact of sleep-disordered breathing, airway management at anaesthetic induction and emergence, maintenance of anaesthesia, postoperative pain management, utility of clinical-care pathways and feasibility of outpatient bariatric surgery. The 'ramped' upper-body, reversed Trendelenburg position at anaesthetic induction and manual application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. Intra-operative hypoxaemia can be treated with the combination of PEEP and recruitment manoeuvres, and attention to airway management at emergence is critical. Local anaesthetic wound infiltration and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be part of multimodal opioid-sparing postoperative analgesia. Implementation of bariatric clinical-care pathways seems beneficial. Considering the prevalence of sleep apnoea in these patients, outpatient bariatric surgery remains controversial, but is probably safe for certain procedures, provided there is strict adherence to preoperative eligibility and home-care protocols.
In the beginning of the 21st century obesity still represents health, social and economical threat for most of economically wealthy countries worldwide. Estimated direct costs for obesity and related comorbidities treatment exceed 5% of the total health care costs both in the US and in European Union. However, in addition there are obesity-related indirect costs linked to more frequent work sickness leave, higher unemployment rates and overall lower productivity of obese patients. Surgical treatment of obesity (bariatric surgery) is the most effective long-term treatment modality for those patients suffering from higher degrees of obesity. Bariatric surgery has not only positive effects on weight loss, but is also extremely effective in improving or resolving many of obesity-related comorbidities, which have evolved rapidly into the so-called metabolic surgery. T2DM may serve as excellent example of metabolic, obesity-related comorbidity which can be treated with bariatric-metabolic procedure even without direct relation to weight loss. In such cases bariatric surgery evolves into metabolic surgery. Thus metabolic operations (namely from the malabsorptive end) deeply influence hormonal secretion especially in the proximal part of small bowel, change parametres of entero-insular axis and have positive influence on insulin secretion, sensitivity and on the entire complex of glucose tolerance. Nowadays we can witness dramatic changes in perception of T2DM from bariatric surgeons, diabetologists, and many other medical specialists. T2DM has evolved from primarily medical disease into a condition where surgeons may play a more active role in the management of the diabetic patient. However, it has to be stressed that metabolic treatment of T2DM and other metabolic disorders need multidisciplinary approach and collaboration and that surgeon should play very important role as a multidisciplinary team member, however metabolic surgery should not yet be considered as stand
Algahtani, Hussein A.; Khan, Abid S.; Khan, Muhammad A.; Aldarmahi, Ahmed A.; Lodhi, Yousif
Objective: To review and analyze the neurological complications from bariatric surgery in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to December 2015. Important personal and clinical data were collected from the charts of the patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Data on follow up visit and remote complication if present, was also collected. All patients with neurological complications were reviewed in detail. The significant difference was calculated by using T-test and p-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 451 patients underwent bariatric surgery, 15 cases had neurological complications (3%). Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complication, but cases of Wernicke syndrome, vitamin B12 deficiency, Guillain-Barre syndrome and copper deficiency were also identified. Fourteen patients (93.3%) had full recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms; one patient died. Conclusions: Bariatric surgery is not free of potential neurological complications. Complications may affect both central and peripheral nervous system and death is a possibility. Multidisciplinary care including consultation of different teams is highly recommended. PMID:27356656
Xanthakos, Stavra A; Inge, Thomas H
Bariatric surgery is being increasingly used to help treat morbidly obese adults and adolescents. As a greater percentage of this population faces a lifetime of living with surgically altered gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, increased awareness of the nutritional consequences is critical for all health care practitioners, as many of these patients may be lost to follow-up and can present with significant nutritional complications years after surgery. Nutritional deficiencies can occur after bariatric surgery, although to a lesser degree after restrictive procedures. Risk may increase over time, perhaps due to poor compliance with supplementation, continued inadequate intake and/or ongoing malabsorption. Adolescent patients may be at greater risk due to poor compliance and longer life span. Nutritional monitoring and supplementation among bariatric programs has been widely variable and few prospective studies of outcomes exist. Bariatric surgery can carry significant risk of nutritional complications. Compliance with dietary recommendations should be monitored and encouraged, with annual screening for selected deficiencies. Prospective longitudinal research is needed to identify the true prevalence and significance of nutritional deficiency in these patients and to determine optimum dietary recommendations.
It is estimated that the prevalence of anaemia in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery is higher than in the general population and the prevalence of iron deficiencies (with or without anaemia) may be higher as well. After surgery, iron deficiencies and anaemia may occur in a higher percentage of patients, mainly as a consequence of nutrient deficiencies. In addition, perioperative anaemia has been related with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life after bariatric surgery. The treatment of perioperative anaemia and nutrient deficiencies has been shown to improve patients’ outcomes and quality of life. All patients should undergo an appropriate nutritional evaluation, including selective micronutrient measurements (e.g., iron), before any bariatric surgical procedure. In comparison with purely restrictive procedures, more extensive perioperative nutritional evaluations are required for malabsorptive procedures due to their nutritional consequences. The aim of this study was to review the current knowledge of nutritional deficits in obese patients and those that commonly appear after bariatric surgery, specifically iron deficiencies and their consequences. As a result, some recommendations for screening and supplementation are presented. PMID:23676549
Hsia, Daniel S; Fallon, Sara C; Brandt, Mary L
Pediatric obesity has increased from a relatively uncommon problem to one of the most important public health problems facing children today. Typical "adult" diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, have become increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population. The earlier presentation of these comorbidities will have a significant impact for the future because this population of children will require more medical resources at an earlier age and will have a significantly decreased life expectancy. The significant morbidity of obesity in the pediatric population has led to consideration of more aggressive treatment protocols for obesity in children, including the introduction of surgical management at an earlier age. Surgery for obesity in adolescents has particular risks and benefits that must be accounted for when considering this approach. The unique psychological and emotional needs of adolescent patients make the patient selection process and perioperative management substantially different from those of adult patients. Initial outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents are comparable to those seen in adults in the short term. However, the long-term effects of these procedures on the adolescent population are not known. This review discusses the epidemiology of pediatric obesity, the indications for operative therapy in adolescent patients, the common surgical procedures used for weight loss, the reported outcomes of these procedures, and the importance of multidisciplinary management for this unique patient population.
Moreno Esteban, B; Zugasti Murillo, A
The indication of bariatric surgery as therapeutic procedure for morbid obese patients requires the application of selection criteria which deal with the degree of obesity, associated complications and previous failure of conventional therapy. Alcohol or drug addiction and concomitant serious disease are contraindications for bariatric surgery. Before operation, a full assessment is needed to identify possible eating behaviour disturbances and associated comorbidity such as cardiovascular disease, sleep apnoea, metabolic and psychiatric alterations which might induce intra and postoperative complications. Surgical techniques can be classified as restrictive, malabsortive and mixed procedures. Gastroplasty and adjustable gastric banding are restrictive techniques, which are indicated in obese patients with body mass index less than 45 kg/m2. Mixed techniques are the most used procedures. They include gastric by-pass which causes a reduction of 60-70% of weight excess, biliopancreatic diversion and duodenal switch which can eliminate a 75% of body weight excess. Following bariatric surgery a dramatic improvement in associated comorbidity can be demonstrated, specially in what refers to diabetes, hypertension, dislipidaemia and apnoea. Postoperative mortality is around 1-2%. Peritonitis and venous thromboembolism are the most serious complications. Postoperative follow-up should be lifelong and requires a progressive nutrition planning and vitamin supplementation.
Yen, Yung-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Kuan; Tai, Chi-Ming
Purpose of review Bariatric surgery has been consistently shown to be effective in long-term marked weight loss and in bringing significant improvement to medical comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome. Empirical data suggest a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among bariatric surgery candidates. In this review, we focus on the studies published recently with a high impact on our understanding of the role of psychiatry in bariatric surgery. Recent findings This article reviews the specific psychopathologies before surgery, changes in psychopathologies after surgery, suicide risk related to bariatric surgery, factors associated with weight loss, and recommendations for presurgical and postsurgical assessment and management. Research indicates a decrease in certain psychiatric symptoms after weight loss with bariatric surgery. However, the risk of suicide and unsuccessful weight loss in some bariatric surgery patients make monitoring following surgery as important as careful assessment and management before surgery. Specific considerations for youth and older populations and future potential research foci are discussed. Summary Recent publications suggest new directions for psychiatric evaluation and interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Future research on outcomes of specific populations, effectiveness of psychopharmacotherapy, and underlying pathophysiology are warranted for the advancement of treating bariatric surgery patients. PMID:25036421
Zhu, Catherine; Pryor, Aurora D
Surgery has consistently been demonstrated to be the most effective long-term therapy for the treatment of obesity. However, despite excellent outcomes with current procedures, most patients with obesity- and weight-related comorbidities who meet criteria for surgical treatment choose not to pursue surgery out of fear of operative risks and complications or concerns about high costs. Novel minimally invasive procedures and devices may offer alternative solutions for patients who are hesitant to pursue standard surgical approaches. These procedures may be used for primary treatment of obesity, early intervention for patients approaching morbid obesity, temporary management prior to bariatric surgery, or revision of bypass surgery associated with weight regain. Novel bariatric procedures can in general be divided into four categories: endoluminal space-occupying devices, gastric suturing and restrictive devices, absorption-limiting devices, and neural-hormonal modulating devices. Many of these are only approved as short-term interventions, but these devices may be effective for patients desiring low-risk procedures or a transient effect. We will see the expansion of indications and alternatives for metabolic surgery as these techniques gain approval.
Pories, Walter J.
Context: Over 23 million Americans are afflicted with severe obesity, i.e. their body mass index (in kilograms per square meter) values exceed 35. Of even greater concern is the association of the adiposity with comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiopulmonary failure, asthma, pseudotumor cerebri, infertility, and crippling arthritis. Objective: Diets, exercise, behavioral modification, and drugs are not effective in these individuals. This article examines the effect of surgery on the control of the weight and the comorbidities, as well as the safety of these operations. Interventions: Although the article focuses on the outcomes of the three most commonly performed operations, i.e. adjustable gastric banding, the gastric bypass, and the biliopancreatic bypass with duodenal switch, it aims for perspective with the inclusion of abandoned and current investigational procedures, a review of the complications, and an emphasis on the appropriate selection of patients. Positions: Ample evidence, including controlled randomized studies, now document that bariatric surgery produces durable weight loss exceeding 100 lb (46 kg), full and long-term remission of type 2 diabetes in over 80% with salutary effects on the other comorbidities as well with significant reductions in all-cause mortality. Although the severely obese present with serious surgical risks, bariatric surgery is performed safely with a 0.35% 90-d mortality in Centers of Excellence throughout the United States—similar to the complication rates after cholecystectomy. Conclusions: Until better approaches become available, bariatric surgery is the therapy of choice for patients with severe obesity. PMID:18987275
Rendon, Stewart E; Pories, Walter J
Quality assurance is a function that exists in manufacturing,engineering, and the service industry. Bariatric surgery is an undertaking with a special form of consumer product and service. In this day of limited resources and significant value exchanges among stakeholders (ie, patients, surgeons, third-party payers),the goal of the bariatric community is to deliver quality outcomes with safety, efficacy, and efficiency. The American Society for Bariatric Surgery and the Surgical Review Corporation, in conjunction with the bariatric community, will use quality assurance methods to produce quality outcomes that will satisfy the value exchanges of all stakeholders.
Porubsky, Marian; Powelson, John A; Selzer, Don J; Mujtaba, Muhammad A; Taber, Tim; Carnes, Katerine L; Fridell, Jonathan A
Obese transplant candidates are at increased risk for perioperative and postoperative complications. In many transplant programs, morbid obesity is considered to be an exclusion criterion for transplantation. The only potential option that would grant these patients access to transplant is weight loss. Non-operative weight loss strategies such as behavioral modifications, exercise, diet, or medication have only very limited success in achieving long-term weight loss. In contrast, bariatric surgery was shown to achieve not only more excessive weight loss, but more importantly, this weight loss can be sustained for longer periods of time. Therefore, bariatric surgery presents an attractive option for weight loss for morbidly obese transplant candidates. We report our experience with four patients who underwent bariatric surgery prior to successful pancreas transplantation. Even though gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band present as equivalent alternatives for weight reduction, we believe that in the population of morbidly obese diabetic patients who are possible candidates for pancreas transplantation, laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement is the more suitable procedure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Malnutrition is a risk that is associated with all bariatric surgeries. Malnutrition is largely preventable after these surgeries if proper patient selection, thorough preoperative nutrition education, and postoperative nutritional follow-up take place along with patient compliance. Bariatric surgery is divided into 2 major categories: restrictive or malabsorptive (with or without the restrictive aspect). The more dramatic weight loss is generally associated with procedures that are malabsorptive in nature. There is an increased risk of specific nutritional deficiencies associated with these surgeries. With proper supplementation these deficiencies are largely avoidable. This article reviews the more common bariatric surgeries and the nutritional considerations associated specifically with each surgery. The article then summarizes the typical diet advancement schedule and reviews critical care nutrition in regards to total parenteral nutrition administration for the morbidly obese individual, following bariatric surgery.
Amaya García, M J; Vilchez López, F J; Campos Martín, C; Sánchez Vera, P; Pereira Cunill, J L
The morbid obesity is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence and that associates an important morbility and mortality. The bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to secure a weight reduction maintained in the time and a diminution in the rates of complications associated to the obesity. The overweight and the obesity are risk factors for the deficit of several micronutrients like vitamins B1, B6, C, folic acid and D, minerals like the iron and trace elements like zinc, generally by dietetic deficit. In spite of it, at the moment a consensus don't exist about the monitoring of micronutrients in the preoperative one, although it seems reasonable in view of his considerable prevalence. The bariatric surgery can bring about deficit of micronutrients or to intensify previous deficiencies, as much by limitation of the ingestion like by the maldigestión and malabsorption in the malabsortives techniques, being the parallel risk to the ponderal loss. It is precise to monitor of by life the different micronutrients, mainly after the malabsortives surgical techniques. The use of a polivitamínic complex of systematic form is recommended and in the cases in which he is insufficient, it will be precise to use specific suplementación.
Melo, Thalita Lima; Froeder, Leila; Baia, Leandro da Cunha; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman
The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of bone and mineral metabolism after bariatric surgery. This sectional study included data from medical records from 61 bariatric surgery (BS) patients (minimum period of 6 months after the procedure) and from 30 class II and III obese patients as a control group (Cont), consisting of daily dietary intake of macronutrients, calcium and sodium, serum 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other biochemical serum and urinary parameters. Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), leptin, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYD) were determined from available banked serum and urinary samples. Mean body mass index (BMI), median energy, carbohydrate, protein and sodium chloride consumption were significantly lower in the BS versus Cont, but calcium and lipids were not. No significant differences were found in ionized calcium, 25(OH)D, PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) between groups. Mean serum BAP was significantly higher for BS versus Cont and had a positive correlation with time after the surgical procedure. Mean serum leptin was significantly lower and median urinary DPYD higher in BS versus Cont. The present study showed an increase in bone markers of both bone formation and resorption among bariatric patients up to more than 7 years after the surgical procedure, suggesting that an increased bone turnover persists even at a very long-term follow-up in such patients.
Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.
Woodard, Carla B
Gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity is considered an appropriate intervention when other weight-loss measures have proven unsuccessful. Weight loss often brings about improvement in overall health by lessening the effects of obesity-related comorbidities such as chronic hypertension and diabetes. In fact, the ability to become pregnant is enhanced, as weight loss often allows for a normalization of sex hormones. However, the nutrition challenges brought about by the surgery may have a profound impact on maternal health and pregnancy outcome. Surgical procedures for morbid obesity may be classified according to the digestive aftereffects brought about by the particular procedure. These categories include the "restrictive" procedures, "restrictive-malabsorptive" procedures, and the less common "malabsorptive" procedures. Deficiencies in iron, vitamin B12, folate, and calcium can result in maternal complications, such as severe anemia, and in fetal complications, such as neural tube defect, intrauterine growth restriction, and failure to thrive. Nutrient supplementation following bariatric surgery and close supervision before, during, and after pregnancy can help prevent nutrition-related complications and improve maternal and fetal health.
Lo Menzo, E; Szomstein, S; Rosenthal, R J
Bariatric surgery is considered the only long-lasting treatment for morbid obesity. Techniques and procedures have changed dramatically. We report on some of the major changes in the field. We reviewed some of the major changes in trends in bariatric surgery based on some landmark paper published in the literature. We identified three major phases in the evolution of bariatric surgery. The pioneer phase was mostly characterized by discovery of weight loss procedures serendipitously from procedures done for other purposes. The second phase can be identified with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. This is considered the phase of greatest expansion of bariatric surgery. The metabolic phase derives from the improved understanding of the mechanisms of actions of the bariatric operations at the hormonal and molecular level. Bariatric surgery has changed significantly over the years. The safety of the laparoscopic approach, along with the better understanding of the metabolic changes obtained postoperatively, has led to a more individualized approach and also an attempt to expand the indications for these procedures. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.
Sheppard, Caroline E; Lester, Erica L W; Chuck, Anderson W; Kim, David H; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J; Birch, Daniel W
The objective of this study was to determine the short-term cost impact that medical tourism for bariatric surgery has on a public healthcare system. Due to long wait times for bariatric surgery services, Canadians are venturing to private clinics in other provinces/countries. Postoperative care in this population not only burdens the provincial health system with intervention costs required for complicated patients, but may also impact resources allotted to patients in the public clinic. A chart review was performed from January 2009 to June 2013, which identified 62 medical tourists requiring costly interventions related to bariatric surgery. Secondarily, a survey was conducted to estimate the frequency of bariatric medical tourists presenting to general surgeons in Alberta, necessary interventions, and associated costs. A threshold analysis was used to compare costs of medical tourism to those from our institution. A conservative cost estimate of $1.8 million CAD was calculated for all interventions in 62 medical tourists. The survey established that 25 Albertan general surgeons consulted 59 medical tourists per year: a cost of approximately $1 million CAD. Medical tourism was calculated to require a complication rate ≤ 28% (average intervention cost of $37,000 per patient) to equate the cost of locally conducted surgery: a rate less than the current supported evidence. Conducting 250 primary bariatric surgeries in Alberta is approximately $1.9 million less than the modeled cost of treating 250 medical tourists returning to Alberta. Medical tourism has a substantial impact on healthcare costs in Alberta. When compared to bariatric medical tourists, the complication rate for locally conducted surgery is less, and the cost of managing the complications is also much less. Therefore, we conclude that it is a better use of resources to conduct bariatric surgery for Albertan residents in Alberta than to fund patients to seek surgery out of province/country.
Goodman, Jerry Clay
Obesity has attained pandemic proportions, and bariatric surgery is increasingly being employed resulting in turn to more neurological complications which must be recognized and managed. Neurological complications may result from mechanical or inflammatory mechanisms but primarily result from micro-nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and copper constitute the most frequent deficiencies. Neurological complications may occur at reasonably predictable times after bariatric surgery and are associated with the type of surgery used. During the early post-operative period, compressive or stretch peripheral nerve injury, rhabdomyolysis, Wernicke's encephalopathy, and inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathy may occur. Late complications ensue after months to years and include combined system degeneration (vitamin B12 deficiency) and hypocupric myelopathy. Bariatric surgery patients require careful nutritional follow-up with routine monitoring of micronutrients at 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months post-operatively and then annually after surgery and multivitamin supplementation for life. Sustained vigilance for common and rare neurological complications is essential.
Bingham, Nathan C.; Rose, Susan R.; Inge, Thomas H.
Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are epithelial neoplasms generally found in the area of the pituitary and hypothalamus. Despite benign histology, these tumors and/or their treatment often result in significant, debilitating disorders of endocrine, neurological, behavioral, and metabolic systems. Severe obesity is observed in a high percentage of patients with CP resulting in significant comorbidities and negatively impacting quality of life. Obesity occurs as a result of hypothalamic damage and disruption of normal homeostatic mechanisms regulating energy balance. Such pathological weight gain, termed hypothalamic obesity (HyOb), is often severe and refractory to therapy. Unfortunately, neither lifestyle intervention nor pharmacotherapy has proven effective in the treatment of HyOb. Given the limited choices and poor results of these treatments, several groups have examined bariatric surgery as a treatment alternative for patients with CP–HyOb. While a large body of evidence exists supporting the use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of exogenous obesity and its comorbidities, its role in the treatment of HyOb has yet to be defined. To date, the existing literature on bariatric surgery in CP–HyOb is largely limited to case reports and series with short term follow-up. Here we review the current reports on the use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of CP–HyOb. We also compare these results to those reported for other populations of HyOb, including Prader–Willi Syndrome, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, and hypothalamic melanocortin signaling defects. While initial reports of bariatric surgery in CP–HyOb are promising, their limited scope makes it difficult to draw any substantial conclusions as to the long term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in CP–HyOb. There continues to be a need for more robust, controlled, prospective studies with long term follow-up in order to better define the role of bariatric surgery in the treatment of HyOb. PMID:22649412
Bingham, Nathan C; Rose, Susan R; Inge, Thomas H
Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are epithelial neoplasms generally found in the area of the pituitary and hypothalamus. Despite benign histology, these tumors and/or their treatment often result in significant, debilitating disorders of endocrine, neurological, behavioral, and metabolic systems. Severe obesity is observed in a high percentage of patients with CP resulting in significant comorbidities and negatively impacting quality of life. Obesity occurs as a result of hypothalamic damage and disruption of normal homeostatic mechanisms regulating energy balance. Such pathological weight gain, termed hypothalamic obesity (HyOb), is often severe and refractory to therapy. Unfortunately, neither lifestyle intervention nor pharmacotherapy has proven effective in the treatment of HyOb. Given the limited choices and poor results of these treatments, several groups have examined bariatric surgery as a treatment alternative for patients with CP-HyOb. While a large body of evidence exists supporting the use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of exogenous obesity and its comorbidities, its role in the treatment of HyOb has yet to be defined. To date, the existing literature on bariatric surgery in CP-HyOb is largely limited to case reports and series with short term follow-up. Here we review the current reports on the use of bariatric surgery in the treatment of CP-HyOb. We also compare these results to those reported for other populations of HyOb, including Prader-Willi Syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and hypothalamic melanocortin signaling defects. While initial reports of bariatric surgery in CP-HyOb are promising, their limited scope makes it difficult to draw any substantial conclusions as to the long term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in CP-HyOb. There continues to be a need for more robust, controlled, prospective studies with long term follow-up in order to better define the role of bariatric surgery in the treatment of HyOb.
Beamish, Andrew J; Olbers, Torsten; Kelly, Aaron S; Inge, Thomas H
Obesity is a major global health problem, and its multisystem effects are inextricably linked with elevated cardiovascular risk and adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular benefits of reversing obesity in adults are well-established. Compared with other weight-loss strategies, programmes that incorporate bariatric surgery for weight loss are beneficial for sustained BMI reduction. A marked improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been observed after bariatric surgery. This broad improvement in cardiovascular risk profile has led to substantial reductions in the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. As with all procedures, the benefits of bariatric surgery must be weighed against its potential risks. Modern bariatric surgery has an excellent safety profile, but important limitations remain, including the potential for surgical complications and nutritional deficiencies, and the lifelong requirement for nutritional supplementation. Surgery should be considered in patients with severe obesity, especially those with cardiovascular comorbidities. In this Review, we summarize the current management options for patients with obesity, and discuss the effects of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes.
Quercia, I.; Dutia, R.; Kotler, D.P.; Belsley, S.; Laferrère, B.
Severe obesity is a preeminent health care problem that impacts overall health and survival. The most effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, an intervention that not only maintains long-term weight loss but also is associated with improvement or remission of several comorbidies including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some weight loss surgeries modify the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, including the secretions and actions of gut peptides. This review describes how bariatric surgery alters the patterns of gastrointestinal motility, nutrient digestion and absorption, gut peptide release, bile acids and the gut microflora, and how these changes alter energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. PMID:24359701
Quercia, I; Dutia, R; Kotler, D P; Belsley, S; Laferrère, B
Severe obesity is a preeminent health care problem that impacts overall health and survival. The most effective treatment for severe obesity is bariatric surgery, an intervention that not only maintains long-term weight loss but also is associated with improvement or remission of several comorbidies including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some weight loss surgeries modify the gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology, including the secretions and actions of gut peptides. This review describes how bariatric surgery alters the patterns of gastrointestinal motility, nutrient digestion and absorption, gut peptide release, bile acids and the gut microflora, and how these changes alter energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Desai, Nirav K; Wulkan, Mark L; Inge, Thomas H
Childhood obesity remains a significant public health issue. Approximately 8% of adolescent girls and 7% of adolescent boys have severe (≥class 2) obesity. Adolescent severe obesity is associated with numerous comorbidities, and persists into adulthood. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment available, resulting in major weight loss and resolution of important comorbid conditions. Clinical practice guidelines for pediatric obesity treatment recommend consideration of surgery after failure of behavioral approaches. Careful screening and postoperative management of patients by a multidisciplinary team is required. Long-term studies are needed to assess the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miller, Rachel J; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Hillard, Paula J Adams; Inge, Thomas H
This review summarizes the impact of bariatric surgery on gynecologic complications in the context of the extremely obese adolescent and reviews contraceptive considerations before and after adolescent bariatric surgery. Eighteen percent of children and adolescents have a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile, with 4% of adolescents being greater than the 99th percentile. Gynecologic morbidities identified in obese adolescents include anovulatory complications such as acute menorrhagia, polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer. When conventional dietary and behavioral therapy fail to result in weight loss, specific criteria have been identified to justify bariatric surgery in extremely obese adolescents. Bariatric surgery in adult women often results in resumption of ovulatory menses, resolution of clinical and laboratory evidence of hyperandrogenism, and return of fertility. Adolescents are at risk for unintended pregnancies, and there are special concerns regarding pregnancy in bariatric patients. Specific contraceptive methods have particular potential risks, benefits, and drawbacks for use in obese adolescents. Clinicians who provide care for extremely obese adolescents must be aware of the potential for gynecologic morbidities including polycystic ovary syndrome, dysfunctional bleeding and endometrial hyperplasia, expected gynecologic and fertility outcomes of weight loss surgery for teens, as well as the implications on contraceptive options.
Nepal, Hitekshya; Bhattarai, Mukul; Agustin, Erie T
Obesity has become a major public health problem over the past two decades. Non-surgical management of obesity does not often achieve its long term goals. Surgical treatment is roaring in popularity because of dramatic and durable results. However, outcomes from bariatric surgery have become a significant area of scrutiny because it is also associated with several medical and psychological complications. Out of those complications, there are descriptions of neuropsychiatric disorders and psycho-behavioral symptoms after surgery. Meanwhile, few reports of acute psychosis are described but to our knowledge, our case is the first case report of primary mania following bariatric surgery. We present an unusual and challenging case of primary mania in a 57 year old female who underwent bariatric surgery two months ago. Patient responded well initially to antipsychotic followed by mood stabilizer.
Bhattarai, Mukul; Agustin, Erie T.
Obesity has become a major public health problem over the past two decades. Non-surgical management of obesity does not often achieve its long term goals. Surgical treatment is roaring in popularity because of dramatic and durable results. However, outcomes from bariatric surgery have become a significant area of scrutiny because it is also associated with several medical and psychological complications. Out of those complications, there are descriptions of neuropsychiatric disorders and psycho-behavioral symptoms after surgery. Meanwhile, few reports of acute psychosis are described but to our knowledge, our case is the first case report of primary mania following bariatric surgery. We present an unusual and challenging case of primary mania in a 57 year old female who underwent bariatric surgery two months ago. Patient responded well initially to antipsychotic followed by mood stabilizer. PMID:25670960
... have serious health problems caused by vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Truth: Bariatric operations can lead to deficiencies in vitamins and minerals by reducing nutrient intake or by causing reduced ...
Tarantino, David P; Smith, Darlene B
Obesity has been increasing over the past two decades, and the amount of medical and media attention given to bariatric surgery as a promising option for morbidly obese individuals is growing. The growth of bariatric surgery also has been attributed to improved surgical technique, the increase in surgeons trained in laparoscopic procedures, as well increased public awareness with celebrities having successfully undergone surgery. The number of surgeons and hospitals offering bariatric services is increasing. How then does a surgeon or a hospital develop a competitive strategy? The first step is to understand the health-care industry. The key forces are rivalry among present competitors, and the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers. While bariatric surgery currently is in a growth phase, time and competition will force practitioners to compete on the basis of price, unless they find true competitive advantage. Value innovation, is a means of creating new marketing space by looking across the conventionally defined boundaries of business--across substitute industries, across strategic groups, across buyer groups, across complementary product and service offerings, and across the functional-emotional orientation of an industry. One can compete by offering similar services focusing primarily on cost efficiencies as the key to profitability. Alternatively, one can break free from the pack by innovating and focusing on delivering superior value to the customer. As the market for bariatric surgery becomes increasingly overcrowded, profitable growth is not sustainable without developing a clear differential advantage in the market. Value innovation allows you to develop that advantage.
Kozlowski, Tomasz; Kozakiewicz, Krzysztof; Dadan, Jacek
Nowadays all over the world the rising plague of obesity can be observed. The obesity was recognized as “an epidemic of XXI century” in 1997 by World Health Organization. The change of eating habits, active lifestyle or pharmacological curation are often insufficient to fight against obesity. Nowadays, there are not any guidelines about gold standard for curing obese patients is bariatric surgery. At the moment, two types of bariatric procedures: laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, are most commonly used. There are also some other new approaches, which are still being investigated. The mechanism of losing weight in bariatric surgery is based on restriction, malabsorption and neurohormonal effect. Not only is the surgery technique very important to succeed, but also the postoperative care in the outpatient clinic. This article reviews the new possibilities in obesity treatment. PMID:27867868
Zeller, Meg H; Roehrig, Helmut R; Modi, Avani C; Daniels, Stephen R; Inge, Thomas H
We sought to document health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment and depressive symptomatology in adolescents with extreme obesity considering surgical weight loss. A retrospective review of clinical data was conducted for 33 consecutive extremely obese adolescents presenting for evaluation at a bariatric surgery program for adolescents. Adolescents completed the PedsQL and the Beck Depression Inventory. Mothers completed the parent-proxy PedsQL and the Child Behavior Checklist. HRQoL scores from both informants were markedly impaired relative to published norms on healthy youth. Moderate agreement was found for self-reported and parent-proxy HRQoL. Approximately 30% of youth met criteria for clinically significant depressive symptoms when based on self-report and 45% of youth when based on mother report. Only 21% of youth were currently engaged in some form of psychological treatment (eg, medication or therapy). The day-to-day life of adolescents with extreme obesity seeking bariatric surgery is globally and severely impaired. However, only some of these adolescents demonstrate clinically significant levels of depressive symptomatology. These data will be critical to the development of more informed patient selection criteria and more efficacious treatment paradigms for this vulnerable pediatric subgroup.
Ma, Irene T.
Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed in the medically complicated obese population as convincing data continue to mount, documenting the success of surgery not only in achieving meaningful weight loss but also in correcting obesity-related illnesses. Several surgical procedures with varying degrees of success and complications are currently being performed. This article discusses the short- and long-term gastrointestinal complications for the 4 most common bariatric surgical procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. PMID:27118949
Lee, Sean M; Pryor, Aurora D
Bariatric surgery is a field in rapid evolution, and the speed of this evolution has been accelerating over the last several decades. A thorough understanding of past developments is crucial to anticipating the future intelligently. The trends that have driven evolution historically often persist, and continue to be influential in the future. With this in mind, this article briefly outlines the historical and current trends in bariatric surgery, and follows the trajectory of these trends into the future to anticipate the technologies and techniques that will be most important to the field in the coming years.
Borges, Joao Lindolfo C; Miranda, Isabella Santiago de M; Sarquis, Marta M S; Borba, Victoria; Maeda, Sergio Setsuo; Lazaretti-Castro, Marise; Blinkey, Neil
The high prevalence of obesity is a worldwide problem associated with multiple comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism is common in obese individuals and can be aggravated after bariatric surgery. Moreover, there is no consensus on the optimal supplementation dose of vitamin D in postbariatric surgical patients. We present new data on the variability of 25(OH)D response to supplementation in postmenopausal obese women. It is important to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency before bariatric surgery to avoid postoperative complications, such as metabolic bone disease with associated high fracture risk. The objective of this article is to discuss the bone metabolism consequences of vitamin D deficiency after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kamel, Walaa A.; Hashel, Jasem Y. Al; Kilany, Ayman; Altailji, Samira
BACKGROUND: The association between Parkinsonism and BS has already been reported in only three patients worldwide. CASE SUMMARY: We report a 39-years old Kuwaiti female who presented with parkinsonian features and mononeuropathy (carpal tunnel syndrome) 3 years after a vertical sleeve gastrectomy operation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that with the increasing popularity of bariatric surgery, clinicians will need to recognize and manage neurologic complications that may appear soon after or years to decades later. Thorough evaluation is essential for any patient who has undergone bariatric surgery and develops neurologic symptoms. PMID:27275313
Kissler, Hermann J; Settmacher, Utz
Obesity has become a global health problem that contributes to numerous life-threatening and disabling diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. The long-term results of traditional weight loss therapies, including diet, exercise, and medications, are relatively poor. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment of morbidly obese patients to allow substantial, sustained weight loss and to improve or resolve obesity-associated comorbidities, thereby reducing mortality. According to US practice guidelines, patients qualify for bariatric surgery with a body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) and associated comorbidities, or a body mass index of 40 kg/m(2), after failure of conservative weight loss measures. Currently, the established procedures in the United States are the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. The surgeries vary substantially in their postoperative amount of weight loss, resolution of comorbidities, nutritional requirements, and nature and severity of complications. There is no perfect bariatric surgery, an informed risk and benefit assessment should be made by each patient. The procedures are safe, with a mortality rate of 0.3%. Sustained weight loss depends finally on patient re-education in terms of diet, need for regular exercise, and careful bariatric follow-up evaluation.
Butterworth, James; Deguara, Jean
Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results. PMID:27965894
Moss, Heather E.
Background As the prevalence of obesity increases, so are the prevalences of weight related diseases and the incidence of surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. Evidence acquisition Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry and neurosurgery literature. Results Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals. There is level IV evidence that it is associated with improvement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension(IIH). Laboratory nutrient deficiencies are common following some types of bariatric procedures. Symptomatic deficiencies are less common but can be devastating. Thiamine deficiency can cause nystagmus and other symptoms in weeks to months following surgery, B12 or copper deficiency can cause optic neuropathy in the years to decades following bariatric surgery. Conclusions Bariatric surgery may be a treatment for IIH. Postoperative vitamin deficiencies may present with nystagmus, optic neuropathy, nyctalopia and/or ophthalmoparesis weeks to years after surgery. PMID:26764529
Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison
Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female) completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23%) participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m2, P = 0.03) and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P = 0.0069). Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery. PMID:27516900
Nogueira, Isadora; Hrovat, Kathleen
The prevalence of obesity in adolescents has dramatically increased over the past 3 decades in the United States. Weight loss surgery is becoming a viable treatment option for obese adolescents. The number of surgeries being performed yearly is rising, and this trend is likely to continue. Adolescent patients present a unique challenge to clinicians. There are currently best-practice recommendations and evidence-based nutrition guidelines for the treatment of the adolescent bariatric patient. A review of the current literature was performed to discuss bariatric surgery and nutrition for the adolescent patient. Studies show that most adolescents with obesity will become obese adults, thus increasing their risk of developing serious and debilitating health conditions. It is recommended that the candidates for surgery be referred to a practice that has a multidisciplinary team experienced in meeting the distinct physical and psychological needs of adolescents. Specific nutrition concerns for the adolescent bariatric patient include preoperative educational pathway, postoperative dietary progression, female reproduction, compliance with vitamin/supplementation recommendations, laboratory tests, and long-term monitoring. The medical literature has reported positive outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents with severe obesity. Before surgery is offered as an option, unique factors to adolescents must be addressed. The multidisciplinary clinical team must consider the adolescents' cognitive, social, and emotional development when considering their candidacy for surgery. As the number of adolescent bariatric surgery programs increases, continued research and long-term outcome data need to be collected and shared to base future treatment decisions. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
The long-lasting weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgical procedures cannot simply be explained by the malabsorption of nutrients and the subsequent energy deficit due to this malabsorption. Clinical studies have shown that the reorganization of the anatomy of the gut and the subsequent alterations of gastrointestinal physiology have a large impact on the secretion and function of gastrointestinal hormones, which regulate hunger and satiety. These changes have been named the BRAVE effect:
Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio J; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A
Vitamin A deficiency may occur after malabsorptive bariatric surgery. However, it rarely entails important functionally limiting symptoms. We present the case of a woman who underwent bariatric surgery and developed ocular dryness, xeroderma and hearing loss due to severe vitamin A deficiency. We illustrate an outstanding and exceptional case of the consequences of an excessive and uncontrolled malabsorption.
Kohli, Rohit; Stefater, Margaret A; Inge, Thomas H
Bariatric surgical procedures have become important therapeutic options for treatment of morbid obesity in both adults and adolescents co-morbidities of obesity such as glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, steatohepatitis, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. These co-morbidities of obesity have significant impacts on the overall quality of life of the individual and our society at large. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the relatively newer procedures of gastric banding (GB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) have proven to be efficacious in achieving rapid weight loss and reversing the comorbidities of obesity. Unfortunately, bariatric procedures are not without risks including micronutrient deficiency, failure to maintain lost weight, and mortality. Further, the resolution of T2DM has long been understood to precede weight loss, and this finding provides important clues about the physiologic underpinnings of the observation. In order to design more effective, safe, and widely available therapeutics for obesity, important and highly relevant questions need to be addressed regarding mechanisms behind the weight-loss-independent benefits of bariatric surgical procedures. This review will provide an overview of the molecular changes occurring across all biological systems after bariatric surgery including the changes in hepatic, adipocyte and gut derived signals after surgery. We will also discuss existing literature regarding the weight-loss-independent metabolic benefits including improvement in insulin sensitivity and central nervous system integration of these signals.
Lemanu, Daniel P; Srinivasa, Sanket; Singh, Primal P; Johannsen, Sharon; MacCormick, Andrew D; Hill, Andrew G
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to minimise morbidity in other types of surgery, but comparatively less data exist investigating ERAS in bariatric surgery. This article reviews the existing literature to identify interventions which may be included in an ERAS program for bariatric surgery. A narrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included 'bariatric surgery', 'weight loss surgery', 'gastric bypass', 'ERAS', 'enhanced recovery', 'enhanced recovery after surgery', 'fast-track surgery', 'perioperative care', 'postoperative care', 'intraoperative care' and 'preoperative care'. Interventions recovered by the database search, as well as interventions garnered from clinical experience in ERAS, were used as individual search terms. A large volume of evidence exists detailing the role of multiple interventions in perioperative care. However, efficacy and safety for a proportion of these interventions for ERAS in bariatric surgery remain unclear. This review concludes that there is potential to implement ERAS programs in bariatric surgery.
Potoczna, Natascha; Harfmann, Susanne; Steffen, Rudolf; Briggs, Ruth; Bieri, Norman; Horber, Fritz F
Disordered bowel habits might influence quality of life after bariatric surgery. Different types of bariatric operations-gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)-might alter bowel habits as a consequence of the surgical procedure used. Whether change in bowel habits affects quality of life after AGB, RYGB, or BPD differently is unknown. The study group contained 290 severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between August 1996 and September 2004 [BPD: n = 103, 64.1% women, age 43 +/- 1 years (mean +/- SEM), BMI 53.9 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2), weight 153.4 +/- 2.9 kg; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: n = 126, 73.0% women, age 43 +/- 1 years, BMI 44.2 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2), weight 123.8 +/- 1.5 kg; adjustable gastric banding (AGB): n = 61, 57.4% women, age 44 +/- 1 years, BMI 49.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2), weight 146.1 +/- 2.0 kg). Changes in bowel habits, flatulence, flatus odor, and effects on social life were estimated at least 4 months after surgery using a self-administered questionnaire. Fecal consistency changed significantly after surgery. Loose stools and diarrhea were more frequent after BPD and RYGB (P < 0.001) but more so after BPD than after either RYGB or AGB (P < 0.002). Constipation was more likely after AGB (P = 0.03). In addition, malodorous flatus affecting social life was more frequent after BPD than after either RYGB or AGB (P < 0.003). Furthermore, flatus frequency increased after BPD and RYGB, and patients were more bothered by their malodorous flatus than after AGB (all P < 0.001). Flatus severity score was highest in BPD, intermediate in RYGB, and lowest in AGB patients (all P < 0.001), a difference that was not influenced by frequency of metabolic syndrome before and after surgery. Moreover, observation period after surgery had no influence on overall results of bowel habits. Subsore quality of life bariatric analysis and reporting outcome system (BAROS) scores were largely similar between all three groups
Fulton, Courtney; Sheppard, Caroline; Birch, Daniel; Karmali, Shazeer; de Gara, Christopher
Revisional surgery is an important component of addressing weight regain and complications following primary bariatric surgery. Owing to provincial need and the complexity of this patient population, a specialized multidisciplinary revision clinic was developed. We sought to characterize patients who undergo revision surgery and compare their outcomes with primary bariatric surgery clinic data. We completed a retrospective chart review of bariatric revision clinic patients compared with primary bariatric surgery patients from December 2009 to June 2014. We reviewed the charts of 2769 primary bariatric clinic patients, 886 of whom had bariatric surgery, and 534 revision bariatric clinic patients, 83 of whom had revision surgery. Fewer revision clinic patients underwent surgery than primary clinic patients (22% v. 32%). The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 44.7 ± 9.5 in revision patients compared with 45.7 ± 7.6 in primary bariatric surgery patients. Most revision patients had a prior vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG; 48%) or a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB; 24%). Bands were removed in 36% of all LAGB patients presenting to clinic. Of the 134 procedures performed in the revision clinic, 83 were bariatric weight loss surgeries, and 51 were band removals. Revision clinic patients experienced a significant decrease in BMI (from 44.7 ± 9.5 to 33.8 ± 7.5, p < 0.001); their BMI at 12-month follow-up was similar to that of primary clinic patients (34.5 ± 7.0, p = 0.7). Complications were significantly more frequent in revision patients than primary patients (41% v. 15%, p < 0.001). A bariatric revision clinic manages a wide variety of complex patients distinct from those seen in a primary clinic. Operative candidates at the revision clinic are chosen based on favourable medical, anatomic and psychosocial factors, keeping in mind the resource constraints of a public health care system.
Fulton, Courtney; Sheppard, Caroline; Birch, Daniel; Karmali, Shazeer; de Gara, Christopher
Background Revisional surgery is an important component of addressing weight regain and complications following primary bariatric surgery. Owing to provincial need and the complexity of this patient population, a specialized multidisciplinary revision clinic was developed. We sought to characterize patients who undergo revision surgery and compare their outcomes with primary bariatric surgery clinic data. Methods We completed a retrospective chart review of bariatric revision clinic patients compared with primary bariatric surgery patients from December 2009 to June 2014. Results We reviewed the charts of 2769 primary bariatric clinic patients, 886 of whom had bariatric surgery, and 534 revision bariatric clinic patients, 83 of whom had revision surgery. Fewer revision clinic patients underwent surgery than primary clinic patients (22% v. 32%). The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 44.7 ± 9.5 in revision patients compared with 45.7 ± 7.6 in primary bariatric surgery patients. Most revision patients had a prior vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG; 48%) or a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB; 24%). Bands were removed in 36% of all LAGB patients presenting to clinic. Of the 134 procedures performed in the revision clinic, 83 were bariatric weight loss surgeries, and 51 were band removals. Revision clinic patients experienced a significant decrease in BMI (from 44.7 ± 9.5 to 33.8 ± 7.5, p < 0.001); their BMI at 12-month follow-up was similar to that of primary clinic patients (34.5 ± 7.0, p = 0.7). Complications were significantly more frequent in revision patients than primary patients (41% v. 15%, p < 0.001). Conclusion A bariatric revision clinic manages a wide variety of complex patients distinct from those seen in a primary clinic. Operative candidates at the revision clinic are chosen based on favourable medical, anatomic and psychosocial factors, keeping in mind the resource constraints of a public health care system. PMID:28570215
Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N
A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation.
Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E; Navaneethan, Sankar D
The prevalence of severe obesity in both the general and the chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations continues to rise, with more than one-fifth of CKD patients in the United States having a body mass index of ≥35 kg/m(2). Severe obesity has significant renal consequences, including increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and nephrolithiasis. Bariatric surgery represents an effective method for achieving sustained weight loss, and evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that bariatric surgery is also effective in improving blood pressure, reducing hyperglycemia, and even inducing diabetes remission. There is also observational evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery may diminish the long-term risk of kidney function decline and ESRD. Bariatric surgery appears to be relatively safe in patients with CKD, with postoperative complications only slightly higher than in the general bariatric surgery population. The use of bariatric surgery in patients with CKD might help prevent progression to ESRD or enable selected ESRD patients with severe obesity to become candidates for kidney transplantation. However, there are also renal risks in bariatric surgery, namely, acute kidney injury, nephrolithiasis, and, in rare cases, oxalate nephropathy, particularly in types of surgery involving higher degrees of malabsorption. Although bariatric surgery may improve long-term kidney outcomes, this potential benefit remains unproved and must be balanced with potential adverse events.
Song, Angela; Fernstrom, Madelyn H
The anatomic and physiological changes resulting from bariatric surgery can affect both nutrition and psychological attitudes. Modifications of the gastrointestinal tract lead to a diminished ability to absorb nutrients, electrolytes, and bile salts, as well as deficiencies in iron, calcium, and other vitamins and minerals. Dehydration, lactose intolerance, and protein calorie malnutrition are other common sequelae. Alterations in bone metabolism increase long-term risk for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Noncompliance with postsurgical nutritional regimens has been estimated to occur in from one third to almost two thirds of cases and can exacerbate these complications. Psychological issues are often present in patients with morbid obesity and can affect surgical outcomes. These issues include mood and personality disorders, destructive eating behaviors, and poor body image. Nearly one third of patients undergoing bariatric surgery also have a history of substance abuse disorder. The literature suggests that although the mental health of patients improves as a result of bariatric surgery, the benefits may be transient, and problems such as negative personality profiles, detrimental eating patterns, and negative body image persist to some extent. Identification of presurgical psychiatric problems can help identify those patients more likely to achieve lasting weight loss when surgery is combined with long-term follow-up to minimize medical and psychological complications.
Ellison, Jo M; Steffen, Kristine J; Sarwer, David B
Individuals who undergo bariatric surgery generally experience rapid and dramatic weight loss. While the weight loss typically confers significant health benefits, an undesirable consequence is often excessive quantities of hanging, surplus skin. Some patients undergo body-contouring surgery (BCS) in order to improve health, mobility, appearance and psychological adjustment. While the majority of post-bariatric patients desire BCS in one or more body regions, a small percentage of patients receive such surgeries. Lack of knowledge about procedures, cost and (in the USA and several other countries) difficulty obtaining insurance reimbursement likely prevents many patients from undergoing BCS. Those who do undergo BCS appear to be at heightened risk for wound-healing complications. Despite these complications, the majority of patients report satisfactory BCS outcomes. The extant literature in this area provides a great deal of information about these issues; nevertheless, additional research is needed to further inform clinical management and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
King, Wendy C; Engel, Scott G; Elder, Katherine A; Chapman, William H; Eid, George M; Wolfe, Bruce M; Belle, Steven H
This study characterizes the walking limitations of bariatric surgery candidates by age and body mass index (BMI) and determines factors independently associated with walking capacity. The setting was multi-institutional at research university hospitals in the United States. Participants of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study (n=2458; age 18-78 yr, BMI 33-94 kg/m(2)) attended a preoperative research visit. Their walking capacity was measured by self-report and the 400 m Long Distance Corridor Walk (LDCW). Almost two thirds (64%) of subjects reported limitations with walking several blocks, 48% had an objectively defined mobility deficit, and 16% reported at least some walking aid use. In multivariate analysis, BMI, older age, lower income, and greater bodily pain were independently associated (P < .05) with walking aid use, physical discomfort during the LDCW, an inability to complete the LDCW, and a slower time to complete the LDCW. Female gender, Hispanic ethnicity (but not race), greater heart rate at rest, a history of smoking, several co-morbidities (history of stroke, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, asthma, sleep apnea, venous edema with ulcerations), and depressive symptoms were also independently related (P < .05) to at least one measure of reduced walking capacity. Walking limitations are common in bariatric surgery candidates, even among the least severely obese and youngest patients. Physical activity counseling must be tailored to individuals' abilities. Although several factors identified in the present study (eg, BMI, age, pain, co-morbidities) should be considered, directly assessing the patient's walking capacity will facilitate appropriate goal setting. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D
Despite positive results overall, a substantial number of patients experience poor long-term outcomes following bariatric surgery. One reason for variability in weight loss may be difficulty in making and sustaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity; post-surgery binge eating has also been associated with poorer weight outcomes. In this paper, we review available evidence on adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Although the literature is limited, evidence suggests that bariatric surgery patients may benefit from a comprehensive approach targeting diet, activity and psychological factors. We think the optimal time to initiate adjunctive intervention is after surgery, but before significant weight regain has occurred. Adaptive interventions incorporating advances in technology may prove to be effective for promoting behavioural self-management and psychosocial adjustment following bariatric surgery. For some patients, pharmacotherapy and reoperation may also play a role in a personalized approach to post-surgery care.
Shuai, Xiaoming; Tao, Kaixiong; Mori, Masayuki; Kanda, Tsugiyasu
Metabolic syndrome is closely associated with morbid obesity and leads to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and related mortality. Bariatric surgery is considered an effective option for the management of this condition. We searched MEDLINE, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Library for papers published on bariatric surgery outcomes in English from January 1, 1990, to April 20, 2014. Bariatric surgery can significantly reduce body weight, resolve or cure many of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and improve long-term survival. Surgery, in addition to existing therapy, could therefore be considered as an optimal treatment for patients with metabolic syndrome and morbid obesity.
Albaugh, Vance L; Banan, Babak; Ajouz, Hana; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles R
Bariatric surgery, specifically Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are the most effective and durable treatments for morbid obesity and potentially a viable treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The resolution rate of T2D following these procedures is between 40 and 80% and far surpasses that achieved by medical management alone. The molecular basis for this improvement is not entirely understood, but has been attributed in part to the altered enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. In this review we highlight how bile acids potentially contribute to improved lipid and glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure after these procedures. The impact of altered bile acid levels in enterohepatic circulation is also associated with changes in gut microflora, which may further contribute to some of these beneficial effects. We highlight the beneficial effects of experimental surgical procedures in rodents that alter bile secretory flow without gastric restriction or altering nutrient flow. This information suggests a role for bile acids beyond dietary fat emulsification in altering whole body glucose and lipid metabolism strongly, and also suggests emerging roles for the activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid x receptor (FXR) and G-protein coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) in these improvements. The limitations of rodent studies and the current state of our understanding is reviewed and the potential effects of bile acids mediating the short- and long-term metabolic improvements after bariatric surgery is critically examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varela, J Esteban
To review the basic mechanisms of caloric intake reduction of bariatric surgery and its clinical and metabolic outcomes. To describe novel bariatric procedures, their effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity and to explain the proposed mechanisms for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) resolution. The effects of surgically induced weight loss on T2DM have elucidated in part the role of proximal and distal gastrointestinal bypass on insulin sensitivity. A dual mechanism for improvement in glucose homeostasis after bariatric surgery has been proposed that appears to be weight loss independent. Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapy for obesity and obesity-related comorbidities today that provide high rates of resolution of T2DM with improvements in insulin resistance and β-cell function. Novel bariatric procedures offer a unique opportunity to understand the pathophysiology of T2DM and to identify potential pharmacologic targets for effective T2DM treatments and a potential cure.
Lin, Li-Chun; Chi, Shu-Ching; Pan, Kuei-Ching; Huang, Chin-Kun
The sedentary lifestyle, common to most modern societies, has turned obesity into an increasingly prevalent and universal problem. Obesity correlates positively with many diseases and health risk factors. Medical therapies currently used to treat obesity are generally limited in terms of long-term effectiveness. Bariatric surgery has been demonstrated an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Special nursing care considerations for bariatric surgery include providing wider cuffs for blood pressure checks, preventing deep venous thrombosis and post operation dietary education in order to accommodate changes in the gastrointestinal system. The purposes of this article were to introduce obesity therapy trends as well as to share nursing care principles for those undergoing bariatric surgery.
Jammah, Anwar A.
Bariatric surgery is the most effective therapeutic option for obese patients; however, it carries substantial risks, including procedure-related complications, malabsorption, and hormonal disturbance. Recent years have seen an increase in the bariatric surgeries performed utilizing either an independent or a combination of restrictive and malabsorptive procedures. We review some complications of bariatric procedures more specifically, hypoglycemia and osteoporosis, the recommended preoperative assessment and then regular follow up, and the therapeutic options. Surgeon, internist, and the patient must be aware of the multiple risks of this kind of surgery and the needed assessment and follow up. PMID:26458852
Koball, Afton M; Jester, Dylan J; Domoff, Sarah E; Kallies, Kara J; Grothe, Karen B; Kothari, Shanu N
Support following bariatric surgery is vital to ensure long-term postoperative success. Many individuals undergoing bariatric surgery are turning to online modalities, especially the popular social media platform Facebook, to access support groups and pages. Despite evidence suggesting that the majority of patients considering bariatric surgery are utilizing online groups, little is known about the actual content of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a content analysis of bariatric surgery support groups and pages on Facebook. Online via Facebook, independent academic medical center, United States. Data from bariatric surgery-related Facebook support groups and pages were extracted over a 1-month period in 2016. Salient content themes (e.g., progress posts, depression content, eating behaviors) were coded reliably (all κ> .70). More than 6,800 posts and replies were coded. Results indicated that seeking recommendations (11%), providing information or recommendations (53%), commenting on changes since surgery (19%), and lending support to other members (32%) were the most common types of posts. Content surrounding anxiety, eating behaviors, depression, body image, weight bias, and alcohol was found less frequently. Online bariatric surgery groups can be used to receive support, celebrate physical and emotional accomplishments, provide anecdotal accounts of the "bariatric lifestyle" for preoperative patients, and comment on challenges with mental health and experiences of weight bias. Providers should become acquainted with the content commonly found in online groups and exercise caution in recommending these platforms to information-seeking patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fourman, Matthew M; Saber, Alan A
Obesity is a nationwide epidemic, and the only evidence-based, durable treatment of this disease is bariatric surgery. This field has evolved drastically during the past decade. One of the latest advances has been the increased use of robotics within this field. The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the recent data to determine the safety and efficacy of robotic bariatric surgery. The setting was the University Hospitals Case Medical Center (Cleveland, OH). A PubMed search was performed for robotic bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011. The inclusion criteria were English language, original research, human, and bariatric surgical procedures. Perioperative data were then collected from each study and recorded. A total of 18 studies were included in our review. The results of our systematic review showed that bariatric surgery, when performed with the use of robotics, had similar or lower complication rates compared with traditional laparoscopy. Two studies showed shorter operative times using the robot for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but 4 studies showed longer operative times in the robotic arm. In addition, the learning curve appears to be shorter when robotic gastric bypass is compared with the traditional laparoscopic approach. Most investigators agreed that robotic laparoscopic surgery provides superior imaging and freedom of movement compared with traditional laparoscopy. The application of robotics appears to be a safe option within the realm of bariatric surgery. Prospective randomized trials comparing robotic and laparoscopic outcomes are needed to further define the role of robotics within the field of bariatric surgery. Longer follow-up times would also help elucidate any long-term outcomes differences with the use of robotics versus traditional laparoscopy. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.
Menéndez, Pablo; Padilla, David; Villarejo, Pedro; Menéndez, Jose M; Lora, David
In the attempt to establish the different incidence between cancer in anatomically whole stomachs and cancer in patients who have undergone a surgical procedure for morbid obesity, a review on the epidemiology of bariatric surgery and stomach cancer and a correlation with the global incidence of stomach cancer (comparing it with the median age of patients who developed neoplasms after bariatric surgery) have been conducted. This was a descriptive study of the gastric neoplasms located at the gastric pouch, bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction, following bariatric surgery described in the medical literature. Twenty-one cases of gastric neoplasm located at the gastric pouch, in the bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction were described after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery seems to produce a decrease in the incidence of cancer when comparing obese patients who were operated and obese patients who have not, so additional studies are needed to compare the cancer incidence between the general population and patients undergoing bariatric surgery. New studies will determine if it is necessary to focus on the early detection of pathological processes at the excluded digestive tract.
Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R
Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771
Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R
Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented.
Gonzalez, Ricardo D.
Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828
Orlando, Giulio; Pilone, Vincenzo; Vitiello, Antonio; Gervasi, Rita; Lerose, Maria A; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Puzziello, Alessandro
Bariatric procedures can induce a massive weight loss that lasts for >15 years after surgery; in addition, they achieve important metabolic effects including diabetes resolution in the majority of morbidly obese patients. However, some bariatric interventions may cause gastroesophageal reflux disease and other serious complications. The aim of our study is to evaluate the risk of cancer after bariatric surgery. We conducted a review of the literature about the cases of gastric cancer arising after any bariatric procedure, including a case of adenocarcinoma incidentally discovered by the authors 6 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Globally, 17 case reports describing 18 patients were retrieved, including the case study by the authors. The diagnosis of tumor was at a mean of 8.6 years after bariatric surgery, 9.3 years after RYGB, and 8.1 years after restrictive procedures. The adenocarcinoma represented most cases (15 patients, 83%). In the patients with RYGB, the adenocarcinoma was localized in the excluded stomach in 5 patients (83%) and in the pouch in 1 patient (17%). After a restrictive procedure, the cancer was localized in the pouch in 5 patients (62.5%), in the pylorus in 2 patients (25%), and in lesser curvature only in 1 patient (12.5%). There is a lack of evidence about a connection between the late occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and the bariatric surgery. For this reason, although the preoperative upper endoscopy is still mandatory, there is no need for a regular endoscopic evaluation of patients after surgery.
Brzozowska, M M; Sainsbury, A; Eisman, J A; Baldock, P A; Center, J R
Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for severely obese patients. However, the potential long-term effects of bariatric surgical procedures on health, including bone health, are only partially understood. The goal of this review was to present data on the impact of bariatric surgery on bone metabolism and to analyse possible reasons for the loss of bone mass that frequently occurs after bariatric surgery. Such factors include nutritional deficiencies, rapid weight loss per se, effects of fat-derived adipokines and gut-derived appetite-regulatory hormones. However, the relative roles of these factors in skeletal regulation and the mechanisms by which they work are not yet fully defined. Our review was focussed on the complex relationship between body weight, fat mass and bone mass, as well as peripheral and central mediators potentially involved in the dual regulation of both energy and bone homeostasis. We also review the data on the inverse relationship between central obesity, bone marrow fat and osteoporosis. As the number of bariatric operations increases, it is imperative to recognize mechanisms responsible for bariatric surgery-induced bone loss, with careful monitoring of bone health including long-term fracture incidence in patients undergoing these procedures.
Cowan, G S; Hiler, M L; Buffington, C
International criteria for bariatric surgery and bariatric surgeons have been well-defined in terms of the current state of the art and are presented together with weight tables and a list of co-morbidities of morbid obesity. The bariatric surgeon should make the primary judgement concerning bariatric surgery using these criteria as guidelines only, not strict rules; others who use these criteria should govern themselves in a like, fair-minded, fashion. Medical insurers' and their agents' criteria, if excessively restrictive relative to the guidelines, may reflect an ingrained prejudice against the morbidly obese, manifesting itself in an unfair, unethical and immoral bias. It is the essence of humane and equitable behaviour on the part of all concerned that the morbidly obese receive non-discriminatory, appropriate treatment, care and medical insurer coverage for their disease and its comorbidities.
Mombach, Karin Daniele; de Souza Brito, Cesar Luis; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Casagrande, Daniela Schaan; Mottin, Claudio Cora
Introduction The prevalence of smoking habits in severe obesity is higher than in the general population. There is some evidence that smokers have different temperaments compared to non-smokers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the associations between smoking status (smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers) and temperament characteristics in bariatric surgery candidates. Methods We analyzed data on temperament of 420 bariatric surgery candidates, as assessed by the AFECTS scale, in an exploratory cross-sectional survey of bariatric surgery candidates who have been grouped into smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers. Results We detected significant statistical differences in temperament related to the smoking status in this population after controlling the current use of psychiatric medication. Smokers had higher anxiety and lower control than non-smokers. Ex-smokers with BMI >50 kg/m2 presented higher coping and control characteristics than smokers. Conclusions Smoking in bariatric surgery candidates was associated with lower control and higher anxious temperament, when controlled by current use of psychiatric medication. Smokers with BMI >50 kg/m2 presented lower coping and control than ex-smokers. Assessment of temperament in bariatric surgery candidates may help in decisions about smoking cessation treatment and prevention of smoking relapse after surgery. PMID:26987115
... to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Estimate of Bariatric Surgery Numbers, 2011-2015 Published July 2016 2011 2012 ... Resources Access and Insurance Additional Resources Estimate of Bariatric Surgery Numbers Fact Sheets Governing Documents Guidelines Low BMI ...
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
Malinowski, Scott S
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for patients with clinically severe obesity. In addition to significant weight loss, it is also associated with improvements in comorbidities. Unfortunately, bariatric surgery also has the potential to cause a variety of nutritional and metabolic complications. These complications are mostly due to the extensive surgically induced anatomical changes incurred by the patient's gastrointestinal tract, particularly with roux-en-Y gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. Complications associated with vertical banded gastroplasty are mostly due to decreased intake amounts of specific nutrients. Macronutrient deficiencies can include severe protein-calorie malnutrition and fat malabsorption. The most common micronutrient deficiencies are of vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and vitamin D. Other micronutrient deficiencies that can lead to serious complications include thiamine, folate, and the fat-soluble vitamins. Counseling, monitoring, and nutrient and mineral supplementation are essential for the treatment and prevention of nutritional and metabolic complications after bariatric surgery.
Lespessailles, Eric; Toumi, Hechmi
Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries. Interactions and relationships between obesity and bone tissue and its metabolism are complex but are more and more studied and recognized. Obesity is associated with an altered hormonal profile including particularly bone-regulating hormones like vitamin D. Bariatric surgery procedures, thanks to their effectiveness to achieve therapeutic endpoints for comorbidities associated with obesity, have had an increasing success. However, these surgeries by producing mechanical restriction and or malabsorption syndrome lead to nutritional deficiencies including vitamin D. In this review, we aim to (1) discuss the nutritional deficiency of vitamin D in the obese, (2) to summarize the different surgical options in bariatric surgery and to present the evidence concerning these procedures and their associated profile in vitamin D post-operative insufficiency, (3) to present the different recommendations in clinical practice to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiencies or insufficiencies in patients treated by bariatric surgery and finally to introduce emerging assumptions on the relationship between vitamin D, microbiota composition and circulating bile acids. Impact statement Obesity and severe obesity constitute growing serious health problems reaching epidemic proportion in most countries with a prevalence increasing from 6.4 in 1975 to 14.9% in 2014. This present review summarizes currently available data on vitamin D deficiencies in the obese population before and after bariatric surgery. The important evidence emerging from our evaluation confirms that obese patients are at risk of multiple nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamin D deficiency, before bariatric surgery. Our survey confirms that the precise role of the gut microbiome and its associated changes on the vitamin D metabolism after the different bariatric surgery procedures has not yet been
Moss, Heather E
As the prevalence of obesity increases, so, too, do the prevalences of weight-related diseases and surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry, and neurosurgery literature. Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals. There is Level IV evidence that it is associated with improvement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Laboratory nutrient deficiencies are common following some types of bariatric procedures. Symptomatic deficiencies are less common but can be devastating. Thiamine deficiency can cause nystagmus and other symptoms in weeks to months after surgery, whereas B12 or copper deficiency can cause optic neuropathy in years to decades following bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is a potential treatment for IIH. Postoperative vitamin deficiencies may cause nystagmus, optic neuropathy, nyctalopia, and/or ophthalmoparesis weeks to years after surgery.
Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Hady, Razak Hady; Mariak, Zofia; Dadan, Jacek
Bariatric procedures, associated with gastrointestinal malabsorption of vitamins and microelements, may constitute a risk factor for nutritional optic neuropathy (NON). We present a case of a 34-year-old female patient who developed bilateral NON after sleeve gastrectomy. Despite postoperative ophthalmological supervision, 10 months after the procedure the woman presented with a bilateral decrease in visual acuity down to 0.8, bilateral visual field loss and abnormal visual evoked potential recordings. Laboratory abnormalities included decreased serum concentration of vitamin B12 (161 pg/ml). Treatment was based on intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 (1000 units per day). After 1 week of the treatment, we observed more than a three-fold increase in the serum concentration of vitamin B12 and resolution of the bilateral symptoms of NON. The incidence of NON is likely to increase due to the growing number of these bariatric procedures performed worldwide. Therefore, all persons subjected to such surgery should receive long-term ophthalmological follow-up and supplementation with vitamins and microelements. PMID:25562012
Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.
Modi, Avani C; Zeller, Meg H; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Jenkins, Todd M; Inge, Thomas H
Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is known about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1 ± 1.5; range = 13-19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, P < 0.000 and z = 4.0, P < 0.0001, respectively). Forgetting and difficulty swallowing multivitamins were the two primary barriers identified. While there are no established data regarding best practice for multivitamins following bariatric surgery, high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of nonadherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Modi, Avani C.; Zeller, Meg H.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.; Jenkins, Todd M.; Inge, Thomas H.
Adolescents with extreme obesity, who have undergone bariatric surgery, must adhere to many lifestyle and nutritional recommendations, including multivitamin therapy. Little is know about multivitamin adherence following adolescent bariatric surgery. The present study aims to document self-reported and electronically-monitored adherence to multivitamins, determine convergence between self-report and electronic monitoring adherence for multivitamins, and identify barriers to multivitamin adherence for adolescents who have undergone bariatric surgery. The study used a prospective, longitudinal observational design to assess subjective (self-reported) and objective (electronic monitors) multivitamin adherence in a cohort of 41 adolescents (Mean age = 17.1±1.5; range=13–19) who have undergone bariatric surgery at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Mean adherence as derived from electronic monitoring for the entire 6-month study period was 29.8% ± 23.9. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher than electronically monitored adherence across both the 1 and 6-month assessment points (z = 4.5, p< 0.000 and z = 4.0, p< 0.0001, respectively). Forgetting and difficulty swallowing multivitamins were the two primary barriers identified. While there are no established data regarding best practice for multivitamins following bariatric surgery, high rates of non-adherence to multivitamin therapy were observed in adolescents who had undergone bariatric surgery with forgetting and difficulty swallowing pills as reported barriers to adherence. These high rates of non-adherence to multivitamin therapy should be considered when devising treatment and family education pathways for adolescents considering weight loss surgery. PMID:23404956
Selzer, Faith; Smith, Mark D.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Inabnet, William B.; King, Wendy C.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Raum, William J.; Schrope, Beth; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Patterson, Emma J.
Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all common conditions in patients referred for bariatric surgery, and it may predict early postoperative complications. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined using updated National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, in adults undergoing bariatric surgery and compare the prevalence of baseline co-morbid conditions and select operative and 30-day postoperative outcomes by metabolic syndrome status. Methods: Complete metabolic syndrome data were available for 2275 of 2458 participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2), an observational cohort study designed to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in obese adults. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 79.9%. Compared to those without metabolic syndrome, those with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be men, to have a higher prevalence of diabetes and prior cardiac events, to have enlarged livers and higher median levels of liver enzymes, a history of sleep apnea, and a longer length of stay after surgery following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and gastric sleeves but not open RYGB or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Metabolic syndrome status was not significantly related to duration of surgery or rates of composite end points of intraoperative events and 30-day major adverse surgical outcomes. Conclusions: Nearly four in five participants undergoing bariatric surgery presented with metabolic syndrome. Establishing a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in bariatric surgery patients may identify a high-risk patient profile, but does not in itself confer a higher risk for short-term adverse postsurgery outcomes. PMID:24380645
Background: Obesity is associated with several comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. It is also well established that obese patients have an increased risk of several types of cancer like kidney, pancreas, endometrial, breast, and others. The bariatric surgeon needs to be aware of the problem of benign tumors and cancer in obese patients as well as the optimal management of these conditions that may be present at the time of evaluation for bariatric surgery, during the surgical procedure, and in the postoperative period. Database: A PubMed search for the words “cancer” and “bariatric surgery” and subsequent review of the abstracts identified 40 articles concerning cancerous, benign, and premalignant conditions in bariatric surgery patients. Data were then extracted from full-text articles. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery decreases cancer risk especially in women. RYGB can be an effective treatment for Barrett's esophagus. Patients having esophageal cancer should not undergo bariatric surgery, while those who develop the same postoperatively are usually managed by a combined abdominal and thoracic approach (Ivor Lewis technique). Gastric cancer of the remnant stomach is usually managed by a remnant gastrectomy. A remnant gastrectomy during RYGB would be necessary in conditions that require endoscopic surveillance of the stomach like gastric polyps, intestinal metaplasia, and carcinoid tumors. Sleeve gastrectomy is an excellent option in a patient with GIST or a carcinoid who needs a bariatric operation. Preoperative endoscopy usually does not detect malignant conditions. Postoperative evaluation of the bypassed stomach is possible using various percutaneous and novel endoscopic techniques. PMID:23318060
García-García, M L; Campillo-Soto, A; Martín-Lorenzo, J G; Torralba-Martínez, J A; Lirón-Ruiz, R; Aguayo-Albasini, J L
Rhabdomyolysis has been increasingly recognized as a complication of bariatric surgery. We report a case of this complication and its consequences, in a patient who had undergone bariatric surgery, with a very high creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and whose renal function failed. Obesity causes a range of effects on all major organ systems. Knowledge of these effects and issues specific to the intensive care unit care of bariatric patients can help to predict and manage this underestimated complication in this population in which early diagnosis can alter the outcome. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Mahawar, Kamal K; Parmar, Chetan; Graham, Yitka; Abouleid, Ayman; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis are common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis can progress to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-invasive methods of diagnosing non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis are not as accurate as liver biopsy, and bariatric surgery presents a unique opportunity to carry out a simultaneous liver biopsy. Routine liver biopsy can help early and accurate diagnosis of obesity-associated liver conditions. This has led some surgeons to argue for routine liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery. However, most bariatric surgeons remain unconvinced and liver biopsy is currently not routine practice with bariatric surgery. This review examines published scientific literature to ascertain the usefulness of routine liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery.
Kuckelman, John; Bingham, Jason; Barron, Morgan; Lallemand, Michael; Martin, Matthew; Sohn, Vance
Bariatric surgery makes up an increasing percentage of general surgery training. The safety of resident involvement in these complex cases has been questioned. We evaluated patient outcomes in resident performed laparoscopic bariatric procedures. Retrospective review of patients undergoing a laparoscopic bariatric procedure over seven years at a tertiary care single center. Procedures were primarily performed by a general surgery resident and proctored by an attending surgeon. Primary outcomes included operative volume, operative time and leak rate with perioperative outcomes evaluated as secondary outcomes. A total of 1649 bariatric procedures were evaluated. Operations included laparoscopic bypass (690) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (959). Average operating time was 136 min. Eighteen leaks (0.67%) were identified. Graduating residents performed an average of 89 laparoscopic bariatric cases during their training. There were no significant differences between resident levels with concern to operative time or leak rate (p 0.97 and p = 0.54). General surgery residents can safely perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. When proctored by a staff surgeon, a resident's level of training does not significantly impact leak rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Buchwald, Henry; Oien, Danette M
Periodically, the state of bariatric surgery worldwide should be assessed; the most recent prior evaluation was in 2003. An email survey was sent to the leadership of the 36 International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders nations or national groupings, as well as Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Responses were tabulated; calculation of relative prevalence of specific procedures was done by weighted averages. Out of a potential 39, 36 nations or national groupings responded. In 2008, 344,221 bariatric surgery operations were performed by 4,680 bariatric surgeons; 220,000 of these operations were performed in USA/Canada by 1,625 surgeons. The most commonly performed procedures were laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (AGB; 42.3%), laparoscopic standard Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 39.7%), and total sleeve gastrectomies 4.5%. Over 90% of procedures were performed laparoscopically. Comparing the 5-year trend from 2003 to 2008, all categories of procedures, with the exception of biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch, increased in absolute numbers performed. However, the relative percent of all RYGBs decreased from 65.1% to 49.0%; whereas, AGB increased from 24.4% to 42.3%. Markedly, different trends were found for Europe and USA/Canada: in Europe, AGB decreased from 63.7% to 43.2% and RYGB increased from 11.1% to 39.0%; whereas, in USA/Canada, AGB increased from 9.0% to 44.0% and RYGB decreased from 85.0% to 51.0%. The absolute growth rate of bariatric surgery decreased over the past 5 years (135% increase), in comparison to the preceding 5 years (266% increase). Bariatric surgery continues to grow worldwide, but less so than in the past. The types of procedures are in flux; trends in Europe vs USA/Canada are diametrically opposed.
Ratnasingham, Kumaran; Knight, James; Liu, Mamie; Karatsai, Eleni; Humadi, Samer; Irukulla, Shashi
Negligence claims in the UK NHS has increased over the last 30 years. The aim of this present study was determine the number of claims and the cost of litigation in Bariatric Surgery and compare it to similar other specialties. Data was received from NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in response to Freedom of Information data request. There was a total of 7 claims, of which 4 were successful. The total pay out sum was £210,000 in 10 years. This is a very low amount compared to other surgical specialties. This low level of litigation probably indicates that the current bariatric surgical services in the NHS are delivering safe care with good patient satisfaction. This needs to be carefully considered prior to changing the payment tariffs for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alqahtani, Aayed R; Elahmedi, Mohamed O
Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery (BS) for children and adolescents, algorithms that incorporate BS in weight management (WM) programs are lacking. This study presents the results of the pediatric bariatric surgery clinical pathway employed in our institution. Starting March 2008, we enrolled obese children and adolescents in a standardized multidisciplinary obesity management program. Weight loss, complications, comorbidities, and growth results of those who eventually underwent BS were compared with a matched (age, gender, and height z-score) group of patients on non-surgical WM only. Up to July 2014, a total of 659 patients received care through the pathway, of whom 291 patients underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Mean age and pre-LSG body mass index (BMI) were 14.4 ± 4.0 years (range; 5 to 21 years) and 48.3 ± 10.0 (range; 31.8-109.6). Mean BMI change (% excess weight loss) at 1, 2, 3, and 4 postoperative years was -16.9 ± 4.9 (56.6 ± 22.6), -17.5 ± 5.2 (69.8 ± 22.5), -18.9 ± 4.3 (75.1 ± 26.8), and -19.6 ± 6.4 (73.6 ± 24.3), respectively. Postoperatively, complications occurred in 12 patients (4.1%), with no leaks or mortality, and more than 90% of comorbidities were resolved or improved without recurrence. Additionally, LSG patients exhibited significantly higher postoperative growth velocity compared to WM patients. Applying this standardized clinical pathway with its BS component results in safe and successful weight loss for pediatric patients, with low complication rates, maximum comorbidity resolution, and minimum morbidity.
FLORES, Carolina Aita
Introduction The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. Aim To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. Method A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. Conclusion There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients. PMID:25409969
Flores, Carolina Aita
The prevalence of obesity on a global scale has alarmed health institutions, the general population and professionals involved in its treatment. Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and lasting alternative for weight reduction and improved general health. In this context and as part of a multidisciplinary team, psychologists are responsible for the preoperative psychological assessment of bariatric candidates. To investigate how psychological assessments are occurring, including the identification of utilized resources; factors that are addressed; the duration of the process; existing protocols; and to evaluate the importance of this practice. A systematic review of national and international literature, through PubMed and Scielo's databases, using "psychological assessment", "obesity" and "surgery", as keywords. There is an agreement about the main factors that should be investigated during the preoperative assessment, as well as the main contraindications for the surgical procedure. The importance of the psychological assessment is well established in the field of bariatric surgery. However, this area needs a standard protocol to guide the mental health professionals that deal with bariatric patients.
Scozzari, Gitana; Balmativola, Davide; Trapani, Renza; Toppino, Mauro; Morino, Mario
Although vertical banded gastroplasty is rarely performed at present, most bariatric surgery departments continue to follow up patients who underwent this procedure in the past few decades. In view of this, it is advisable for bariatric and general surgeons to know how to diagnose the very rare event of the development of a gastric cancer after this restrictive procedure. In this report, 2 cases of gastric cancer occurring years after vertical banded gastroplasty are presented, and clinical presentation and diagnostic difficulties are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Suraweera, Duminda; Saab, Elena G; Choi, Gina; Saab, Sammy
Obesity is an important public health and medical concern in the United States. The rate of obesity has steadily risen for the past several decades. Obesity is associated with the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. After liver transplantation, recipients tend to gain weight and develop recurrent fatty liver. Over time, recurrent fatty liver may impact patient and graft survival. A bariatric surgical approach may be beneficial in select patients.
Suraweera, Duminda; Saab, Elena G.; Choi, Gina
Obesity is an important public health and medical concern in the United States. The rate of obesity has steadily risen for the past several decades. Obesity is associated with the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is one of the leading indications for liver transplantation. After liver transplantation, recipients tend to gain weight and develop recurrent fatty liver. Over time, recurrent fatty liver may impact patient and graft survival. A bariatric surgical approach may be beneficial in select patients. PMID:28539844
Ambwani, Suman; Boeka, Abbe G; Brown, Joshua D; Byrne, T Karl; Budak, Amanda R; Sarwer, David B; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Morey, Leslie C; O'Neil, Patrick M
Most bariatric surgery programs in the United States require preoperative psychological evaluations for candidates for surgery. Among those who perform these evaluations is concern that many patients engage in "impression management" or minimizing the symptoms of distress to receive a recommendation to proceed with surgery from the mental health professional. We sought to assess the prevalence of socially desirable responding and its associations with measures of psychological functioning among bariatric surgery candidates at 2 academic medical centers in the United States. The participants were male (n = 66) and female (n = 293) bariatric surgery candidates who presented for psychological evaluation. The participants completed 2 measures of socially desirable response styles (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale) and standardized measures of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems. The participants exhibited elevated scores on the social desirability indicators, with 33.3-39.8% scoring above the recommended cut-score on the Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale and 62.3-67% scoring 1 standard deviation above the standardization mean on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and Personality Assessment Inventory Positive Impression Management scale correlated inversely with the clinical measures of anxiety and depression, and the high/low scorers on the social desirability indices exhibited significant differences in anxiety and depression. Thus, elevated scores on the social desirability indices were associated with underreporting of certain clinical symptoms. A substantial proportion of bariatric surgery candidates appear to present themselves in an overly favorable light during the psychological evaluation. This response style is associated with less reporting of psychological
Funk, Luke M.; Jolles, Sally; Fischer, Laura E.; Voils, Corrine I
Importance Although bariatric surgery is the most cost-effective treatment for severe obesity, less than 1% of severely obese patients undergo it. Reasons for low utilization are unclear. Objectives To identify patient and referring provider characteristics associated with the likelihood of undergoing bariatric surgery. Evidence Review PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane databases were searched for reports published between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2014. Reports were eligible if they presented descriptive data regarding facilitators or barriers to bariatric surgery or if they reported statistical associations between patient or provider characteristics and referral to or receipt of bariatric surgery. Frequency effect sizes were calculated as the proportion of studies reporting a finding. Findings Of the 7,212 reports identified in the initial search, 53 were included in full-text review. Nine reports met our inclusion criteria and were included in analyses. Of those, four included descriptive findings, six reported statistical associations, and one included both. One report included providers as study participants, whereas eight included patients. Four of nine studies identified an association between female gender and a greater willingness to undergo bariatric surgery. Lack of knowledge about bariatric surgery was a barrier in two studies. Five of nine cited patient concerns about the outcomes and safety of bariatric surgery as a barrier to undergoing it. Patients were more likely to pursue bariatric surgery when it was recommended by referring providers. Providers who believed that obesity treatment should be covered by insurance were more likely to recommend bariatric surgery. Conclusions and Relevance Limited patient and referring provider knowledge about the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery are important barriers to bariatric surgery utilization. Future efforts focused on improving knowledge and identification of the critical
Dupim Souza, Ana Carolina; Franco, Carolina F; Pataro, André L; Guerra, Tadeu; de Oliveira Costa, Fernando; da Costa, José Eustáquio
Patients undergoing bariatric surgery often complain of bad breath. However, the relationship between bariatric surgery and halitosis is relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the occurrence of halitosis among patients before and after a specific type of bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and its relationship with the tongue coating index, plaque index, and salivary flow rate. A total of 62 patients with good oral health and in treatment for obesity at the walk-in clinic of Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were selected. Of this sample, 31 were bariatric surgery candidates (control group) and 31 had already undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (case group). After completing a questionnaire, all patients underwent an oral clinical examination. Halitosis was measured using an organoleptic scale and a portable sulfide monitor. The Spearman correlation demonstrated a strong positive relation between the organoleptic rates and the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds determined using the sulfide monitor (rs = .58; P = .0001). No difference was found in the prevalence of halitosis between the 2 groups (P = .48). Only the salivary flow rate was significantly reduced in the control group compared with the case group (P = .02). In the case group, the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds correlated negatively with the salivary flow rate (P = .04) and positively with the tongue coating index (P = .005). The tongue coating index was significantly increased in those patients who did not brush the tongue (P < .04) and who had had episodes of vomiting (P = .02). These data suggest that no significant association exists between halitosis and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, they do highlight the possible effect of this surgery on the oral cavity. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.
Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117
Bastos, Emanuelle Cristina Lins; Barbosa, Emília Maria Wanderley Gusmão; Soriano, Graziele Moreira Silva; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima
Bariatric surgery leads to an average loss of 60-75% of excess body weight with maximum weight loss in the period between 18 and 24 months postoperatively. However, several studies show that weight is regained from two years of operation. To identify the determinants of weight regain in post-bariatric surgery users. Prospective cross-sectional study with 64 patients who underwent bariatric surgery with postoperative time > 2 years valued at significant weight regain. The variables analyzed were age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, work activity related to food, time after surgery, BMI, percentage of excess weight loss, weight gain, attendance monitoring nutrition, lifestyle, eating habits, self-perception of appetite, daily use of nutritional supplements and quality of life. There were 57 (89%) women and 7 (11%) men, aged 41.76 ± 7.93 years and mean postoperative period of 53.4 ± 18.4 months. The average weight and BMI were respectively 127.48 ± 24.2 kg and 49.56 ± 6.7 kg/m2 at surgery. The minimum weight and BMI were achieved 73.0 ± 18.6 kg and 28.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2, reached in 23.7 ± 12 months postoperatively. Regained significant weight occurred in 18 (28.1%) cases. The mean postoperative period of 66 ± 8.3 months and work activities related to food showed statistical significance (p=000 and p=0.003) for the regained weight. Bariatric surgery promotes adequate reduction of excess body weight, with significant weight regain observed after five years; post-operative time and work activity related to eating out as determining factors for the occurrence of weight regain.
Chevrot, Audrey; Kayem, Gilles; Coupaye, Muriel; Lesage, Ninon; Msika, Simon; Mandelbrot, Laurent
Bariatric surgery is known to improve some pregnancy outcomes, but there is concern that it may increase the risk of small for gestational age. To assess the impact of bariatric surgery on pregnancy outcomes and specifically of the type of bariatric surgery on the risk of fetal growth restriction. A single-center retrospective case-control study. The study group comprised all deliveries in women who had undergone bariatric surgery. To investigate the effects of weight loss on pregnancy outcomes, we compared the study group with a control group matched for presurgery body mass index. Secondly, to assess the specific impact of the type of surgery on the incidence of fetal growth restriction in utero, we distinguished subgroups with restrictive and malabsorptive bariatric surgery, and compared outcomes for each of these subgroups with a second control group, matched for prepregnancy body mass index. Among 139 patients operated, 58 had a malabsorptive procedure (gastric bypass) and 81 a purely restrictive procedure (72 a gastric banding and 9 a sleeve gastrectomy). Compared with controls matched for presurgery body mass index, the study group had a decreased rate of gestational diabetes (12% vs 23%, P = .02) and large for gestational age >90th percentile (11% vs 22%, P = .01) but an increased rate of small for gestational age <10th percentile. The incidence of small for gestational age was higher after gastric bypass (29%) than it was after restrictive surgery (9%) or in controls matched for prepregnancy body mass index (6%) (P < .01 between bypass and controls). In multivariable analysis, after adjustment for other risk factors, gastric bypass remained strongly associated with small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio, 7.16; 95% confidence interval, 2.74-18.72). Malabsorptive bariatric surgery was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Leigh A
Obesity is the most widespread nutritional problem globally. Bariatric surgery is the preeminent long-term obesity treatment. Bariatric procedures manipulate the intestines to produces malabsorption and/or restrict the size of the stomach. The most enduring bariatric procedure is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, which utilizes both restriction (small stomach pouch) and malabsorption (duodenum bypass). The in-vogue procedure is the vertical sleeve gastrectomy - resection of the greater curvature of the stomach (predominantly restrictive). Malabsorptive procedures function by decreasing nutrient absorption, primarily fat and fat-soluble nutrients (vitamins A, D, E, and K). Most studies of vitamin D status in bariatric surgery candidates reported a prevalence of over 50% vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), enduring post-operatively with one study reporting 65% deficient at 10 years post-bariatric surgery. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which may contribute to adverse surgical outcomes, e.g. poor healing and infection. Since vitamin D deficiency is also associated with chronic inflammation, obese individuals with vitamin D deficiency have extraordinary risk of adverse surgical outcomes, particularly delayed wound healing and infection due to the role of vitamin D in re-epithelialization and innate immunity. When the risk of adverse surgical outcomes in obesity is combined with that of vitamin D deficiency, there is likely an additive or potentially a synergistic effect. Furthermore, deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin D, is considered a metabolic complication of bariatric surgery. Thus, determining the vitamin D status of bariatric surgery candidates and amending it preoperatively may prove greatly beneficial acutely and lifelong.
Kushner, Robert F; Sorensen, Kirsten Webb
Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for patients with severe or moderate obesity; however, long-term studies have identified that weight regain occurs post-operatively among a portion of patients. The underlying factors that influence weight regain following bariatric surgery are multifactorial and include endocrine/metabolic alterations, anatomic surgical failure, nutritional indiscretion, mental health issues, and physical inactivity. The extent and significance of these factors is currently uncertain and likely varies between individuals and the operative procedure performed. Multiple observational and non-randomized studies and a few randomized controlled trials have been reported that focus on improving post-operative weight loss. Across all of the behavioral and group support studies, patients in the treatment groups showed either no benefit or modestly greater weight loss than patients in the control groups. There are no randomized controlled trials that have specifically targeted weight regain. Additional clinical research is needed to identify etiological factors and interventional strategies.
Crowley, Nina; Madan, Alok; Wedin, Sharlene; Correll, Jennifer A; Delustro, Laura M; Borckardt, Jeffery J; Byrne, T Karl
Food cravings are common, more prevalent in the obese, and may differ in those who pursue surgical treatment for obesity. Food craving tools are most often validated in non-clinical, non-obese samples. In this retrospective study, 227 bariatric surgery candidates at a large medical center completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T). The aim was to explore the factor structure of the FCQ-T. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation revealed a seven-factor structure that explained 70.89 % of the variance. The seven factors were: (1) preoccupation with food, (2) emotional triggers, (3) environmental cues, (4) loss of control, (5) relief from negative emotions, (6) guilt, and (7) physiological response. The preoccupation with food factor accounted for 49.46 % of the variance in responses. Unlike other populations, food cravings in bariatric surgery candidates appear to be related most to preoccupations with food.
Pentin, Pamela L; Nashelsky, Joan
No studies evaluate the commonly used indications for bariatric surgery. Consensus guidelines suggest that the surgical treatment of obesity should be reserved for patients with a body-mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) or with BMI >35 kg/m(2) and 1 or more significant comorbid conditions, when less invasive methods of weight loss have failed and the patient is at high risk for obesity-associated morbidity and mortality (strength of recommendation: C, based on consensus guidelines).
Boules, Mena; Chang, Julietta; Haskins, Ivy N; Sharma, Gautam; Froylich, Dvir; El-Hayek, Kevin; Rodriguez, John; Kroh, Matthew
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early (< 30 d) complications, whereas strictures, marginal ulcers, band erosions, and weight loss failure or weight recidivism are typically considered late (> 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications. PMID:27668069
Boules, Mena; Chang, Julietta; Haskins, Ivy N; Sharma, Gautam; Froylich, Dvir; El-Hayek, Kevin; Rodriguez, John; Kroh, Matthew
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early (< 30 d) complications, whereas strictures, marginal ulcers, band erosions, and weight loss failure or weight recidivism are typically considered late (> 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications.
Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.
This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645
Hamdan, K; Somers, S; Chand, M
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and the past decade has witnessed an exponential rise in the number of bariatric operations performed. As a consequence, an increasing number of patients are presenting to non-specialist units with complications following bariatric procedures. This article outlines the management of the most common late postoperative complications that are likely to present to the general surgeon. A search was conducted for late postoperative complications after bariatric surgery using PubMed, Embase, OVID and Google search engines, and combinations of the terms bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, gastric banding or sleeve gastrectomy, and late or delayed complications. Only studies with follow-up longer than 6 months were included. The most common long-term complications after gastric banding include band slippage and erosion. Deflation or removal of the band is often required. Internal hernia, adhesions and anastomotic stenosis are common causes of intestinal obstruction after gastric bypass surgery. Hepatobiliary complications pose a particular challenge because of the altered anatomy. Functional disorders such as reflux and dumping, and nutritional deficiencies are common and should be differentiated from conditions that require urgent investigations and timely surgical intervention. The immediate management of bariatric patients presenting with complications outside the immediate postoperative period requires adherence to basic surgical principles. Accurate diagnosis often relies on high-quality contrast and cross-sectional imaging, and effective surgical intervention necessitates a broad understanding of the altered anatomy, advanced surgical skills and liaison with specialists in the field when necessary. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard
The contribution of physical activity on the degree of weight loss following bariatric surgery is unclear. To determine impact of exercise on postoperative weight loss. Medline search (1988-2009) was completed using MeSH terms including bariatric procedures and a spectrum of patient factors with potential relationship to weight loss outcomes. Of the 934 screened articles, 14 reported on exercise and weight loss outcomes. The most commonly used instruments to measure activity level were the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and a variety of self-made questionnaires. The definition of an active patient varied but generally required a minimum of 30 min of exercise at least 3 days per week. Thirteen articles reported on exercise and degree of postoperative weight loss (n = 4,108 patients). Eleven articles found a positive association of exercise on postoperative weight loss, and two did not. Meta-analysis of three studies revealed a significant increase in 1-year postoperative weight loss (mean difference = 4.2% total body mass index (BMI) loss, 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.26-8.11)) for patients who exercise postoperatively. Exercise following bariatric surgery appears to be associated with a greater weight loss of over 4% of BMI. While a causal relationship cannot be established with observational data, this finding supports the continued efforts to encourage and support patients' involvement in post-surgery exercise. Further research is necessary to determine the recommended activity guidelines for this patient population.
Albaugh, Vance L.; Flynn, C. Robb; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Abumrad, Naji N.
Obesity and its associated medical conditions continue to increase and add significant burden to patients, as well as health-care systems, worldwide. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity and its comorbidities, and resolution of diabetes is weight loss-independent in the case of some operations. Although these weight-independent effects are frequently described clinically, the mechanisms behind them are not well understood and remain an intense area of focus in the growing field of metabolic and bariatric surgery. Perceptions of the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial metabolic effects of metabolic/bariatric operations have shifted from being mostly restrictive and malabsorption over the last 10 to 15 years to being more neuro-hormonal in origin. In this review, we describe recent basic and clinical findings of the major clinical procedures (adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and biliopancreatic diversion) as well as other experimental procedures (ileal interposition and bile diversion) that recapitulate many of the metabolic effects of these complex operations in a simpler fashion. As the role of bile acids and the gut microbiome on metabolism is becoming increasingly well described, their potential roles in these improvements following metabolic surgery are becoming better appreciated. Bile acid and gut microbiome changes, in light of recent developments, are discussed in the context of these surgical procedures, as well as their implications for future study. PMID:27239296
van Hout, Gerbrand; van Heck, Guus
Obesity is the 'disease of the 21st century' and results in physical and psychosocial co-morbidities as well as poor quality of life (QoL). In contrast to the nonsurgical treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery is treatment of choice for morbid obesity. Since improved QoL and enhanced psychosocial functioning are important goals of bariatric surgery, success following bariatric surgery should not only include weight loss and improvement or cure of co-morbid conditions, but also improvements in eating behavior, psychosocial variables, and QoL. Unfortunately, bariatric surgery does not lead to identical results in every patient. Patients who fail to adjust their eating behavior and lifestyle after bariatric surgery may experience adverse reactions. Compliance and adjustment may be attributed largely to psychological factors, implying that the operation on its own represents only one element in bariatric surgery. Considering the role of psychosocial factors in the outcomes of bariatric surgery and the impact of the operation on the psychological and social situation, mental health professionals should be a part of the process of evaluation and treatment of bariatric surgery patients. In the Netherlands, between 2000 and 2005, bariatric surgery has increased tremendously, and most Dutch hospitals have a multidisciplinary selection process.
Ortiz, Selena E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Boyce, Angie M
This article examines how the medicalization of obesity validates the use of bariatric surgery to treat obesity in the United States and how expansions in access to bariatric surgery normalize surgical procedures as disease treatment and prevention tools. Building on this discussion, the article poses two questions for population health regarding health technology: (1) to what extent does bariatric surgery treat obesity in the United States while diverting attention away from the ultimate drivers of the epidemic and (2) to what extent does bariatric surgery improve outcomes for some groups in the US population while simultaneously generating disparities? We conduct a brief, historical analysis of the American Medical Association's decision to reclassify obesity as a disease through internal documents, peer-reviewed expert reports, and major media coverage. We use medicalization theory to show how this decision by the American Medical Association channels increased focus on obesity into the realm of medical intervention, particularly bariatric surgery, and use this evidence to review research trends on bariatric surgery. We propose research questions that investigate the population health dimensions of bariatric surgery in the United States and note key areas of future research. Our objective is to generate a discourse that considers bariatric surgery beyond the medical realm to better understand how technological interventions might work collectively with population-level obesity prevention efforts and how, in turn, population health approaches may improve bariatric surgery outcomes.
Dantas, Anna Carolina Batista; Santo, Marco Aurelio; de Cleva, Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Cecconello, Ivan
Esophageal and gastric cancer (GC) are related to obesity and bariatric surgery. Risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux and Helicobacter pylori, must be investigated and treated in obese population. After surgery, GC reports are anecdotal and treatment is not standardized. This review aims to discuss GC related to obesity before and after bariatric surgery. PMID:27458534
Dantas, Anna Carolina Batista; Santo, Marco Aurelio; de Cleva, Roberto; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Cecconello, Ivan
Esophageal and gastric cancer (GC) are related to obesity and bariatric surgery. Risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux and Helicobacter pylori, must be investigated and treated in obese population. After surgery, GC reports are anecdotal and treatment is not standardized. This review aims to discuss GC related to obesity before and after bariatric surgery.
Obesity is recognized as a global health crisis. Bariatric surgery offers a treatment that can reduce weight, induce remission of obesity-related diseases, and improve the quality of life. In this article, we outline the different options in bariatric surgery and summarize the recommendations for selecting and assessing potential candidates before proceeding to surgery. We present current data on post-surgical outcomes and evaluate the psychosocial and economic effects of bariatric surgery. Finally, we evaluate the complication rates and present recommendations for post-operative care. PMID:23302153
SILVEIRA-JÚNIOR, Sérgio; de ALBUQUERQUE, Maurício Mendes; do NASCIMENTO, Ricardo Reis; da ROSA, Luisa Salvagni; HYGIDIO, Daniel de Andrade; ZAPELINI, Raphaela Mazon
Background Few studies evaluated the association between nutritional disorders, quality of life and weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Aim To identify nutritional changes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and correlate them with weight loss, control of comorbidities and quality of life. Method A prospective cohort, analytical and descriptive study involving 59 patients undergoing bariatric surgery was done. Data were collected preoperatively at three and six months postoperatively, evaluating nutritional aspects and outcomes using BAROS questionnaire. The data had a confidence interval of 95%. Results The majority of patients was composed of women, 47 (79.7%), with 55.9% of the series with BMI between 40 to 49.9 kg/m². In the sixth month after surgery scores of quality of life were significantly higher than preoperatively (p<0.05) and 27 (67.5 %) patients had comorbidities resolved, 48 (81.3 %) presented BAROS scores of very good or excellent. After three and six months of surgery 16 and 23 presented some nutritional disorder, respectively. There was no relationship between the loss of excess weight and quality of life among patients with or without nutritional disorders. Conclusions Nutritional disorders are uncommon in the early postoperative period and, when present, have little or no influence on quality of life and loss of excess weight. PMID:25861070
Schuh, Michael J
To describe how pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services can be applied to bariatric surgery. A pharmacy MTM consult service located in a multispecialty medical clinic with a bariatric department attached to a hospital where bariatric surgeries are performed. MTM bariatric surgery office practice where patients are seen before surgery by a pharmacist to identify medication problems and determine how best to administer alternative dosage forms post-operatively to patients. Practice innovations are a creation of a specialized service and accompanying specialized medication database within a pharmacotherapy practice. Outcome measures are number of patients referred per month and polypharmacy consults scheduled downstream from the bariatric surgery. Improved patient outcomes and prescribing efficiency from usage of the newly developed database of drugs that can be crushed. All bariatric patients are now referred to the pharmacist MTM pharmacotherapy service for medication review before bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is a source of another useful MTM practice model. Utilizing MTM pharmacists to consult with bariatric patients presurgery helps ease the physician burden of writing alternative dose prescriptions and helps identify medication problems with patients before their surgery.
Bean, Judy A.; Inge, Thomas H.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone loss in adolescents after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and to determine the extent to which bone loss was related to weight loss. We hypothesized that adolescents would lose bone mass after surgery and that it would be associated with weight loss. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case review of 61 adolescents after bariatric surgery. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured by dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry, and age- and gender-specific BMD z scores were calculated. Measurements were obtained when possible before surgery and then every 3 to months after surgery for up to 2 years. Data were analyzed by using a mixed-models approach, and regression models were adjusted for age, gender, and height. RESULTS: Whole-body BMC, BMD z score, and weight decreased significantly over time after surgery (P < .0001 for all). In the first 2 years after surgery, predicted values on the basis of regression modeling for BMC decreased by 7.4%, and BMD z score decreased from 1.5 to 0.1. During the first 12 months after surgery, change in weight was correlated with change in BMC (r = 0.31; P = .02). Weight loss accounted for 14% of the decrease in BMC in the first year after surgery. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery is associated with significant bone loss in adolescents. Although the predicted bone density was appropriate for age 2 years after surgery, longer follow-up is warranted to determine whether bone mass continues to change or stabilizes. PMID:21444596
Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Ferrer-Ayza, Manuel; Rubio-Gil, Francisco; Torrente-Sánchez, María José; Martínez Amo-Gámez, Antonio
Attempts are being made in recent years to replace open surgery with endoscopic techniques in some obese patients when medical treatment fails, as they are considered to be less-invasive procedures. To date, there is little scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness. The cases are reported of 2 patients who attended our surgery looking for an effective bariatric surgical treatment after failed endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy after failure of an endoscopic technique does not offer great variation from the standard technique. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Koulischer, S; Cadière, B; Cadière, G-B; Fabeck, L
Although frequently called to mind by physicians, the relationship between overweight and low back pain is poorly understood and remains controversial. The present study aims to evaluate the evolution of low back pain in 65 patients planned for a bariatric surgery. The patients were enrolled prospectively. 54 patients (80%) could be evaluated 5 months after the procedure, and 47 patients (72%) were evaluated 22 months after surgery. Mean weight loss was 19 ± 9 kg (P < 0.001) at 22 months post-op. Patients demonstrated a statistically significant improvement of the NRS, Oswestry and SF-36 scores. This study suggests that low back pain might be reduced following bariatric surgery. However, the lack of dose-response effect is against a causal relationship between low back pain and obesity. Larger randomised controls are needed to determine a causal relationship.
Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe
While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thibault, Ronan; Huber, Olivier; Azagury, Dan E; Pichard, Claude
In morbidly obese patients, i.e. body mass index ≥35, bariatric surgery is considered the only effective durable weight-loss therapy. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) are associated with risks of nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. Therefore, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, are advised. Dietetic counseling is mandatory during the first year, optional later. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. In this review, twelve key perioperative nutritional issues are raised with focus on LRYGBP and LSG procedures, the most common current bariatric procedures.
Aberle, J; Reining, F; Dannheim, V; Flitsch, J; Klinge, A; Mann, O
Metformin is the oral drug of first choice in type 2 diabetes. Therefore a large number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery will be on Metformin treatment. However, use of Metformin has been associated with lactate acidosis. Weight loss following bariatric surgery is most pronounced during the first weeks after the operation and this creates a phase of negative energy balance with ketone body formation. To shed more light on this situation we measured ketone bodies in 90 patients 5 days-18 months after bariatric surgery. Ketone bodies were markedly elevated during the first 3-4 months. Metformin use should therefore be critically reconsidered after bariatric operations.
García-García, María Luisa; Martín-Lorenzo, Juan Gervasio; Torralba-Martínez, José Antonio; Lirón-Ruiz, Ramón; Miguel Perelló, Joana; Flores Pastor, Benito; Pérez Cuadrado, Enrique; Aguayo Albasini, José Luis
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GB) is a potential complication after bariatric surgery and its frequency is around 2-4% according to the literature. The aim of this study is to present our experience with GB after bariatric surgery, its presentation and possible treatment options by means of an algorithm. From January 2004 to December 2012, we performed 300 consecutive laparoscopic bariatric surgeries. A total of 280 patients underwent a laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass with creation of a gastrojejunal anastomosis using a circular stapler type CEAA No 21 in 265 patients and with a linear stapler in 15 patients. Demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and treatment were reviewed. A total of 20 patients underwent a sleeve gastrectomy. Twenty-seven cases (9%) developed GB. Diagnosis and therapeutic endoscopy was required in 13 patients. The onset of bleeding occurred between the 1(st)-6(th) postop days in 10 patients, and the origin was at the gastrojejunostomy staple-lines, and 3 patients had bleeding from an anastomotic ulcer 15-20 days after surgery. All other patients were managed non-operatively. Conservative management of gastrointestinal bleeding is effective in most cases, but endoscopy with therapeutic intent should be considered in patients with severe or recurrent bleeding. Multidisciplinary postoperative follow- up is very important for early detention and treatment of this complication. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Albaina Landaluce, E; Díez Andrés, A; Navaridas Berganzo, A; Ruiz de Arcaute, I I
The authors analyze the negative repercussions of morbid obesity; then they explain what baryatric surgery, a surgical technique employed with a high degree of success, consists of. They study the results, in terms of satisfaction, obtained from patients operated on in the Txagorritxu Hospital in Vitoria. The project on which this article is based was presented as a Main Project in a Course on Health Research Methodology, extension class section, "IDER", at the University of Alcalá and the University of Antioquia.
Browne, Allen F; Inge, Thomas
Obesity affects 50% of adults and 18% of children in the USA. It has wide-ranging comorbidities with clinical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Obesity refers to a condition of excess body fat. The basis for weight gain is a fundamental imbalance between caloric intake and output, but individual variation based on genetics, metabolism, and diverse environmental triggers is seen. Although modifications to our obesogenic society and education about the risks in our environment may lead to a decrease in the incidence of obesity through prevention, treatment for those already obese is critically important. In adults, the most successful treatment programs for obesity include a surgical procedure. This article discusses the problems obesity presents to children and their families, highlights the unique aspects of treating obesity in children, reviews the currently utilized bariatric surgical procedures, and introduces those bariatric procedures that are under development. When considering whether to use bariatric surgical procedures in a multidisciplinary weight management program for children, the special needs and characteristics of children with a severe weight problem must be considered. Development of bariatric surgical techniques and devices and implementation of these tools in multidisciplinary weight management programs need greater attention. This will require the combined efforts of the pediatric health care providers from many specialties and partnerships with industry to facilitate discovery and implementation.
Colabianchi, Vincenzo; de Bernardinis, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Matteo; Langella, Marika
Surgical treatment of obese patients is much debated in the literature because of the significant intraoperative risks related to comorbidities presented by this type of patients. Recent literature suggests that panniculectomy should follow bariatric surgery after the patient's weight loss has been stabilized. However, when performed by laparotomy, bariatric surgery can be combined with panniculectomy. This paper presents the analysis of 325 cases of patients undergoing abdominal panniculectomy combined with bariatric surgery. The study highlights the risks, complications, and benefits of the combined procedure and describes a standardized technique for excision of a large abdominal panniculus in a short operating time. PMID:26682282
Schofield, Carin K.
The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to grow. Bariatric surgery is becoming more common and accepted in the treatment of obesity. Clinical candidates for bariatric surgery should have a BMI > 40 kg/m[superscript 2] alone, or a BMI > 35 kg/m[superscript 2] plus one comorbidity. A trend is emerging in the literature showing…
Schofield, Carin K.
The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to grow. Bariatric surgery is becoming more common and accepted in the treatment of obesity. Clinical candidates for bariatric surgery should have a BMI > 40 kg/m[superscript 2] alone, or a BMI > 35 kg/m[superscript 2] plus one comorbidity. A trend is emerging in the literature showing…
Menéndez, Pablo; Villarejo, Pedro; Padilla, David
Gastric bypass is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in bariatric surgery. A neoplasm within the gastric pouch is a somewhat infrequent complication but with important survival consequences. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who developed an adenocarcinoma in the bypassed stomach three years after bariatric surgery; the tumour was incidentally discovered after gynaecological surgery for uterine myomas. Various diagnostic modalities for the excluded stomach were analysed.
Lazzati, Andrea; Guy-Lachuer, Rodolphe; Delaunay, Vincent; Szwarcensztein, Karine; Azoulay, Daniel
Bariatric surgery underwent a dramatic change in the past decade in France. The objective of this study was to examine elective bariatric surgical procedures from 2005 to 2011 in France and to determine trends in the use of the procedure. Data were extracted from the National Hospital Database. All admissions involving a bariatric surgery procedure were included. Procedures authorized by the Public Health Authority for the treatment of morbid obesity, including the adjustable gastric banding (AGB), vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG), gastric bypass (GB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), either by laparotomic or laparoscopic approach, were retrieved. Revisional procedures, such as band removal or repositioning, band changing, and access device revisions, were also evaluated. We observed a 2.5-fold increase in bariatric procedures, from 12,800 in 2005 to 31,000 in 2011. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass became the most common bariatric procedures in France in 2011, whereas adjustable gastric banding has been decreasing since 2007. During the analysis period, about 50,000 revisional procedures were performed. The number of hospitals (private or public) providing bariatric surgery has considerably increased. However, most of the activity remains confined to a small number of centers, as 50% of all bariatric surgeries are carried out in 12% of hospitals. Bariatric procedures are predominantly performed in private hospitals. In France the number of bariatric procedures increased considerably between 2005 and 2011. The type of procedures changed, with a constant decrease of AGB and an important increase of SG and GB. Most bariatric procedures are still performed in low volume activity hospitals and in private hospitals. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.
Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Matías-Guiu, Jordi A; Guerrero, Antonio; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Rubio, Miguel A
We present two patients who underwent successful bariatric surgery and developed peroneal nerve palsy six months after the procedure. This is an unusual complication which determines a significant functional limitation, mainly because of foot drop, and its presence may be a hallmark of excessive and rapid weight loss. We discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic options, and we emphasize the important role of an adequate nutritional management, in order to avoid the need for a surgical nerve decompression.
Background Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment to obtain weight loss in severely obese patients. The feasibility and safety of bariatric robotic surgery is the topic of this review. Methods A search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, BioMed Central, and Web of Science. Results Twenty-two studies were included. Anastomotic leak rate was 8.51% in biliopancreatic diversion. 30-day reoperation rate was 1.14% in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 1.16% in sleeve gastrectomy. Major complication rate in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass resulted higher than in sleeve gastrectomy ( 4,26% vs. 1,2%). The mean hospital stay was longer in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (range 2.6-7.4 days). Conclusions The major limitation of our analysis is due to the small number and the low quality of the studies, the small sample size, heterogeneity of the enrolled patients and the lack of data from metabolic and bariatric outcomes. Despite the use of the robot, the majority of these cases are completed with stapled anastomosis. The assumption that robotic surgery is superior in complex cases is not supported by the available present evidence. The major strength of the robotic surgery is strongly facilitating some of the surgical steps (gastro-jejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy anastomosis in the robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or the vertical gastric resection in the robotic sleeve gastrectomy). PMID:24199869
VIDAL, Eduardo Arevalo; RENDON, Francisco Abarca; ZAMBRANO, Trino Andrade; GARCÍA, Yudoco Andrade; VITERI, Mario Ferrin; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso
ABSTRACT Background: Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. Aim: To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Methods: Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Results: Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Conclusion: Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. PMID:27683770
King, WC; Engel, SG; Elder, KA; Chapman, WH; Eid, GM; Wolfe, BM; Belle, SH
Background This study characterizes the walking limitations of bariatric surgery candidates by age and body mass index (BMI) and determines factors independently associated with walking capacity. Setting Multi-institutional at research university hospitals in the United States. Methods 2458 participants of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study (age: 18-78 y, BMI: 33-94 kg/m2) attended a pre-operative research visit. Walking capacity was measured via self-report and the 400 meter Long Distance Corridor Walk (LDCW). Results Almost two-thirds (64%) of subjects reported limitations walking several blocks, 48% had an objectively-defined mobility deficit, and 16% reported at least some walking aid use. In multivariable analysis, BMI, older age, lower income and greater bodily pain were independently associated (p<.05) with walking aid use, physical discomfort during the LDCW, inability to complete the LDCW, and slower time to complete the LDCW. Female sex, Hispanic ethnicity (but not race), higher resting heart rate, history of smoking, several comoribidities (history of stroke, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, asthma, sleep apnea, venous edema with ulcerations), and depressive symptoms were also independently related (p<.05) to at least one measure of reduced walking capacity. Conclusions Walking limitations are common in bariatric surgery candidates, even among the least severely obese and youngest patients. Physical activity counseling must be tailored to individuals' abilities. While several factors identified in this study (e.g., BMI, age, pain, comorbidities) should be considered, directly assessing walking capacity will facilitate appropriate goal-setting. PMID:21937285
TEDESCO, Amanda Kaseker; BIAZOTTO, Rafaela; GEBARA, Telma Souza e Silva; CAMBI, Maria Paula Carlini; BARETTA, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso
ABSTRACT Background: The bariatric surgery may cause some nutritional deficiencies. Aim: To compare the serum levels of biochemical markers, in iimmediate post-surgical patients who were submitted to bariatric surgery. Methods: Non-concurrent prospective cross-sectional study. The analysis investigated data in medical charts of pre-surgical and immediate post-surgical patients who were submitted to bariatric surgery, focusing total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, vitamin B12 levels, folic acid, homocysteine values, iron and serum calcium at the referred period. Results: Twenty-nine patients of both genders were evaluated. It was observed weight loss from 108.53 kg to 78.69 kg after the procedure. The variable LDL-c had a significant difference, decreasing approximately 30.3 mg/dl after the surgery. The vitamin B12 serum average levels went from 341.9 pg/ml to 667.2 pg/ml. The triglycerides values were in a range of 129.6 mg/dl-173.3 mg/dl, and 81.9 mg/dl-105.3 mg/dl at the pre- and postoperative respectively. CRP levels fall demonstrated reduction of inflammatory activity. The variable homocysteine was tested in a paired manner and it did not show a significant changing before or after, although it showed a strong correlation with LDL cholesterol. Conclusion: Eligible patients to bariatric surgery frequently present pre-nutritional deficiencies, having increased post-surgical risks when they don´t follow an appropriate nutritional follow-up. PMID:27683780
Kulick, Doina; Hark, Lisa; Deen, Darwin
Between 1998 and 2004, the total number of bariatric procedures increased almost 10-fold, from 13,386 procedures in 1998 to 121,055 in 2004. Current estimates suggest the number of bariatric operations will exceed 220,000 in 2010. Bariatric surgery encompasses several surgical techniques classified as restrictive or malabsorptive, based on the main mechanism of weight loss. Clinical studies and meta-analyses show that bariatric surgery decreases morbidity and mortality when compared with nonsurgical treatments. A successful long-term outcome of bariatric surgery is dependent on the patient's commitment to a lifetime of dietary and lifestyle changes. The registered dietitian (RD) is an important member of the bariatric team and provides critical instructions to help patients adhere to the dietary changes consistent with surgery. Referencing current literature, this article outlines the indications, contraindications, and types of bariatric surgery. The role of the RD for preoperative and postoperative nutrition assessment and medical nutrition therapy is highlighted. Management of long-term nutrition issues is also reviewed. The current recommendations include a multivitamin/mineral supplement plus vitamin B-12, calcium, vitamin D-3, iron, and folic acid. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and bariatric surgery procedures, caring for patients who have undergone surgery will be an expanding role for the RD. Close postoperative follow-up and careful monitoring will improve the odds for successful surgical outcomes, and RDs play a very important part in this process. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michalsky, Marc; Kramer, Robert E; Fullmer, Michelle A; Polfuss, Michele; Porter, Renee; Ward-Begnoche, Wendy; Getzoff, Elizabeth A; Dreyer, Meredith; Stolzman, Stacy; Reichard, Kirk W
The prevalence of morbid obesity in adolescents is rising at an alarming rate. Comorbidities known to predispose to cardiovascular disease are increasingly being diagnosed in these children. Bariatric surgery has become an acceptable treatment alternative for morbidly obese adults, and criteria have been developed to establish center-of-excellence designation for adult bariatric surgery programs. Evidence suggests that bariatric surgical procedures are being performed with increasing numbers in adolescents. We have examined and compiled the current expert recommendations for guidelines and criteria that are needed to deliver safe and effective bariatric surgical care to adolescents.
Mahmood, Ali; Mahmood, Nadia; Robinson, Robert B
A 31-year-old woman who had successfully undergone bariatric surgery (gastric bypass with Roux-en-Y anastamosis) three years earlier presented with complaints of acute epigastric abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) showed small bowel intussusception, and the patient was taken to the operating room. A mass the size and shape of a football was found; the mass consisted of the proximal limb of the Roux-en-Y intussuscepted in a retrograde manner. The bowel was gently reduced, deemed viable, and the Roux-en-Y anastamosis was revised with resection of the lead point. We urge the surgeon to be highly suspicious of acute bowel obstruction in the post-bariatric surgery population and believe that CT is essential in evaluating these patients. We further recommend resection of the lead point to avoid repeat bouts of intussusception from the same focal etiology.
Suraweera, Duminda; Dutson, Erik; Saab, Sammy
Obesity has become increasingly prevalent, and the number of obese patients in need of liver transplant is expected to continue to increase. In addition, liver disease due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is expected to become the leading cause of liver transplantation in the near future. However, obesity remains a relative contraindication in liver transplant. New strategies in managing this patient population are clearly needed. To this end, the authors review the current literature on the efficacy of bariatric surgery in the setting of liver transplantation in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vidal, Josep; Corcelles, Ricard; Jiménez, Amanda; Flores, Lílliam; Lacy, Antonio M
Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) leads to weight loss in obese individuals and reduces comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. MBS is superior to medical therapy in reducing hyperglycemia in persons with type 2 diabetes, and has been associated with reduced mortality and incidences of cardiovascular events and cancer in obese individuals. New guidelines have been proposed for the use of MBS in persons with type 2 diabetes. We review the use of MBS as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related conditions and, based on recent evidence, propose health care systems make the appropriate changes to increase accessibility for eligible patients.
Weiner, R A; Stroh, C; El-Sayes, I; Frenken, M; Theodoridou, S; Scheffel, O; Weiner, S
Bariatric surgery is known to be the most effective and long-lasting treatment for morbid obesity and associated comorbidities. These comorbidities together with cardiopulmonary decompensation make morbidly obese patients a high risk group for operative interventions. Early detection of postoperative complications is a challenging task in these patients and requires accurate and timely interpretation of any alarm signals. Symptoms, such as tachycardia and abdominal pain are highly suspicious. The same applies to elevated inflammatory parameters and fever. Early diagnostic laparoscopy is mandatory once cardiopulmonary complications have been excluded. Moreover, it has a higher sensitivity and specificity than other radiological modalities and is a minimally invasive procedure with a highly satisfactory outcome.
Schlienger, J-L; Pradignac, A; Luca, F; Meyer, L; Rohr, S
Several studies indicate that bariatric surgery frequently leads to resolution or improvement of type 2 diabetes in overweight patients. However, the medical postoperative management requires lifelong counselling, monitoring and nutrient supplements in patients in remission as well as in patients who continue to be diabetic. The aim of such management is to avoid nutritional deficiencies, and to delay diabetes relapse by optimizing the control of risk factors. To this end, diet and pharmacological prescriptions, including vitamin and mineral supplements, are indispensable, despite the fact that specific recommendations, until now, have been lacking for these particular patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Holinski, Franca; Menenakos, Charalambos; Haber, Georg; Olze, Heidi; Ordemann, Juergen
Neither hormone levels nor malabsorption alone fully explains the distinct weight loss after bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients. Postoperatively, patients regularly report a change in the sense of taste and the development of food aversions. Hedonic and sensory components like olfactory and gustatory stimuli significantly affect appetite and flavour. We prospectively analysed the orthonasal olfactory and gustatory function with psychophysical testing in 44 patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and in 23 healthy controls. About 22.7 % of morbidly obese patients were hyposmic, showing significantly lower threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) scores (p = 0.009) with decreased discrimination and identification ability. In addition, 22.7 % of patients were tested to be limited in gustatory function, with significantly lower taste strip test (TST) scores (p = 0.003). Six months after surgery, olfactory and gustatory function was not different when compared to healthy controls. Due to obesity, patients frequently show impaired olfactory and gustatory function. Six months after laparoscopic bariatric surgery, both chemosensory functions improve. The TDI test is an appropriate tool to measure olfactory function in obese patients.
Ferrand Miranda, Pedro; Contreras Rivas, Tomas; Leigh Pacciarini, Stephanie
Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.
Gebhart, Alana; Young, Monica T; Nguyen, Ninh T
Ample evidence supports the safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in the general adult population but more information is needed in patients age 60 years and older (elderly). We previously examined the outcome of bariatric surgery performed in the elderly between 1999 and 2005 using the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Clinical Database. The aim of this study was to analyze contemporary outcomes of bariatric surgery in the elderly and to compare them to previous data from 1999-2005. Using International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision diagnosis and procedure codes, we obtained data from the UHC database for all elderly (age >60 yr) and adult nonelderly (age 19-60 yr) patients who underwent bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity between 2009 and 2013. Outcome measures, such as patient characteristics, LOS, morbidity, and observed-to-expected (risk-adjusted) mortality ratio were compared between elderly and nonelderly patients. Bariatric surgery in the elderly made up 2.7% of all bariatric operations in 1999-2005. This represents an increase to 10.1% of all bariatric operations in 2009-2013. In-hospital mortality was .30% for the nonelderly and .70% for the elderly in 1999-2005, whereas contemporary in-hospital mortality has decreased to .11% for the nonelderly and .05% for the elderly. Our results show that the number of bariatric procedures performed in the elderly is increasing and now represents 10% of all bariatric operations performed at academic centers. In-hospital mortality in bariatric surgery in the elderly has improved so much that it is now even better than in-hospital mortality in the nonelderly in 1999-2005. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... Surgery Types of Surgery Gastric Bypass ... or intestines removed due to ulcers or cancer tended to lose a lot of weight after ...
Sawaya, Ronald Andari; Jaffe, Jane; Friedenberg, Lindsay; Friedenberg, Frank K.
The prevalence of obesity continues to rise throughout the world. Increasingly, bariatric surgery is used for those with morbid obesity as a pivotal approach to achieve weight loss. Along with substantial weight loss, malabsorption of essential vitamins, minerals, and drugs also occurs. Therefore, more than ever, a better understanding of the physiology and mechanisms by which these deficiencies occur is essential. We review the normal physiology of vitamin, mineral, and drug absorption. This is followed by a description of currently performed bariatric surgeries in the United States. A detailed review of specific nutrient and mineral deficiency states is presented, based on the most significant studies published in the last two decades. Of note, screening and supplementation recommendations have been included. Drug absorption data after these procedures is presented and discussed. Studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Registry and MEDLINE using relevant search terms, as well as through review of the reference section of included manuscripts. Conclusions Bariatric surgery can be effectively used to achieve sustainable weight-loss in morbidly obese patients. It simultaneously brings forth important functional consequences on nutrient deficiencies and drug absorption that clinician’s must be aware of. Further prospective, randomized research on specific procedures and deficiencies is required. PMID:22746302
To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m(2).() Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m(2) or at least 35 kg/m(2) with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence. It is also associated with depression, and cancers of the breast, uterus, prostate, and colon, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with higher all-cause mortality at any age, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors like smoking. A person with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) has about a 50% higher risk of dying than does someone with a healthy BMI. The risk more than doubles at a BMI of 35 kg/m(2). An expert estimated that about 160,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario. In the United States, the prevalence of morbid obesity is 4.7% (1999-2000). In Ontario, the 2004 Chief Medical Officer of Health Report said that in 2003, almost one-half of Ontario adults were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). About 57% of Ontario men and 42% of Ontario women were overweight or obese. The proportion of the population that was overweight or obese increased gradually from 44% in 1990 to 49% in 2000, and it appears to have stabilized at 49% in 2003. The report also noted that the tendency to be overweight and obese increases with age up to 64 years. BMI should be used cautiously for people aged 65 years and older, because the "normal" range may begin at slightly above 18.5 kg/m(2) and extend into the "overweight" range. The Chief Medical Officer of Health cautioned that these data may underestimate the true extent of the problem, because they were based on self reports, and people tend to over-report their height and under-report their weight
Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Wright, Breanne N.
Moderate/severe obesity is on the rise in the United States. Weight management includes bariatric surgery, which is effective and can alleviate morbidity and mortality from obesity-associated diseases. However, many individuals are dealing with nutritional complications. Risk factors include: 1) preoperative malnutrition (e.g., vitamin D, iron); 2) decreased food intake (due to reduced hunger and increased satiety, food intolerances, frequent vomiting); 3) inadequate nutrient supplementation (due to poor compliance with multivitamin/multimineral regimen, insufficient amounts of vitamins and/or minerals in supplements); 4) nutrient malabsorption; and 5) inadequate nutritional support (due to lack of follow-up, insufficient monitoring, difficulty in recognizing symptoms of deficiency). For some nutrients (e.g., protein, vitamin B-12, vitamin D), malnutrition issues are reasonably addressed through patient education, routine monitoring, and effective treatment strategies. However, there is little attention paid to other nutrients (e.g., zinc, copper), which if left untreated may have devastating consequences (e.g., hair loss, poor immunity, anemia, defects in neuro-muscular function). This review focuses on malnutrition in essential minerals, including calcium (and vitamin D), iron, zinc, and copper, which commonly occur following popular bariatric procedures. There will be emphasis on the complexities, including confounding factors, related to screening, recognition of symptoms, and, when available, current recommendations for treatment. There is an exceptionally high risk of malnutrition in adolescents and pregnant women and their fetuses, who may be vulnerable to problems in growth and development. More research is required to inform evidence-based recommendations for improving nutritional status following bariatric surgery and optimizing weight loss, metabolic, and nutritional outcomes. PMID:24038242
Sarker, Anita; Meek, Claire L; Park, Adrian
Obesity, defined as a body mass index over 30 kg/m(2) for adults, poses a major healthcare challenge with important economic, personal and social consequences. Although public health measures, lifestyle change and pharmacological therapies have an important role in the management of obesity, patients with established morbid obesity (body mass index over 40 kg/m(2)) may also require bariatric surgery. Bariatric or metabolic surgery is associated with effective and enduring weight loss but is also known to improve glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and dyslipidaemia. Patients who have bariatric surgery need lifelong clinical follow-up to identify and prevent nutritional deficiencies and other complications. Clinical biochemistry laboratories have an important role in the nutritional assessment of obese patients and in the identification of complications following bariatric surgery. The aim of this article is to review the different bariatric procedures available and to summarize their complications, especially nutrient deficiencies and those of particular relevance to clinical biochemistry laboratories.
Benaiges Boix, David; Goday Arno, Albert; Pedro-Botet, Juan
Weight loss can improve metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus but the results of conventional therapy in this respect have been discouraging. Besides achieving significant and sustained weight loss, bariatric surgery can improve or resolve type 2 diabetes mellitus in the majority of patients. Anatomical modifications and changes in the secretion of intestinal hormones can explain the superiority of malabsorptive techniques. Currently, bariatric surgery offers a therapeutic alternative for type 2 diabetes patients with severe obesity and poor metabolic control under conventional therapy. Ongoing research will provide insights regarding the effect of intestinal hormones, new surgery techniques and the possible benefits of bariatric surgery in non-obese patients.
Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment modality in maintaining long-term weight reduction and improving obesity-related conditions in morbidly obese patients. In Korea, surgery for morbid obesity was laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy first performed in 2003. Since 2003, the annual number of bariatric surgeries has markedly increased, including adjustable gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, mini-gastric bypass, and others. In Korea, AGB is much more common than in others countries. A large proportion of doctors, the public, and government misunderstand the necessity and effectiveness of bariatric surgery, believing that bariatric surgery has an unacceptably high morbidity, and that it is not superior to non-surgical treatments to improve obesity and obesity-related diseases. The effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery have been well demonstrated. The Korean Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery recommend bariatric surgery confining to morbidly obese patients (body mass index ≥40 or >35 in the presence of significant comorbidities). PMID:27834081
Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L.
Surgical intervention has become an accepted therapeutic alternative for the patient with medically complicated obesity. Multiple investigators have reported significant and sustained weight loss after bariatric surgery that is associated with improvement of many weight related medical co-morbidities, and statistically-significant decreased overall mortality for surgically-treated as compared to medically-treated subjects. Although the Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered an acceptably safe treatment, an increasing number of patients are being recognized with nephrolithiasis after this, the most common bariatric surgery currently performed. The main risk factor appears to be hyperoxaluria, although low urine volume and citrate concentrations may contribute. The incidence of these urinary risk factors amongst the total post-RYGB population is unknown, but may be more than previously suspected based upon small pilot studies. The etiology of the hyperoxaluria is unknown, but may be related to subtle and seemingly sub clinical fat malabsorption. Clearly, further study is needed, especially to define better treatment options than the standard advice for a low fat, low oxalate diet, and use of calcium as an oxalate binder. PMID:18359397
As the incidence of obesity continues to rise, increasing numbers of patients are undergoing bariatric surgery to address morbid obesity and weight related health issues. Bariatric procedures aim to reduce dietary intake and/or interfere with food absorption and are now in widespread use but with a huge capacity shortfall leading to a degree of rationing of the resource. Such treatment should be regarded as palliative in that it does not cure the underlying disorder, and guidelines have been produced to define which patients should be considered for this type of surgery, which must be undertaken in a multidisciplinary setting. Long term results show this to be a cost-effective intervention with a durable positive impact on cardiac risk factors and in particular type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnoea, together with a reduction in all cause mortality and malignancy and an improvement in quality of life. Systematic data collection has now started in the UK and will assist in defining the best application of the resource.
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method of sustainable weight loss among morbidly obese patients. The types of bariatric surgeries can be divided into three categories: restrictive procedures, malabsorptive procedures, and combination (restrictive and malabsorption) procedures. In general, patients undergoing restrictive procedures have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications, whereas patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures have the highest risk. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, such as decreased blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure and increased mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. Most diet-related surgical complications can be prevented by adhering to strict eating behavior guidelines and supplement prescriptions. Eating behavior guidelines include restricting portion sizes, chewing foods slowly and completely, eating and drinking separately, and avoiding foods that are poorly tolerated. Supplement prescriptions vary among practitioners and usually involve at least a multivitamin with minerals. Some practitioners may add other supplements only as needed for diagnosed deficiencies; others may prescribe additional prophylactic supplements. The most common nutrient deficiencies are of iron, folate, and vitamin B12. However, deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins have been reported in patients with malabsorption procedures, and thiamin deficiency has been reported among patients with very poor intake and/or nausea and vomiting. Frequent monitoring of nutrition status for all patients can aid in preventing severe clinical deficiencies.
Nakamura, K M; Haglind, E G C; Clowes, J A; Achenbach, S J; Atkinson, E J; Melton, L J; Kennel, K A
The effects of bariatric surgery on skeletal health are poorly understood. We found that bariatric surgery patients are more prone to fracture when compared to the general population. While further studies of fracture risk in this population are needed, bone health should be discussed in bariatric surgery clinics. Bariatric surgery is an increasingly common treatment for medically complicated obesity. Adverse skeletal changes after bariatric surgery have been reported, but their clinical importance remains unknown. We hypothesized that bariatric surgery patients are at increased risk of fracture. We conducted a historical cohort study of fracture incidence among 258 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents who underwent a first bariatric surgery in 1985-2004. Relative fracture risk was expressed as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), while potential risk factors were evaluated by hazard ratios (HR) obtained from a time-to-fracture regression model. The mean (±SD) body mass index at bariatric surgery was 49.0 ± 8.4 kg/m(2), with an average age of 44 ± 10 years and 82% (212) females. Gastric bypass surgery was performed in 94% of cases. Median follow-up was 7.7 years (range, 6 days to 25 years), during which 79 subjects experienced 132 fractures. Relative risk for any fracture was increased 2.3-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.8) and was elevated for a first fracture at the hip, spine, wrist, or humerus (SIR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9), as well as for a first fracture at any other site (SIR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.0-3.2). Better preoperative activity status was associated with a lower age-adjusted risk (HR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8) while prior fracture history was not associated with postoperative fracture risk. Bariatric surgery, which is accompanied by substantial biochemical, hormonal, and mechanical changes, is associated with an increased risk of fracture.
As discussed in Part 1, obesity is now a global epidemic affecting a significant and rapidly increasing number of adults, adolescents, and children. As the incidence of obesity has increased, so has the use of bariatric surgery to treat it. A growing number of recently published studies have reported that, despite calcium and vitamin D supplementation, the most frequently performed types of bariatric surgery, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the sleeve gastrectomy (SG), cause significant, ongoing bone loss. Recent studies investigating nutrient malabsorption and changes in a wide range of hormones that are induced by bariatric surgery have indicated that calcium malabsorption is just the tip of a formidable iceberg. Part 1 reviewed the latest research findings confirming that the prevalence of obesity is, in fact, skyrocketing and that bariatric surgery causes ongoing accelerated bone loss. Part 1 also discussed the mechanisms through which the malabsorption of key nutrients induced by bariatric surgery adversely affects bone. The current article, Part 2, reviews the specific changes seen in bone metabolism after bariatric surgery and the current data on the underlying mechanisms, in addition to nutrient malabsorption, that may contribute to bariatric surgery-induced bone loss. These mechanisms include mechanical unloading, calcium malabsorption despite maintenance of vitamin D levels of ≥30 ng/mL, and changes in a number of hormones, including leptin, adiponectin, testosterone, estradiol, serotonin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP). Research discussing the use of nutritional supplements to help ameliorate bariatric surgery-induced bone loss is summarized. The adverse effects of bariatric surgery on bone must be widely recognized, and protocols must be developed to prevent early onset osteoporosis in recipients of this increasingly utilized and otherwise potentially life-saving surgery. PMID:27330488
Obesity is now a global epidemic affecting a significant and rapidly increasing number of adults, adolescents, and children. As the incidence of obesity has increased, so has the use of bariatric surgery as a medical solution. A growing number of studies now report that, despite calcium and vitamin D supplementation, the most frequently performed types of bariatric surgery, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy, cause significant ongoing bone loss. In resources available to the general public and to physicians, this adverse outcome is rarely mentioned or is attributed solely to reduced calcium absorption. Recent studies investigating micronutrient malabsorption and changes in a wide range of hormones induced by bariatric surgery now indicate that calcium malabsorption is the tip of a formidable iceberg. The current article, part 1 of a 2-part series, reviews the latest research findings confirming that obesity prevalence is skyrocketing and that bariatric surgery causes ongoing, accelerated bone loss. Part 1 also discusses the mechanisms through which the bariatric surgery-induced malabsorption of key nutrients adversely affects bone homeostasis. Part 2 discusses the specific changes seen in bone metabolism after bariatric surgery and reviews current data on the underlying mechanisms, in addition to nutrient malabsorption, which are thought to contribute to bariatric surgery-induced ongoing accelerated bone loss. These processes include mechanical unloading and changes in a wide variety of hormones (eg, leptin, adiponectin, testosterone, estradiol, serotonin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and gastric inhibitory peptide). Also, part 2 covers interventions that may help lessen bariatric surgery-induced bone loss, which are now beginning to appear in the medical literature. Bariatric surgery’s adverse effects on bone must be widely recognized and protocols developed to prevent early onset osteoporosis in the recipients of an increasingly
Meule, A; Heckel, D; Jurowich, C F; Vögele, C; Kübler, A
Recent evidence suggests that palatable, high-calorie foods may have an addictive potential. Accordingly, obesity and overconsumption of such foods have been associated with addiction-like eating behaviour. The present study investigated whether individuals with obesity can be classified as food-addicted and which factors would differentiate between food-addicted and non-addicted individuals. We administered the German version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and other questionnaires to obese individuals seeking bariatric surgery (N = 96). Results showed that 40% of the sample could be diagnosed as food-addicted. Food-addicted individuals reported more frequent food cravings, higher eating disorder psychopathology and more depressive symptoms than the non-addicted group. Age, body mass and gender distribution did not differ between groups. The food addiction group had higher attentional but similar motor and non-planning impulsivity, and had lower scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) compared with the non-addicted group. Scores on the AUDIT were associated with impulsivity in the non-addicted group only. We conclude that the prevalence of food addiction is higher in candidates for bariatric surgery compared with the general population and obese individuals not seeking bariatric surgery. A diagnosis of food addiction is associated with higher eating pathology and depression. Moreover, only attentional impulsivity, but not other dimensions of impulsivity, is associated with addictive eating. Finally, food addiction and impulsivity interactively predicted alcohol use, suggesting a crucial role of psychological variables and eating style in determining alcohol consumption in pre-bariatric patients, independent of body mass. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.
Goodpaster, Kasey P S; Marek, Ryan J; Lavery, Megan E; Ashton, Kathleen; Merrell Rish, Julie; Heinberg, Leslie J
Graze eating is defined as repetitive, unplanned eating of small amounts of food throughout the day. Little consensuses exist regarding whether graze eating, like binge eating disorder (BED), is characterized by feelings of loss of control (LOC). Furthermore, little is known about how patients who graze eat with and without LOC differ psychologically. The present study seeks to better characterize graze eating by examining differences between graze eating with LOC (+LOC) and without LOC (-LOC) among presurgical bariatric patients. A large, Midwestern academic medical center. The sample consisted of 288 adult bariatric surgery candidates (mean age 45.8, standard deviation [SD] 12.57) who underwent a presurgical psychological evaluation. Graze eating, BED, and other mental health diagnoses were evaluated using a semistructured interview. Participants were also administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and binge eating scale (BES). Data were collected using a retrospective chart review. Among the 33% (n = 95) of the sample who reported preoperative graze eating, 32% (n = 30) also endorsed LOC. Graze eating, particularly with LOC, was associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses of anxiety disorders and BED, and multiple measures of internalizing dysfunction on the MMPI-2-RF. Bariatric surgery candidates who graze eat experience a greater degree of overall distress and psychopathology including anxiety and depression. The minority who experience grazing+LOC appear to have even greater risk of psychopathology. Moreover, there appears to be significant overlap with BED. Future research should explore whether these 2 maladaptive eating patterns benefit from similar treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Sung-Yu; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Ser, Kong-Han; Tsou, Jun-Jiun
It is well established that severe hypertriglyceridemia can lead to pancreatitis. At present, medical treatment for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and repeat pancreatitis attacks is not adequate. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of laparoscopic bariatric surgery in these patients. A review of 20 morbidly obese patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (a triglyceride level of >1000 mg/dL) who received laparoscopic bariatric surgery was performed. The study population comprised 14 males and six females, with an average age of 35.0 years (range 24-52 years), and the mean body mass index was 38.2 kg/m(2) (range 25-53 kg/m(2)). The preoperative mean plasma triglyceride level was 1782.7 mg/dL (range 1043-3884 mg/dL). Four patients had a history of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis and 13 patients had associated diabetes. Of the 20 patients, 17 (85%) received gastric bypass, whereas three (15%) received restrictive-type surgery. Laparoscopic access was used in all of the patients. Hypertriglyceridemia in morbidly obese patients was more commonly associated with male sex and a poorly controlled diabetic state. The mean weight reduction was 25.5% 1 year after surgery, with a marked improvement in diabetes management. As early as 1 month following surgery, the plasma mean triglyceride levels had decreased to 254 mg/dL (range 153-519 mg/dL), and this was further reduced to mean levels of 192 mg/dL (range 73-385 mg/dL) 1 year after surgery. One patient developed acute pancreatitis during the perioperative period, but none of the patients suffered an episode of pancreatitis in the follow-up period (from 6 months to 13 years). Bariatric surgery can be successfully used as a metabolic surgery in severe hypertriglyceridemia patients at risk of acute pancreatitis. However, control of triglyceride levels prior to bariatric surgery is indicated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Tolone, Salvatore; Savarino, Edoardo; Yates, Robert B
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. There is increasing evidence that obesity is associated with benign gastroesophageal disease, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility. Bariatric surgery-including sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, and adjustable gastric band placement-can effectively result in weight loss and control of obesity-related conditions, including GERD. However, there is increasing evidence that bariatric surgery itself can have a deleterious effect on esophageal function. In this review, we address the effect of obesity and bariatric surgery on esophageal dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Froeder, Leila; Arasaki, Carlos Haruo; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria
Summary Background and objectives Bariatric surgery (BS) may be associated with increased oxalate excretion and a higher risk of nephrolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate urinary abnormalities and responses to an acute oxalate load as an indirect assessment of the intestinal absorption of oxalate in this population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twenty-four–hour urine specimens were collected from 61 patients a median of 48 months after BS (post-BS) as well as from 30 morbidly obese (MO) participants; dietary information was obtained through 24-hour food recalls. An oral oxalate load test (OLT), consisting of 2-hour urine samples after overnight fasting and 2, 4, and 6 hours after consuming 375 mg of oxalate (spinach juice), was performed on 21 MO and 22 post-BS patients 12 months after BS. Ten post-BS patients also underwent OLT before surgery (pre-BS). Results There was a higher percentage of low urinary volume (<1.5 L/d) in post-BS versus MO (P<0.001). Hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria (P=0.13 and P=0.36, respectively) were more frequent in BS versus MO patients. The OLT showed intragroup (P<0.001 for all periods versus baseline) and intergroup differences (P<0.001 for post-BS versus MO; P=0.03for post-BS versus pre-BS). The total mean increment in oxaluria after 6 hours of load, expressed as area under the curve, was higher in both post-BS versus MO and in post-BS versus pre-BS participants (P<0.001 for both). Conclusions The mean oxaluric response to an oxalate load is markedly elevated in post-bariatric surgery patients, suggesting that increased intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate is a predisposing mechanism for enteric hyperoxaluria. PMID:23024163
Love, Kaitlin M; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Safavian, Dana; Schirmer, Bruce; Malin, Steven K; Hallowell, Peter T; Kirby, Jennifer L
Many insurance companies have considerable prebariatric surgery requirements despite a lack of evidence for improved clinical outcomes. The hypothesis of this study is that insurance-specific requirements will be associated with a decreased progression to surgery and increased delay in time to surgery. Retrospective data collection was performed for patients undergoing bariatric surgery evaluation from 2010-2015. Patients who underwent surgery (SGY; n = 827; mean body mass index [BMI] 49.1) were compared with those who did not (no-SGY; n = 648; mean BMI: 49.4). Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify specific co-morbidity and insurance specific predictors of surgical dropout and time to surgery. A total of 1475 patients using 12 major insurance payors were included. Univariate analysis found insurance requirements associated with surgical drop out included longer median diet duration (no-SGY = 6 mo; SGY = 3 mo; P<.001); primary care physician letter of necessity (P<.0001); laboratory testing (P = .019); and evaluation by cardiology (P<.001), pulmonology (P<.0001), or psychiatry (P = .0003). Using logistic regression to control for co-morbidities, longer diet requirement (odds ratio [OR] .88, P<.0001), primary care physician letter (OR .33, P<.0001), cardiology evaluation (OR .22, P = .038), and advanced laboratory testing (OR 5.75, P = .019) independently predicted surgery dropout. Additionally, surgical patients had an average interval between initial visit and surgery of 5.8±4.6 months with significant weight gain (2.1 kg, P<.0001). Many prebariatric surgery insurance requirements were associated with lack of patient progression to surgery in this study. In addition, delays in surgery were associated with preoperative weight gain. Although prospective and multicenter studies are needed, these findings have major policy implications suggesting insurance requirements may need to be reconsidered to improve medical care. Copyright © 2017
Memarian, Ensieh; Sundquist, Kristina; Calling, Susanna; Sundquist, Jan; Li, Xinjun
The prevalence of obesity, as well as use of bariatric surgery, has increased worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential differences in the use of bariatric surgery among Swedes and immigrants in Sweden and whether the hypothesized differences remain after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. A closed cohort of all individuals aged 20-64 years was followed during 2001-2010. Further analyses were performed in 2 periods separately (2001-2005 and 2006-2010). Age-standardized cumulative incidence rates (CR) of bariatric surgery were compared between Swedes and immigrants considering individual variables. Cox proportional hazards models were used in univariate and multivariate models for males and females. A total of 12,791 Swedes and 2060 immigrants underwent bariatric surgery. The lowest rates of bariatric surgery were found in immigrant men. The largest difference in CR between Swedes and immigrants was observed among low-income individuals (3.4 and 2.3 per 1000 individuals, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were lower for all immigrants compared with Swedes in the second period. The highest HRs were observed among immigrants from Chile and Lebanon and the lowest among immigrants from Bosnia. Except for Nordic countries, immigrants from all other European countries had a lower HR compared with Swedes. Men in general and some immigrant groups had a lower HR of bariatric surgery. Moreover, the difference between Swedes and immigrants was more pronounced in individuals with low socioeconomic status (income). It is unclear if underlying barriers to receive bariatric surgery are due to patients' preferences/lack of knowledge or healthcare structures. Future studies are needed to examine potential causes behind these differences. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana
A BMI of over 35-45kg/m2 is deemed the upper limit for considering a patient for a renal transplant. Voluntary weight loss attempts are a major concern for patients while on hemodialysis, however, bariatric surgeries have opened up a new door to notable weight loss results, even demonstrating significant improvements of patients' diabetic profile and hypertension. Case of a 52-year-old male with a BMI of 42 in end-stage renal disease, that needed a kidney transplant but was ineligible to be placed on the waiting list due to his weight. A laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was performed to aid with his weight loss. He also showed major improvements in his hypertension and diabetes profiles. The patient started gaining weight as well as showing deterioration in his diabetic control. He underwent the renal transplant 1.5 years post LSG, after which he showed improvements in his blood results, diabetic and hypertensive control. However, his weight began to increase again, for which he underwent gastric bypass. Since then, the patients' glucose, BUN and creatinine have normalized and his weight continued to drop, reaching a BMI of 31.83kg/m2 2 years post bypass. Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective procedure to assist renal transplant patients in losing weight. In addition, it has proven to be effective in the management of the co-morbidities that are associated with renal failure. Our study was also able to prove that converting form an SG to a bypass in a transplant patient is a safe and feasible option. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Schweiger, Chaya; Weiss, Ram; Berry, Elliot; Keidar, Andrei
To assess the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies amongst people who suffer from morbid obesity and are candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the relations between pre-operative nutritional deficiencies and demographic data and co-morbidities. Preoperative blood tests of 114 patients (83 women and 31 men) were collected. The blood tests included plasma chemistry (including albumin, total protein, iron, ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and phosphorous) and a blood count (for hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)). Demographic and socio-economic details were collected from all patients. Mean age, weight, and BMI of the patients were 38 years (15-77), 122.9 kg (87-250), and 44.3 kg/m(2) (35.3-74.9), respectively. The prevalence of pre-operative nutritional deficiencies were: 35% for iron, 24% for folic acid, 24% for ferritin, 3.6% for vitamin B12, 2% for phosphorous, and 0.9% for calcium, Hb and MCV level was low in 19%. High levels of PTH were found among 39% of the patients. No hypoalbuminemia was encountered. Low iron was more common in females relative to men (40.8 vs.14.3%, p = 0.04) as well as ferritin levels (31.8 vs. 0%, p = 0.001). Men showed a greater prevalence of anemia (35.5% and 12% respectively, p = 0.01) relative to women. Patients with BMI > 50 kg/m(2) were at greater risk for low folic acid (OR = 14.57, 95% CI:1.4-151.34). Patients with high income were less likely to have iron deficiency (OR = 0.19, 95% CI:0.038-0.971). A high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies was found amongst bariatric surgery candidates suffering from morbid obesity.
Elbanna, Abduh; Eldin, Mohammed Tag; Fathy, Mohammad; Osman, Osama; Abdelfattah, Mohammed; Safwat, Abdelrahman; Elkader, Mohammed Sedki Abd; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Salama, Khaled; Elnour, Asim A; Shehab, Abdullah; Baghdady, Shazly; Amer, Mohamed; Alboraie, Mohamed; Ragb, Aly; Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek
Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options.
Mahawar, Kamal K; De Alwis, Nimantha; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K
Bariatric surgery is recognised as an effective treatment strategy for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An increasing number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also suffer with obesity and obesity-associated comorbidities but the role of bariatric and metabolic surgery in this group of patients is unclear. This systematic review investigates published English language scientific literature to understand the results of bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We found that these patients can experience significant weight loss and comorbidity resolution with bariatric surgery. Though most patients also see a decline in total insulin requirement, glycaemic control remains difficult. Most of the patients reported in literature have undergone gastric bypass but data is insufficient to recommend any particular procedure.
Penna, Marta; Markar, Sheraz; Hewes, James; Fiennes, Alberic; Jones, Niall; Hashemi, Majid
Opinions of healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the perspectives of medical professionals regarding adolescent bariatric surgery. Members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society and groups of primary care practitioners based in London were contacted by electronic mail and invited to complete an anonymous online survey consisting of 21 questions. Ninety-four out of 324 questionnaires were completed. 66% of professionals felt that adolescents with a body mass index (BMI) >40 or BMI >35 with significant co-morbidities can be offered surgery. Amongst pre-requisites, parental psychological counseling was chosen most frequently. 58% stated 12 months as an appropriate period for weight management programs, with 24% regarding 6 months as sufficient. Most participants believed bariatric surgery should only be offered ≥16 years of age. However, 17% of bariatric surgeons marked no minimum age limit. Over 80% of the healthcare professionals surveyed consider bariatric surgery in adolescents to be acceptable practice. Most healthcare professionals surveyed feel that adolescent bariatric surgery is an acceptable therapeutic option for adolescent obesity. These views can guide towards a consensus opinion and further development of selection criteria and care pathways. PMID:24384777
Mitchell, James E.; Selzer, Faith; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Devlin, Michael J.; Strain, Gladys; Elder, Katherine A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Wonderlich, Steve; Christian, Nicholas J.; Yanovski, Susan Z.
Background Current and prior psychopathology in bariatric surgery candidates is believed to be common. Accurate prevalence estimates, however, are difficult to obtain given that bariatric surgery candidates often wish to appear psychiatrically healthy when they are undergoing psychiatric evaluation prior to being approved for the surgery. Also, structured diagnostic assessments have been utilized infrequently. Methods This report concerns the 199 patients who were enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) study who also participated in the LABS-3 Psychopathology sub-study. All were interviewed independent of the usual preoperative psychosocial evaluation process. Patients were explicitly told that the data would not be shared with the surgical team unless certain high risk behaviors such as suicidality that could lead to adverse peri-operative outcomes were reported. Results The majority of the sample was female (82.9%) and Caucasian (non-white 7.6%, Hispanic 5.0%). The median age was 46.0 years with a median body mass index (BMI) of 44.9 kg/m2; 33.7% had at least one current Axis I disorder and 68.8% at least one lifetime Axis I disorder. Of note, 38.7% had a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, and 33.2% had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence, all much higher than population-based prevalence rates obtained for this age group in the National Comorbidity Survey--Replication Study. With respect to binge eating disorder, 13.1% had a lifetime diagnosis, while 10.1% had a current diagnosis. Conclusion Current and lifetime rates of psychopathology are high in bariatric surgery candidates, and lifetime rates of affective disorder and alcohol use disorders are particularly prominent. Binge eating disorder is present in approximately 1 in 10 bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:22920965
Jansen, Peter L M
Bariatric surgery is becoming popular as treatment of morbid obesity. With this popularity there is a danger that it surpasses or even replaces conservative medical therapy. Instead, bariatric surgery should be part of a systematic approach in the treatment of obesity. There is a new Dutch practice guideline on the treatment of morbid obesity in which conservative treatment is hardly covered. There is little evidence of the highest level to support the recommendations in this guideline.
Cremieux, Pierre-Yves; Buchwald, Henry; Shikora, Scott A; Ghosh, Arindam; Yang, Haixia Elaine; Buessing, Marric
To evaluate the private third-party payer return on investment for bariatric surgery the United States. Morbidly obese patients aged 18 years or older were identified in an employer claims database of more than 5 million beneficiaries (1999-2005) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 278.01. Each of 3651 patients who underwent bariatric surgery during this period was matched to a control subject who was morbidly obese and never underwent bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery patients and controls were matched based on patient demographics, selected comorbidities, and costs. Total healthcare costs for bariatric surgery patients and their controls were recorded for 6 months before surgery through the end their continuous enrollment. To account for potential differences in patient characteristics, we calculated the cost differential by estimating a Tobit model. A return on investment was estimated from the resulting coefficients. Costs were inflation adjusted to 2005 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index for Medical Care, and the cost savings were discounted by 3.07%, the month Treasury bill rate during the same period. The mean bariatric surgery investment ranged from approximately $17,000 to $26,000. After controlling for observable patient characteristics, we estimated all costs to have been recouped within 2 years for laparoscopic surgery patients and within 4 years for open surgery patients. Downstream savings associated with bariatric surgery are estimated to offset the initial costs in 2 to 4 years. Randomized or quasiexperimental studies would be useful to confirm this conclusion, as unobserved characteristics may influence the decision to undergo surgery and cannot be controlled for in this analysis.
Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B
Dietary carotenoids have attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential clinical relevance in conditions such as age-related maculopathy, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Surgical procedures have become the primary treatment of severe obesity, although nutrient deficiencies are common and long-term metabolic sequelae remain unknown. Thus, our aim was to assess the carotenoid status in serum of subjects after obesity surgery. We evaluated the status of lutein, zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamins by a quality-controlled high-performance liquid chromatography method in serum of 53 patients. Subjects were consecutively included as they were monitored for nutritional status after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD). Average follow-up time was 18 and 14 months for each protocol, respectively. After obesity surgery, a consistent and continuous decline in all carotenoids to almost undetectable levels occurs, especially in those who underwent BPD diversion who, on average, displayed serum levels about one half to one third of those found in RYGBP patients. The hypocarotenemia observed after bariatric surgery may compromise the availability of carotenoids to tissues and the vitamin A status, reducing the fat-soluble antioxidant capacity and constituting an additional risk factor for several clinical conditions. Given the emerging role of carotenoids in disease prevention, dietary advice on carotenoid-rich and fortified foods or the use of supplements in these patients should be considered.
Malik, Manish G; Franklin, Sona M; Whigham, Latrisha A; Castellanos, Andres; Fontaine, John M
Approximately 121,000 bariatric surgical procedures are performed annually, and salutary effects include a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, risk factor modification, and improvement in sympathovagal tone. There are anecdotal accounts of unexplained sinus bradycardia (SB) after significant weight loss but no systematic studies have been conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of incident SB, its timing, and association with weight loss, clinical characteristics, and predictors. We evaluated various clinical characteristics including resting heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), heart rate reserve (HRR), basal metabolic rate, and exercise regimen in 151 consecutive patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of SB. Twenty-five of 137 patients (18%) experienced postoperative SB. Patients with SB had significantly greater reduction in BMI than those without bradycardia (35 ± 9.6% and 25.7 ± 13%, respectively, p = 0.002). HRR was significantly greater in patients with SB (116 ± 14 beats/min) compared with those without bradycardia (105 ± 14 beats/min, p = 0.007). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of developing SB were 1.96 and 1.91 and associated with the percent decrease in BMI (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 3.0, p = 0.002) or increase in HRR (95% confidence interval 1.28 to 2.85, p = 0.002), respectively. In conclusion, SB occurred 14 ± 11 months postoperatively and its predictors were the percent reduction in BMI or increase in HRR.
Kuzminov, Alexandr; Palmer, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Stephen; Khatsiev, Bekkhan; Venn, Alison J
This paper reviews reoperations rates for short- and long-term complications following secondary bariatric procedures and need for further bariatric surgery. The search revealed 28 papers (1317 secondary cases) following at least 75 % of patients for 12 months or more. For adjustable gastric banding (AGB), rebanding had higher re-revisional rates than conversions into other procedures. Conversion of AGB to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass had the highest number of short- (10.7 %) and long-term (22.0 %) complications. We estimated 194 additional reoperations per 1000 patients having a secondary procedure, 8.8 % needing tertiary surgery. Despite being poorly reported, risks of reoperations for long-term complications and tertiary bariatric surgery are higher than usually reported risks of short-term complications and should be taken into account when choosing a secondary bariatric procedure and for economic evaluations.
Scheen, A J; De Flines, J; Rorive, M; De Roover, A; Paquot, N
Bariatric surgery has proven its efficacy to obtain a marked and sustained weight loss and dramatically improves metabolic control in obese patients. The frequently observed remission of type 2 diabetes occurs very early, before any marked weight reduction. Increasing evidence suggests that this favourable effect results from profound changes in gut hormones involved in the regulation of energy intake behaviour and glucose homeostasis rather than simply from mechanical food restriction or malabsorption imposed by the surgical procedure. The better knowledge of these pathophysiological mechanisms, especially well studied with Roux-en Y gastric bypass, resulted in recent innovation in the technical procedures leading to a shift from bariatric surgery to metabolic surgery. Such type of surgery is currently evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes, but with only a moderate obesity (BMI < 35 kg/m2), or even without obesity (BMI < 30 kg/m2). The Belgian Metabolic Intervention (BMI) Study Group would like to contribute very soon to this evaluation in a multidisciplinary approach.
Ishaque, Noman; Khealani, Bhojo A; Shariff, Amir H; Wasay, Muhammad
Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Bariatric surgery has been increasingly used to manage obesity. Many acute as well as chronic neurological complications have been reported after bariatric surgery including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). An autoimmune process has been postulated as the underlying pathophysiology. Most of the reported cases of GBS after bariatric surgery are of the axonal variety. Here, we report a case of a demyelinating variety of GBS in a young woman who presented with acute onset of progressive weakness and paresthesia of all limbs within six weeks after bariatric surgery. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rehabilitation. She had complete recovery on follow-up. We believe that onset of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), which is demyelinating variety of GBS, is associated with changes in immune system after bariatric surgery.
Engström, My; Wiklund, Malin; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Lönroth, Hans; Forsberg, Anna
Background: The understanding of the association between the objective conditions of health and the subjective perceptions of morbidly obese patients appears to be poor. The use of objective indicators alone produces results totally unrelated to the feelings and experiences of the bariatric patients studied. No study has approached the bariatric patient from both an inside and a preoperative perspective. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the meaning of awaiting bariatric surgery due to morbid obesity. Method: Twenty-three patients admitted to a Swedish University Hospital for bariatric surgery were included. Data were collected by interviews and the analysis was performed using the phenomenological hermeneutics method developed by Lindseth and Norberg. Main Findings: Two structural thematic analyses revealed six main themes: experiencing food as a complex element in life, feeling hopeless regarding weight loss, living in fear of future sickness and death, living a restricted life, being ignored by health care professionals and hoping for control and opportunities. The informants experienced addiction to food and dependence on others for managing their daily life, which constituted an infringement of their freedom. Loss of control meant giving in to the desire for food, but also being subjected to stigmatizing remarks from persons in their environment or uncaring approaches from health care professionals. Conclusion: Being scheduled for bariatric surgery meant developing an awareness of how completely dependent they were on surgery for their survival and prospective health. The scheduled bariatric surgery constituted tangible confirmation that weight loss and restored health were possible. PMID:21660178
Gero, Daniel; Steinert, Robert E; le Roux, Carel W; Bueter, Marco
Insights into physiological mechanisms responsible for weight loss after bariatric surgery (BS) have challenged the traditional view that mechanical restriction and caloric malabsorption are major drivers of weight loss and health benefits after BS. Altered diet selection with an increased postoperative preference for low-sugar and low-fat food has also been implicated as a potential mechanism beyond mere reduction of calorie intake. However, the empirical support for this phenomenon is not uniform and evidence is largely based on indirect measurements, such as self-reported food intake data, which are prone to inaccuracy due to their subjective character. Most studies indicate that patients not only reduce their caloric intake after BS, but also show a reduced preference of food with high sugar and high fat content. So far, standard behavioral tests to directly measure changes in food intake behavior after BS have been mainly used in animal models. It remains unclear whether there are fundamental shifts in the palatability of high-fat and sugary foods after BS or simply a decrease in the appetitive drive to ingest them. Studies of appetitive behavior in humans after BS have produced equivocal results. Learning processes may play a role as changes in diet selection seem to progress with time after surgery. So far, direct measures of altered food selection in humans after BS are rare and the durability of altered food selection as well as the role of learning remains elusive.
Lakoff, Joshua M.; Ellsmere, James; Ransom, Tom
Background Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Bariatric surgery is becoming an important treatment modality for obesity, with an associated reduction in mortality. There are few data available on the incidence and cause of death in referred patients while they are waiting for bariatric surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined all cases of death in patients who were referred for bariatric surgery assessment but who had not yet undergone bariatric surgery at a tertiary care centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The wait list comprised patients referred for surgery between March 2008 and May 2013. All cases of death were reviewed to determine age, sex, time of referral, time spent on the wait list, cause of death, comorbidities and body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 1399 patients referred, 22 (1.57%) died before receiving surgery. The mean age of these patients was 62.7 (range of 32–70) years. The average time from referral to death was 21.6 months, and the average BMI was 51.5. The most frequent cause of death was cancer, followed by cardiac and infectious causes. Conclusion This study provides useful information about mortality and causes of death among patients awaiting bariatric surgery at our centre. Our results will help guide the development of a judicious system for triage in light of long wait times. PMID:25427334
Lakoff, Joshua M; Ellsmere, James; Ransom, Tom
Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Bariatric surgery is becoming an important treatment modality for obesity, with an associated reduction in mortality. There are few data available on the incidence and cause of death in referred patients while they are waiting for bariatric surgery. We retrospectively examined all cases of death in patients who were referred for bariatric surgery assessment but who had not yet undergone bariatric surgery at a tertiary care centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The wait list comprised patients referred for surgery between March 2008 and May 2013. All cases of death were reviewed to determine age, sex, time of referral, time spent on the wait list, cause of death, comorbidities and body mass index (BMI). Of the 1399 patients referred, 22 (1.57%) died before receiving surgery. The mean age of these patients was 62.7 (range of 32-70) years. The average time from referral to death was 21.6 months, and the average BMI was 51.5. The most frequent cause of death was cancer, followed by cardiac and infectious causes. This study provides useful information about mortality and causes of death among patients awaiting bariatric surgery at our centre. Our results will help guide the development of a judicious system for triage in light of long wait times.
Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Dame, Katrin; Brähler, Elmar; Schütz, Tatjana; Shang, Edward; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
Prevalence rates of obesity are still rising. Weight loss surgery (WLS) is the most invasive but also most effective treatment option when behavioral modification has failed. Research indicates that health care professionals hold ambivalent views on bariatric surgery, while views of the general public have not yet been investigated. In a German representative sample of n = 3,003 respondents in a computer-assisted telephone interview, n = 1,008 persons were interviewed on their views of the effectiveness of bariatric surgery and other interventions for obesity. Also, willingness to recommend a treatment was assessed. Lifestyle-based interventions were viewed as most effective in terms of weight loss. About 50 % of the population stated that WLS is "very effective" while still a quarter of respondents did not ascribe effectiveness to WLS. Higher age was associated with lower expectations of effectiveness while higher stigmatizing attitudes and genetic attributes for obesity were associated with higher expectations of effectiveness. Seventy-two percent would not recommend WLS or undergo it, if applicable, themselves. Higher educated respondents and those that viewed WLS as effective were more likely to recommend WLS. The German general public seems to be rather cautious regarding bariatric surgery. It may be assumed that false beliefs on the effectiveness and risk patterns of bariatric surgery are still very common, despite rising surgery numbers. Our results further emphasize the need for providing evidence-based information on bariatric surgery to the general public.
Baur, Louise A; Fitzgerald, Dominic A
The prevalence of severe obesity and associated co-morbidities is increasing in adolescence. Although support for long-term whole-of-family lifestyle change is the mainstay of paediatric obesity treatment, there is increasing recognition of the place of other therapies,including bariatric surgery, in the management of severely obese adolescents. While there are rising numbers of reports of bariatric surgery in adolescents, there are as yet no Australian or New Zealand recommendations available to guide decisions as to which adolescents should receive such surgery and how they should best be managed. This paper presents a summary of the recommendations that are contained within the full position paper developed on behalf of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians Paediatric Policy and Advocacy Committee Working Party on Bariatric Surgery for Adolescents, working in conjunction with the Australia and New Zealand Association of Paediatric Surgeons and the Obesity Surgery Society of Australia and New Zealand.
Bulbuller, Nurullah; Habibi, Mani; Yuksel, Mustafa; Ozener, Onur; Oruc, Mehmet Tahir; Oner, Osman Zekai; Kazak, Mehmet Altug
Introduction Obesity is an important modifiable etiological factor associated with several diseases. There is strong evidence that urinary incontinence (UI) is positively correlated with body mass index (BMI). Aim One of the many benefits experienced by obese patients after bariatric surgery is decrease in UI. To investigate this correlation, we aimed to examine the effects of weight loss on UI in female patients who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and methods Obese female patients (n=120), ≥18 years of age, and planning to undergo LSG were included in this prospective study. We administered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) to the patients prior to surgery and 6 months after the surgery. Using the collected data, we determined the incidence of UI and examined the relationship between the preoperative and postoperative BMI and UI values. Results The mean age of the patients was 39.19 (standard deviation [SD] =9.94) years and the mean preoperative BMI was 46.17 (SD =5.35). Of the 120 patients, 72 (60%) complained of UI preoperatively. Among these 72 patients, 23 (31.95%) described urge incontinence, 18 (25%) stress incontinence, and 31 (43.05%) mixed-type incontinence. At 6 months postoperatively, the percentage of excess weight loss was 70.33% (SD =14.84%). For all three UI subtypes, the 6-month postoperative ICIQ-UI-SF and IIQ-7 scores decreased significantly compared to the preoperative scores (P<0.05). Conclusion LSG results in a clinically significant improvement in most common types of UI, regardless of patient reproductive history, existence of comorbid conditions, and smoking status. PMID:28176911
McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Desai, Nirav K
This update explores the current management options for adolescent obesity with a specific focus on bariatric surgery. Research has highlighted the serious health complications associated with adolescent obesity and thus emphasized the need for effective interventions. With the increasing severity of obesity seen in younger populations, coupled with the modest effects of most behavioral and even pharmacologic interventions, there has been increased interest in, and attention on, bariatric surgery in younger populations. Recent adult-focused guidelines regarding the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient outline the importance of careful patient selection, in addition to close monitoring, with a particular focus on preventing nutritional deficiencies. Several recent publications have focused on issues specific to bariatric surgery in the adolescent patient including the relationship between a patient's physical and emotional maturity and timing of surgery. Adolescent obesity is prevalent with increasing severity and long-term health implications. To date nonsurgical interventions have had modest effects. Bariatric surgery is becoming more common and has been shown to be well tolerated and effective in adolescents, but requires careful preoperative screening and postoperative monitoring.
Memarian, Ensieh; Sundquist, Kristina; Calling, Susanna; Sundquist, Jan; Li, Xinjun
Background The prevalence of obesity, as well as use of bariatric surgery, has increased worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential differences in the use of bariatric surgery among Swedes and immigrants in Sweden and whether the hypothesized differences remain after adjustment for socioeconomic factors. Methods A closed cohort of all individuals aged 20–64 years was followed during 2001–2010. Further analyses were performed in 2 periods separately (2001–2005 and 2006–2010). Age-standardized cumulative incidence rates (CR) of bariatric surgery were compared between Swedes and immigrants considering individual variables. Cox proportional hazards models were used in univariate and multivariate models for males and females. Results A total of 12,791 Swedes and 2060 immigrants underwent bariatric surgery. The lowest rates of bariatric surgery were found in immigrant men. The largest difference in CR between Swedes and immigrants was observed among low-income individuals (3.4 and 2.3 per 1000 individuals, respectively). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were lower for all immigrants compared with Swedes in the second period. The highest HRs were observed among immigrants from Chile and Lebanon and the lowest among immigrants from Bosnia. Except for Nordic countries, immigrants from all other European countries had a lower HR compared with Swedes. Conclusions Men in general and some immigrant groups had a lower HR of bariatric surgery. Moreover, the difference between Swedes and immigrants was more pronounced in individuals with low socioeconomic status (income). It is unclear if underlying barriers to receive bariatric surgery are due to patients’ preferences/lack of knowledge or healthcare structures. Future studies are needed to examine potential causes behind these differences. PMID:25979207
Bindal, Vivek; Bhatia, Parveen; Dudeja, Usha; Kalhan, Sudhir; Khetan, Mukund; John, Suviraj; Wadhera, Sushant
With the rise in a number of bariatric procedures, surgeons are facing more complex and technically demanding surgical situations. Robotic digital platforms potentially provide a solution to better address these challenges. This review examines the published literature on the outcomes and complications of bariatric surgery using a robotic platform. Use of robotics to perform adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and revisional bariatric procedures (RBP) is assessed. A search on PubMed was performed for the most relevant articles in robotic bariatric surgery. A total of 23 articles was selected and reviewed in this article. The review showed that the use of robotics led to similar or lower complication rate in bariatric surgery when compared with laparoscopy. Two studies found a significantly lower leak rate for robotic gastric bypass when compared to laparoscopic method. The learning curve for RYGB seems to be shorter for robotic technique. Three studies revealed a significantly shorter operative time, while four studies found a longer operative time for robotic technique of gastric bypass. As for the outcomes of RBP, one study found a lower complication rate in robotic arm versus laparoscopic and open arms. Most authors stated that the use of robotics provides superior visualisation, more degrees of freedom and better ergonomics. The application of robotics in bariatric surgery seems to be a safe and feasible option. Use of robotics may provide specific advantages in some situations, and overcome limitations of laparoscopic surgery. Large and well-designed randomised clinical trials with long follow-up are needed to further define the role of digital platforms in bariatric surgery. PMID:25598594
Bindal, Vivek; Bhatia, Parveen; Dudeja, Usha; Kalhan, Sudhir; Khetan, Mukund; John, Suviraj; Wadhera, Sushant
With the rise in a number of bariatric procedures, surgeons are facing more complex and technically demanding surgical situations. Robotic digital platforms potentially provide a solution to better address these challenges. This review examines the published literature on the outcomes and complications of bariatric surgery using a robotic platform. Use of robotics to perform adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB), biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch and revisional bariatric procedures (RBP) is assessed. A search on PubMed was performed for the most relevant articles in robotic bariatric surgery. A total of 23 articles was selected and reviewed in this article. The review showed that the use of robotics led to similar or lower complication rate in bariatric surgery when compared with laparoscopy. Two studies found a significantly lower leak rate for robotic gastric bypass when compared to laparoscopic method. The learning curve for RYGB seems to be shorter for robotic technique. Three studies revealed a significantly shorter operative time, while four studies found a longer operative time for robotic technique of gastric bypass. As for the outcomes of RBP, one study found a lower complication rate in robotic arm versus laparoscopic and open arms. Most authors stated that the use of robotics provides superior visualisation, more degrees of freedom and better ergonomics. The application of robotics in bariatric surgery seems to be a safe and feasible option. Use of robotics may provide specific advantages in some situations, and overcome limitations of laparoscopic surgery. Large and well-designed randomised clinical trials with long follow-up are needed to further define the role of digital platforms in bariatric surgery.
Nimeri, Abdelrahman A; Bautista, Jejomar; Ibrahim, Maha; Philip, Ruby; Al Shaban, Talat; Maasher, Ahmed; Altinoz, Ajda
Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and chemoprophylaxis is recommended. Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) member since 2009. We report the rates of VTE in bariatric surgery patients from 2010 to 2016 compared to ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs before and after switching from heparin to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), initiating mandatory risk assessment using Caprini scoring for VTE and adopting an aggressive strategy for high-risk patients regarding dosage of LMWH and chemoprophylaxis after discharge. During the study period, there were 1152 cases (laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) 625 and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 527) at Bariatric & Metabolic Institute (BMI) Abu Dhabi compared to 65,693 cases (LRYGB 32,130 and LSG 33,563) at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs. VTE rates remained stable at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs from 2010 to 2016 (0.45, 0.45, 0.45, 0.25, 0.35, 0.3, and 0.3%). In contrast, VTE rates at BMI Abu Dhabi decreased from 2.2% in 2011 to 0.35% after we adopted an aggressive strategy to VTE without an increase in bleeding complications. LRYGB patients with VTE had higher OR time, leak, collection, and mortality at ACS NSQIP hospitals compared to those at BMI Abu Dhabi. In contrast, rates were similar in LSG patients with VTE. Changing our approach to VTE management led our VTE rates to decrease and become like those of ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery patients in LSG and LRYGB.
Trainer, Sarah; Benjamin, Tonya
The aim of this study was to explicate the processes by which a patient's choice to undergo bariatric surgery is made to feel like a medical necessity, to explore the ways widespread societal stigmatization of weight and bariatric surgery shapes patient and provider discourse about surgery and to discuss patient rationalizations of the choice to have surgery. Severe obesity is currently highly stigmatized. Bariatric surgery has become an increasingly used option for individuals seeking to lose drastic amounts of weight. The surgery itself, however, remains stigmatized across many diverse settings. This research design is centred on an ethnographic study of bariatric surgery patients who undergo surgery at a particular bariatric clinic in the American Southwest. Data collection included repeated ethnographic interviews with 35 individuals enrolled in the bariatric programme over the past 5 years. The interviews were supplemented by extensive participant observation, starting in 2014 to date. Thematic analysis of fieldnotes and transcribed interviews followed. People who have bariatric surgery for weight-loss may trade one type of stigma for another. Thus, individuals who qualify for bariatric surgery based on weight alone may be reluctant to explore the surgery as a viable option. This research also shows that younger women are more likely to face the effects of weight-related stigma, which has an impact on their motivations for undergoing bariatric surgery. Stigma - both weight-related and surgery-related - needs to be addressed at a larger level, in terms of policy and in clinical bariatric programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schauer, Daniel P.; Arterburn, David E.; Wise, Ruth; Boone, William; Fischer, David; Eckman, Mark H.
Background Severely obese patients considering bariatric surgery face a difficult decision given the tradeoff between the benefits and risks of surgery. Objectives To study the forces driving this decision and improve our understanding of the decision making process. Setting University Hospital Methods A 64-item survey was developed to assess factors in the decision making process for bariatric surgery. The survey included the decisional conflict scale, decision self-efficacy scale, EuroQol 5D, and the standard gamble. Subjects were recruited from a regularly scheduled bariatric surgery 'interest group meeting' associated with a large, university-based bariatric practice and administered a survey at the conclusion of the interest group. Logistic regression models were used to predict who pursued or still planned to pursue surgery at 12 months. Results 200 subjects were recruited over an 8-month period. Mean age was 45 years; mean BMI was 48 kg/m2, and 77% were female. The 12-month follow-up rate was 95%. At 12 months, 33 subjects (17.6%) had surgery and 30 (16.0%) still planned to have surgery. There was no association between age, gender, or obesity-associated conditions and surgery or plan to have surgery. Subjects having surgery or still planning to have surgery had significantly worse scores for quality of life, and better scores for decisional conflict (indicating readiness to make a decision). Conclusions The decision to have bariatric surgery is strongly associated with patients' perceptions of their current quality of life. In addition, lower decisional conflict and higher self-efficacy are predictive of surgery. Interestingly, factors clinicians might consider important, such as gender, age, and the presence of obesity-associated co-morbidities did not influence patients' decisions. PMID:24355320
Hennings, Dietric L; Baimas-George, Maria; Al-Quarayshi, Zaid; Moore, Rachel; Kandil, Emad; DuCoin, Christopher G
Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective method of achieving weight loss and alleviating obesity-related comorbidities. Yet, it is not being used equitably. This study seeks to identify if there is a disparity in payer status of patients undergoing bariatric surgery and what factors are associated with this disparity. We performed a case-control analysis of National Inpatient Sample. We identified adults with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2) who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with overweight inpatient adult controls not undergoing surgery. The sample was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. We identified 132,342 cases, in which the majority had private insurance (72.8%). Bariatric patients were significantly more likely to be privately insured than any other payer status; Medicare- and Medicaid-covered patients accounted for a low percentage of cases (Medicare 5.1%, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.29-0.37, p < 0.001; Medicaid 8.7%, OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.18-0.25, p < 0.001). Medicare (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.33-1.78, p < 0.001) and Medicaid (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.60, p = 0.007) patients undergoing bariatric surgery had an increased risk of complications compared to privately insured patients. Publicly insured patients are significantly less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. As a group, these patients experience higher rates of obesity and related complications and thus are most in need of bariatric surgery.
Kominiarek, Michelle A.
The number of bariatric surgeries performed in the United States has risen exponentially. Given that the majority of patients are female and of reproductive age, it is important for clinicians who manage womenȉs health issues to be aware of the surgery, its long term goals, and the potential effect on future pregnancies. Most pregnancies after bariatric surgery have successful outcomes with decreased occurrences of gestational diabetes and hypertension and lower birth weight compared with controls. Adherence to nutritional guidelines and supplementation in the event of deficiencies are critical in the provision of prenatal care to this unique population. Other important issues include a multidisciplinary team management, a different approach to screening for gestational diabetes, careful evaluation of any gastrointestinal complaints, and appropriate counseling for gravidas who still remain obese during pregnancy. Further research should investigate the long-term maternal outcomes in pregnancies after bariatric surgery as well as the effect on the offspring. PMID:22108087
Elnahas, Ahmad; Jackson, Timothy D.; Okrainec, Allan; Austin, Peter C.; Bell, Chaim M.; Urbach, David R.
Background: In 2009, the Ontario Bariatric Network was established to address the exploding demand by Ontario residents for bariatric surgery services outside Canada. We compared the use of postoperative hospital services between out-of-country surgery recipients and patients within the Ontario Bariatric Network. Methods: We conducted a population-based, comparative study using administrative data held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We included Ontario residents who underwent bariatric surgery between 2007 and 2012 either outside the country or at one of the Ontario Bariatric Network's designated centres of excellence. The primary outcome was use of hospital services in Ontario within 1 year after surgery. Results: A total of 4852 patients received bariatric surgery out of country, and 5179 patients underwent surgery through the Ontario Bariatric Network. After adjustment, surgery at a network centre was associated with a significantly lower utilization rate of postoperative hospital services than surgery out of country (rate ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 0.97). No statistically significant differences were found with respect to time in critical care or mortality. However, the physician assessment and reoperation rates were significantly higher among patients who received surgery at a network centre than among those who had bariatric surgery out of country (rate ratio 4.10, 95% CI 3.69 to 4.56, and rate ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.53, respectively). Interpretation: The implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary provincial program to replace outsourcing of bariatric surgical services was associated with less use of postoperative hospital services by Ontario residents undergoing bariatric surgery. Future research should include an economic evaluation to determine the costs and benefits of the Ontario Bariatric Network. PMID:27730113
Jericó, Carlos; Bretón, Irene; García Ruiz de Gordejuela, Amador; de Oliveira, Ana Carla; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Vidal, Josep; Vilarrasa, Nuria
Bariatric surgery (BS) is an increasingly used therapeutic option for severe obesity which allows patients to achieve sustained weight loss over time and resolution or improvement in most associated pathological conditions. Major mid- and long-term complications of BS include iron deficiency and iron-deficient anemia, which may occur in up to 50% of cases and significantly impair patient quality of life. These changes may be present before surgery. The aim of this review was to prepare schemes for diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and iron-deficient anemia before and after bariatric surgery.
Galioto, Rachel; Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Gunstad, John
Introduction Obesity is associated with cognitive impairment and bariatric surgery has been shown to improve cognitive functioning. Rapid improvements in glycemic control are common after bariatric surgery and likely contribute to these cognitive gains. We examined whether improvements in glucose regulation are associated with better cognitive function following bariatric surgery. Method A total of 85 adult bariatric surgery patients underwent computerized cognitive testing and fasting blood draw for glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and 12 month post-operatively. Results Significant improvements in both cognitive function and glycemic control were observed among patients. After controlling for and baseline factors, 12-month homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance HOMA-IR predicted 12-month digits backward (β = −.253, p < .05), switching of attention- A (β = .156, p < .05), and switching of attention-B (β = −.181, p < .05). Specifically, as HOMA-IR decreased over time, working memory, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility improved. Decreases in HbA1c were not associated with post-operative cognitive improvements. After controlling for baseline cognitive test performance, changes in BMI were also not associated with 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Small effects of improved glycemic control on improved aspects of attention and executive function were observed following bariatric surgery among severely obese individuals. Future research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms for the neurocognitive benefits of these procedures. PMID:25875124
Giordano, Salvatore; Victorzon, Mikael
Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched until August 2015 for studies on outcomes of bariatric surgery in elderly patients. The results were expressed as pooled proportions (%) with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by the I (2) test, and a random-effects model was used. Twenty-six articles encompassing 8,149 patients were pertinent with this issue and included data on bariatric surgery outcomes in elderly population. Fourteen patients died during the 30-day postoperative period, with a pooled mortality of 0.01%. Pooled overall complication rate was 14.7%. At 1-year follow-up, pooled mean excess weight loss was 53.77%, pooled diabetes resolution was 54.5%, and pooled hypertension resolution was 42.5%, while pooled lipid disorder resolution was 41.2%. Outcomes and complication rates of bariatric surgery in patients older than 60 years are comparable to those in a younger population, independent of the type of procedure performed. Patients should not be denied bariatric surgery because of their age alone.
Hagedorn, Judith C; Morton, John M
Genetics and environment both play a role in weight maintenance. Twin studies may help clarify the influence of nature vs nurture in weight loss. We present the largest U.S. experience with monozygotic (MZ) twins undergoing bariatric surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of four sets of MZ twins who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery and laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) placement at three different institutions. BMI and co-morbidities were examined pre- and postoperatively, and laboratory values were recorded. All four sets of twins are female, live together, and have similar professions. Twin cohort 1 had near identical weight loss patterns after open RYGBP surgery in 1996 (preop 146/142 kg; 2 years 82/82; and 10 years 108/107). Twin cohort 1 also both underwent cholecystectomies within the first year postoperatively. Twin cohort 2 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP surgery and also required cholecystectomies in the first postoperative year. Cohort 2 also experienced nearly identical weight loss at 1 year (36.7% vs 37.0% BMI loss). Twin cohort 3 underwent LAGB placement with two different surgeons with differing amounts of weight loss at 6 months (6.5% vs 15.7% BMI loss). Finally, twin cohort 4 underwent laparoscopic RYGBP with 2-year BMI loss of 39% vs 34%. In twin cohort 4, the twin who lost less weight lived apart from her twin and extended family, and her weight loss was less than the twin living with her family. Two sets of MZ twins had identical responses to bariatric surgery. The other two sets of identical twins had differential weight loss results, possibly due to differences in surgical approach and social support. While genetics do exert a strong influence on weight loss and maintenance, this case series demonstrates the potential effect of social support and postoperative management upon postoperative weight loss in the presence of identical genetics.
Energetic adaptations induced by bariatric surgery have not been studied in adolescents or for extended periods postsurgery. Energetic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery were investigated in extremely obese adolescents. At baseline and at 1.5, 6, and...
Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D; Courcoulas, Anita P; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D
Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period. Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02). Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bariatric surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread. However, the evidence is still scarce and of poor quality, and many of the patients are too young to consent. This poses a series of moral challenges, which have to be addressed both when considering bariatric surgery introduced as a health care service and when deciding for treatment for young individuals. A question based (Socratic) approach is applied to reveal underlying moral issues that can be relevant to an open and transparent decision making process. A wide range of moral issues with bariatric surgery for children and adolescents is identified in the literature. There is a moral imperative to help obese minors avoiding serious health problems, but there is little high quality evidence on safety, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness for bariatric surgery in this group. Lack of maturity and family relations poses a series of challenges with autonomy, informed consent, assent, and assessing the best interest of children and adolescents. Social aspects of obesity, such as medicalization, prejudice, and discrimination, raise problems with justice and trust in health professionals. Conceptual issues, such as definition of obesity and treatment end-points, present moral problems. Hidden interests of patients, parents, professionals, industry, and society need to be revealed. Performing bariatric surgery for obese children and adolescents in order to discipline their behavior warrants reflection and caution. More evidence on outcomes is needed to be able to balance benefits and risks, to provide information for a valid consent or assent, and to advise minors and parents.
Stefura, Tomasz; Jezierska-Kazberuk, Monika; Wysocki, Michał; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Pisarska, Magdalena; Małczak, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Artur; Budzyński, Andrzej
Introduction The general practitioner (GP) can play a key role in this multi-disciplinary team, coordinating care provided by dietitians and surgeons, maximizing the potential benefits of surgery. Therefore, it seems important to verify changes in GPs’ knowledge about surgical treatment of obesity. Aim To reassess knowledge of obesity surgical treatment among Polish primary care physicians and their willingness to improve it in the future. Material and methods To assess the knowledge of Polish primary care physicians about surgical treatment of obesity, a prospective study, which included an anonymous online questionnaire, was conducted in the years 2015–2016. Results Two hundred and six physicians answered the invitation. One hundred and sixty-six (81.8%) respondents were familiar with the indications for bariatric operation. The great majority of respondents, 198 (96.6%), were aware that bariatric surgery is efficient in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The study revealed a disproportion between the number of patients who would be potential candidates for bariatric treatment, who are currently under care of participating physicians, and the number of patients who are referred to a bariatric surgeon. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that nowadays bariatric surgery is a recognized method of treatment, but physicians remain reluctant to refer their patients for surgical treatment of obesity. It was found that there is a large disproportion between the number of patients who are referred to a bariatric surgeon and the number of patients who require this treatment. It may be a result of lack of knowledge in the field of bariatric surgery. PMID:27829939
Klebanoff, Matthew J; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Nudel, Jacob D; Corey, Kathleen E; Kaplan, Lee M; Hur, Chin
Severe obesity affects 4% to 6% of US youth and is increasing in prevalence. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity is becoming more common, but data on cost-effectiveness are limited. To assess the cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for adolescents with obesity using recently published results from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. A state-transition model was constructed to compare 2 strategies: no surgery and bariatric surgery. In the no surgery strategy, patients remained at their initial body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) over time. In the bariatric surgery strategy, patients were subjected to risks of perioperative mortality and complications as well as initial morbidity but also experienced longer-term quality-of-life improvements associated with weight loss. Cohort demographic information-of the 228 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years, the mean (range) body mass index was 53 (34-88), and 171 (75.0%) were female-surgery-related outcomes, and base case time horizon (3 years) were based on data from the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), total costs (in US dollars adjusted to 2015-year values using the Consumer Price Index), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). A willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY was used to assess cost-effectiveness. After 3 years, surgery led to a gain of 0.199 QALYs compared with no surgery at an incremental cost of $30 747, yielding an unfavorable ICER of $154 684 per QALY. When the clinical study results were extrapolated to 4 years, the ICER decreased to $114 078 per QALY and became cost-effective by 5 years with an ICER of $91 032 per QALY. Outcomes were robust in most 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Bariatric surgery incurs
Jethava, Ashif; Dasanu, Constantin A
Health-care professionals must be aware of the mandatory vitamin supplementation in patients status post bariatric surgery. A recent increase in the number of gastric bypass surgeries in US has been associated with a proportional increase in Wernicke encephalopathy reports. Subtle or atypical neurologic features are not uncommon. Our report is of a female patient with acute Wernicke encephalopathy accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss six weeks after bariatric surgery. The patient had only a partial recovery of her neurologic symptoms eightweeks after vigorous therapy for this condition. Symptomatic thiamine (vitamin B1) and vitamin B12 deficiencies are particularly concerning effects of bariatric procedures, as neurologic and cognitive deficits may be long lasting or even permanent despite aggressive replacement therapy.
Gkentzis, Agapios; Kimuli, Michael; Cartledge, Jon; Traxer, Olivier; Biyani, Chandra Shekhar
AIM To analyse current literature focusing on pathogenesis and therapeutic aspects of urolithiasis with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and following bariatric surgery. METHODS A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, supplemented with additional references. Studies assessing the association of IBD or bariatric surgery with renal stones in both paediatric and adulthood were included. RESULTS Certain types of stones are seen more frequently with IBD. Hyperoxaluria and hypocitraturia are the main metabolic changes responsible for urolithiasis. The incidence of renal stones in malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery such as gastric bypass is high; this is not as common in modern restrictive surgical methods. Preventative methods and urine alkalinisation have been shown to be beneficial. CONCLUSION Both conditions are associated with renal stones. Patients’ counselling and prevention strategies are the mainstay of urolithiasis management in these patients. PMID:27872836
Corsica, Joyce A; Hood, Megan M; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia
This study aims to evaluate the Revised Master Questionnaire (MQR), a measure of cognitive and behavioral difficulties related to weight management, for use in bariatric surgery evaluations. The MQR's five domains include stimulus control, hopelessness, motivation, physical attribution, and energy balance knowledge, all of which are relevant to bariatric surgery evaluation. Participants were 790 bariatric surgery candidates presenting for psychological evaluation in an urban medical center. Internal consistency reliability analyses were performed on the overall scale and subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis using principal components analysis was performed and the results compared with the original behavioral weight loss sample. Convergent validity with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Binge Eating Scale (BES) were evaluated. Differences in normative data for subgroups of the bariatric sample (by obesity category and by surgery type) were also evaluated. Alpha coefficients and mean inter-item correlations were largely acceptable and similar to the original behavioral weight loss sample. Factor analyses supported the consistency of the underlying factor structure. Convergent validity between the BDI and BES and relevant subscales was obtained. Overall, bariatric surgery candidates had significantly more adaptive scores than behavioral weight loss patients on three of the five scales; however, scores on physical attribution and energy balance knowledge were significantly lower. Candidates for gastric banding surgery had significantly more adaptive scores on all five subscales than candidates for gastric bypass surgery. The MQR evaluates important but under-assessed weight control-related constructs and has acceptable psychometric properties. Based on these findings, it is recommended for use as a component of the psychological evaluation for bariatric surgery.
Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID use in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, and to determine the use of PPIs in patients who use NSAIDs after bariatric surgery. A randomized controlled intervention study in patients after bariatric surgery. Patients were randomized to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consisted of sending a letter to patients and their general practitioners on the risks of use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery and the importance of avoiding NSAID use. The control group received care-as-usual. Dispensing data of NSAIDs and PPIs were collected from patients' pharmacies: from a period of 6 months before and from 3 until 9 months after the intervention. Two hundred forty-eight patients were included (intervention group: 124; control group: 124). The number of users of NSAIDs decreased from 22 to 18 % in the intervention group and increased from 20 to 21 % in the control group (NS). The use of a PPI with an NSAID rose from 52 to 55 % in the intervention group, and from 52 to 69 % in the control group (NS). Informing patients and their general practitioners by letter, in addition to care-as-usual, is not an effective intervention to reduce the use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery (trial number NTR3665).
Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso
Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual
Meyer, Samantha B; Thompson, Campbell; Hakendorf, Paul; Horwood, Chris; McNaughton, Darlene; Gray, John; Ward, Paul R; Mwanri, Lillian; Booth, Sue; Kow, Lilian; Chisholm, Jacob
To identify: 1. The percentage of bariatric procedures that are revisions; 2. What proportion of bariatric revision procedures in public hospitals are for patients whose primary weight loss procedure occurred in a private hospital; 3. The age, sex and level of socioeconomic disadvantage of patients needing revisions. An analysis of patient level admission data from the Integrated South Australian Activity Collection (ISAAC) was performed. Data were collected on all revisions for weight loss related procedures at all South Australian public and private hospitals, between 2000-2015 using the ISAAC codes for revision procedures. 12,606 bariatric procedures occurred in hospitals; ∼27% of which represent a revision (n=3366). Of these revisions, ∼82% occurred in a private hospital (n=2771), and ∼18% occurred in a public hospital (n=595). Of the 595 revisions in a public hospital, 51% of patients had their original bariatric procedure performed in a private hospital. The majority of patients who had a revision procedure are female (≥82%) with a mean age of ∼45. Individuals from the lowest 2 IRSD quintiles were over-represented for public hospital revisions and primary bariatric procedures. Further investigation is needed to identify: 1. Why 27% of bariatric procedures are revisions; 2. Why at least 51% of revisions in public hospitals are on patients whose original primary bariatric procedure was done in a private hospital; 3. The impact that revision procedures in public hospitals, particularly for originally private weight loss procedures, is having on public hospital wait times; 4. The impact of socioeconomic disadvantage on weight loss procedure outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.
COSTA, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; PAGANOTO, Mariana; RADOMINSKI, Rosana Bento; BORBA, Victoria Zeghbi Cochenski
Background: Essential nutrients are considered for the prevention of the bone loss that occurs after bariatric surgery. Aim: Evaluate nutrients involved in bone metabolism, and relate to serum concentrations of calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone, and the use of supplements and sun exposure on the bone mass of patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery. Methods: An observational study, with patients who had undergone the surgery 12 or more months previously, operated group (OG), compared to a control group (CG). Results: Were included 56 in OG and 27 in the CG. The mean age was 36.4±8.5 years. The individuals in the OG, compared to CG, consumed inadequate amounts of protein and daily calcium. The OG had a higher prevalence of low sun exposure, lower levels of 25OH Vitamin D (21.3±10.9 vs. 32.1±11.8 ng/dl), and increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (68.1±32.9 vs. 39.9±11.9 pg/ml, p<0.001). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present only in the OG (41.7%). The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density was lower in the OG. Four individuals from the OG had low bone mineral density for chronological age, and no one from the CG. Conclusion: The dietary components that affect bone mass in patients undergoing bariatric surgery were inadequate. The supplementation was insufficient and the sun exposure was low. These changes were accompanied by secondary hyperparathyroidism and a high prevalence of low bone mass in lumbar spine in these subjects. PMID:27120738
Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.
Background Studies of the impact of pre-surgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed. Objective To evaluate whether a pre-surgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through 24-months post-surgery. Setting Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center. Methods Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual pre-surgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions prior to surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted at 6-, 12- and 24-months post-surgery. Results Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average BMI was 47.5 kg/m2 at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12- and 24 month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6- and 12-months post-surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24-months post-surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss than the usual care group (26.5% vs. 29.5%, respectively, p = 0.02). Conclusions Pre-surgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months post-surgery. Findings raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients. PMID:26410538
Stanek, Kelly; Gunstad, John
Recent studies demonstrate that obesity is independently associated with poor neurocognitive outcomes, including cognitive impairment, increased risk for dementia, and regional alterations in brain structure. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity and initial findings suggest that it may result in cognitive improvements. The current paper reviews and integrates recent research in this area, with a focus on potential mediators and moderators of neuropsychological outcome in bariatric surgery patients, including anesthetic and nutritional complications and proposes novel avenues for continued study in this area. PMID:22771689
Di Vetta, Véronique; Heller, Aline; Pralong, François; Favre, Lucie
Dumping syndromes are a frequent complication of gastric or bariatric surgery and include early and late dumping. Early dumping is a consequence of rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel. Late dumping is the result of a reactive hypoglycemia induced by a hyperinsulinemic response. These syndromes are becoming increasingly prevalent with the rising incidence of bariatric surgery. Effective management of these complications requires multidisciplinary collaboration. First line management of early and late dumping syndrome involves specific dietary and behavioral modifications which generally improve the quality of life of patients.
Fuertes-Zamorano, Nuria; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio J; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A
In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, recommendations for bariatric surgery are well established. However, no consensus exists regarding its role for the management of patients with type 1 diabetes and morbid obesity. We present the long-term follow-up of two women with type 1 diabetes, morbid obesity and associated comorbidities, who underwent malabsorptive bariatric surgery. More than four years after the procedure, both have a body mass index (BMI) within the normal range and HbA1c levels below 7%. Also, they have been able to reduce their insulin requirements in more than 50%, their associated comorbidities have disappeared, and their overall quality of life has significantly improved. We compare our results with other recently published ones, emphasizing potential indications of bariatric surgery for patients with type 1 diabetes.
Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Zenger, Markus; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Dietrich, Arne; Hilbert, Anja
Physical activity (PA) seems to be important for long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, studies provide evidence for insufficient PA levels in bariatric patients. Research found self-efficacy to be associated with PA and weight bias internalization, for which an influence on mental and physical health has been shown in recent studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of general self-efficacy on PA, mediated by weight bias internalization. In 179 bariatric surgery candidates, general self-efficacy, weight bias internalization, and different intensities of PA were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, weight bias internalization fully mediated the association between general self-efficacy and moderate-intense as well as vigorous-intense PA. Lower general self-efficacy predicted greater weight bias internalization, which in turn predicted lower levels of moderate-intense and vigorous-intense PA. The results suggest an influence of weight bias internalization on preoperative PA in bariatric surgery candidates. Subsequently, implementation of interventions addressing weight bias internalization in the usual treatment of bariatric surgery candidates might enhance patients' preoperative PA, while longitudinal analyses are needed to further examine its predictive value on PA after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chopra, Teena; Zhao, Jing J; Alangaden, George; Wood, Michael H; Kaye, Keith S
Bariatric surgery for obesity has emerged as an effective and commonly used treatment modality. This paper reviews the surgical site infections (SSIs) that occur post bariatric surgery and SSI prevention. The benefit of bariatric surgery resulting in profound weight loss brings with it consequences in the form of postoperative complications that can have profound effects on morbidity and mortality in these patients. This paper sets out to define different types of SSIs that occur following bariatric surgery and to discuss existing literature on the critical aspects of SSI prevention and the appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis for bariatric surgery. PMID:20545596
Courcoulas, Anita P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Bonds, Denise; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Horlick, Mary; Staten, Myrlene A.; Arterburn, David E.
Importance The clinical evidence base demonstrating bariatric surgery’s health benefits is much larger than it was when the NIH last held a Consensus Panel in 1991. Still, it remains unclear whether ongoing studies will address critical questions about long-term complication rates and the sustainability of weight loss and comorbidity control. Objective The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a multidisciplinary workshop in May 2013 to summarize the current state of knowledge of bariatric surgery, review research findings on the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, and establish priorities for future research directions. Evidence Review The evidence presented at the workshop was selected by the planning committee for both its quality and duration of follow up. The data review emphasized RCTs and large observational studies with long-term follow up, with or without a control group. Findings Several small RCTs showed greater weight loss and T2DM remission compared to non-surgical treatments within the first 2 years of follow-up after bariatric surgery. Large, long-term observational studies show durable (>5 years) weight loss, diabetes and lipid improvements with bariatric surgery. Still unclear are predictors of outcomes, long-term complications, long-term survival, micro- and macro-vascular events, mental health outcomes, and costs. The studies needed to address these knowledge gaps would be expensive and logistically difficult to perform. Conclusions and Relevance High-quality evidence shows that bariatric surgical procedures result in greater weight loss than non-surgical treatments and are more effective at inducing initial T2DM remission in obese patients. More information is needed about the long term durability of comorbidity control and complications after bariatric procedures and this evidence will most likely come from carefully designed
Sakhaee, Khashayar; Poindexter, John; Aguirre, Crystal
The impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular and diabetic complications associated with an improvement in survival has overshadowed the adverse skeletal health and development of kidney stone disease in this population. All longitudinal based studies in the literature reporting the incidence of bone fractures or kidney stones following bariatric surgery were reviewed. Moreover, all publications over the past decade which assessed changes in bone mineral density, bone quality, or explored underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone and kidney stone disease were carefully reviewed. This review provides sufficient data to support that osteoporotic fractures and kidney stone disease are associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. However, due to the limited data available to date, no definitive conclusion could yet be drawn whether sleeve gastrectomy or adjustable gastric banding is associated with bone fractures and kidney stones. Bariatric surgery has emerged as the most effective and sustained treatment for weight reduction. This treatment modality has been recognized to diminish the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and ameliorate diabetes mellitus complications. The derangement in mineral metabolism has emerged as a major complication following bariatric surgery. PMID:26679435
Sakhaee, Khashayar; Poindexter, John; Aguirre, Crystal
The impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular and diabetic complications associated with an improvement in survival has overshadowed the adverse skeletal health and development of kidney stone disease in this population. All longitudinal based studies in the literature reporting the incidence of bone fractures or kidney stones following bariatric surgery were reviewed. Moreover, all publications over the past decade which assessed changes in bone mineral density and bone quality, or explored underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone and kidney stone disease were carefully reviewed. This review provides sufficient data to support that osteoporotic fractures and kidney stone disease are associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. However, due to the limited data available to date, no definitive conclusion could yet be drawn whether sleeve gastrectomy or adjustable gastric banding is associated with bone fractures and kidney stones. Bariatric surgery has emerged as the most effective and sustained treatment for weight reduction. This treatment modality has been recognized to diminish the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and ameliorate diabetes mellitus complications. The derangement in mineral metabolism has emerged as a major complication following bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quyên Pham, Thu; Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Verkindt, Hélène; Deruelle, Philippe; Pattou, François
Bariatric surgery is performed mostly on obese women of reproductive age. Many authors have studied pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery. Only a small number of studies have analyzed the impact of maternity on the results of bariatric surgery. To study the effect of pregnancy on long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery. Lille University Hospital. A retrospective study was conducted on 591 women aged 18 to 42 years who had undergone laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery between 1996 and 2012. A comparison of the results after a 5-year follow-up was performed between patients who became pregnant after their bariatric surgery (pregnant group, n = 84) and postoperative nonpregnant women (nonpregnant group, n = 507). At the 5-year visit, 84.8% patients were seen. The preoperative body mass index (BMI) was the same in the 2 groups (pregnant group: 47.8±6.9 kg/m(2); nonpregnant group: 47.5±7.2 kg/m(2); P = .755). The percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was lower in the pregnant group at 2 years (pregnant group = 45.9±24.6%; nonpregnant group = 56.9±28.6%, P = .002) but was similar at 5 years (47.7±27.7% versus 49.9±28.9%, P = .644). The decrease in co-morbidities was similar after 5 years. The gestational weight gain (GWG) was higher when the band was deflated during pregnancy (GWG =+12.7±10.5 kg) compared to the band without fluid removal (GWG =+4.9±7 kg) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GWG =+4.4±1.1 kg) (P< .05). Pregnancy after bariatric surgery slows down postoperative weight loss but does not affect weight results at 5-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bower, Guy; Athanasiou, Thanos; Isla, Alberto M; Harling, Leanne; Li, Jia V; Holmes, Elaine; Efthimiou, Evangelos; Darzi, Ara; Ashrafian, Hutan
The rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the increasing global pandemic of obesity. These conditions cluster with type II diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome to result in obesity-associated liver disease. The benefits of bariatric procedures on diabetes and the metabolic syndrome have been recognized for some time, and there is now mounting evidence to suggest that bariatric procedures improve liver histology and contribute to the beneficial resolution of NAFLD in obese patients. These beneficial effects derive from a number of weight-dependent and weight-independent mechanisms including surgical BRAVE actions (bile flow changes, restriction of stomach size, anatomical gastrointestinal rearrangement, vagal manipulation, enteric hormonal modulation) and subsequent effects such as reduced lipid intake, adipocytokine secretion, modulation of gut flora, improvements in insulin resistance and reduced inflammation. Here, we review the clinical investigations on bariatric procedures for NAFLD, in addition to the mounting mechanistic data supporting these findings. Elucidating the mechanisms by which bariatric procedures may resolve NAFLD can help enhance surgical approaches for metabolic hepatic dysfunction and also contribute toward developing the next generation of therapies aimed at reducing the burden of obesity-associated liver disease.
Nijhawan, Sheetal; Richards, William; O'Hea, Martha F; Audia, Jonathon P; Alvarez, Diego F
Obesity and its attendant comorbidities are an emerging epidemic. Chronic metabolic inflammation (metainflammation) is thought to precipitate obesity-associated morbidities; however, its mechanistic progression is poorly understood. Moreover, although interventions such as diet, exercise, and bariatric surgery can control body weight, their effects on metainflammation are also poorly understood. Recently, metainflammation and the pathobiology of obesity have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein we examined the effects of bariatric surgery on mitochondrial respiration as an index of resolving metainflammation in morbidly obese patients. This institutional review board-approved study involved morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in peripheral blood monocytes and in skeletal muscle samples before surgery and at 12 weeks after surgery. Patient biometrics, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile were analyzed. Twenty patients were enrolled and showed an average percent excess body weight loss of 30.3% weight loss at 12 weeks after surgery. Average HOMA-IR score decreased from 3.0 to 1.2 in insulin-resistant patients. C-reactive protein, an index of metainflammation, showed a modest decrease. Lipid profile remained stable. Intriguingly, mitochondrial basal and maximal respiration rates in peripheral blood monocytes increased after surgery. Basal rates of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration were unchanged, but the maximal respiration rate trended toward an increase after surgery. Cellular and tissue mitochondrial respiration increased in a morbidly obese patient cohort after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. These changes were consistent in patients with postsurgical weight loss. Importantly, no significant changes or improvements occurred in canonical indices used to
Ionut, Viorica; Burch, Miguel; Youdim, Adrienne; Bergman, Richard N.
Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Design and Methods The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Conclusion Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY, and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:23512841
da SILVA, Paola Turchiello; PATIAS, Luciana Dapieve; ALVAREZ, Glauco da Costa; KIRSTEN, Vanessa Ramos; COLPO, Elisângela; de MORAES, Cristina Machado Bragança
Background : Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Aim: Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Methods: Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research objectives. Results: From the individuals that were seeking bariatric surgery, 78% were female, 62% were married and 69% reported physical activity. The average age of those surveyed was 37±10.83 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.51± 6.25 kg/m². The comorbidity more prevalent in this group was high blood pressure (51%). In previous treatments for weight reduction, 92% have already done hypocaloric diet followed by anorectic drug (83%). The success of these treatments was reported by 92% of patients; however, the weight lost was recovered in less than one year of 75%. Patients with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia had higher BMI values. The patients with comorbidities showed lower levels of BMI. Conclusion: The profile of patients who sought surgical treatment for their obesity were predominantly women with a family background of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26734799
Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo
When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
da Silva, Paola Turchiello; Patias, Luciana Dapieve; Alvarez, Glauco da Costa; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos; Colpo, Elisângela; de Moraes, Cristina Machado Bragança
Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research objectives. From the individuals that were seeking bariatric surgery, 78% were female, 62% were married and 69% reported physical activity. The average age of those surveyed was 37±10.83 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.51± 6.25 kg/m². The comorbidity more prevalent in this group was high blood pressure (51%). In previous treatments for weight reduction, 92% have already done hypocaloric diet followed by anorectic drug (83%). The success of these treatments was reported by 92% of patients; however, the weight lost was recovered in less than one year of 75%. Patients with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia had higher BMI values. The patients with comorbidities showed lower levels of BMI. The profile of patients who sought surgical treatment for their obesity were predominantly women with a family background of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Tan, Orkun; Carr, Bruce R
Obesity-related infertility is one of the most common problems of reproductive-age obese women who desire childbearing. The various types of bariatric surgeries have proved effective in controlling excessive weight gain, improving fertility, and preventing certain maternal and fetal complications in these women. This article summarizes the current evidence regarding the impact of bariatric surgery on obesity-related infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We have also attempted to draw conclusions about maternal and fetal risks and the benefits of bariatric surgery. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y procedures are the two most commonly performed bariatric surgeries. Bariatric surgery was believed to improve menstrual irregularity and increase ovulation rate in anovulatory obese women, which lead to increased pregnancy rates. Although there are data in the literature suggesting the improvement of both the ovulatory function and the spontaneous pregnancy rates in obese women who lost weight after bariatric surgery, most of these are case-control studies with a small number of patients. The data are insufficient to determine an ideal time interval for pregnancy after bariatric surgery; however, the general consensus is that pregnancy should be delayed 12 to 18 months after bariatric surgery to avoid nutritional deficiencies. Few data exist regarding IVF success rates in women who have undergone bariatric surgery. One pairwise study discussed five patients who underwent bariatric surgery followed by IVF that resulted in three term pregnancies in three patients after the first IVF cycle. Many studies reported reductions in obesity-related pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders after bariatric surgery. Although data are inconsistent, some studies reported increased rate of preterm delivery and small for gestational age infants after bariatric surgery. Pregnancies after bariatric surgery may be
Fried, Martin; Yumuk, Volkan; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Scopinaro, Nicola; Torres, Antonio J; Weiner, Rudolf; Yashkov, Yuri; Frühbeck, Gema
In 2012, an outstanding expert panel derived from IFSO-EC (International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity-European Chapter) and EASO (European Association for the Study of Obesity), composed by key representatives of both Societies including past and present presidents together with EASO's OMTF (Obesity Management Task Force) chair, agreed to devote the joint Medico-Surgical Workshop of both institutions to the topic of metabolic surgery as a pre-satellite of the 2013 European Congress on Obesity (ECO) to be held in Liverpool given the extraordinarily advancement made specifically in this field during the past years. It was further agreed to revise and update the 2008 Interdisciplinary European Guidelines on Surgery of Severe Obesity produced in cooperation of both Societies by focusing in particular on the evidence gathered in relation to the effects on diabetes during this lustrum and the subsequent changes that have taken place in patient eligibility criteria. The expert panel composition allowed the coverage of key disciplines in the comprehensive management of obesity and obesity-associated diseases, aimed specifically at updating the clinical guidelines to reflect current knowledge, expertise and evidence-based data on metabolic and bariatric surgery.
Background In Canada waiting lists for bariatric surgery are common, with wait times on average > 5 years. The meaning of waiting for bariatric surgery from the patients’ perspective must be understood if health care providers are to act as facilitators in promoting satisfaction with care and quality care outcomes. The aims of this study were to explore patients’ perceptions of waiting for bariatric surgery, the meaning and experience of waiting, the psychosocial and behavioral impact of waiting for treatment and identify health care provider and health system supportive measures that could potentially improve the waiting experience. Methods Twenty-one women and six men engaged in in-depth interviews that were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis between June 2011 and April 2012. The data were subjected to re-analysis to identify perceived health care provider and health system barriers to accessing bariatric surgery. Results Thematic analysis identified inequity as a barrier to accessing bariatric surgery. Three areas of perceived inequity were identified from participants’ accounts: socioeconomic inequity, regional inequity, and inequity related to waitlist prioritization. Although excited about their acceptance as candidates for surgery, the waiting period was described as stressful, anxiety provoking, and frustrating. Anger was expressed towards the health care system for the long waiting times. Participants identified the importance of health care provider and health system supports during the waiting period. Recommendations on how to improve the waiting experience included periodic updates from the surgeon’s office about their position on the wait list; a counselor who specializes in helping people going through this surgery, dietitian support and further information on what to expect after surgery, among others. Conclusion Patients’ perceptions of accessing and
Kim, Keith; Hagen, Monika E; Buffington, Cynthia
Robotic surgery for laparoscopic procedures such as advanced gastrointestinal surgery and abdominal malignancies is currently on the rise. The first robotic systems have been used since the 1990s with increasing number of clinical cases and broader clinical applications each year. Although high-evidence-level data are scarce, studies suggest that the technical advantages of robotic surgery result in a clinical value for procedures of advanced complexity such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and revisional bariatric surgery. Ultimately, the digital interface of the robotic system with the option to integrate augmented reality and real-time imaging will allow advanced applications particularly in the field of gastrointestinal surgery for malignancies.
Miranda da Rocha, L C; Ayub Pérez, O A; Arantes, V
Obesity is a serious disorder in almost the entire world. It is an important risk factor for a series of conditions that affect and threaten health. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and in addition to the resulting weight loss, it reduces morbidity in this population. There has been a significant increase in the number of obese patients operated on. Despite the success of bariatric surgery, an important group of patients still present with major postoperative complications. In order for endoscopy to effectively contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of complications deriving from obesity surgery, the gastroenterologist must be aware of the particularities involved in bariatric surgery. The present article is a review of the resulting anatomic aspects of the main surgical techniques employed, the most common postoperative symptoms, the potential complications, and the possibilities that endoscopic diagnosis and treatment offer. Endoscopy is a growing and continuously evolving method in the treatment of bariatric surgery complications. The aim of this review is to contribute to the preparation of gastroenterologists so they can offer adequate endoscopic diagnosis and treatment to this high-risk population.
Faria, Silvia Leite; Faria, Orlando Pereira; Lopes, Tatiane Carvalho; Galvão, Marcelle Vieira; de Oliveira Kelly, Emily; Ito, Marina Kiyomi
Weight loss and long-term weight maintenance in bariatric surgery patients are related to maintaining satiety. It can be related to glycemic load (GL) and carbohydrate (g CHO) intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of g CHO and GL and in weight loss on patients who had undergone bariatric surgery. The following measurements/calculations were conducted as follows: current body weight (kg), current BMI, percentage of excess weight loss (PEWL), average monthly weight loss (AMWL), energy intake (kcal per day), and GL calculation. Correlations were found among the studied variables. A multiple linear regression analysis of diet variables executed with GL and weight loss. The population presented 66% of EWL. The average of total energy intake (TEI) was 1220+/-480, and the calculated GL resulted in an average of 73.2. Negative correlations were found between AMWL and TEI (p=0.04), and between AMWL and GL (p=0.009); furthermore, a negative correlation was found between carbohydrate intake in grams and AMWL (p=0.003). A positive correlation (p=0.017) was found between GL and TEI. Weight loss and GL were also correlated. Among the intake variables, GL and g CHO consumed are held accountable for 62 percent of AMWL. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that GL and carbohydrate grams (g CHO) account for 62% of AMWL. The glycemic load and grams of carbohydrate are intake factors that can be useful tools in weight loss and long-term weight maintenance on patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB).
Tenorio Jiménez, Carmen; Manzano García, Gregorio; Prior Sánchez, Inmaculada; Corpas Jiménez, María Sierra; Molina Puerta, María José; Benito López, Pedro
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rarely associated with obesity, as malabsorption is a common feature of these diseases (1). However, some patients may experience morbid obesity and associated complications refractory to dietary treatment and benefit from bariatric surgery. It has even been postulated that surgery may result in improvement of IBD by reducing inflammatory markers (2). However, patients may experience a higher incidence of complications following surgery in the context of immunosuppressive therapy and prior malabsorption. Therefore, if surgery is performed, careful patient selection and individualization of technique are essential. We present a patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis who presented severe protein malnutrition after bariatric surgery type bilio-pancreatic diversion and review the available literature.
Ramos-Leví, Ana M; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A
We present a patient who underwent successful classic duodenal switch and developed a marked dermatitis with a significant functional limitation. This is an unusual complication, despite the relatively moderate prevalence of nutrient deficiency after this type of bariatric surgery. We discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms and emphasize the importance of an appropriate nutritional management.
Sabench Pereferrer, Fátima; Domínguez-Adame Lanuza, Eduardo; Ibarzabal, Ainitze; Socas Macias, María; Valentí Azcárate, Víctor; García Ruiz de Gordejuela, Amador; García-Moreno Nisa, Francisca; González Fernández, Jesús; Vilallonga Puy, Ramón; Vilarrasa García, Nuria; Sánchez Santos, Raquel
Bariatric surgery has proven to be highly effective in controlling obesity and metabolic syndrome; the results of this surgery are not only expressed in terms of weight loss, but also in terms of resolution of comorbidities, improved quality of life and complications. The different parameters used to measure these outcomes require uniformity and reference patterns. Therefore, it is essential to identify those indicators and quality criteria that are helpful in defining the «best practice» principles in bariatric surgery. In this regard, the Section of Obesity of the Spanish Association of Surgeons, in collaboration with the Spanish Society for Bariatric Surgery (SECO), present as an objective to identify the key points that define «quality» in this type of surgery. We describe the main indicators based on the published literature as well as the criteria for referral of the main comorbidities according to the evidence found and grades of recommendation. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Healy, Paul; Clarke, Christopher; Reynolds, Ian; Arumugasamy, Mayilone; McNamara, Deborah
Obesity is an important cause of physical and psychosocial morbidity and it places a significant burden on health system costs and resources. Worldwide an estimated 200 million people over 20 years are obese and in the U.K. the Department of Health report that 61.3% of people in the U.K. are either overweight or obese. Surgery for obesity (bariatric surgery) is being performed with increasing frequency in specialist centres both in the U.K. and Ireland and abroad due to the phenomenon of health tourism. Its role and success in treating medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension in obese patients will likely lead to an even greater number of bariatric surgery procedures being performed. Patients with early postoperative complications may be managed in specialist centres but patients with later complications, occurring months or years after surgery, may present to local surgical units for assessment and management. This review will highlight the late complications of the 3 most commonly performed bariatric surgery procedures that the emergency general surgeon may encounter. It will also highlight the complications that require urgent intervention by the emergency general surgeon and those that can be safely referred to a bariatric surgeon for further management after initial assessment and investigations.
Khan, Sohaib; Rock, Kathryn; Baskara, Arunkumar; Qu, Weikai; Nazzal, Munier; Ortiz, Jorge
Obesity is a global epidemic that has been increasing in prevalence. The only treatment method for durable weight loss is bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to observe trends in usage and outcomes of bariatric operations used in the United States from 2008 to 2012. Analysis was performed on bariatric surgery admissions from 2008 to 2012 based off of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Data were selected from using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision codes correlating to bariatric procedures for the purpose of obesity. Annual estimates and trends were reviewed for patient demographics, procedure type, patient outcomes, and length of stay (LOS). A total of 598,756 bariatric procedures were examined. Laparoscopic gastric bypass was the most commonly used surgical method in 2008 (58.2%). A decreasing trend in its use, and the use of laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB), was equipoised with increasing use of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Use of LSG accounted for 8.2% of procedures in 2011 and 39.6% in 2012. LGB and LSG had the lowest rates of complications, in-hospital morbidity and mortality, and the shortest LOS whereas open bypass and duodenal switch had the highest rates of complications, in-hospital morbidity and mortality, and longest LOSs. Overall rates of venous thromboembolism increased from .08% in 2008 to .215% in 2012. Respiratory complications decreased from 6.1% to 3.9%. There were no observed trends in rates of renal complications, visceral injury, bleeding, and infections. In-hospital morbidity decreased, whereas mortality rates were stable at .1%. The utilization of bariatric procedures has reached a plateau in the United States. Changes in the composition of procedural types suggest that LSG has become a popular alternative to gastric bypass and LGB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Queiroz, Caetano de; Sallet, José Afonso; DE Barros E Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Queiroz, Luzia da Gloria Pereira de Sousa; Pimentel, Jélis Arenas; Sallet, Paulo Clemente
-In recent decades, the high prevalence of obesity in the general population has brought serious concerns in terms of public health. Contrarily to conventional treatment involving dieting and physical exercising, often ineffective in generating long term results, bariatric opera-tions have been an effective method for sustained weight loss in morbidly obese individuals. The Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) is an objective and recognized system in the overall evaluation of results after bariatric surgery. - To investigate results concerning a casuistic of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery over a 2-year follow-up in terms of weight loss, related medical conditions, safety and changes in quality of life. - A total of 120 obese (17 male and 103 female) patients, who underwent bariatric surgery, were assessed and investigated using the BAROS system after a 2- year follow-up. - Patients obtained a mean excess weight loss of 74.6 (±15.9) % and mean body mass index reduction of 15.6 (±4.4) Kg/m2. Pre-surgical comorbidities were present in 71 (59%) subjects and they were totally (86%) or partially (14%) resolved. Complications resulting specifically from the surgical procedure were observed in 4.2% of cases (two bowel obstructions requiring re-operation, and three stomal stenosis treated with endoscopic dilation). Sixteen subjects (13% of total number of patients) presented minor clinical complications managed through outpatient care. The final scores for the BAROS questionnaire showcased excellent to good results in 99% of cases (excellent 44%, very good 38%, good 23%, acceptable 1%). - According to the BAROS questionnaire, bariatric surgery is a safe and effective method for managing obesity and associated clinical comorbidities, allowing for satisfactory results after a 2-year follow-up. Future studies should address other clinical and psychosocial variables that impact outcome as well as allow for longer follow-ups.
Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E
Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) and those with BMI > 35 kg/m(2) with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review.
Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E
Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 and those with BMI > 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323
Gros Herguido, Noelia; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Barranco Moreno, Antonio; Socas Macias, Maria; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Garcia-Luna, Pedro Pablo
The loss of mobility due to spinal cord injury is a risk factor for weight gain. Despite the well-documented outcomes of bariatric surgery in outpatients, little information is available about the surgery in paraplegic patients. We present two cases of patients with morbid obesity and spinal cord injury. After several attempts to lose weight conservatively, were assessed by the multidisciplinary team of our hospital and finally intervened by laparoscopic gastric bypass. After surgery have been no post-surgical complications. The patient in case 1, after two years of follow-up, a weight of 84 kg (BMI 25.08 kg/m2). Case 2, after a month of surgery has reduced weight and stopped taking antihypertensive therapy. It 's available to bariatric surgery as an important option to consider if all non-surgical interventions fail is highlighted.
Shear, Matthew; DeFilippis, Ersilia M
It is important to recognise that patients who seek weight loss surgery may have a history of restrictive eating or anorexia nervosa. The following case report describes a woman with a history of anorexia nervosa who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Her eating disorder symptoms subsequently reappeared and were largely resistant to treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a bariatric surgery patient with a prior history of anorexia nervosa. Further research is required to determine how best to select patients for weight loss surgery.
ZORRON, Ricardo; GALVÃO-NETO, Manoel Passos; CAMPOS, Josemberg; BRANCO, Alcides José; SAMPAIO, José; JUNGHANS, Tido; BOTHE, Claudia; BENZING, Christian; KRENZIEN, Felix
ABSTRACT Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a standard therapy in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding, although with good results in the literature, are showing higher rates of treatment failure to reduce obesity-associated morbidity and body weight. Other problems after bariatric may occur, as band erosion, gastroesophageal reflux disease and might be refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to a RYGB can be an effective alternative, as long as specific indications for revision are fulfilled. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse own and literature data on revisional bariatric procedures to evaluate best alternatives to current practice. Methods: Institutional experience and systematic review from the literature on revisional bariatric surgery. Results: Endoscopic procedures are recently applied to ameliorate failure and complications of bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20%. Transoral outlet reduction is currently an alternative method to reduce the gastrojejunal anastomosis. The diameter and volume of sleeve gastrectomy can enlarge as well, which can be reduced by endoscopic full-thickness sutures longitudinally. Dumping syndrome and severe hypoglycemic episodes (neuroglycopenia) can be present in patients following RYGB. The hypoglycemic episodes have to be evaluated and usually can be treated conventionally. To avoid partial pancreatectomy or conversion to normal anatomy, a new laparoscopic approach with remnant gastric resection and jejunal interposition can be applied in non-responders alternatively. Hypoglycemic episodes are ameliorated while weight loss is sustained. Conclusion: Revisional and endoscopic procedures following bariatric surgery in patients with collateral symptomatic or treatment failure can be applied. Conventional non-surgical approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional surgery will be indicated. Former complex
Fouse, Tammy; Brethauer, Stacy
Bariatric surgery is the most effective and durable treatment of severe obesity. In addition to weight loss, these operations result in significant improvement or resolution of many obesity-related comorbid diseases. There are now numerous studies demonstrating that bariatric surgery decreases all-cause mortality long-term compared with cohorts of patients who did not undergo surgery. Decreases in cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular-related mortality are major contributors to this overall effect on life expectancy after bariatric surgery.
Basora Macaya, M
Iron deficiency in patients with morbid obesity can occur before bariatric surgery due to its inflammatory component and after surgery as the result of implementing the malabsorptive techniques. For patients with morbid obesity, micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, iron and folate, should be suspected. Iron deficiency and other hematinics should be corrected, even when anemia has not been established. Normal ferritin levels do not allow us to rule out a possible iron deficiency, given that ferritin can increase due to the chronic inflammatory condition of obesity. After bariatric surgery, patients should take iron supplements; however, these supplements are frequently poorly tolerated. Rapid and effective correction of hemoglobin levels might require the intravenous administration of iron preparations.
De Ciuceis, Carolina; Rossini, Claudia; Porteri, Enzo; La Boria, Elisa; Corbellini, Claudia; Mittempergher, Francesco; Di Betta, Ernesto; Petroboni, Beatrice; Sarkar, Annamaria; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Casella, Claudio; Nascimbeni, Riccardo; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F; Bonomini, Francesca; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano
It is not known whether, in obesity, the capillary density or the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced, or whether fibrosis of small vessels is also present. In addition, possible effects of weight reduction on these parameters have never been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated EPCs and capillary density in 25 patients with severe obesity, all submitted to bariatric surgery, and in 18 normotensive lean subjects and 12 hypertensive lean patients as controls. All patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during bariatric surgery. In five patients, a second biopsy was obtained after consistent weight loss, about 1 year later, during a surgical intervention for abdominoplasty. EPCs and capillary density were reduced in obesity, and EPCs were significantly increased after weight reduction. Vascular collagen content was clearly increased in obese patients. No significant difference in vascular collagen was observed between normotensive obese patients and hypertensive obese patients. After pronounced weight reduction, collagen content was nearly normalized. No difference in stress-strain relation was observed among groups or before and after weight loss. In conclusion, our data suggest that microvascular rarefaction occurs in obesity. EPCs were significantly reduced in obese patients. Pronounced weight loss induced by bariatric surgery seems to induce a significant improvement of EPC number, but not of capillary rarefaction. A pronounced fibrosis of subcutaneous small resistance arteries is present in obese patients, regardless of the presence of increased blood pressure values. Consistent weight loss induced by bariatric surgery may induce an almost complete regression of microvascular fibrosis.
Wasserman, Halley; Inge, Thomas H
Extreme obesity is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a body mass index (BMI) higher than 120% of the 95th percentile for age. Four to six percent of American youths fall into this subcategory and are at increased risk for developing comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, sleep apnea, and bone and joint problems. Many studies have shown that nonsurgical treatment programs do not provide significant long-term improvements in BMI in adolescents with severe obesity. In adults, bariatric (weight loss) surgery has been shown to dramatically reduce BMI and to reverse or prevent many complications of obesity; thus, bariatric surgery is being used in an attempt to reverse clinically severe obesity in adolescents. This review highlights the indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents and outlines practice guidelines for adolescent surgical weight loss programs. The authors summarize available data on the effects of adolescent weight loss surgery on metabolic comorbidities and highlight the important acute and long-term complications that must be monitored by their general pediatricians. After reading this article, the general pediatrician should be able to identify adolescents who may be candidates for weight loss surgery and have the knowledge to assist in their postoperative medical management. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Goday Arno, Albert; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Ramon, Jose M; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Civit, Ester; Langohr, Klaus; Lí Carbó, Marcel; Boix, David Benaiges; Nino, Olga Castañer; Le Roux, Juana Antonia Flores; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis; de la Torre, Rafael
The purpose of the study was to study the impact of the two most common bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol pharmacokinetics (a marker of gastric emptying) and caffeine metabolism (a marker of liver function). In the present prospective study, we studied 24 morbid obese patients before, at 4 weeks, and 6 months after having undergone sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 14). For comparative purposes, 28 healthy controls (14 normal weights and 14 overweights) were also included in the study. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics was altered in the obese participants leading to lower bioavailability. Bariatric surgery resulted in faster absorption and normalized pharmacokinetic parameters, prompting an increase in paracetamol bioavailability. No differences were found between surgical procedures. In the case of caffeine, the ratio paraxanthine/caffeine did not differ between morbid obese and healthy individuals. This ratio remained unmodified after surgery, indicating that the liver function (assessed by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity) was unaffected by obesity or bariatric surgery. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics and caffeine plasma levels are altered in severely obese patients. The two studied bariatric surgical techniques normalize paracetamol oral bioavailability without impairing the liver function (measured by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity).
Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Motamedi, Mohammad Ali; Shapoori, Parvin; Arian, Peyman; Daneshpour, Maryam Alsadat; Asghari, Golale; Teymoornejad, Ahmad; Eslamifar, Ali; Khalili, Davood; Jodeiri, Behzad; Alamdari, Shahram; Azizi, Fereidoun
Background Obesity is a major health concern in the Middle East and worldwide. It is among the leading causes of morbidity, mortality, health care utilization, and costs. With bariatric surgery proving to be a more effective treatment option for overweight and obesity, the need for systematic assessment of different procedures and their outcomes becomes necessary. These procedures have not yet been described in detail in our region. Objective We aim to undertake a prospective study evaluating and comparing several surgical bariatric procedures in an Iranian population of morbid obese patients presenting to a specialized bariatric center. Methods In order to facilitate and accelerate understanding of obesity and its complications, the Tehran Obesity Treatment Study (TOTS) was planned and developed. This study is a longitudinal prospective cohort study in consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery. TOTS investigators use standardized definitions, high-fidelity data collection system, and validated instruments to gather data preoperatively, at the time of surgery, postoperatively, and in longer-term follow-up. Results This study has recruited 1050 participants as of September 2015 and is ongoing. Conclusions This study will ensure creation of high-level evidence to enable clinicians to make meaningful evidence-based decisions for patient evaluation, selection for surgery, and follow-up care. PMID:26792554
Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Köhler, Hinrich; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid
Initial evidence that cognitive function improves after bariatric surgery exists. The post-surgery increase in cognitive control might correspond with a decrease of impulsive symptoms after surgery. The present study investigated cognitive function and nonfood-related impulsivity in patients with substantial weight loss due to bariatric surgery by using a comparative cross-sectional design. Fifty post-bariatric surgery patients (postBS group) who had significant percent weight loss (M = 75.94, SD = 18.09) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (body mass index, BMI Mpost = 30.54 kg/m2, SDpost = 5.14) were compared with 50 age and gender matched bariatric surgery candidates (preBS group; BMI Mpre = 48.01 kg/m2, SDpre = 6.56). To measure cognitive function the following computer-assisted behavioral tasks were utilized: Iowa Gambling Task, Tower of Hanoi, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test-Part B, and Corsi Block Tapping Test. Impulsive symptoms and behaviors were assessed using impulsivity questionnaires and a structured interview for impulse control disorders (ICDs). No group differences were found with regard to performance-based cognitive control, self-reported impulsive symptoms, and ICDs. The results indicate that the general tendency to react impulsively does not differ between pre-surgery and post-surgery patients. The question of whether nonfood-related impulsivity in morbidly obese patients changes post-surgery should be addressed in longitudinal studies given that impulsive symptoms can be considered potential targets for pre- as well post-surgery interventions. PMID:25566164
Zabatiero, Juliana; Hill, Kylie; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Hamdorf, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Susan F; Hagger, Martin S; Smith, Anne
Bariatric surgery candidates engage in less physical activity (PA) and spend longer periods in sedentary behaviour (SB) when compared to the general adult population. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs about PA and perceived barriers and facilitators to PA in obese adults scheduled for bariatric surgery. Nineteen obese adults (15 females), with a mean (SD) age of 41.6 (12.1) years, weight of 119.2 (20.5) kg and body mass index of 41.6 (6.7) kg/m(2) participated in a one-on-one in-depth qualitative interview before undergoing bariatric surgery. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Most participants believed that engaging in regular PA confers important health benefits, however reported insufficient PA levels to obtain those benefits. The perceived barriers to PA reported by participants were both obesity related (e.g. bodily pain, physical limitation and self-presentational concerns) and non-obesity related (e.g. lack of motivation, environment and restricted resources). All participants stated weight loss to be the main perceived facilitator to PA, together with social factors, better time management and access to financial resources. In bariatric surgery candidates, many of the perceived barriers and facilitators to PA are not obesity related and are therefore unlikely to change as a result of bariatric surgery. This may explain why earlier research shows little change in PA or SB following surgery. It is likely that an approach that aims to address the barriers and facilitators identified in this study is needed to change the inactive lifestyle adopted in this population.
Bellen, Bonno van; Godoy, Ivan de Barros; Reis, Andrea Almeida; Bertevello, Pedro
Morbid obesity is associated with various co-morbidities, including chronic venous insufficiency. Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity, but with potential risks and possible complications, including venous thromboembolism. To determine the prevalence of clinical and ultrasonographic signs of chronic venous insufficiency in morbid obese patients in preparation for bariatric surgery and the incidence of post-operative venous thromboembolic disease. Patients on work-up for bariatric surgery of Centro Terapêutico Especializado em Fígado (CETEFI) and Pro-Gastro surgical teams of the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo were included. The analysed data were pre-operative findings for venous insufficiency (CEAP - clinical, etiological, anatomical, physiopathologic - classification and venous ultrasonographic findings), type of surgery (open or laparoscopic), abdominal circumference, body mass index (BMI) and post-operative ultrasonography search for venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Between March 2007 and December 2009, 95 patient candidates for bariatric surgery had clinical and duplex scan evaluation of the lower limbs venous system. Of the 95 patients, 53 were submitted to the surgical procedure. There was a predominance of women (77.9%), the average age was 38.5 years, average preoperative weight 124.6 kg and average BMI of 45.5 kg/m2. Regarding obesity, 16.8% were obese, and 83.1% were morbidly obese. In relation to the venous findings, 86.3% of the patients did fit CEAP classification less than 3 and 13.7% greater than or equal to 3. Among the post-operative complications, there were four cases of wound infection. Three patients developed post-operative distal venous thrombosis (7.5%), but no one had clinically manifested pulmonary embolism. No relation between BMI, CEAP classification and venous ultrasonographic findings were found. Although prophylaxis was used in all patients, the incidence of post
Hofsø, Dag; Røislien, Jo; Sandbu, Rune; Hjelmesæth, Jøran
Background Bariatric surgery particularly benefits patients with obesity-related comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. We aimed to examine whether the variables that influence treatment choice differ between morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and those opting for conservative treatments. Methods A total of 505 consecutive morbidly obese patients (72% women; mean (SD) age 42 (12) years) who attended our tertiary care center between December 2005 and February 2007 were examined by a multidisciplinary team and offered surgical or conservative treatment. The chi-square test, independent samples t test, and multiple logistic regression were used in the statistical analyses. Results A total of 249 (49%) patients underwent bariatric surgery. When compared to the conservative group of patients, the surgery group was characterized by a significantly higher mean (SD) BMI (46.5(6.2) vs. 43.2(5.5) kg/m2, p < 0.001), earlier onset of obesity (40% vs. 26% before 12 years of age, p < 0.001), and lower age (41(11) vs. 44(13) years, p = 0.002). In contrast, the groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender or obesity-related comorbidities. After adjustments for gender, age, onset of obesity, and the number of comorbidities, multiple regression revealed that patients with BMI 40–50 or >50 kg/m2 had between 3 (OR = 3.0; 95% CI 1.9–4.9, p < 0.001) and 6 (OR = 5.7; 95% CI 3.0–11.0, p < 0.001) times the chance of undergoing bariatric surgery when compared to patients with a BMI <40 kg/m2 (reference). Conclusion Our data indicates that increasing BMI rather than obesity-related comorbidities, predicted treatment choice in morbidly obese patients. PMID:20049653
El-Hadi, Mustafa; Birch, Daniel W.; Gill, Richdeep S.; Karmali, Shahzeer
Obesity is an epidemic that is known to play a role in the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Studies have shown that increasing body mass index plays a role in the incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction and that weight loss and lifestyle modifications reduce the symptoms of GERD. As a method of producing effective and sustainable weight loss, bariatric surgery plays a major role in the treatment of obesity. We reviewed the literature on the effects of different types of bariatric surgery on the symptomatic relief of GERD and its complications. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was considered an effective method to alleviate symptoms of GERD, whereas laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy appeared to increase the incidence of the disease. Adjustable gastric banding was seen to initially improve the symptoms of GERD; however, a subset of patients experienced a new onset of GERD symptoms during long-term follow-up. The literature suggests that different surgeries have different impacts on the symptomatology of GERD and that careful assessment may be needed before performing bariatric surgery in patients with GERD. PMID:24666452
Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross; de Zwaan, Martina; Engel, Scott; Roerig, James; Steffen, Kristine; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Karr, Trisha; Lavender, Jason; Wonderlich, Steve
There is a growing research literature suggesting that there may be elevated risk of suicide following bariatric surgery. Most of the data reported thus far has been cross-sectional and observational, and very little is known about the possible specific causal variables involved. The purpose of this report is to review this literature and to review possible risk factors for increased suicidal risk following bariatric surgery, in order to delineate future research directions. First a variety of medical, biological, and genetic factors, including the persistence of recurrence of medical comorbidities after bariatric surgery, the disinhibition and impulsivity secondary to changes in the absorption of alcohol, hypoglycemia, as well as pharmacokinetic changes that may affect the absorption of various medications including antidepressant medications are reviewed. Also reviewed are possible mediating factors involving changes in various peptidergic systems such as GLP-1 and Ghrelin. A number of psychosocial issues that might be involved are discussed, including lack of improvement in quality of life after surgery, continued or recurrent physical mobility restrictions, persistence or recurrence of sexual dysfunction and relationship problems, low self-esteem, and a history of child maltreatment. Inadequate weight loss or weight regain are also discussed. Possible theoretical models involved and directions for research are suggested. PMID:23404774
da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves
Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963
El-Hadi, Mustafa; Birch, Daniel W; Gill, Richdeep S; Karmali, Shahzeer
Obesity is an epidemic that is known to play a role in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Studies have shown that increasing body mass index plays a role in the incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction and that weight loss and lifestyle modifications reduce the symptoms of GERD. As a method of producing effective and sustainable weight loss, bariatric surgery plays a major role in the treatment of obesity. We reviewed the literature on the effects of different types of bariatric surgery on the symptomatic relief of GERD and its complications. Roux-en- Y gastric bypass was considered an effective method to alleviate symptoms of GERD, whereas laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy appeared to increase the incidence of the disease. Adjustable gastric banding was seen to initially improve the symptoms of GERD; however, a subset of patients experienced a new onset of GERD symptoms during long-term follow-up. The literature suggests that different surgeries have different impacts on the symptomatology of GERD and that careful assessment may be needed before performing bariatric surgery in patients with GERD.
Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Cuesta, Melissa; Spadola, Christine; Messiah, Sarah E
Bariatric surgery must be partnered with postoperative lifestyle modifications for enduring weight loss and related health effects to be fully appreciated. Little is known about how these lifestyle modifications may be affected by the involvement of other family members living in the household; therefore, this review describes current family-based approaches to improving postoperative outcomes in bariatric surgery patients and their families. A MEDLINE search of publications from 1999 to 2014 was conducted in January 2014. Retrieved titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 authors to determine relevance to the topic surrounding family-based approaches to improve postbariatric surgery outcomes. All study designs except case studies were considered if they included some aspect of family as a predictor in relation to improved health outcomes after surgery. Initial searches yielded 650 publications (bariatric surgery+family, n = 193; bariatric surgery+child, n = 338; bariatric surgery+spouse, n = 4; bariatric surgery+social support, n = 115). Two studies met criteria for a family-based approach to improving metabolic outcomes in bariatric patients. Seven studies discussed the impact of bariatric surgery on families. All other studies were excluded for not discussing family-based approaches. Despite limited documentation of family-based approaches on improving health outcomes in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, evidence suggests that such an approach may be advantageous if planned a priori to occur before, during, and after bariatric surgery. Future studies could test the combination of bariatric surgery and a family-based approach for improved metabolic outcomes in both the patient and involved family member(s). Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hashizume, Lina N; Bastos, Lucelen F; Cardozo, Débora D; Hilgert, Juliana B; Hugo, Fernando N; Stein, Airton T; Souto, Kátia E P; Meinhardt, Nelson G
The oral condition of obese patients may change following bariatric surgery owing to adverse effects that cause alterations in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery on the saliva of patients with morbid obesity. Whole saliva samples were collected from 27 patients with morbid obesity (BMI >40 kg/m(2)), prior to and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Stimulated salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, and microbial levels of mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp., and Candida albicans were analyzed from saliva. Values of all salivary variables before and after bariatric surgery were within the normal range, except for the level of C. albicans, which was elevated at both times. An increase in the level of mutans streptococci was observed after bariatric surgery (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the salivary levels of mutans streptococci increase following bariatric surgery in morbidly obese patients.
Alqahtani, Aayed R; Elahmedi, Mohamed; Alqahtani, Yara A
Currently, no topic is more controversial in bariatric surgery than performing these procedures on children with monogenic and syndromic forms of obesity. The medical community and the caregivers of those patients are struggling to find a solution that can alleviate their suffering and save their life. In all forms of obesity, dieting and physical activity do not result in significant weight loss and is associated with a high rate of weight regain. Additionally, effective medical therapy is not available yet. While there is significant debate about the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery in the adolescent population, there is an increasing number of studies that demonstrate the success of this option for the appropriate patients. Similarly, our experience demonstrated the same success not only in normal children and adolescents but also in those with monogenic and syndromic form of obesity.
Frezza, Eldo E; Wacthell, Mitchell; Ewing, Bradley
The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years.
Benaiges, David; Más-Lorenzo, Antonio; Goday, Albert; Ramon, José M; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Roux, Juana A Flores-Le
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a restrictive bariatric surgery technique that was first used as part of restrictive horizontal gastrectomy in the original Scopinaro type biliopancreatic diversion. Its good results as a single technique have led to a rise in its use, and it is currently the second most performed technique worldwide. SG achieves clearly better results than other restrictive techniques and is comparable in some aspects to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the current gold standard in bariatric surgery. These benefits have been associated with different pathophysiologic mechanisms unrelated to weight loss such as increased gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and activation of hormonal mechanisms such as increased GLP-1 hormone and decreased ghrelin. The aim of this review was to highlight the salient aspects of SG regarding its historical evolution, pathophysiologic mechanisms, main results, clinical applications and perioperative complications. PMID:26557004
Frezza, Eldo E; Wacthell, Mitchell; Ewing, Bradley
The obesity epidemic is also an economic tragedy. This analysis evaluates the economic effects and the potential to improve the well-being of both individual and societal wealth. Econometric techniques should carefully assess the degree to which obesity affects declines in business output, employment, income, and tax revenues at the regional and national levels. Microeconomics assesses lost productivity and associated wages and profit. Macroeconomics assesses trends associated with employment, inflation, interest rates, money supply, and output. To decrease the adverse economic consequences of the obesity epidemic, policy makers must emphasize bariatric surgery as a cost-effective option for qualified patients. Early intervention, education, and tax rebates for obese individuals who undergo bariatric surgery and for medical centers and doctors would likely have positive economic effects on the whole economy in a few years. PMID:21935309
Noel, Olivier F.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulos, George; Edwards, Michael; Gerhard, Glenn S.
Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes. PMID:27006824
Mulla, Christopher M; Middelbeek, Roeland J W; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth
Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the most effective interventions to help patients achieve significant and sustained weight loss, as well as improved metabolic and overall health. Unfortunately, the cellular and physiological mechanisms by which bariatric surgery achieves weight loss have not been fully elucidated, yet are critical to understanding the central role of the intestinal tract in whole-body metabolism and to developing novel strategies for the treatment of obesity. In this review, we provide an overview of potential mechanisms contributing to weight loss, including effects on regulation of energy balance and both central and peripheral nervous system regulation of appetite and metabolism. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in bile acid physiology, secretion of intestinally derived hormones, and the microbiome, as a potent mediator of improved metabolism in postbariatric patients. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
Järvholm, Kajsa; Karlsson, Jan; Olbers, Torsten; Peltonen, Markku; Marcus, Claude; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Gronowitz, Eva; Johnsson, Per; Flodmark, Carl-Erik
About 20% of adolescents experience substantial mental health problems after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to explore differences between adolescents with poor mental health (PMH) 2 years after surgery and those with average/good mental health. Three university hospitals in Sweden. Mental health and health-related quality of life were assessed in 82 of 88 adolescents (mean age: 16.8 yr, 67% female) at baseline and 1 and 2 years after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Possible associations among mental health, weight, and biochemical outcomes were explored. Two years after surgery 16 (20%) adolescents were identified as having PMH. More symptoms of anxiety and depression and worse mental health at baseline significantly predicted PMH 2 years later. The decline in mental health for the PMH group happened mainly during the second year after surgery. Suicidal ideation was reported in 14% of the total sample 2 years postsurgery and was more frequent in the PMH group. Weight outcomes between groups were comparable at all time points, and physical health was equally improved 2 years after surgery. Although adolescents with PMH after surgery lose as much weight and have similar improvements in physical health compared with other adolescents, special attention should be given to adolescents who report mental health problems at baseline and follow-up, especially during the second year after gastric bypass. The high prevalence of suicidal ideation in adolescents 2 years after bariatric surgery is another indication that longer follow-up is necessary. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fok, J S; Li, J Y Z; Yong, T Y
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) after bariatric surgery is recognised as a significant post-operative complication that can lead to visual impairment. We report two cases of night blindness and visual impairment caused by VAD after malabsorptive bariatric surgery. Both patients were treated with intramuscular vitamin A replacement and made near complete recovery in their vision. Ocular complications due to VAD should be diagnosed and treated promptly in patients after bariatric surgery because these complications are reversible.
English, Wayne; Williams, Brandon; Scott, John; Morton, John
Currently, of the 51 state health exchanges operating under the Affordable Care Act, only 23 include benchmark plans that cover bariatric surgery coverage. Bariatric surgery coverage is not considered an essential health benefit in 28 state exchanges, and this lack of coverage has a discriminatory and detrimental impact on millions of Americans participating in state exchanges that do not provide bariatric surgery coverage. We examined 3 state exchanges in which a portion of their plans provided coverage for bariatric surgery to determine if bariatric surgery coverage is correlated with premium costs. State health exchanges; United States. Data from the 2015 state exchange plans were analyzed using information from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Individual Market Landscape file and Benefits and Cost Sharing public use files. Only 3 states (Oklahoma, Oregon, and Virginia) in the analysis have 1 or more rating regions in which a portion of the plans cover bariatric surgery. In Oklahoma and Oregon, the average monthly premiums for all bronze, silver, and gold coverage levels are higher for plans covering bariatric surgery. Only 1 of these states included platinum plans that cover bariatric surgery. The average difference in premiums was between $1 to $45 higher in Oklahoma, and $18 to $32 higher in Oregon. Conversely, in Virginia, the average monthly premiums are between $2 and $21 lower for each level for plans covering bariatric surgery. Monthly premiums for plans covering versus not covering bariatric surgery ranged from 6% lower to 15% higher in the same geographic rating region. Across all 3 states in the sample, the average monthly premiums do not differ consistently on the basis of whether the state exchange plans cover bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al Suwaidi, Jassim
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent large-scale trials of intensive medical management for obesity and diabetes have been disappointing. Observational studies and small-scale trials of bariatric surgery on DM patients have shown promising results. The effects of sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass in a larger cohort of patients with DM and obesity was tested in the STAMPEDE trial over a 3-year follow-up. PMID:25054119
Capella, Rafael F; Iannace, Vincent A; Capella, Joseph F
The goal of most bariatric surgeons has been to construct small volume pouches in the proximal stomach to restrict the intake of food. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that in addition to pouch volume, specific gastric pouch anatomy plays a significant role in weight loss. The physical properties and dynamics of the pouch in our form of gastric bypass were compared with those in the most commonly performed bariatric procedures by creating a model. Our weight loss data were reviewed and compared with data reported in the literature. According to LaPlace's and Poiseulle's Laws, a long narrow cylinder will have less wall tension and slower flow rate of material than a wider cylinder. Bariatric procedures with narrow pouches appear to produce better weight loss. Long narrow pouches should have less tendency to enlarge and should delay the transit of material to a greater degree than wider pouches according to the LaPlace's and Poiseuille's Laws. Our data and the data of others strongly suggest that long narrow pouches are the most effective operations in bariatric surgery.
Background Bariatric surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread. However, the evidence is still scarce and of poor quality, and many of the patients are too young to consent. This poses a series of moral challenges, which have to be addressed both when considering bariatric surgery introduced as a health care service and when deciding for treatment for young individuals. A question based (Socratic) approach is applied to reveal underlying moral issues that can be relevant to an open and transparent decision making process. Discussion A wide range of moral issues with bariatric surgery for children and adolescents is identified in the literature. There is a moral imperative to help obese minors avoiding serious health problems, but there is little high quality evidence on safety, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness for bariatric surgery in this group. Lack of maturity and family relations poses a series of challenges with autonomy, informed consent, assent, and assessing the best interest of children and adolescents. Social aspects of obesity, such as medicalization, prejudice, and discrimination, raise problems with justice and trust in health professionals. Conceptual issues, such as definition of obesity and treatment end-points, present moral problems. Hidden interests of patients, parents, professionals, industry, and society need to be revealed. Summary Performing bariatric surgery for obese children and adolescents in order to discipline their behavior warrants reflection and caution. More evidence on outcomes is needed to be able to balance benefits and risks, to provide information for a valid consent or assent, and to advise minors and parents. PMID:23631445
Hirpara, Dhruvin H; Cleghorn, Michelle C; Kwong, Josephine; Saleh, Fady; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Quereshy, Fayez A; Okrainec, Allan; Jackson, Timothy D
The objective of this study was to assess Canadian general surgeons' knowledge of bariatric surgery and perceived availability of resources to manage bariatric surgery patients. A self-administered questionnaire was developed using a focus group of general surgeons. The questionnaire was distributed at two large general surgery conferences in September and November 2012. The survey was also disseminated via membership association electronic newsletters in November and December 2012. One hundred sixty-seven questionnaires were completed (104 practicing surgeons, 63 general surgery trainees). Twenty respondents were bariatric surgeons. Among 84 non-bariatric surgeons, 68.3 % referred a patient in the last year for bariatric surgery, 79 % agreed that bariatric surgery resulted in sustained weight loss, and 81.7 % would consider referring a family member. Knowledge gaps were identified in estimates of mortality and morbidity associated with bariatric procedures. The majority of surgeons surveyed have encountered patients with complications from bariatric surgery in the last year. Over 50 % of surgeons who do not perform bariatric procedures reported not feeling confident to manage complications, 35.4 % reported having adequate resources and equipment to manage morbidly obese patients, and few are able to transfer patients to a bariatric center. Of the respondents, 73.3 % reported residency training provided inadequate exposure to bariatric surgery, and 85.3 % felt that additional continuing medical education resources would be useful. There appears to be support for bariatric surgery among Canadian general surgeons participating in this survey. Knowledge gaps identified indicate the need for more education and resources to support general surgeons managing bariatric surgical patients.
Hillman, Jennifer B; Miller, Rachel J; Inge, Thomas H
Adolescent obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades, and along with that so have other medical comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and pseudotumor cerebri. Obesity and related comorbidites may be contraindications to hormonal contraception, making contraception counseling of morbidly obese adolescents more challenging. Obese adolescent females seeking bariatric surgery need effective contraception in the postoperative period. This study is designed to determine the acceptance rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) and describe common menstrual problems in obese adolescent bariatric surgery patients. This is a historic cohort study of adolescent females who underwent bariatric surgery over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity. Data were systematically abstracted. The percent of patients with menstrual problems and the acceptance rate for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were determined. Twenty-five adolescents met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 17.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 51.4 (SD 6.3) kg/m(2). Eighty-four percent were white. Twenty-eight percent had menorrhagia, 32% had oligomenorrhea, 40% had dysmenorrhea, and 36% had PCOS. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) underwent IUD placement. There was a high prevalence of menstrual problems among this sample of severely obese adolescent females. The majority accepted the IUD, indicating it is a viable option among this population.
Liang, Hui; Liu, Yun; Miao, Yi; Wu, Honghao; Yang, Simei; Guan, Wei
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing over the past years in China. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment that has been gradually accepted by obese patients. This study explored the effect of different factors on the acceptance levels of bariatric surgery. A total of 186 obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 32 kg/m(2)) answered a questionnaire, including questions about their marital status, income level, education level, health insurance, and obesity-associated co-morbidities; 84 of these patients underwent bariatric surgery. The data was analyzed using the χ(2) test. Univariate analyses found that age, BMI, gluttonous behavior, income level, health insurance, medications, and weight loss expectations were correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Multivariate analyses found that BMI (P = .034) and weight loss expectations (P = .001) were positively correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Patients with gluttonous behavior accepted bariatric surgery (P = .003). However, income levels (P<.001) and health insurance (P = .001) were negatively correlated with the acceptance of bariatric surgery. Obesity was more prevalent in families of low social status and income levels; this group requires medical assistance, and education is still necessary for obese individuals of high social status and income levels. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.
Abenhaim, Haim A; Alrowaily, Nouf; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Klam, Stephanie L
Pregnancies among morbidly obese women are associated with serious adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our study objective is to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on obstetrical outcomes. We carried out a retrospective cohort study using the healthcare cost and utilization project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011 comparing outcome of births among women who had undergone bariatric surgery with births among women with morbid obesity. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effect of bariatric surgery on maternal and newborn outcomes. There were 8 475 831 births during the study period (221 580 (2.6%) in morbidly obese women and 9587 (0.1%) in women with bariatric surgery). Women with bariatric surgery were more likely to be Caucasian and ≥35 years old as compared with morbidly obese women. As compared with women with morbid obesity, women with bariatric surgery had lower rates of hypertensive disorders, premature rupture of membrane, chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, instrumental delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and postpartum infection. Induction of labor, postpartum blood transfusions, venous thromboembolisms, and intrauterine fetal growth restriction were more common in the bariatric surgery group. There were no differences observed in preterm births, fetal deaths, or reported congenital anomalies. In general, women who undergo bariatric surgery have improved pregnancy outcomes as compared with morbidly obese women. However, the bariatric surgery group was more likely to have venous thromboembolisms, to require a blood transfusion, to have their labor induced and to experience fetal growth restriction.
Canetti, L; Bachar, E; Bonne, O
The present study evaluated the mental health and psychological functioning of bariatric patients before surgery, and after 1 year and 10 year follow-ups, and compared them with participants in a dietary program. Such long follow-up is rare, but strongly recommended by the American Association of Bariatric Surgeons. Thirty-six bariatric surgery patients and 34 participants of a weight loss program were weighed and assessed at all 3 points in time. Participants were administered the mental health inventory, neuroticism, sense of control and fear of intimacy scales. Along with these mental and psychological measurements, the medical outcome short form (SF-36) was used. The surgery group achieved successful weight loss outcomes (27% reduction of pre-operative weight) after 10 years and better than baseline health-related quality-of-life scores. However, their general mental health, neuroticism, sense of control and fear of intimacy scores showed significant deterioration in comparison to pre-operative levels after 10 years. The dietary group participants remained psychologically stable among all three points in time. This study highlights the importance of identifying a risk group among bariatric patients for which the dietary and psychological follow-up may be of special significance.
Czernichow, Sébastien; Paita, Michel; Nocca, David; Msika, Simon; Basdevant, Arnaud; Millat, Bertrand; Fagot-Campagna, Anne
Abstract Bariatric surgery is a well-accepted procedure for severe and massive obesity management. We aimed to determine trends, geographical variations, and factors influencing bariatric surgery and the choice of procedure in France in a large observational study. The Health Insurance Fund for Salaried Workers (Caisse National Assurance Maladie Travailleurs Salariés) covers about 86% of the French population. The Système National d’Information Inter-régimes de l’Assurance Maladie database contains individualized and anonymized patient data on all reimbursements for healthcare expenditure. All types of primary bariatric procedures (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB] or omega loop, adjustable gastric banding [AGB], or longitudinal sleeve gastrectomy [LSG]) performed during 2011 to 2013 were systematically recorded. Surgical techniques performed by region of residence and age-range relative risks with 95% confidence intervals of undergoing LSG or RYGB versus AGB were computed. In 2013, LSG was performed more frequently than RYGB and AGB (57% vs 31% and 13%, respectively). A total of 41,648 patients underwent a bariatric procedure; they were predominantly female (82%) with a mean (±standard deviation) age of 40 (±12) years and a body mass index ≥40 kg/m2 for 68% of them. A total of 114 procedures were performed in patients younger than 18 years and 2381 procedures were performed in patients aged 60 years and older. Beneficiaries of the French universal health insurance coverage for low-income patients were more likely to undergo surgery than the general population. Large nationwide variations were observed in the type choice of bariatric surgical procedures. Significant positive predictors for undergoing RYGB compared to those for undergoing AGB were as follows: referral to a center performing a large number of surgeries or to a public hospital, older age, female gender, body mass index ≥50 kg/m2, and treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Stuart, Andrea; Källen, Karin
To compare the rates of abdominal surgery during pregnancy among women with previous bariatric surgery (women in the case group) and women with first-trimester body mass index (BMI) greater than 35 and no previous bariatric surgery (women in the control group). We conducted a national cohort study, merging data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and the Swedish National Patient Registry, comparing women who had bariatric surgery from 1987 to 2011 with women in a control group with first-trimester BMI greater than 35 who had not had bariatric surgery. Primary outcome variables were diagnosis and surgical procedure codes grouped as five outcome categories: 1) intestinal obstruction, 2) gallbladder disease, 3) appendicitis, 4) hernia, and 5) diagnostic laparoscopy or laparotomy without the presence of a diagnosis or surgical code for outcomes in outcome categories 1-4. Odds ratios were computed using multivariate linear regression analysis for each separate pregnancy. For all pregnancies in a given woman, general estimating equations with robust variance estimation were used. Adjustment was made for smoking, year of delivery, maternal age, and previous abdominal surgery. During the first pregnancy after bariatric surgery, the rate of surgery for intestinal obstruction was 1.5% (39/2,543; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.0%) in women in the case group compared with 0.02% (4/21,909; 95% CI 0.0-0.04%) among women in the control group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 34.3, 95% CI 11.9-98.7). Similarly, the rate of diagnostic laparoscopy or laparotomy was 1.5% (37/2,542; 95% CI 1.0-1.9%) among women in the case group compared with 0.1% (18/21,909; 95% CI 0.0-0.1%) among women in the control group (adjusted OR 11.3, 95% CI 6.9-18.5). Bariatric surgery is associated with an increased risk of abdominal surgery during pregnancy.
Pelizzo, Gloria; Calcaterra, Valeria; Fusillo, Mario; Nakib, Ghassan; Ierullo, Antonio Maria; Alfei, Alessandro; Spinillo, Arsenio; Stronati, Mauro; Cena, Hellas
Bariatric surgery results in decreased food intake and a variable degree of malabsorption. Without adequate supplementation, the most common complications of this surgery are nutritional disorders. Pregnancy following surgery for obesity is a particular condition requiring strict monitoring of nutrient intake necessary for fetal development and a favourable neonatal prognosis. Malnutrition in pregnancy and congenital neural malformations are reported in three women who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (1, 5 and 18 years before pregnancy, respectively). Two patients underwent the Roux en Y bypass and one bilio-pancreatic diversion with gastroplasty. None of the three received pre-conceptional nutritional counselling. Patients 1 and 2 did not undergo postoperative nutritional surveillance; nutrient supplementation was started at 22 and 20 weeks gestation, respectively. In patient 3, supplementation was stopped at six weeks gestation. Newborns 1 and 2 presented with dorsal myelomeningocele and ventricular dilation. Both underwent surgery and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted in the first month of life. Newborn 3 had microcephaly, bilateral microphthalmia and sensorineural deafness. Diet and nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, play an important role in the early processes of fetal development and neonatal outcome. Women of childbearing age who have had bariatric surgery, should be encouraged to follow a well-balanced diet as part of a weight management strategy. They should be advised to take recommended maternal supplements.
Objective Bariatric surgery results in decreased food intake and a variable degree of malabsorption. Without adequate supplementation, the most common complications of this surgery are nutritional disorders. Pregnancy following surgery for obesity is a particular condition requiring strict monitoring of nutrient intake necessary for fetal development and a favourable neonatal prognosis. Patients Malnutrition in pregnancy and congenital neural malformations are reported in three women who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (1, 5 and 18 years before pregnancy, respectively). Two patients underwent the Roux en Y bypass and one bilio-pancreatic diversion with gastroplasty. None of the three received pre-conceptional nutritional counselling. Patients 1 and 2 did not undergo postoperative nutritional surveillance; nutrient supplementation was started at 22 and 20 weeks gestation, respectively. In patient 3, supplementation was stopped at six weeks gestation. Results Newborns 1 and 2 presented with dorsal myelomeningocele and ventricular dilation. Both underwent surgery and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was inserted in the first month of life. Newborn 3 had microcephaly, bilateral microphthalmia and sensorineural deafness. Conclusions Diet and nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, play an important role in the early processes of fetal development and neonatal outcome. Women of childbearing age who have had bariatric surgery, should be encouraged to follow a well-balanced diet as part of a weight management strategy. They should be advised to take recommended maternal supplements. PMID:24929556
Migliori, Franco Carlo; Ghiglione, Marco; D'Alessandro, Gabriele; Serra Cervetti, Gian Giacomo
A review of the results of the standard technique for "batwing" deformity after massive weight loss led to the need to optimize the cost/benefit ratio in terms of maximal correction/less visible scars. Between 2001 and 2007, 29 patients were operated with a new technique based on a careful preoperative evaluation and markings, followed by an intraoperative skillful handling. This technique is not easy and needs plastic surgery experience and a long learning curve. The esthetic results are far better then those obtained with other techniques, especially the arm lower profile. The complication rate is similar to other techniques, even if a potential low risk for ulnar nerve damage is present.
Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard
Obesity affects 32% of adults in the USA. Surgery generates substantial weight loss, but 20-30% fails to achieve successful weight loss. Our objective was to identify preoperative psychosocial factors associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery. We performed a literature search of PubMed® and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness between 1988 and April 2010. Articles were screened for bariatric surgery and weight loss if they included a preoperative predictor of weight loss: body mass index (BMI), preoperative weight loss, eating disorders, or psychiatric disorder/substance abuse. One thousand seven titles were reviewed, 534 articles screened, and 115 included in the review. Factors that may be positively associated with weight loss after surgery include mandatory preoperative weight loss (7 of 14 studies with positive association). Factors that may be negatively associated with weight loss include preoperative BMI (37 out of 62 studies with negative association), super-obesity (24 out of 33 studies), and personality disorders (7 out of 14 studies). Meta-analysis revealed a decrease of 10.1% excess weight loss (EWL) for super-obese patients (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.7-16.5%]), though there was significant heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, and an increase of 5.9% EWL for patients with binge eating at 12 months after surgery (95% CI [1.9-9.8%]). Further studies are necessary to investigate whether preoperative factors can predict a clinically meaningful difference in weight loss after bariatric surgery. The identification of predictive factors may improve patient selection and help develop interventions targeting specific needs of patients.
Stanford, Fatima Cody; Jones, Daniel B.; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Blackburn, George L.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Hess, Donald T.; Chiodi, Sarah; Robert, Shirley; Bourland, Ashley C.; Wee, Christina C.
Background Ethnic minority adults have disproportionately higher rates of obesity than Caucasians but are less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. Recent data suggest that minorities might be less likely to seek surgery. Whether minorities who seek surgery are also less likely to proceed with surgery is unclear. Methods We interviewed 651 patients who sought bariatric surgery at two academic medical centers to examine whether ethnic minorities are less likely to proceed with surgery than Caucasians and whether minorities who do proceed with surgery have higher illness burden than their counterparts. We collected patient demographics and abstracted clinical data from the medical records. We then conducted multivariable analyses to examine the association between race and the likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery within 1 year of initial interview and to compare the illness burden by race and ethnicity among those who underwent surgery. Results Of our study sample, 66 % were Caucasian, 18 % were African-American, and 12 % were Hispanics. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, there were no racial differences in who proceeded with bariatric surgery. Among those who proceeded with surgery, illness burden was comparable between minorities and Caucasian patients with the exception that African-Americans were underrepresented among those with reflux disease (0.4, 95 % CI 0.2–0.7) and depression (0.4, 0.2–0.7), and overrepresented among those with anemia (4.8, 2.4–9.6) than Caucasian patients. Conclusions Race and ethnicity were not independently associated with likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery. Minorities who proceeded with surgery did not clearly have higher illness burden than Caucasian patients. PMID:25492453
Sherf Dagan, Shiri; Goldenshluger, Ariela; Globus, Inbal; Schweiger, Chaya; Kessler, Yafit; Kowen Sandbank, Galit; Ben-Porat, Tair; Sinai, Tali
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications. To ensure long-term postoperative success, patients must be prepared to adopt comprehensive lifestyle changes. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions with regard to nutritional care in the perioperative and long-term postoperative periods. A literature search was performed with the use of different lines of searches for narrative reviews. Nutritional recommendations are divided into 3 main sections: 1) presurgery nutritional evaluation and presurgery diet and supplementation; 2) postsurgery diet progression, eating-related behaviors, and nutritional therapy for common gastrointestinal symptoms; and 3) recommendations for lifelong supplementation and advice for nutritional follow-up. We recognize the need for uniform, evidence-based nutritional guidelines for bariatric patients and summarize recommendations with the aim of optimizing long-term success and preventing complications.
Klassen, Anne; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Pusic, Andrea; Roessler, Kirsten K.; Rose, Michael; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Background: Patient expectations are important in bariatric and body contouring surgery because the goals include improvements in health-related quality of life, appearance, and body image. The aim of this study was to identify patient expectations along the weight loss journey and/or body contouring surgery. Methods: This qualitative study took an interpretive description approach. Between September 2009 and February 2012, 49 patients were interviewed postbody contouring surgery. Data were analyzed using a line-by-line approach whereby expectations were identified and labeled as expected, unexpected, or neutral. Constant comparison was used to ensure coding was done consistently. Interviews continued until no new themes emerged. Results: Participants described expectations according to appearance, health-related quality of life, and patient experience of care. Two areas stood out in terms of unmet expectations and included appearance and physical health, ie, recovery from body contouring surgery. Most participants, who underwent bariatric surgery, expected neither the extent of excess skin after weight loss nor how the excess skin would make them look and feel. For recovery, participants did not expect that it would be as long or as hard as it was in reality. Conclusions: A full understanding of outcomes and expectations for this patient population is needed to enhance patient education and improve shared medical decision making. Education materials should be informed by the collection of evidence-based patient-reported outcome information using measures such as the BODY-Q. A patient-reported outcome scale measuring patient expectations is needed for obese and bariatric patients. PMID:27200256
Shelby, Sarah R; Labott, Susan; Stout, Rebecca A
Although bariatric surgery has become a recognized treatment for obesity, its utility among patients with severe psychiatric disorders has not been extensively studied. A few studies have reported similar weight loss outcomes in these patients, but psychiatric status after bariatric surgery has been studied only minimally, and it is unknown if exacerbation of the mental illness affects weight loss. The aim of this study was to shed greater light on the issue of serious mental illness and bariatric surgery. Specifically, do patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II have poorer weight loss outcomes postbariatric surgery than the general bariatric surgery population? Also, do patients with these diagnoses experience an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms after bariatric surgery, and if so, is the exacerbation of these disorders linked to poorer weight loss results? Midwest university medical center. A medical record review of approximately 1500 bariatric patients in a Midwest university medical center was conducted to identify those patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II. Information was gathered on bariatric surgery outcomes and changes in psychiatric status postsurgery. Eighteen patients were identified as undergoing bariatric surgery and having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar I, or bipolar II. Weight loss in this group was significant and comparable to expected outcomes of absolute weight lost, changes in body mass index, and percentage excess weight loss for patients in the typical bariatric population. Postsurgery psychiatric status was known on 10 patients. All 10 patients experienced some exacerbation of psychiatric problems yet weight loss outcomes were still as expected. Bariatric surgery is a viable obesity treatment option for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar I, and bipolar II disorders. Symptom exacerbations occurred postsurgery, although it is not clear if these were due to the surgery or
Chang, Alex R; Chen, Yuan; Still, Christopher; Wood, G Craig; Kirchner, H Lester; Lewis, Meredith; Kramer, Holly; Hartle, James E; Carey, David; Appel, Lawrence J; Grams, Morgan E
Severe obesity is associated with increased risk of kidney disease. Whether bariatric surgery reduces the risk of adverse kidney outcomes is uncertain. To resolve this we compared the risk of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline of ≥30% and doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 985 patients who underwent bariatric surgery with 985 patients who did not undergo such surgery. Patients were matched on demographics, baseline body mass index, eGFR, comorbidities, and previous nutrition clinic use. Mean age was 45 years, 97% were white, 80% were female, and 33% had baseline eGFR <90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Mean 1-year weight loss was 40.4 kg in the surgery group compared with 1.4 kg in the matched cohort. Over a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 85 surgery patients had an eGFR decline of ≥30% (22 had doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD). Over a median follow-up of 3.8 years, 177 patients in the matched cohort had an eGFR decline of ≥30% (50 had doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD). In adjusted analysis, bariatric surgery patients had a significant 58% lower risk for an eGFR decline of ≥30% (hazard ratio 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.55) and 57% lower risk of doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD (hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.71) compared with the matched cohort. Results were generally consistent among subgroups of patients with and without eGFR <90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), hypertension, and diabetes. Thus, bariatric surgery may be an option to prevent kidney function decline in severely obese individuals. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dixon, J B; Zimmet, P; Alberti, K G; Rubino, F
The International Diabetes Federation Taskforce on Epidemiology and Prevention of Diabetes convened a consensus working group of diabetologists, endocrinologists, surgeons and public health experts to review the appropriate role of surgery and other gastrointestinal interventions in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes. The specific goals were: to develop practical recommendations for clinicians on patient selection; to identify barriers to surgical access and suggest interventions for health policy changes that ensure equitable access to surgery when indicated; and to identify priorities for research. Bariatric surgery can significantly improve glycaemic control in severely obese patients with Type 2 diabetes. It is an effective, safe and cost-effective therapy for obese Type 2 diabetes. Surgery can be considered an appropriate treatment for people with Type 2 diabetes and obesity not achieving recommended treatment targets with medical therapies, especially in the presence of other major co-morbidities. The procedures must be performed within accepted guidelines and require appropriate multidisciplinary assessment for the procedure, comprehensive patient education and ongoing care, as well as safe and standardized surgical procedures. National guidelines for bariatric surgery need to be developed for people with Type 2 diabetes and a BMI of 35 kg/m2 or more. PMID:21480973
Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard
Preoperative weight loss before bariatric surgery has been proposed as a predictive factor for improved patient compliance and the degree of excess weight loss achieved after surgery. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative outcomes. A search of MEDLINE was completed to identify the patient factors associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. Of the 909 screened reports, 15 had reported on preoperative weight loss and the degree of postoperative weight loss achieved. A meta-analysis was performed that compared the postoperative weight loss and perioperative outcomes in patients who had lost weight preoperatively compared to those who had not. Of the 15 articles (n = 3404 patients) identified, 5 found a positive effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative weight loss, 2 found a positive short-term effect that was not sustained long term, 5 did not find an effect difference, and 1 found a negative effect. A meta-analysis revealed a significant increase in the 1-year postoperative weight loss (mean difference of 5% EWL, 95% confidence interval 2.68-7.32) for patients who had lost weight preoperatively. A meta-analysis of other outcomes revealed a decreased operative time for patients who had lost weight preoperatively (mean difference 23.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 13.8-32.8). Preoperative weight loss before bariatric surgery appears to be associated with greater weight loss postoperatively and might help to identify patients who would have better compliance after surgery.
Executive Summary In June 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began work on the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Project, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding strategies for successful management and treatment of diabetes. This project came about when the Health System Strategy Division at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care subsequently asked the secretariat to provide an evidentiary platform for the Ministry’s newly released Diabetes Strategy. After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, the secretariat identified five key areas in which evidence was needed. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five areas: insulin pumps, behavioural interventions, bariatric surgery, home telemonitoring, and community based care. For each area, an economic analysis was completed where appropriate and is described in a separate report. To review these titles within the Diabetes Strategy Evidence series, please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/masabout.html, Diabetes Strategy Evidence Platform: Summary of Evidence-Based Analyses Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetics: An Evidence-Based Analysis Behavioural Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis Bariatric Surgery for People with Diabetes and Morbid Obesity: An Evidence-Based Summary Community-Based Care for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telemonitoring for Type 2 Diabetes: An Evidence-Based Analysis Application of the Ontario Diabetes Economic Model (ODEM) to Determine the Cost-effectiveness and Budget Impact of Selected Type 2 Diabetes Interventions in Ontario Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis was to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for the management of diabetes in morbidly obese people. This report summarized evidence specific
Carvajal, Tomas; Franco, Diana L; Martínez, Adriana; Peña, Iván M
Bariatric surgery is a treatment that guarantees a substantial and lasting weight loss in addition to the tangible benefits relating to obesity-associated medical conditions. The increasing number of bariatric surgeries has revealed an increasing number of complications related to this procedure, including Wernicke´s encephalopathy and vitamin B deficiency polyneuropathies. Herein, a 7-week post-surgery case of Wernicke´s encephalopathy is presented that emphasizes the importance of an early recognition of these symptoms so as to initiate intervention during the reversible phase of these potentially lethal pathologies.
Tedesco, Amanda Kaseker; Biazotto, Rafaela; Gebara, Telma Souza E Silva; Cambi, Maria Paula Carlini; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso
The bariatric surgery may cause some nutritional deficiencies. To compare the serum levels of biochemical markers, in iimmediate post-surgical patients who were submitted to bariatric surgery. Non-concurrent prospective cross-sectional study. The analysis investigated data in medical charts of pre-surgical and immediate post-surgical patients who were submitted to bariatric surgery, focusing total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, vitamin B12 levels, folic acid, homocysteine values, iron and serum calcium at the referred period. Twenty-nine patients of both genders were evaluated. It was observed weight loss from 108.53 kg to 78.69 kg after the procedure. The variable LDL-c had a significant difference, decreasing approximately 30.3 mg/dl after the surgery. The vitamin B12 serum average levels went from 341.9 pg/ml to 667.2 pg/ml. The triglycerides values were in a range of 129.6 mg/dl-173.3 mg/dl, and 81.9 mg/dl-105.3 mg/dl at the pre- and postoperative respectively. CRP levels fall demonstrated reduction of inflammatory activity. The variable homocysteine was tested in a paired manner and it did not show a significant changing before or after, although it showed a strong correlation with LDL cholesterol. Eligible patients to bariatric surgery frequently present pre-nutritional deficiencies, having increased post-surgical risks when they don´t follow an appropriate nutritional follow-up. A cirurgia bariátrica pode causar deficiências nutricionais. Comparar os níveis séricos bioquímicos de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia bariátrica no pré e pós-operatório precoce. Estudo transversal, retrospectivo não concorrente. A análise considerou a investigação de prontuários de pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia no período pré-operatório e pós-operatório precoce, analisando resultado bioquímicos de colesterol total, HDL colesterol, LDL colesterol, triglicérides, proteína C reativa, dosagens de vitamina
Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C.; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting
Abstract The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition. Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat. Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037). Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation. PMID:26844473
Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting
The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P < 0.001) after intervention compared with baseline. In both the groups, the decrease in EAT was small compared with the other compartments (P < 0.01 in both groups). Compared with the exercise group, the surgery group had greater loss in abdominal and cardiac visceral adipose tissue (AVAT, ASAT, PAT, EAT+PAT) (P < 0.001), but lesser loss in EAT (P = 0.037).Compared with the exercise group, bariatric surgery results in significantly greater percentage loss of excessive fat deposits except for EAT. EAT, but not PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.
Utzinger, Linsey M.; Pisetsky, Emily M.
Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that bariatric surgery candidates are likely to present with eating disorders (EDs) and/or problematic eating behaviours (EBs), and research suggests that these problems may persist or develop after bariatric surgery. While there is growing evidence indicating that EDs and EBs may impact bariatric surgery outcomes, the definitions and assessment methods used lack consensus, and findings have been mixed. The aims of this paper were (1) to summarize the existing literature on pre‐operative and post‐operative EDs and problematic EBs; (2) to discuss the terms, definitions and assessment measures used across studies; and (3) to consider the extent to which the presence of these problems impact surgery outcomes. We highlight the importance of investigators utilizing consistent definitions and assessment methodologies across studies. © 2015 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by Eating Disorders Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26315343
Soares, Fernando Lucas; Bissoni de Sousa, Larissa; Corradi-Perini, Carla; Ramos da Cruz, Magda Rosa; Nunes, Mario Gilberto Jesus; Branco-Filho, Alcides José
Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention in the treatment of obesity, but lifestyle and diet should be monitored after this procedure to ensure success. The Bariatric Food Pyramid was created basing on long-term nutritional care that proposes a standard of healthy living and eating habits considering gastric capacity and specific nutritional needs. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the life habits and diet quality of patients who have undergone bariatric surgery (who have been recovering for at least 6 months) based on the specific food pyramid. Retrospective data analysis was performed using medical records of patients who had been followed for at least 6 months after bariatric surgery. The following data were collected from patient records: age, gender, education level (years), BMI (preoperative and postoperative), percentage of excess weight loss (EWL) relative to the time of surgery, frequency of physical activity, use of nutritional supplements, usual dietary intake history, and fluid intake. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. We evaluated 172 patient records. In this study, there was a low prevalence of physical activity, use of vitamin-mineral supplements, and water intake. There also was low consumption of protein, fruit, vegetables, and vegetable oils. In addition, intake of carbohydrates, sugars, and fats were higher than the recommendations established by the pyramid. The results indicate that patients who have undergone bariatric surgery have an inadequate diet according to food evaluation with the specific pyramid. In the long term, this may lead to weight gain and vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Contreras, Juan Eduardo; Santander, Carmen; Court, Ismael; Bravo, Jorge
Conflicting evidence exists regarding age as a predictive factor in excess weight loss after bariatric surgery. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate differences in excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) 1 year after surgery in patients older and younger than 45 years. Adult obese patients fulfilling selection criteria underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy and were grouped according to age < and ≥45 years with follow-up at least 1 year. Both groups were compared in terms of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL) and other clinical outcomes. Possible relationship between %EBMIL, age, surgical technique, and presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension (HT), and dyslipidemia (DL) was searched. Three hundred thirty-seven patients (72.5 % female), 196 (50.1 %) younger than 45 years and 141 (49.9 %) with age ≥45 years. There was significant difference between age group and %EBMIL 12 months after surgery (p < 0.001), showing better results in younger patients. No differences were found in terms of gender, preoperative body mass index (BMI), surgical technique, nor presence of DL. Using multiple regression, we found significant interaction effect between age group (p < 0.001), presence of HT (p = 0.001), and %EBMIL at follow-up. Patients younger than 45 years lose greater amount of excess BMI than older patients after bariatric surgery. This tendency might be useful as a preoperative weight loss predictor in bariatric patients.
Bacha, Ivan Leo; Benetti, Fernanda Antico; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vertical component of the ground reaction force, plantar pressure, contact area of the feet and double-support time using static and dynamic (gait) baropodometry before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with a body mass index of between 35 and 55 were evaluated before and after bariatric surgery. Thirteen patients (81.3%) were female and three (18.8%) male and their average age was 46±10 (21-60) years. An FSCAN system (version 3848) was used for baropodometric analyses (1 km/h and 3 km/h). The peak plantar pressure and ground reaction force were measured for the rear foot and forefoot. The double-support time and foot contact area were measured during gait. RESULTS: There were reductions in the ground reaction force in the forefoot and rear foot and in the foot contact area in all evaluations and of the double-support time at 3 km/h, as well as a significant reduction in the body mass index at six months post-surgery. The peak pressure did not vary at 1 km/h and at 3 km/h, reductions in peak pressure were observed in the left and right rear feet and left forefoot. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss after bariatric surgery resulted in decreases in the ground reaction force and contact area of the foot. Plantar pressure was decreased at 3 km/h, especially in the forefoot. There was an increase in rhythm because of a reduction in the double-support time at 3 km/h. PMID:26602521
Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce
To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hussan, Hisham; Stanich, Peter P; Gray, Darrell M; Krishna, Somashekar G; Porter, Kyle; Conwell, Darwin L; Clinton, Steven K
Morbid obesity is associated with worse colorectal cancer (CRC) perioperative outcomes. The impact of bariatric surgery on these outcomes is unknown. The National Inpatient Sample Database (2006-2012) was used to identify adults with prior bariatric surgery (divided into BMI ≤35 kg/m(2) and BMI >35 kg/m(2)) or morbid obesity that underwent CRC surgery. Main outcomes were mortality, surgical complications and health care utilization. There were 1813 patients with prior bariatric surgery and 22,552 morbidly obese patients that underwent CRC surgery between 2006 and 2012. Prior bariatric surgery patients were younger, with fewer comorbidities, and had less emergency CRC surgery admissions (p < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed no adverse association (OR 0.54, 95 % CI = 0.16 to 1.79) between prior bariatric surgery and CRC perioperative mortality. Notably, multivariate analysis revealed that bariatric surgery patients undergoing CRC surgery had fewer accidental surgical lacerations (OR 0.38, 95 % CI = 0.15 to 0.93), shorter hospitalizations (-1.85 days, 95 % CI = 2.03 to 1.67), decreased total hospital costs (US$-5374, 95 % CI = -5935 to -4813) and lower disposition to short-term rehabilitation facilities (OR 0.65, 95 % CI = -0.43 to 0.97). Propensity score matched analysis validated these reductions in surgical complications and health care utilization in bariatric surgery patients, which were further more pronounced when bariatric surgery patients were restricted to BMI ≤35 kg/m(2). Analysis of national-level data demonstrates that prior bariatric surgery is associated with fewer colorectal cancer surgical complications and improved health care resource utilization compared to morbidly obese patients. These findings emphasize and extend the therapeutic effect of bariatric surgery to the colorectal cancer perioperative setting.
Climent, Elisenda; Benaiges, David; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A; Ramón, Jose M; Villatoro, Montserrat; Fontané, Laia; Chillarón, Juan J; Goday, Albert
Given the lack of evidence of the effect of bariatric surgery (BS) on atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD), which is a characteristic of obese subjects, this study aimed to describe the remission rate of AD 1 year after BS in severely obese patients. A non-randomised, prospective cohort study was conducted in patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with a 1-year follow-up. AD was defined as triglycerides ≥1.71 mmol/l or treatment with fibrates and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (<1.03 mmol/l in men or <1.3 mmol/l in women). AD was present in 81 (22.8%) of the 356 patients; these were more frequently men and presented higher total cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. AD remission rate was 74.1% at 3 months, 90.1% at 6 months and 96.3% at 12 months, respectively, after BS. In this group of patients, HDL cholesterol levels rose progressively (1.0 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.3 mmol/l, p < 0.001) and triglycerides decreased (2.5 ± 0.9 to 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/l, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Regarding previous lipid-lowering therapy, fibrates and ezetimibe were withdrawn in all patients and statins in 69.4% 1 year after surgery. BS has beneficial effects on lipid profile, achieving complete remission of AD at 1 year of follow-up in almost all patients.
Snyder, Allison G
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the critical domains assessed during the psychological evaluation of candidates for bariatric surgery. Although no formal standard exists in the literature, there is growing recognition of the important elements to be addressed and the appropriate means for collecting the necessary data to determine psychological readiness for these procedures. Information regarding the components of the clinical interview and the specific measures used for psychological testing are discussed. Given the limited data on predicting success after surgery, determining psychological contraindications for surgery is addressed. Additionally, the multiple functions served by the psychologist during this assessment procedure are highlighted along with the value of this procedure in the patients' preparation for surgery.
Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce
Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…
Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce
Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…
Joo, Moon Kyung
As lifestyle and diet patterns have become westernized in East Asia, the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased. Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), are considered the first-line treatment option in patients with severe obesity. However, postoperative complications have increased and the proper management of these complications, including the use of endoscopic procedures, has become important. The most serious complications, such as leaks and fistulas, can be treated with endoscopic stent placement and injection of fibrin glue, and a novel full-thickness closure over-the-scope clip (OTSC) has been used for treatment of postoperative leaks. Stricture at the gastrojejunal (GJ) anastomosis site after RYGB or incisura angularis in SG can be managed using stents or endoscopic balloon dilation. Dilation of the GJ anastomosis or gastric pouch may lead to failure of weight loss, and the use of endoscopic sclerotherapy, novel endoscopic suturing devices, and OTSCs have been attempted. Intragastric migration of the gastric band can be successfully treated using various endoscopic tools. Endoscopy plays a pivotal role in the management of post-bariatric complications, and close cooperation between endoscopists and bariatric surgeons may further increase the success rate of endoscopic procedures. PMID:28008162
Inge, Thomas; Helmrath, Michael; Vierra, Mark; Ikramuddin, Sayeed
This paper documents educational material presented at a joint IPEG/SAGES session entitled Challenges of Adolescent Bariatric Surgery at the IPEG/SAGES annual meeting in April 2006. This session was primarily intended for surgeons not actively engaged in adolescent bariatric surgery. The individual topics presented vary widely and were chosen in an effort to highlight important areas of clinical controversy, surgical complexity, and research opportunities. This case-based session was conducted using an interactive audience response system to capture live feedback from the attendees. Questions posed to the audience and their responses (with the number of responses) are provided. Results of the audience poll are presented for interest only and do not represent a scientifically valid consensus of IPEG members. The text is written in a dialog-type format to better represent the essence of the session and the context in which it was presented. Finally, the views and opinions expressed in this paper reflect the balanced examination of various issues related to pediatric bariatric surgery by the presenters but do not necessarily represent the opinions of the IPEG organization.
Dimick, Justin B.; Birkmeyer, Nancy J.; Finks, Jonathan F.; Share, David A.; English, Wayne J.; Carlin, Arthur M.; Birkmeyer, John D.
Objective We sought to develop a novel composite measure for profiling hospital performance with bariatric surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Using clinical registry data from the Michigan Bariatric Surgery Collaborative (MBSC), we studied all patients undergoing bariatric surgery from 2008 to 2010. For gastric bypass surgery, we used empirical Bayes techniques to create a composite measure by combining several measures, including serious complications, reoperations, and readmissions; hospital and surgeon volume; and outcomes with other, related procedures. Hospitals were ranked based on 2008-09 and placed in one of 3 groups: 3-star (top third), 2-star (middle third), and 1-star (bottom third). We assessed how well these ratings predicted outcomes in the next year (2010), compared to other widely used measures. Main Outcome Measures Risk-adjusted serious complications. Results Composite measures explained a larger proportion of hospital-level variation in serious complication rates with gastric bypass than other measures. For example, the composite measure explained 89% of the variation compared to only 28% for risk-adjusted complication rates alone. Composite measures also appeared better at predicting future performance compared to individual measures. When ranked on the composite measure, 1-star hospitals (bottom 20%), had 2-fold higher serious complication rates (4.6% vs. 2.4%; OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.5) compared to 3-star (top 20%) hospitals. Differences in serious complications rates between 1-star and 3-star hospitals were much smaller when hospitals were ranked using serious complications (4.0% vs. 2.7%; OR 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-2.9) and hospital volume (3.3% vs. 3.2%; OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.4 to 1.7) Conclusions Composite measures are much better at explaining hospital-level variation in serious complications and predicting future performance than other approaches. In this preliminary study, it appears that such composite measures may be better than existing
Martin, Matthew; Beekley, Alec; Kjorstad, Randy; Sebesta, James
To analyze the socioeconomics of the morbidly obese patient population and the impact on access to bariatric surgery using 2 nationally representative databases. Bariatric surgery is a life-changing and potentially life-saving intervention for morbid obesity. Access to bariatric surgical care among eligible patients might be adversely affected by a variety of socioeconomic factors. The national bariatric eligible population was identified from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and compared with the adult noneligible population. The eligible cohort was then compared with patients who had undergone bariatric surgery in the 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and key socioeconomic disparities were identified and analyzed. A total of 22,151,116 people were identified as eligible for bariatric surgery using the National Institutes of Health criteria. Compared with the noneligible group, the bariatric eligible group had significantly lower family incomes, lower education levels, less access to healthcare, and a greater proportion of nonwhite race (all P <.001). Bariatric eligibility was associated with significant adverse economic and health-related markers, including days of work lost (5 versus 8 days, P <.001). More than one third (35%) of bariatric eligible patients were either uninsured or underinsured, and 15% had incomes less than the poverty level. A total of 87,749 in-patient bariatric surgical procedures were performed in 2006. Most were performed in white patients (75%) with greater median incomes (80%) and private insurance (82%). Significant disparities associated with a decreased likelihood of undergoing bariatric surgery were noted by race, income, insurance type, and gender. Socioeconomic factors play a major role in determining who does and does not undergo bariatric surgery, despite medical eligibility. Significant disparities according to race, income, education level, and insurance type continue to exist and should prompt
da SILVA-NETO, Epifânio Feitosa; VÁZQUEZ, Cecília Mª Passos; SOARES, Fabiana Melo; da SILVA, Danielle Góes; de SOUZA, Márcia Ferreira Cândido; BARBOSA, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira
Background The conventional treatment of obesity presents unsatisfactory results on weight loss and its long-term sustainability, therefore bariatric surgery has been suggested as an effective therapy, determining sustainable long-term weight loss, reversal of components of cardiometabolic risk and improved quality and life expectancy. Aim To investigate the clinical component of the cardiometabolic risk in patients undergoing bariatric surgery assisted on outpatient basis. Methods The sample consisted of 47 patients with ages between 18 and 60 years, 72% females. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were prospectively evaluated by using the Assessment of Obesity-Related Co-morbidities scale. Results Occurred improvement in these co-morbidities within 12 months after surgery. Co-morbidities resolved were greater than those improved. Conclusion The study revealed that the Assessment of Obesity-Related Co-morbidities is a system that can be effectively used to quantify the degree of reduction of the severity of the cardiometabolic risk in response to bariatric surgery. PMID:24676297
Yang, Baiyu; Yang, Hannah P; Ward, Kristy K; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; McGlynn, Katherine A
Obesity is implicated as an important factor in the rising incidence of liver cancer in the USA. Bariatric surgery is increasingly used for treating morbid obesity and comorbidities. Using administrative data from UHC, a consortium of academic medical centers in the USA, we compared the prevalence of liver cancer among admissions with and without a history of bariatric surgery within a 3-year period. Admissions with a history of bariatric surgery had a 61 % lower prevalence of liver cancer compared to those without a history of bariatric surgery (prevalence ratio 0.39, 95 % confidence interval 0.35-0.44), and these inverse associations persisted within strata of sex, race, and ethnicity. This hospital administrative record-based analysis suggests that bariatric surgery could play a role in liver cancer prevention.
Martin, Karlyn A; Lee, Craig R; Farrell, Timothy M; Moll, Stephan
Bariatric surgery may alter the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination (disposition) of orally administered drugs via changes to the gastrointestinal tract anatomy, body weight, and adipose tissue composition. As some patients who have undergone bariatric surgery will need therapeutic anticoagulation for various indications, appropriate knowledge is needed regarding anticoagulant drug disposition and resulting efficacy and safety in this population. We review general considerations about oral drug disposition in patients after bariatric surgery, as well as existing literature on oral anticoagulation after bariatric surgery. Overall, available evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation is very limited, and individual drug studies are necessary to learn how to safely and effectively use the direct oral anticoagulants. Given the sparsity of currently available data, it appears most prudent to use warfarin with international normalized ratio monitoring, and not direct oral anticoagulants, when full-dose anticoagulation is needed after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ASSEF, Maurício Saab; MELO, Tiago Torres; ARAKI, Osvaldo; MARIONI, Fábio
Background: Obesity has become epidemic, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Treatment is multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment is a consistent resource in severe obesity. The indication of preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in asymptomatic patients is controversial; however, most studies recommend its implementation in all patients. Aim: To analyze endoscopic performance in patients who were in preoperative for bariatric surgery and compare them with control group. Method: A series of 35 obese patients in preoperative period for bariatric surgery compared with a control group of 30 patients submitted to upper endoscopy. There were analyzed clinical and endoscopic data. Results: The mean age of the group of patients was 43.54 years. Most individuals in the group of patients were female with median BMI of 47.26kg/m2and in control group 24.21 kg/m2. The majority of patients were asymptomatic. Upper endoscopy was altered in 81.25% of asymptomatic patients. Endoscopic findings in the patient group were 57.1% resulting from peptic ulcer disease and 34.3% associated with GERD. The analysis of endoscopic findings in patients showed no significant difference in relation of the control group. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 60% in patients. Conclusion: It is recommended that the upper endoscopy should be made in all patients in the preoperative bariatric surgery period, although the degree of obesity is not related to a greater number of endoscopic findings. Obese patients do not have more endoscopic findings that non-obese individuals. PMID:26537272
Engström, My; Forsberg, Anna
The aim of this study was an in-depth investigation of the change process experienced by patients undergoing bariatric surgery. A prospective interview study was performed prior to as well as 1 and 2 years after surgery. Data analyses of the transcribed interviews were performed by means of the Grounded Theory method. A core category was identified: Wishing for deburdening through a sustainable control over eating and weight, comprising three related categories: hoping for deburdening and control through surgery, feeling deburdened and practising control through physical restriction, and feeling deburdened and trying to maintain control by own willpower. Before surgery, the participants experienced little or no control in relation to food and eating and hoped that the bariatric procedure would be the first brick in the building of a foundation that would lead to control in this area. The control thus achieved in turn affected the participants' relationship to themselves, their roles in society, and the family as well as to health care. One year after surgery they reported established routines regarding eating as well as higher self-esteem due to weight loss. In family and society they set limits and in relation to health care staff they felt their concern and reported satisfaction with the surgery. After 2 years, fear of weight gain resurfaced and their self-image was modified to be more realistic. They were no longer totally self-confident about their condition, but realised that maintaining control was a matter of struggle to obtaining a foundation of sustainable control. Between 1 and 2 years after surgery, the physical control mechanism over eating habits started to more or less fade for all participants. An implication is that when this occurs, health care professionals need to provide interventions that help to maintain the weight loss in order to achieve a good long-term outcome. PMID:21339891
Rubio, M A; Moreno, C
Anatomical change in the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract after bariatric surgery leads to modification of dietary patterns that have to be adapted to new physiological conditions, either related with the volume of intakes or the characteristics of the macro- and micronutrients to be administered. Restrictive diet after bariatric surgery (basically gastric bypass and restrictive procedures) is done at several steps. The first phase after surgery consists in the administration of clear liquids for 2-3 days, followed by completely low-fat and high-protein content (> 50-60 g/day) liquid diet for 2-4 weeks, normally by means of formula-diets. Soft or grinded diet including very soft protein-rich foods, such as egg, low-calories cheese, and lean meats such as chicken, cow, pork, or fish (red meats are not so well tolerated) is recommended 2-4 weeks after hospital discharge. Normal diet may be started within 8 weeks from surgery or even later. It is important to incorporate hyperproteic foods with each meal, such egg whites, lean meats, cheese or milk. All these indications should be done under the supervision of an expert nutrition professional to always advise the patients and adapting the diet to some special situations (nausea/vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, dumping syndrome, dehydration, food intolerances, overfeeding, etc.). The most frequent vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the different types of surgeries are reviewed, with a special focus on iron, vitamin B12, calcium, and vitamin D metabolism. It should not be forgotten that the aim of obesity surgery is making the patient loose weight and thus post-surgery diet is designed to achieve that goal although without forgetting the essential role that nutritional education has on the learning of new dietary habits contributing to maintain that weight loss over time.
Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Tobin, Erin T; Clark, Shannon; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey
Bariatric surgery is effective for weight loss; however, only a small percentage of those who qualify choose to pursue it. Additionally, although psychiatric symptoms appear to be common among candidates, the risk factors for symptoms are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of those who are pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area, whether demographic disparities continue to exist, and identify characteristics of those who may be at higher risk for experiencing psychiatric symptoms. There were 424 bariatric candidates who completed a required psychological evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates tended to be middle-aged, Caucasian females, which was unexpected when compared to the rates of obesity among these groups. Therefore, it appears that there are disparities in who chooses to seek out bariatric surgery compared to those who may qualify due to their obesity status. Cultural factors may play a role in why males and African Americans seek out bariatric surgery less frequently. Psychiatric symptoms among candidates are also common, with depression symptoms increasing with age and BMI. Perhaps the compounding effects of medical comorbidities over time are contributing to greater depressive symptoms in the older patients. Findings from this study suggest that we may need to explore ways of encouraging younger patients, males, and ethnic minorities to pursue bariatric surgery to increase weight loss success and decrease medical comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delgado Floody, Pedro; Jerez Mayorga, Daniel; Caamaño Navarrete, Felipe; Concha Díaz, Manuel; Ovalle Elgueta, Héctor; Osorio Poblete, Aldo
in Chile, a high prevalence of women presents morbid obesity, this condition generates serious medical complications and high costs for public health. to determine the effects of a total treatment program consisting of physical exercise, psychological therapy and nutrition education on the preoperative conditions of obese women candidates for bariatric surgery. nineteen women between the ages of 30 and 55 applicants to bariatric surgery, with morbid obesity (n=6) or obesity and comorbidities (n=13), underwent a program of comprehensive treatment of sixteen weeks duration (3 session/week). Before and 72 hours after the last intervention session was evaluated on fasting (≥12 hours): body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (% BF), contour waist (CW) and basal blood glucose. Cardiorespiratory fitness was also estimated. the average age was 40.32 years, post-sixteen weeks of comprehensive treatment study variables improved significantly (p. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Grindel, Mary E; Grindel, Cecelia Gatson
The increasing incidence of morbid obesity suggests that the quantity of bariatric surgical procedures will continue to multiply each year. Bariatric surgery has become an accepted approach to weight management with the additional benefit of resolution of several co-morbidities. However, quality nursing care and effective patient teaching are essential to achieve positive patient outcomes. Nursing care along the continuum of the bariatric surgical experience is key to positive outcomes for these patients. Throughout the process from selection for surgery to follow-up visits in the physician's office, the nurse can have a significant impact on the response of the patient and family to the surgical procedure. During the selection process, the nurse can explain the required diagnostic tests and their rationale and conduct a thorough medical history, informing the physician of pertinent information that might affect the patient's outcomes. Patient and family teaching begins at this stage with information about the peri-operative experience. Bariatric surgery results in a major lifestyle change for the patient. This change will evolve over time as weight is lost, and the patient adjusts to changes in eating patterns, body image, and the perceptions of others. The nurse should see that the patient has appropriate referral information for support services and should follow up to see that the patient and family availed themselves of these services. The patient's stay in acute care is usually very short. Clearly the patient and family need to go home with specific information about drinking/eating, caring for drainage tubes, skin and wound care, ambulation, self-care, and signs and symptoms that require medical attention. Nursing care should include written information and demonstrations of such activities as care of the wounds and drains. The nurse should assure that the patient leaves the hospital with a call number if questions arise at home. Ideally the nurse, patient
Marek, R J; Ben-Porath, Y S; Heinberg, L J
Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity; however, a subset of patients who undergo this procedure regain weight or achieve suboptimal weight loss results. A large number of studies have examined whether psychological variables play a role in weight loss surgery outcome. Although presurgical psychopathology has been found to be associated with suboptimal results in some studies, this literature is equivocal. These inconsistent findings are reviewed and considered in the context of contemporary models of psychopathology. More specifically, the review focuses on the limitations of atheoretical, descriptive diagnostic systems and examines whether comorbidity within the mood/anxiety disorders, impulse control/substance use disorders and thought disorders can account for the inconsistent findings reported to date. Contemporary models of psychopathology are highlighted and linked to the Research Domain Criteria, which have been advanced by the National Institute of Health. Means for assessing psychological constructs congruent with these models are reviewed. Recommendations are made for standardizing approaches to investigating how psychopathology contributes to suboptimal bariatric surgery outcomes. © 2015 World Obesity.
Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Sax, Harry C.; Roye, G. Dean; Ryder, Beth A.; Pohl, Dieter; Giovanni, Jeannine
Background We previously reported that the majority of women seeking bariatric surgery had female sexual dysfunction (FSD) as defined by the validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Objective The current study examined whether FSD resolves after bariatric surgery. Setting The Miriam Hospital, Providence RI, USA. Methods Fifty-four reportedly sexually active women (43.3±9.5 years) completed the FSFI pre- and 6-months post-operatively after a mean excess weight loss (%EWL) of 42.3% [Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) n=38; %EWL=34.6±15.7; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) n=16; %EWL=60.0±21.2). The FSFI assesses sexual function across six domains with higher scores indicating better sexual function. Summing of these scores yields a FSFI-total score (range=2–36 with ≤26.55=FSD). Results Before surgery, 34 women (63%) had scores indicative of FSD. By 6-months after surgery, FSD had resolved in 23 of these 34 (68%) women, and only 1 woman developed FSD. In the entire sample, there were significant (p<0.05) improvements from pre- to post-surgery on all FSFI domains. FSFI-total scores improved after LAGB (24.2±5.9 to 29.1±4.1, p<0.001) and RYGB (23.7±7.7 to 30.0±4.7, p<0.001). In regression analyses, being married, younger age, and worse preoperative sexual function were related to greater sexual function improvements. Postoperatively, participants’ FSFI-total scores were indistinguishable from published normative controls (29.4±4.3 vs. 30.5±5.3, p=0.18). Conclusion FSD resolved in a large percentage of women. Sexual functioning in the entire sample improved to levels consistent with normative controls. This improvement in sexual function did not depend on surgery type or weight loss amount, and appears to be an additional benefit for women undergoing bariatric surgery. PMID:20678969
Ribeiro, Graziela A Nogueira de Almeida; Giampietro, Helenice B; Barbieri, Lídia B; Pacheco, Rita Guardini; Queiroz, Rosana; Ceneviva, Reginaldo
Bariatric surgery helps significantly in weight loss. Little is known whether the change in body shape and size is enough to meet the expectations created preoperatively. To evaluate the different perceptions of body size and shape before and after bariatric surgery. A total of 423 patients were evaluated by Nine-figure Outline Scale. Of these, 32% were pre-surgery (PreS), 20% were evaluated between 10 and 12 months after surgery (PO-1), 13% between 18 and 24 months (PO-2), 15% between 30 and 36 months (PO-3) and 20% after 42 months of operation (PO-4). Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. When choosing figures that represented a man and a woman of normal size, no differences were observed between groups. Regarding the choice of figures representing the own size, differences were observed between groups PreS and all other groups (p<0.001), and PreS chosen larger figures. In choosing figures that represented a size that believed they could achieve, PreS differed from the PO-1, PO-2 and PO-3 (p <0.001), showing a tendency to choose larger silhouettes after surgery. When choosing figures that represented a size that would like to have PO-4 differed from PO-1 and PO-2 (p <0.05), showing that in the PO-4 there was a tendency to choose larger figures. The body perception seems to comply with own body size, even after weight loss. As longer postoperative period, the participants were more aware of the real possibilities of weight loss. There were signs of dissatisfaction with the body size and shape, mainly in the PO-1 and PO-2, which can lead to frustration and little use of the benefits of the surgery for health and quality of life.
Lindekilde, N; Gladstone, B P; Lübeck, M; Nielsen, J; Clausen, L; Vach, W; Jones, A
This study aims to review the obesity literature in order to assess the impact of bariatric surgery on quality of life and the between-study variation by examining the standardized mean magnitude of effect in change in the levels of quality of life. The following databases EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies examining change in quality of life in adults receiving bariatric surgery for obesity. Seventy-two studies were included with a total of 9,433 participants treated for obesity with bariatric surgery. The average impact of bariatric surgery on quality of life corresponded to an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80-0.96), indicating that bariatric surgery has a significant positive influence on quality of life in general. The impact varied considerably across studies with bariatric surgery showing a significantly greater positive influence on physical quality of life compared to mental quality of life. Bariatric surgery is effective in improving quality of life, especially when looking at physical well-being. Greater focus on the psychological well-being of the person undergoing surgery for obesity may lead to a better post-surgery prognosis for more people.
Barclay, Karen S; Rushton, Paula W; Forwell, Susan J
The present study aims to identify the range of eating behavior self-assessment tools reported in the adult bariatric surgery literature and evaluate the measurement properties of these tools using pre-established criteria. This systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. This review revealed the use of 20 distinct tools; however, evidence for measurement properties specific to bariatric surgery populations was limited to only ten of these tools, as reported in 14 papers. Validity varied extensively and there was a widespread lack of information regarding measurement of change over time and patient burden. According to the evaluation criteria, there was adequate support for two tools. Several other tools show potential but would benefit from additional investigation of their measurement properties prior to continued use with bariatric surgery patients.
Koball, Afton M; Clark, Matthew M; Collazo-Clavell, Maria; Kellogg, Todd; Ames, Gretchen; Ebbert, Jon; Grothe, Karen B
Food addiction (FA) may be related to poor weight loss outcomes; however, the literature on food addiction in bariatric surgery-seeking populations is limited. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of FA in a bariatric surgery-seeking population and its association with mood, problematic eating behaviors, and substance use. The relationship between prebariatric surgery food addiction screening and postsurgical outcomes was assessed. Academic medical center. Adult outpatients (n = 923) seeking bariatric surgery underwent psychological evaluation between January 2012 and May 2014. Patients were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess FA. Of the original sample, 195 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients returned for medical follow-up at 6 (n = 169) and 12 (n = 113) months postsurgery; 26 (13%) patients at 6 months and 82 (42%) patients at 12 months were lost to follow-up or had not reached 1 year postsurgery. Fourteen percent of patients met FA criteria. Patients positive for FA were more likely to endorse greater levels of depression, anxiety, binge eating episodes, nighttime eating syndrome, and low eating self-efficacy. No relationship was observed between FA and current substance use. FA did not predict postoperative outcomes including weight loss, rehospitalization, or attendance at follow-up medical appointments. FA is related to psychological distress and eating disordered behaviors among bariatric patients. However, FA was not predictive of short-term (6-12 mo) bariatric surgery outcomes. Future research should determine how FA affects long-term postoperative outcomes and mood stability. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsamalaidze, Levan; Elli, Enrique F
Experience with bariatric surgery in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is still limited. We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent bariatric surgery after OHT from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2016. Two post-OHT patients with BMI of 37.5 and 36.2 kg/m² underwent laparoscopic robotic-assisted Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, respectively. Quality of life substantially improved for both patients. Bariatric surgery is safe and feasible in OHT patients, despite numerous risk factors. Careful selection of patients is required with proper preoperative management and overall care. Due to the complexity of treatment and perioperative care in this specific population, these operations should be done in high-volume centers with multidisciplinary teams composed of bariatric, cardiac transplant surgeons and critical care physicians. Bariatric surgery can be highly effective for treatment of obesity after OHT.
STUMPF, Matheo Augusto Morandi; RODRIGUES, Marcos Ricardo da Silva; KLUTHCOVSKY, Ana Claudia Garabeli Cavalli; TRAVALINI, Fabiana; MILLÉO, Fábio Quirillo
Background : Due to the increased prevalence of obesity in many countries, the number of bariatric surgeries is increasing. They are considered the most effective treatment for obesity. In the postoperative there may be difficulties with the quality of alimentation, tolerance to various types of food, as well as vomiting and regurgitation. Few surveys are available to assess these difficulties in the postoperative. Aim : To perform a systematic literature review about food tolerance in patients undergoing bariatric surgery using the questionnaire "Quality of Alimentation", and compare the results between different techniques. Method : A descriptive-exploratory study where the portals Medline and Scielo were used. The following headings were used in english, spanish and portuguese: quality of alimentation, bariatric surgery and food tolerance. A total of 88 references were found, 14 used the questionnaire "Quality of Alimentation" and were selected. Results : In total, 2745 patients were interviewed of which 371 underwent to gastric banding, 1006 to sleeve gastrectomy, 1113 to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 14 to biliopancreatic diversion associated with duodenal switch, 83 were non-operated obese, and 158 non-obese patients. The questionnaire showed good acceptability. The biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch had the best food tolerance in the postoperative when compared to other techniques, but it was evaluated in a single article with a small sample. The longer the time after the operation, the better is the food tolerance. Comparing the sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, there are still controversial results in the literature. The gastric banding had the worst score of food tolerance among all the techniques evaluated. Conclusion: The questionnaire is easy and fast to assess the food tolerance in patients after bariatric surgery. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch had the best food tolerance in the postoperative when compared
Stumpf, Matheo Augusto Morandi; Rodrigues, Marcos Ricardo da Silva; Kluthcovsky, Ana Claudia Garabeli Cavalli; Travalini, Fabiana; Milléo, Fábio Quirillo
Due to the increased prevalence of obesity in many countries, the number of bariatric surgeries is increasing. They are considered the most effective treatment for obesity. In the postoperative there may be difficulties with the quality of alimentation, tolerance to various types of food, as well as vomiting and regurgitation. Few surveys are available to assess these difficulties in the postoperative. To perform a systematic literature review about food tolerance in patients undergoing bariatric surgery using the questionnaire "Quality of Alimentation", and compare the results between different techniques. A descriptive-exploratory study where the portals Medline and Scielo were used. The following headings were used in english, spanish and portuguese: quality of alimentation, bariatric surgery and food tolerance. A total of 88 references were found, 14 used the questionnaire "Quality of Alimentation" and were selected. In total, 2745 patients were interviewed of which 371 underwent to gastric banding, 1006 to sleeve gastrectomy, 1113 to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 14 to biliopancreatic diversion associated with duodenal switch, 83 were non-operated obese, and 158 non-obese patients. The questionnaire showed good acceptability. The biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch had the best food tolerance in the postoperative when compared to other techniques, but it was evaluated in a single article with a small sample. The longer the time after the operation, the better is the food tolerance. Comparing the sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, there are still controversial results in the literature. The gastric banding had the worst score of food tolerance among all the techniques evaluated. The questionnaire is easy and fast to assess the food tolerance in patients after bariatric surgery. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch had the best food tolerance in the postoperative when compared to sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric
Aldoheyan, Tamadar; Hassanain, Mazen; Al-Mulhim, Amnah; Al-Sabhan, Atheer; Al-Amro, Shaden; Bamehriz, Fahad; Al-Khalidi, Hisham
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective method for weight reduction. However, no conclusive data exists on the effects of weight reduction surgery on NAFLD. This study aimed to characterize liver histology, metabolic status, and liver function changes in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, before and after the weight-reduction procedure. This is a phase 1 report of a prospective cohort study of patients who underwent bariatric surgery. Biopsies were obtained at baseline (intraoperatively) and 3 months postoperatively. Clinical characteristics, biochemical profile, and histopathological data [steatosis, NAFLD activity score (NAS), hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, and degree of fibrosis] were obtained at each time point. Twenty-seven patients were included (9 men and 18 women), and the median age was 35 ± 8 years old. At baseline, 3 patients had dyslipidemia, 4 had diabetes, and 5 patients had hypertension, which did not change at follow-up. The average body mass index decreased from 44.6 ± 7.8 to 34.2 ± 6.3 kg/m(2) at follow-up (P < 0.001). On histopathology, 12 of the 18 patients with preoperative steatosis (median score 2) had reduced steatosis scores postoperatively (P = 0.025); fibrosis (median score 1) was also reduced in 17 patients (P = 0.012), and NAS was decreased from 4 (3-5) to 2 (1-3) (P = 0.004). The changes in lobular inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning were not statistically significant on follow-up. The phase 1 results of this study described the histopathological changes following weight reduction surgery and suggested that hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and NAFLD activity score were reduced 3 months after surgery. This clinical trial is financially supported by the National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation Program grant number (11-MED1910-02).
Chuang, Janet; Zeller, Meg H.; Inge, Thomas
Bariatric surgery has been effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); it has not been used frequently in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This is the first case series reporting on the effect of bariatric surgery on diabetes control in adolescents with T1DM. Patient A is a 19-year-old obese man with T1DM who underwent vertical sleeve gastrectomy. At 12 months after surgery he demonstrated 28% reduction in BMI. His daily total insulin requirement had decreased; however, hemoglobin A1c remained primarily unchanged at 8.8%. Patient B is a 13-year-old obese girl with an initial clinical diagnosis of T2DM controlled on only metformin. She underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; at 1 month after surgery she presented in diabetic ketoacidosis and was found to have positive islet cell antibodies, which were also present before surgery. Her diagnosis was revised to T1DM, and she was started on insulin. By 28 months after surgery her BMI had decreased by 42%. Since initiation of insulin, her daily total insulin requirement had decreased, but hemoglobin A1c had significantly worsened from 6.3% to 10%. We found that despite significant weight loss, improvements in cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidemia and obstructive sleep apnea), and quality of life in our patients, bariatric surgery does not necessarily lead to improved glycemic control of T1DM. Patients with T1DM have ongoing dependency on exogenous insulin, and optimal glycemic control still depends on patient compliance with diabetes care. PMID:24062368
Malik, Sarah; Mitchell, James E.; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Wonderlich, Steve
Psychiatric disorders are not uncommon among severely obese patients who present for bariatric surgery. This paper (1) reviews the results of the published studies using the structured interviews to assess psychopathology in bariatric surgery candidates; (2) compares the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders across these studies with the data from other population samples; and (3) assesses whether sociodemographic variables appear to affect these prevalence rates. We searched online resources, PubMed, PsychINFO and reference lists of all the relevant articles to provide an overview of evidence so far and highlight some details in the assessment and comparisons of different samples in different countries. The prevalence estimates in the non- treatment obese group did not appear to differ substantially from the general population group in the US or the Italian population samples, although they were relatively higher for the German population. However, the rates of psychopathology in the bariatric surgery candidates were considerably higher than the other two population groups in all the samples. Overall, the most common category of lifetime Axis I disorders in all the studies was affective disorders, with anxiety disorders being the most common category of current Axis I disorders. Certain demographic characteristics are also associated with higher rates of psychopathology, such as, female gender, low socioeconomic status, higher BMI. Overall, methodological and sociodemographic differences make these studies difficult to compare and these differences should be taken into account when interpreting the results. PMID:24290079
Sysko, Robyn; Zakarin, E Blake; Devlin, Michael J; Bush, Jennifer; Walsh, B Timothy
The purpose of this study was to examine whether subgroups could be identified among a sample of adolescents presenting for bariatric surgery. Participants were 125 severely obese adolescents enrolled in a bariatric surgery program referred for a psychiatric evaluation. A latent class analysis was conducted with self-report and clinician-rated measures of depressive symptoms, total problems by the Youth Self-Report Scale, anxiety severity, eating pathology, psychiatric diagnoses, quality of life, and family functioning. A 3-class model yielded the best overall fit to the data. Adolescents in the ?eating pathology? class demonstrated high levels of both eating disordered and other psychopathology. The second class, or ?low psychopathology? class exhibited the fewest psychosocial problems, whereas adolescents in the third class were intermediate on measures of psychopathology, which is consistent with ?non-specific psychopathology.? The latent class analysis identified homogeneous subgroups with different levels of psychopathology among a heterogeneous sample of severely obese adolescents. The identification of clinically relevant subgroups in this study offers an important initial means for examining psychopathology among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates and suggests a number of avenues for future research. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) as a Treatment for Morbid Obesity in Adolescents, NCT01045499.
Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Spadola, Christine; Cuesta, Melissa; Messiah, Sarah E
Current literature is scarce in documenting marijuana use after bariatric weight loss surgery (WLS). The objective of this study was to explore the association among marijuana use patterns, disordered eating, and food addiction behaviors in patients 2 years after WLS. A university hospital in the United States. Participants (N = 50, mean age 28 y, standard deviation = 5.8) were administered a structured assessment that included the Addiction Severity Index, Yale Food Addiction Scale, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and Disordered Eating Questionnaire. Marijuana use was defined based on the Addiction Severity Index as current use (within 30 d), recent use (use in last year), and increased use (increased use since surgery). Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and linear regression methods adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, time since surgery, and change in body mass index. The majority of the sample was female (76%) and underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (62%). Eighteen percent (18%) of the sample reported current marijuana use; 38% reported recent use; and 21.4% reported increased use post-WLS. A loss of controlled food intake was associated with current (P = .02) and increased post-WLS use (P = .01). Increased use and/or regular marijuana use predicted higher scores on eating disorder subscales compared with respective counterparts (P<.05). Current use did not significantly predict higher scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Findings indicated marijuana use in post-WLS patients despite recommendations against use. A subgroup of WLS patients may be at risk for disordered eating post-WLS, particularly those who used marijuana before surgery, and should be closely monitored for several years post-WLS. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Funk, L M; Gunnar, W; Dominitz, J A; Eisenberg, D; Frayne, S; Maggard-Gibbons, M; Kalarchian, M A; Livingston, E; Sanchez, V; Smith, B R; Weidenbacher, H; Maciejewski, Matthew L
In 2016, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) held a Weight Management State of the Art conference to identify evidence gaps and develop a research agenda for population-based weight management for veterans. Included were behavioral, pharmacologic, and bariatric surgery workgroups. This article summarizes the bariatric surgery workgroup (BSWG) findings and recommendations for future research. The BSWG agreed that there is evidence from randomized trials and large observational studies suggesting that bariatric surgery is superior to medical therapy for short- and intermediate-term remission of type 2 diabetes, long-term weight loss, and long-term survival. Priority evidence gaps include long-term comorbidity remission, mental health, substance abuse, and health care costs. Evidence of the role of endoscopic weight loss options is also lacking. The BSWG also noted the limited evidence regarding optimal timing for bariatric surgery referral, barriers to bariatric surgery itself, and management of high-risk bariatric surgery patients. Clinical trials of pre- and post-surgery interventions may help to optimize patient outcomes. A registry of overweight and obese veterans and a workforce assessment to determine the VHA's capacity to increase bariatric surgery access were recommended. These will help inform policy modifications and focus the research agenda to improve the ability of the VHA to deliver population-based weight management.
Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D
Bariatric surgery leads to significant long-term weight loss, particularly Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The mechanisms underlying weight loss have not been fully uncovered. The aim of this review is to explore the changes in food preferences, as a novel mechanism contributing to weight loss, and also focus on the underlying processes modulating eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Patients after gastric bypass are less hungry and prefer healthier food options. They develop an increased acuity to sweet taste, which is perceived as more intense. The appeal of sweet fatty food decreases, with functional MRI studies showing a corresponding reduction in activation of the brain reward centres to high-energy food cues. Patients experiencing post-ingestive symptoms with sweet and fatty food develop conditioned aversive behaviours towards the triggers. Gut hormones are elevated in RYGB and have the potential to influence the taste system and food hedonics. Current evidence supports a beneficial switch in food preferences after RYGB. Changes within the sensory and reward domain of taste and the development of post-ingestive symptoms appear to be implicated. Gut hormones may be the mediators of these alterations and therefore exploiting this property might prove beneficial for designing future obesity treatment.
Tailleux, Anne; Rouskas, Konstantinos; Pattou, François; Staels, Bart
To summarize recent epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms. Although RYGBP has mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract, the reduced gastric pouch and intestinal calorie absorption cannot fully explain the metabolic improvements. Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. In contrast to the limited success of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, RYGBP induces sustained weight loss, metabolic improvements and decreases morbidity/mortality. In line, RYGBP reduces cardiovascular risk factors. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, RYGBP induces complex changes in the gut affecting other organs through endocrine and metabolic signals from the intestine to all key metabolic organs, which can link RYGBP and decreased cardiovascular risk. Here, we discuss the roles of changes in lipid absorption and metabolism, bile acid metabolism, gut hormones and the microbiote as potential mechanisms in the decreased cardiovascular risk and metabolic improvement after RYGBP.
Wallwork, Anna; Tremblay, Lynn; Chi, Monica; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Bariatric surgery is effective in assisting persons with severe obesity in achieving significant weight loss and improved health; however, success depends on one's lifelong commitment to lifestyle modifications post-operatively. Life partners can be essential to the success of bariatric patients as they can serve as a primary resource to patients and healthcare teams. This study aimed to explore bariatric patients' partner's experiences in order to help inform clinical practice in bariatric care to better address patient and partner needs. This study utilized a grounded theory analysis of ten semi-structured interviews of male partners of bariatric surgery patients to form a general explanatory framework of the partner experience. Participants described three interconnected processes of change that followed after their spouses surgeries: (1) effort put forth to engage in the surgical process with their spouses, (2) adoption of the behavioural changes made by their spouses and (3) adjustment to a "new normal". For those who engaged in all three processes, optimism for the future and an enriching and synergistic harmonized lifestyle with their spouse was reached. Bariatric surgery in one partner can impact couples' dietary behaviours, physical and leisure activities, physical and emotional intimacy and relationship quality as a whole. Pursuing bariatric surgery as a couple is a unique process. This study highlights the necessity to approach bariatric care in a way that targets the whole spousal unit as engaging both members in lifestyle modification may improve the quality of both their health and relationship overall.
Menéndez, P; Gambi, D; Villarejo, P; Cubo, T; Padilla, D; Menéndez, J M; Martín, J
The medical management of MO may be effective in the short and intermediate terms, although it usually fails then leading to surgical management. Our goal is to assess Capella's surgical technique by means of quality indicators including weight loss. The present work has been performed with surgical MO patients at the 12 de Octubre University Hospital during 2000-2001, and registering the follow-up checkups for the period 2000-2001/2003-2004. We reviewed the clinical charts of 23 patients. The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 52.24 +/- 10.07 kg/m(2), (range, 41-74.41). When compiling the statistical results, we observed statistically significant post-surgical decreases with no differences whether the PEIMCP outcome was excellent (>or= 65%), fair (= 50-65%) or failure (
Michalik, Maciej; Buchwald, Henry
Introduction Absent today is a simple numerical system of outcomes assessment that recognizes that bariatric surgery is metabolic surgery and incorporates weight loss, hypertension control, and type 2 diabetes control. Aim To introduce a simple, new Numerical Scale to Assess the Outcomes of Metabolic Surgery (NOMS). Material and methods For the stratification of weight outcomes, we used the percentage excess weight loss (%EWL); for hypertension, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) combined with medication usage; and for type 2 diabetes, the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value combined with medication usage. Results Utilizing the guidelines of the American Diabetes Association, the Working Group of the European Society of Hypertension, the European Society of Cardiology, and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, we propose for %EWL: W1 ≥ 50, W2 > 25 and < 50, and W3 ≤ 25; for hypertension H1 SBP/DPB < 140/90 mm Hg on no medication, H2 SBP/DBP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg with improvement of SBP or possible reduction of antihypertensive medication, and H3 no change or SBP higher than before surgery; for diabetes mellitus D1 HbA1c ≤ 7% and no medication, D2 HbA1c > 7% with a decrease of the HbA1c level or possible reduction of medication, D3 no change in HbA1c or HbA1c higher than before surgery. Designations of H0 and D0 are given if hypertension or diabetes was not present before surgery. Patient examples for numerical scores are provided. Conclusions The introduction of our numerical scale (NOMS) can be of benefit in metabolic/bariatric outcomes assessment; communications among metabolic/bariatric surgery centers, physicians, and patients; and for more precise reporting in the evidence-based literature. PMID:26649080
Dudley, Katherine A; Tavakkoli, Ali; Andrews, Robert A; Seiger, Ashley N; Bakker, Jessie P; Patel, Sanjay R
Standard obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) therapies are poorly tolerated. Bariatric surgery is a potential alternative but the level of interest in this intervention among OSA patients is unknown. Determine the proportion of OSA patients who would be interested in bariatric surgery. Sleep clinics, United States. Consecutive adult patients with untreated severe OSA and a body mass index of 35-45 kg/m(2) were approached. Patients at low perioperative risk and no urgent indication for OSA treatment were invited to a separate informational visit about bariatric surgery as primary treatment for OSA. Of 767 eligible patients, 230 (30.0%) were not at low perioperative risk, 49 (6.4%) had drowsy driving, and 16 (2.1%) had no insurance coverage for bariatric surgery. Of the remaining 482 patients, over one third (35.5%) were interested in bariatric surgery. Surgical interest was 47.2% in women versus 27.6% in men (P<0.01) and 67.3% in diabetics versus 31.0% in nondiabetics (P<0.01). In multivariable adjusted models, female gender (odds ratio 1.89, 95% CI [1.10-3.25]) and diabetes (odds ratio 3.97, 95% CI [1.97-8.01]) remained highly predictive of bariatric surgery interest. Nearly two thirds of obese patients with severe OSA are good candidates for bariatric surgery. Among candidates, over one third are interested in this treatment. Interest rates are highest among women and diabetics, indicating that metabolic improvements continue to be a major driver of surgery even in patients with severe OSA. Given patient interest, the role of bariatric surgery should be routinely discussed with obese OSA patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mognol, P; Marmuse, J P
Over the last 15 years, obesity surgery has developed tremendously. The two most frequently practiced procedures are the adjustable gastric ring and gastric by-pass. A new intervention has recently appeared: the sleeve gastrectomy, an essentially restrictive intervention consisting of a vertical gastrectomy including the entire greater curvature of the stomach while leaving in place an approximately 100-ml gastric tube along the lesser curvature. This intervention was initially proposed as the first part of a duodenal switch in patients whose body mass index was greater than 60 kg/m2. Since then, these indications have developed and this intervention now enjoys a certain fervor on the part of bariatric surgery teams. The objective of this mini-review is to detail the technical aspects of this procedure, its morbidity and mortality, and the long-term results, although there are currently few teams with more than 3 years of experience.
Brunault, Paul; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri; Bourbao-Tournois, Céline; Delbachian, Irène; Couet, Charles; Réveillère, Christian; Ballon, Nicolas
This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors for food addiction (FA) in bariatric surgery candidates. We assessed BMI, FA (Yale Food Addiction Scale), quality of life (Quality Of Life, Obesity and Dietetics), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and binge eating (Binge Eating Scale) in 188 obese patients. The most prevalent addiction criteria were persistent desire to control food consumption (93.1 %), continuing to eat certain foods despite problems (40.4 %), and tolerance (38.8 %); current prevalence of FA was 16.5 %. Patients with (vs. without) FA were more often single and had lower physical, psycho-social, and sexual quality of life and higher depression and binge eating. Systematic screening for and treatment of FA symptoms before obesity surgery is critical because FA symptoms are prevalent and associated with poorer psychosocial outcome.
Linkov, Faina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Freese, Kyle E; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Eid, George Michel; Gourash, William
Bariatric surgery may prove an effective weight loss option for those struggling with severe obesity, but it is difficult to determine levels of interest in such procedures at the population level through traditional approaches. Analysis of Google Trend information may give providers and healthcare systems useful information regarding Internet users' interest in bariatric procedures. The objective of this study was to gather Google Trend information on worldwide Internet searches for "bariatric surgery", "gastric bypass", "gastric sleeve", "gastric plication", and "lap band" from 2004-2012 and to explore temporal relationships with relevant media events, economic variations, and policy modifications. Data were collected using Google Trends. Trend analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel Version 14.3.5 and Minitab V.16.0. Trend analyses showed that total search volume for the term "bariatric surgery" has declined roughly 25% since January 2004, although interest increased approximately 5% from 2011 to 2012. Interest in lap band procedures declined 30% over the past 5 years, while "gastric sleeve" has increased 15%. Spikes in search numbers show an association with events such as changing policy and insurance guidelines and media coverage for bariatric procedures. This report illustrates that variations in Internet search volume for terms related to bariatric surgery are multifactorial in origin. Although it is impossible to ascertain if reported Internet search volume is based on interest in potentially undergoing bariatric surgery or simply general interest, this analysis reveals that search volume appears to mirror real world events. Therefore, Google Trends could be a way to supplement understanding about interest in bariatric procedures. © 2013 American Society for Bariatric Surgery Published by American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery All rights reserved.
Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin
Background Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. Objective To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. Methods We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. Limitations The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Conclusions Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed. PMID:27701452
Li, Kun; Zou, Jianan; Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin
Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed.
Bays, H E; Laferrère, B; Dixon, J; Aronne, L; González-Campoy, J M; Apovian, C; Wolfe, B M
Objective: To review how bariatric surgery in obese patients may effectively treat adiposopathy (pathogenic adipose tissue or ‘sick fat’), and to provide clinicians a rationale as to why bariatric surgery is a potential treatment option for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Methods: A group of clinicians, researchers, and surgeons, all with a background in treating obesity and the adverse metabolic consequences of excessive body fat, reviewed the medical literature regarding the improvement in metabolic disease with bariatric surgery. Results: Bariatric surgery improves metabolic disease through multiple, likely interrelated mechanisms including: (i) initial acute fasting and diminished caloric intake inherent with many gastrointestinal surgical procedures; (ii) favourable alterations in gastrointestinal endocrine and immune responses, especially with bariatric surgeries that reroute nutrient gastrointestinal delivery such as gastric bypass procedures; and (iii) a decrease in adipose tissue mass. Regarding adipose tissue mass, during positive caloric balance, impaired adipogenesis (resulting in limitations in adipocyte number or size) and visceral adiposity are anatomic manifestations of pathogenic adipose tissue (adiposopathy). This may cause adverse adipose tissue endocrine and immune responses that lead to metabolic disease. A decrease in adipocyte size and decrease in visceral adiposity, as often occurs with bariatric surgery, may effectively improve adiposopathy, and thus effectively treat metabolic disease. It is the relationship between bariatric surgery and its effects upon pathogenic adipose tissue that is the focus of this discussion. Conclusions: In selective obese patients with metabolic disease who are refractory to medical management, adiposopathy is a surgical disease. PMID:19691612
Wee, Christina C; Huskey, Karen W; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Colten, Mary Ellen; Davis, Roger B; Hamel, Marybeth
Bariatric surgery is one of few obesity treatments to produce substantial weight loss but only a small proportion of medically-eligible patients, especially men and racial minorities, undergo bariatric surgery. To describe primary care patients' consideration of bariatric surgery, potential variation by sex and race, and factors that underlie any variation. Telephone interview of 337 patients with a body mass index or BMI > 35 kg/m(2) seen at four diverse primary care practices in Greater-Boston. Patients' consideration of bariatric surgery. Of 325 patients who had heard of bariatric surgery, 34 % had seriously considered surgery. Men were less likely than women and African Americans were less likely than Caucasian patients to have considered surgery after adjustment for sociodemographics and BMI. Comorbid conditions did not explain sex and racial differences but racial differences dissipated after adjustment for quality of life (QOL), which tended to be higher among African American than Caucasian patients. Physician recommendation of bariatric surgery was independently associated with serious consideration for surgery [OR 4.95 (95 % CI 2.81-8.70)], but did not explain variation in consideration of surgery across sex and race. However, if recommended by their doctor, men were as willing and African American and Hispanic patients were more willing to consider bariatric surgery than their respective counterparts after adjustment. Nevertheless, only 20 % of patients reported being recommended bariatric surgery by their doctor and African Americans and men were less likely to receive this recommendation; racial differences in being recommended surgery were also largely explained by differences in QOL. High perceived risk to bariatric surgery was the most commonly cited barrier; financial concerns were uncommonly cited. Single geographic region; examined consideration and not who eventually proceeded with bariatric surgery. African Americans and men were less likely to
Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.
Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig
Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1.
Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.
Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig
Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1.
Gorman, Dora M; le Roux, Carel W; Docherty, Neil G
Bariatric surgery, initially intended as a weight-loss procedure, is superior to standard lifestyle intervention and pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Intensive medical management of hyperglycemia is associated with improved microvascular outcomes. Whether or not the reduction in hyperglycemia observed after bariatric surgery translates to improved microvascular outcomes is yet to be determined. There is substantial heterogeneity in the data relating to the impact of bariatric surgery on diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. This review aims to collate the recent data on retinal outcomes after bariatric surgery. This comprehensive evaluation revealed that the majority of DR cases remain stable after surgery. However, risk of progression of pre-existing DR and the development of new DR is not eliminated by surgery. Instances of regression of DR are also noted. Potential risk factors for deterioration include severity of DR at the time of surgery and the magnitude of glycated hemoglobin reduction. Concerns also exist over the detrimental effects of postprandial hypoglycemia after surgery. In vivo studies evaluating the chronology of DR development and the impact of bariatric surgery could provide clarity on the situation. For now, however, the effect of bariatric surgery on DR remains inconclusive.
Gorman, Dora M.; le Roux, Carel W.
Bariatric surgery, initially intended as a weight-loss procedure, is superior to standard lifestyle intervention and pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Intensive medical management of hyperglycemia is associated with improved microvascular outcomes. Whether or not the reduction in hyperglycemia observed after bariatric surgery translates to improved microvascular outcomes is yet to be determined. There is substantial heterogeneity in the data relating to the impact of bariatric surgery on diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. This review aims to collate the recent data on retinal outcomes after bariatric surgery. This comprehensive evaluation revealed that the majority of DR cases remain stable after surgery. However, risk of progression of pre-existing DR and the development of new DR is not eliminated by surgery. Instances of regression of DR are also noted. Potential risk factors for deterioration include severity of DR at the time of surgery and the magnitude of glycated hemoglobin reduction. Concerns also exist over the detrimental effects of postprandial hypoglycemia after surgery. In vivo studies evaluating the chronology of DR development and the impact of bariatric surgery could provide clarity on the situation. For now, however, the effect of bariatric surgery on DR remains inconclusive. PMID:27766242
Chow, Alexandra; Switzer, Noah J.; Dang, Jerry; Shi, Xinzhe; de Gara, Christopher; Birch, Daniel W.; Gill, Richdeep S.; Karmali, Shahzeer
Background. The utility of bariatric surgery in type 1 diabetes remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate glycemic control outcomes in obese patients with type 1 diabetes after bariatric surgery. Methods. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was completed. Inclusion criteria included human adult subjects with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 and a confirmed diagnosis of type 1 diabetes who underwent a bariatric surgical procedure. Results. Thirteen primary studies (86 patients) were included. Subjects had a mean age of 41.16 ± 6.76 years with a mean BMI of 42.50 ± 2.65 kg/m2. There was a marked reduction in BMI postoperatively at 12 months and at study endpoint to 29.55 ± 1.76 kg/m2 (P < 0.00001) and 30.63 ± 2.09 kg/m2 (P < 0.00001), respectively. Preoperative weighted mean total daily insulin requirement was 98 ± 26 IU/d, which decreased significantly to 36 ± 15 IU/d (P < 0.00001) and 42 ± 11 IU/d (P < 0.00001) at 12 months and at study endpoint, respectively. An improvement in HbA1c was also seen from 8.46 ± 0.78% preoperatively to 7.95 ± 0.55% (P = 0.01) and 8.13 ± 0.86% (P = 0.03) at 12 months and at study endpoint, respectively. Conclusion. Bariatric surgery in patients with type 1 diabetes leads to significant reductions in BMI and improvements in glycemic control. PMID:27375900
Inge, T.H.; Zeller, M.H.; Jenkins, T.M.; Helmrath, M.; Brandt, M.L.; Michalsky, M.P.; Harmon, C.M.; Courcoulas, A.; Horlick, M.; Xanthakos, S.A.; Dolan, L.; Mitsnefes, M.; Barnett, S.J.; Buncher, C.R.
Importance Severe obesity in childhood is a major health problem with few effective treatments. Weight loss surgery (WLS) is being used to treat severely obese adolescents, although with very limited data regarding surgical safety for currently used, minimally-invasive procedures. Objective To assess preoperative clinical characteristics perioperative safety outcomes of severely obese adolescents undergoing WLS. Design This prospective, multi-site observational study enrolled from 2007 through 2012. Setting This study was conducted at 5 academic referral centers in the U.S Participants Consecutive subjects ≤ age 19 years who were approved to undergo (n=277) were offered enrollment into the study; 13 declined participation and 22 did not undergo surgery after enrollment thus the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 individuals. There were no withdrawals. Main Outcomes & Measures This analysis examined preoperative anthropometrics, comorbid conditions, and major and minor complications occurring within 30 days of operation. All data were collected in a standardized fashion. Re-operations and hospital re-admissions were adjudicated by independent reviewers to assess relatedness to the WLS procedure. Results Mean age of participants was 17.1±1.6 years and the median BMI was 50.5 kg/m2. Fifty-one percent demonstrated four or more major co-morbid conditions. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding were performed in 66%, 28%, and 6% of subjects, respectively. There were no deaths during the initial hospitalization or within 30 days of operation; major complications (eg., reoperation) were seen in 19 subjects (8%). Minor complications (eg., readmission for dehydration) were noted in 36 subjects (15%). All re-operations and 85% of re-admissions were related to WLS. Conclusions & Relevance In this series, adolescents with severe obesity presented with abundant comorbid conditions. We observed a favorable short
Inge, Thomas H; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L; Michalsky, Marc P; Harmon, Carroll M; Courcoulas, Anita; Horlick, Mary; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Dolan, Larry; Mitsnefes, Mark; Barnett, Sean J; Buncher, Ralph
Severe obesity in childhood is a major health problem with few effective treatments. Weight-loss surgery (WLS) is being used to treat severely obese adolescents, although with very limited data regarding surgical safety for currently used, minimally invasive procedures. To assess the preoperative clinical characteristics and perioperative safety outcomes of severely obese adolescents undergoing WLS. This prospective, multisite observational study enrolled patients from February 28, 2007, through December 30, 2011. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger who were approved to undergo WLS (n = 277) were offered enrollment into the study at 5 academic referral centers in the United States; 13 declined participation and 22 did not undergo surgery after enrollment, thus the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 individuals. There were no withdrawals. This analysis examined preoperative anthropometrics, comorbid conditions, and major and minor complications occurring within 30 days of operation. All data were collected in a standardized fashion. Reoperations and hospital readmissions were adjudicated by independent reviewers to assess relatedness to the WLS procedure. The mean (SD) age of participants was 17.1 (1.6) years and the median body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 50.5. Fifty-one percent demonstrated 4 or more major comorbid conditions. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding were performed in 66%, 28%, and 6% of patients, respectively. There were no deaths during the initial hospitalization or within 30 days of operation; major complications (eg, reoperation) were seen in 19 patients (8%). Minor complications (eg, readmission for dehydration) were noted in 36 patients (15%). All reoperations and 85% of readmissions were related to WLS. In this series, adolescents with severe obesity presented with abundant comorbid conditions. We observed
Baimas-George, Maria; Hennings, Dietric L; Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Emad Kandil; DuCoin, Christopher
The obesity epidemic is associated with a rise in coronary surgeries because obesity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Bariatric surgery is linked to improvement in cardiovascular co-morbidities and left ventricular function. No studies have investigated survival advantage in postoperative bariatric patients after coronary surgery. To determine if there is a benefit after coronary surgery in patients who have previously undergone bariatric surgery. National Inpatient Sample. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2010. We selected bariatric surgical patients who later underwent coronary surgery (n = 257). A comparison of postoperative complications and mortality after coronary surgery were compared with controls (n = 1442) using χ(2) tests, linear regression analysis, and multivariate logistical regression models. A subset population was identified as having undergone coronary surgery (n = 1699); of this population, 257 patients had previously undergone bariatric surgery. They were compared with 1442 controls. The majority was male (67.2%), white (82.6%), and treated in an urban environment (96.8%). Patients with bariatric surgery assumed the risk of postoperative complications after coronary surgery that was associated with their new body mass index (BMI) (BMI<25 kg/m(2): odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% CI .76-1.34, P = .94; BMI 25 to<35 kg/m(2): OR .20, 95% CI .02-(2).16, P = .19; BMI≥35 kg/m(2): OR>999.9, 95% CI .18 to>999.9, P = .07). Length of stay was significantly longer in postbariatric patients (BMI<25, OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.14-2.30, P = .007). Postoperative bariatric patients have a return to baseline risk of morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Halloran, Kieran; Padwal, Raj S; Johnson-Stoklossa, Carlene; Sharma, Arya M; Birch, Dan W
Bariatric surgery has emerged as an effective and safe treatment for severe obesity and utilization rates have increased dramatically. In private health care settings, low socioeconomic status is associated with a reduced likelihood of undergoing a bariatric procedure. Whether this relationship is also present in a universally accessible, publicly funded health care system is not currently known. A retrospective analysis of the Edmonton Weight Wise obesity program clinical registry was conducted. Patients who were unemployed, on long-term disability or receiving social assistance were classified as "low income" status. The remaining patients were categorized as "regular income" status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between low income status and approval for surgery within 1 year of program entry. Thirty-three (7%) of 419 patients were ineligible for surgery or excluded because of missing income status data. Of the remaining 386 patients, 72 (19%) were of low income status and 89 (23%) were approved for surgery. Low income patients were older, heavier, and had greater comorbidity. Compared to patients of regular income status, those with low income status were less likely to be approved for surgery (15.3% versus 24.8%; adjusted OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.94). Within a publicly funded and universally accessible regional obesity program, lower income status patients were less likely to be approved for bariatric surgery. Further study is necessary to clarify this apparent disparity and to determine if program modifications are necessary to ensure equity across all socioeconomic strata.
Lutz, Thomas A.; Bueter, Marco
Animal models have been proven to be a crucial tool for investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying bariatric surgery in general and individual techniques in particular. By using a translational approach, most of these studies have been performed in rodents and have helped to understand how bariatric surgery may or may not work. However, data from studies using animal models should always be critically evaluated for their transferability to the human physiology. It is, therefore, the aim of this review to summarize both advantages and limitations of data generated by animal based experiments designed to investigate and understand the physiological mechanisms at the root of bariatric surgery. PMID:27547753
Kassem, Mahmoud Attia Mohamed; Durda, Michael Andrew; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Cavus, Omer; Sahin, Levent; Rogers, Barbara
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations. An extensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords such as gastric bypass, T2DM, bariatric surgery, GLP-1, GIP, and post bariatric hypoglycemia. Restrictive-malabsorptive procedures are most effective in treating T2DM patients based on changes induced in appetite through regulation of gastrointestinal hormones, with decreased hunger and increased satiation. We provide a review of bariatric surgery influence on T2DM and management of post-intervention hypoglycemic events. Post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia is a serious complication especially when patients develop life-threatening neuroglycopenia with loss of consciousness and seizure. The avoidance of this adverse event may be achieved by strict dietary modification including a restriction on carbohydrates as well as foods with high glycemic index. Further research will provide more information on post-bariatric surgery hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia pathophysiology and management. PMID:28298900
Xiao, Nianzhou; Jenkins, Todd M; Nehus, Edward; Inge, Thomas H; Michalsky, Marc P; Harmon, Carroll M.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Brandt, Mary L.; Courcoulas, Anita; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Mitsnefes, Mark M
Objective To describe objective measures of kidney function and analyze factors associated with kidney dysfunction in severely obese adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery. Design and Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 242 adolescent participants in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) study before weight loss surgery. Kidney status was assessed by measuring urine albumin creatinine ratio to determine microalbuminuria and by calculating serum cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to assess kidney function. Results Mean age and median body mass index (BMI) were 17.1 years and 50.5kg/m2, respectively; 76% were females and 65% were non-Hispanic white race. Fourteen percent of the cohort had microalbuminuria, and 3% had macroalbuminuria; 3% had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, and 7.1% had eGFR >150 ml/min/1.73m2. In adjusted analyses, female gender and increasing ferritin levels were significantly associated with the presence of microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria. Increasing BMI and HOMA-IR values were significantly associated with lower eGFR. Conclusions A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery have evidence of early kidney dysfunction. Longitudinal studies following weight loss surgery in these individuals are needed to determine whether these kidney abnormalities are reversible following weight loss therapy. PMID:25376399
González, Irene; Lecube, Albert; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo
The significant increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increase in the number of obese women who become pregnant. In this setting, in recent years, there has been an exponential rise in the number of bariatric procedures, with approximately half of them performed in women of childbearing age, and a remarkable surge in the number of women who become pregnant after having undergone bariatric surgery (BS). These procedures entail the risk of nutritional deficiencies, and nutrition is a crucial aspect during pregnancy. Therefore, knowledge and awareness of the consequences of these techniques on maternal and fetal outcomes is essential. Current evidence suggests a better overall obstetric outcome after BS, in comparison to morbid obese women managed conservatively, with a reduction in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-associated hypertensive disorders, macrosomia, and congenital defects. However, the risk of potential maternal nutritional deficiencies and newborns small for gestational age cannot be overlooked. Results concerning the incidence of preterm delivery and the number of C-sections are less consistent. In this paper, we review the updated evidence regarding the impact of BS on pregnancy. PMID:28008286
Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce; Flum, David R.; Spaniolas, Konstatinos; Bessler, Mark; Devlin, Michael; Marcus, Marsha D.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Engel, Scott; Khandelwal, Saurobh; Yanovski, Susan
Objective To determine whether binge eating disorder (BED) status is associated with medical comorbidities in obese adults scheduled for bariatric surgery. Method The study utilized Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 data obtained from 6 clinical centers around the United States. This is a well-phenotyped cohort of individuals who were evaluated within 30 days prior to their scheduled surgery using standardized protocols. In the cohort, 350 participants were classified as having BED and 1875 as not having BED (non-BED). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether BED status was independently related to medical comorbidities. As an exploratory analysis, significance was based on nominal P-values (p<.05). Holm-adjusted P-values were also reported. Results After adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index, BED status was independently associated with 4 of 15 comorbidities (i.e., impaired glucose levels (odds ratio [OR]=1.45 (95%CI: 1.12–1.87), high triglycerides (OR=1.28 (95%CI: 1.002–1.63) and urinary incontinence (OR=1.30 (95%CI: 1.02,1.66) all being more common among the BED sample, and severe walking limitations being less common in the BED sample (OR=0.53 (95%CI: 0.29–0.96)). With further adjustment for psychiatric/emotional health indicators, BED status was independently associated with 3 comorbidities (impaired glucose levels (OR=1.36 (95%CI: 1.04–1.79), cardiovascular disease (OR=0.50 (95%CI: 0.30–0.86) and severe walking limitations (OR=0.38 (95%CI: 0.19–0.77)). However, Holm’s adjusted P-values for all variables were greater than .05. Discussion The results suggest the possibility of a contribution of BED to risk of specific medical comorbidities in severely obese adults. PMID:25778499
Zeller, Meg H; Modi, Avani C; Noll, Jennie G; Long, Jeffrey D; Inge, Thomas H
The aims of the present study were to examine changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptoms in adolescents with extreme obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) across the first postoperative year. A prospective longitudinal observational study of 31 adolescent patients undergoing RYGBP at a pediatric medical center (mean = 16.4 years; 64.5% females, mean BMI 63.5; 97% of study eligible and consecutive patients) was conducted. Participants completed two adolescent HRQOL measures, the PedsQL (generic) and the IWQOL-Kids (weight-related), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and height and weight were measured at three time points: baseline, and 6 and 12 months following RYGBP. Prior to RYGBP, significant impairments in HRQOL were documented and 38.7% reported depressive symptomatology in the clinical range. As expected, BMI and depressive symptoms decreased and HRQOL improved from baseline to 12 months post-RYGBP. Linear mixed modeling analyses detected several nonlinear slopes in BMI, depressive symptoms, and the majority of HRQOL domains over time with deceleration in these postoperative changes beginning at the 6th month time point. In contrast, the rate of change in weight-related social relations was linear (e.g., no deceleration), indicating continued improvement across the first postoperative year. Adolescent RYGBP results in significant improvement in HRQOL and depressive symptomatology over the first postoperative year. Longer-term follow-up will be critical to determine adolescent weight and psychosocial trajectories, their interrelations, and what role psychosocial status plays in continued weight loss, maintenance, and regain.
Zeller, Meg H.; Modi, Avani C.; Noll, Jennie G.; Long, Jeffrey D.; Inge, Thomas H.
The aims of the present study were to examine changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptoms in adolescents with extreme obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) across the first postoperative year. A prospective longitudinal observational study of 31 adolescent patients undergoing RYGBP at a pediatric medical center (mean = 16.4 years; 64.5% females, mean BMI 63.5; 97% of study eligible and consecutive patients) was conducted. Participants completed two adolescent HRQOL measures, the PedsQL (generic) and the IWQOL-Kids (weight-related), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and height and weight were measured at three time points: baseline, and 6 and 12 months following RYGBP. Prior to RYGBP, significant impairments in HRQOL were documented and 38.7% reported depressive symptomatology in the clinical range. As expected, BMI and depressive symptoms decreased and HRQOL improved from baseline to 12 months post-RYGBP. Linear mixed modeling analyses detected several nonlinear slopes in BMI, depressive symptoms, and the majority of HRQOL domains over time with deceleration in these postoperative changes beginning at the 6th month time point. In contrast, the rate of change in weight-related social relations was linear (e.g., no deceleration), indicating continued improvement across the first postoperative year. Adolescent RYGBP results in significant improvement in HRQOL and depressive symptomatology over the first postoperative year. Longer-term follow-up will be critical to determine adolescent weight and psychosocial trajectories, their interrelations, and what role psychosocial status plays in continued weight loss, maintenance, and regain. PMID:19165158
Dan, Dilip; Singh, Yardesh; Naraynsingh, Vijay; Hariharan, Seetharaman; Maharaj, Ravi; Teelucksingh, Surujpal
Bariatric surgery is a well-recognized modality of management of obesity. In addition to obesity, it effectively controls diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. It has been recommended that bariatric surgery should be done in "designated centers" of excellence where there is a high volume of case turnover. Caribbean nations are not spared from the global spread of the obesity epidemic; however, not many patients get the benefits of bariatric surgery. This study aimed to establish that bariatric surgery could be safely and efficiently undertaken in a low-volume center outside the "designated centers" with comparable patient outcomes even in a third world setting. Though "patient numbers" generally imply better outcome, in an environment where these numbers cannot be achieved, patients should not be denied the access to surgery once good outcomes are achieved.
Türk, Yasemin; van Huisstede, Astrid; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Taube, Christian; Braunstahl, Gert-Jan
This pilot study was performed to investigate the feasibility of pre-surgical pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in morbidly obese patients with uncontrolled asthma, undergoing bariatric surgery. Four morbidly obese female patients with asthma participated in a 12-week PR program (exercise, diet, and psychological intervention) before undergoing bariatric surgery, and the outcomes were compared to a matched group of seven female controls (bariatric surgery only). In patients who participated in PR, asthma control and asthma quality of life improved dramatically after 3 months of PR. Besides, asthma control was better at the moment of surgery. The results of this pilot study show that PR is feasible in morbidly obese asthmatics and should be considered for a selected group of patients with uncontrolled asthma before undergoing bariatric surgery.
Primeaux, Stefany D; de Silva, Taniya; Tzeng, Tony H; Chiang, Monica C; Hsia, Daniel S
There is a large body of evidence indicating that bariatric surgery provides durable weight loss and health benefits to patients who are obese and have comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there are still many questions related to mechanisms of metabolic improvement, predictors of success/failure, and long term consequences, which need to be answered. More recently, there has been a particular interest in the modulation of taste and food preferences that occurs after bariatric surgery and how this affects weight loss in different individuals. Animal models as well as human studies have shed some light on the role of taste in changing food preferences and how these changes may affect weight loss after surgery. The goal of this review is to discuss the physiological and behavioral consequences of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obesity and T2D, with particular emphasis on recent studies describing bariatric surgery-induced modifications in taste perception and food preferences.
de OLIVEIRA, Josélia Jucirema Jarschel; de FREITAS, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; de ALMEIDA, Andréa Adriana
ABSTRACT Background: Respiratory physiotherapy plays an important role preventing complications in bariatric surgery. Aim: To assess the effects of out-patient physiotherapy during post-operative period through respiratory pressures and functional capacity in individuals submitted to bariatric surgery. Method: A prospective longitudinal and controlled study was done in adults with body mass index (BMI) equal or greater than 40 kg/m², who have been submitted to bariatric surgery. They were divided into two groups: intervention-group, who performed out-patient physiotherapy twice a week, from thirty to sixty days after surgery; and the control-group, who only followed home instructions. Both groups were evaluated before surgery and sixty days after surgery through manovacuometry, six-minute walk test and the Borg Scale of perceived exertion. Results: Twenty participants were included the intervention-group and twenty-three in the control-group. Both groups had significant and similar weight loss after surgery. The manovacuometry presented no differences comparing pre- and post-surgery and in the comparison between the groups. The result of the six-minute walk test for the intervention-group increased by 10.1% in the post-operative period in relation to pre-. The Borg scale of perceived exertion in the intervention-group in pre-surgery decreased by 13.5% in the post-surgery compared to pre-surgery. In the control-group there was no difference comparing pre- and post-operative values, as in the comparison with the intervention-group. Conclusion: The low-intensity exercise program, carried out between the 30th and the 60th day after bariatric surgery provided better functional capacity; did not change respiratory muscle strength; and improved the perceived exertion rate. PMID:27683775
Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Chaparro, Maria; Gougeon, Lorraine; Shakory, Sharry; Weiland, Mary; Warwick, Katie; Plummer, Carolyn; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Nutrition education is a standard of care in bariatric surgery clinical practice guidelines. Despite its known importance, no studies have documented the trajectory of nutrition knowledge over the course of the bariatric surgery process. Primary objectives included determining changes in bariatric surgery nutrition knowledge scores from the pre-surgical phase to 1-month post-surgical intervention and investigating the impact of time on nutrition education retention in bariatric patients. Secondary objectives focused on the relationship between patients' pre-operative anxiety and depression on nutrition knowledge retention. Prior to data collection, patients attended a nutrition education class and met with a registered dietitian. One hundred and nineteen consented patients eligible for bariatric surgery completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire, Eating After Bariatric Surgery (EABS) prior to and 1 month following bariatric surgery. Analyses revealed (1) patients' nutrition knowledge (measured by EABS) significantly increased from the pre-operative phase (M = 46.9; SD = 14.4) to the post-operative phase ((M = 56.9; SD = 14.1), t(118) = -8.01, p < .001); (2) time between the nutrition education class and patients' surgery significantly impacted knowledge retained; (3) patients with higher pre-operative levels of depression and anxiety had significantly lower post-operative nutrition knowledge; and (4) gender differences in terms of patients' nutrition knowledge. This study confirmed that dietary knowledge significantly improves following surgical intervention. Furthermore, increased time in between receiving nutrition knowledge and surgery resulted in less retained knowledge 1-month post-op. Future education interventions for bariatric surgery programs should focus on addressing these factors to optimize patient knowledge and information retention after surgery.
Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami
Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person’s nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student’s t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (p<0.05). There was no significant difference regarding the serum ferritin levels between dentate and edentulous patients prior to surgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention. PMID:27695053
Simon, P; Pietsch, U-C; Oesemann, R; Dietrich, A; Wrigge, H
Aspiration of stomach content is a severe complication during general anaesthesia. The DGAI (German Society for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine) guidelines recommend a fasting period for liquids of 2 h, with a maximum of 400 ml. Preoperative fasting can affect the patients' recovery after surgery due to insulin resistance and higher protein catabolism as a response to surgical stress. The aim of the study was to compare a liberal fasting regimen consisting of up to 1000 ml of liquids until 2 h before surgery with the DGAI recommendation. The prospective observational clinical study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Leipzig. In the liberal fasting group (Glib) patients undergoing bariatric surgery were asked to drink 1000 ml of tea up to 2 h before surgery. Patients assigned to the restrictive fasting group (Gres) who were undergoing nonbariatric abdominal surgery were asked to drink no more than 400 ml of water up to 2 h preoperatively. Right after anaesthesia induction and intubation a gastric tube was placed, gastric residual volume was measured and the pH level of gastric fluid was determined. Moreover, the occurrence of aspiration was monitored. In all, 98 patients with a body mass index (BMI) of Glib 51.1 kg/m(2) and Gres 26.5 kg/m(2) were identified. The preoperative fasting period of liquids was significantly different (Glib 170 min vs. Gres 700 min, p < 0.001). There was no difference regarding the residual gastric volume (Glib 11 ml, Gres 5 ml, p = 0.355). The pH of gastric fluid was nearly similar (Glib 4.0; Gres 3.0; p = 0.864). Aspiration did not occur in any patient. There is evidence suggesting that a liberal fluid fasting regimen (1000 ml of fluid) in the preoperative period is safe in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.
Münzberg, Heike; Laque, Amanda; Yu, Sangho; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf
Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and T2DM and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation, and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models. PMID:25614206
Butte, Nancy F.; Brandt, Mary L.; Wong, William W.; Liu, Yan; Mehta, Nitesh R.; Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Puyau, Maurice R.; Vohra, Firoz A.; Shypailo, Roman J.; Zakeri, Issa F.
Objective Energetic adaptations induced by bariatric surgery have not been studied in adolescents or for extended periods post-surgery. Energetic, metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) were investigated in extremely obese adolescents. Design and Methods At baseline and at 1.5, 6 and 12 months post-baseline, 24-h room calorimetry, body composition and fasting blood biochemistries were measured in eleven obese adolescents relative to five matched controls. Results In RYGB group, mean weight loss was 44±19 kg at 12 months. Total energy expenditure (TEE), activity EE, basal metabolic rate (BMR), sleep EE and walking EE significantly declined by 1.5 months (p=0.001) and remained suppressed at 6 and 12 months. Adjusted for age, sex, FFM and FM, EE was still lower than baseline (p=0.001). Decreases in serum insulin, leptin, and T3, gut hormones, and urinary norepinephrine (NE) paralleled the decline in EE. Adjusted changes in TEE, BMR and/or sleep EE were associated with decreases in insulin, HOMA, leptin, TSH, total T3, PYY3–36, GLP2 and urinary NE and epinephrine (p=0.001–0.05). Conclusions Energetic adaptations in response to RYGB-induced weight loss are associated with changes in insulin, adipokines, thyroid hormones, gut hormones and sympathetic nervous system activity, and persist 12 months post-surgery. PMID:25707380
Münzberg, H; Laque, A; Yu, S; Rezai-Zadeh, K; Berthoud, H-R
Bariatric surgery continues to be remarkably efficient in treating obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and a debate has started whether it should remain the last resort only or also be used for the prevention of metabolic diseases. Intense research efforts in humans and rodent models are underway to identify the critical mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects with a view towards non-surgical treatment options. This non-systematic review summarizes and interprets some of this literature, with an emphasis on changes in the controls of appetite. Contrary to earlier views, surgery-induced reduction of energy intake and subsequent weight loss appear to be the main drivers for rapid improvements of glycaemic control. The mechanisms responsible for suppression of appetite, particularly in the face of the large weight loss, are not well understood. Although a number of changes in food choice, taste functions, hedonic evaluation, motivation and self-control have been documented in both humans and rodents after surgery, their importance and relative contribution to diminished appetite has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, none of the major candidate mechanisms postulated in mediating surgery-induced changes from the gut and other organs to the brain, such as gut hormones and sensory neuronal pathways, have been confirmed yet. Future research efforts should focus on interventional rather than descriptive approaches in both humans and rodent models.
Ness, Abigail; Bruce, Jared; Bruce, Amanda; Aupperle, Robin; Lepping, Rebecca; Martin, Laura; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha; Malley, Steve; Selim, Niazy; Savage, Cary R
Recent research suggests that preintervention functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data may predict weight loss outcomes among patients who participate in a behavioral weight loss plan. No study has examined whether presurgical brain activation can predict outcomes following bariatric surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine if brain activations during a presurgical fMRI food-motivation paradigm are associated with weight loss 3 and 6 months following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Nineteen participants viewed food and nonfood pictures from a well-established food motivation paradigm during an fMRI scanning session before LAGB surgery. Weight was assessed presurgery and 3 and 6 months postsurgery; data for all participants was available at each time point. fMRI data were analyzed using the BrainVoyager QX statistical package. Whole brain voxelwise correlations of presurgery (food-nonfood) brain activation and weight, corrected for multiple comparisons, were performed to analyze the relationship between presurgical brain activation and subsequent weight loss. The settings were a medical university brain imaging center and 2 surgical weight loss centers in a major metropolitan area. Increased activity in frontal regions associated with cognitive control (medial, middle, superior frontal gyrus) and posterior cingulate cortex was associated with weight loss following LAGB. We found that neural activity in previously established regions associated with cognitive and behavioral self-regulation predicts weight loss following bariatric surgery. These preliminary findings highlight the role of neural circuitry in the success and maintenance of weight loss and suggest a possible future use of fMRI in screening LAGB surgery candidates. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rapoport, Yuna; Lavin, Patrick J M
A 47-year-old woman developed severe bilateral visual loss 4 years after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 24 years after vertical banded gastroplasty. Her serum copper level was 35 μg/dL (normal, 80-155 μg/dL). She was prescribed elemental copper tablets. Because her methylmalonic acid was slightly elevated, she received vitamin B12 injections as well. Five weeks later, she reported that her vision had improved and, at 10 months, her vision had recovered from 20/400 bilaterally to 20/25 in each eye. This case highlights the importance of checking copper levels in addition to the "more routine" vitamin levels, such as B1, B6, B12, E, and serum folate in patients with suspected nutritional optic neuropathy after bariatric surgery, particularly if it involved a bypass procedure.
Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C
Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.
Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Terragni, Laura; Foss, Christina
Today obesity is understood as a chronic illness. Programs developed to deal with obesity often build on an explicit aim to "empower" patients to take increased responsibility for their health, in line with contemporary neoliberal discourses. There is little empirically based knowledge about this so-called empowering process. In this article we focus on how an empowering program for patients diagnosed as morbidly obese worked on individuals' identity. The program encompassed a course in lifestyle change, bariatric surgery, and aftercare. We conducted qualitative interviews with 9 individuals at different stages of their treatment process and applied discourse analysis to interpret their constructions and negotiations as they progressed through the program. We found that dimensions of control and credibility framed the respondents' identity work. Based on the findings we suggest that contemporary discourses of empowerment as practice might leave the participants "trapped" within the ambivalence of freedom and control.
Pontiroli, A E; Benetti, A; Folini, L; Merlotti, C; Frigè, F
Bariatric surgery developed in the late 1970 to treat severe hyperlipidemias in overweight individuals, not necessarily obese. Several techniques have been developed, and the concept has come first of a surgery for morbid obesity, then of a cure for diabetes in morbid obesity. There are other aspects of bariatric surgery that deserve attention, beyond BMI and diabetes, such as hypertension, poor life expectancy, increased prevalence of cancer, congestive heart failure, social inadequacy. The aim of this presentation is to review some recent development in clinical research, in the fields of liver steatosis, ferritin metabolism, and cholesterol metabolism. Liver steatosis, also called fatty liver encompasses a graduation of diseases with different clinical relevance and prognosis. NAFLD correlates with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. There is now evidence that weight loss, obtained through diet or restrictive surgery, reduces the prevalence (and the severity) of NAFLD. An other issue is represented by serum ferritin concentrations, that are strongly associated with fibrosis, portal and lobular inflammation in NAFLD patients, especially in the presence of obesity. Body iron contributes to excess oxidative stress already at non iron overload concentrations. Moreover, serum ferritin is an important and independent predictor of the development of diabetes. Weight loss is accompanied by reduction of ferritin, more after restrictive than malabsorptive surgery. Metabolic changes are greater after malabsorptive or mixed surgery than after purely restrictive surgery, and this has been ascribed to a greater weight loss. Studies comparing the two kinds of surgery indicate that, for the same amount of weight loss, decrease of cholesterol is greater with the former than with the latter techniques, and this difference is mainly due to a greater reduction of intestinal absorption of cholesterol. In the choice of surgery for the single patient, among
Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Claes, Laurence; Bartsch, Merle; Schulze, Mareike; Langenberg, Svenja; Köhler, Hinrich; Marschollek, Michael; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid
Our aim was to investigate if physical activity (PA) in bariatric surgery patients is related to temperament. Preoperative (n = 70) and post-operative (n = 73) patients were categorized as being physically 'active' versus 'inactive' on the basis of objective PA monitoring. Assessment included the behavioural inhibition system (BIS)/behavioural activation system (BAS) scales, the effortful control (EC) subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form, a numeric pain rating scale and measures for depressive and eating disorder symptoms. 'Active' did not differ from 'inactive' patients with regard to temperament (BIS, BAS, and EC). Regressions with PA grouping as dependent variable (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), depressive or eating disorder symptoms, or pain intensity) indicated an association between lower BMI and more PA in the preoperative and the post-operative group. In the post-operative group, in addition to lower BMI, also lower age and higher BIS reactivity contributed to more PA. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between BMI and BIS suggesting that low BMI was only associated with more PA in post-operative patients with high BIS. The results indicate that temperament per se does not contribute to the level of PA in bariatric surgery patients. However, in post-operative patients, lower BMI was associated with a higher likelihood of being physically active particularly in patients with anxious temperament. These preliminary findings need further investigation within longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Tolone, Salvatore; Pilone, Vincenzo; Musella, Mario; Rossetti, Gianluca; Milone, Marco; Fei, Landino; Forestieri, Pietro; Docimo, Ludovico
At present, prospectively collected data on rhabdomyolysis (RML) after bariatric surgery are limited. To evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and therapeutic strategy of RML in different bariatric procedures. University hospitals, Italy. Obese patients were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative demographic characteristics and clinical data, as well as type of anesthesia and type and total duration of surgery, were recorded as potential risk factors for RML. RML was defined as postoperative creatine kinase (CK)>1000 U/L. Incidence, possible risk factors, and therapeutic outcome of RML were assessed and compared with comparative groups. Four hundred eighty obese patients were included in the study. After surgery, RML was diagnosed in 62 (12.9%) patients. Muscular pain was present in 12 patients (19.3%). In RML patients, mean CK value was 1346±2132.5 U/L (range 1191-37,400). Only duration of surgery was identified as an independent risk factor for RML (P<.001). The best cutoff value of time as a predictor was 230 minutes. Aggressive therapy with fluids and diuretics started within 24 hours after surgery was more effective in relieving RML and muscle pain than a comparative retrospective group with a delayed diagnosis and therapy. After bariatric surgery, the risk of RML increases, especially when the duration of surgery is>230 minutes. CK testing should be performed in all patients after bariatric surgery to make an early diagnosis and properly start fluids and diuretics. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lawton, Andrew W.; Frisard, Nicholas E.
Background: Vision loss resulting from thiamine deficiency is a recognized complication of bariatric surgery. Most patients with such vision loss have Wernicke encephalopathy with characteristic changes seen on neuroimaging. Other patients may have retinal hemorrhages, optic disc edema, and peripheral neuropathy without Wernicke encephalopathy. The risk for thiamine deficiency is potentiated by the presence of prolonged vomiting. Case Report: A 37-year-old female presented with abrupt onset of vision loss and peripheral neuropathy following bariatric surgery. She had a history of prolonged vomiting postoperatively. Examination of the posterior segment of the eye revealed optic disc edema and large retinal hemorrhages bilaterally. Metabolic workup demonstrated thiamine deficiency. She responded quickly to parenteral thiamine therapy with recovery of normal vision and resolution of ophthalmologic findings. Conclusion: Patients who undergo bariatric surgery and have a thiamine deficiency can present with visual symptoms and ophthalmologic findings only visible by fundoscopy prior to developing more severe and potentially irreversible complications from the vitamin deficiency. Early detection of intraocular changes resulting from thiamine deficiency and initiation of therapy could prevent more devastating neurologic manifestations. Our case supports the consideration of a prospective study aimed at determining the true incidence of ocular and visual changes such as retinal hemorrhage, optic disc edema, and peripapillary telangiectasia in patients following bariatric surgery. PMID:28331457
Morgan, David J R; Ho, Kwok M
It is uncertain whether bariatric surgery can be safely performed in secondary hospitals without on-site intensive care unit (ICU) support. This study describes the outcomes of elective bariatric surgery patients who required inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU management, extrapolating this as a parameter for secondary hospital safety after bariatric surgery. This was a retrospective, statewide, population-based, linked data cohort study capturing all adult bariatric surgery patients for an entire Australian state between 2007 and 2011 (n = 12,062) with minimum 12-month follow-up. In secondary hospitals, 2663 (22.1%) bariatric patients were operated on, with the majority (n = 2553) undergoing sleeve gastrectomies (SG) or adjustable gastric bands (LAGB). Forty-two patients (including 19 LAGB and 20 SG) required inter-hospital transfer to a tertiary hospital for unplanned ICU care (1.6%, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1), mainly due to surgical complications. Inter-hospital transfers incurred two deaths, both following sleeve gastrectomies. When compared to patients requiring unplanned ICU admissions after bariatric surgery in tertiary hospitals with an on-site ICU (n = 155), there was no difference in their demographic parameters, comorbid illnesses, or mortality (4.8 vs 3.9%, p = 0.68). The mortality following bariatric procedures both statewide (0.2%) and in secondary hospitals (0.2%) was both uncommon and comparable. Statewide inter-hospital transfers for unplanned ICU care from secondary hospitals were low. Inter-hospital transfer mortality was comparable to a similar bariatric cohort requiring unplanned ICU care after surgery in a tertiary hospital. This suggests that certain bariatric procedures can be safely done in most secondary hospitals where elective ICU admission is deemed unnecessary.
Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Råheim, Målfrid
Bariatric surgery provides sustainable weight loss and increased quality of life for most, but not all patients. To increase the knowledge of this complex patient group and their needs during follow-up, we aimed to describe the essential meaning of bariatric surgery patients' long-term experiences by using a phenomenological lifeworld approach. Eight patients were interviewed between 5 and 7 years after bariatric surgery. Life after bariatric surgery was described as living with tension, ambivalence, and reinforced attention toward one's own body. The tension was related to embodied change and altered relations to the social world. The patients express an ongoing demand for control of health-related habits and practices, and to not lose control over the body again. Surgical weight loss and improved physical function do not necessarily mean changed health-related habits and practices in the long term. Experiencing weight regain is connected with emotional stress, shame, and self-contempt.
Treitl, Daniela; Nieber, Derek; Ben-David, Kfir
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder that has a well-established connection with obesity. To ameliorate the morbidity associated with obesity, bariatric procedures have become an established pathway to accomplish sustained weight loss. In some procedures, such as with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, weight loss is also accompanied by the resolution of GERD symptoms. However, other popular bariatric surgeries, such as the sleeve gastrectomy, have a controversial impact on their effect on reflux. Consequently, increased attention has been given to the development of strategies for the management of de novo or recurrent reflux after bariatric surgery. This article aims to discuss medical and surgical strategies for reflux after bariatric surgery, and their outcomes.
Abiad, Firass; Awwad, Johnny; Abbas, Hussein A; Zebian, Dina; Ghazeeri, Ghina
In recent years, there has been a paralleled increase between male obesity and infertility rates. Obesity is associated with impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, aberrant semen parameters, and subfertility or infertility. Weight loss is strongly recommended for the management of obesity-associated infertility. Lifestyle modifications that include caloric restriction and increased physical activity have a short-lived impact. Bariatric surgery is a better and more durable weight loss alternative. Comprehensive information about the benefits of weight loss on obesity-associated male infertility following bariatric surgery is still emerging. In this review, we discuss the hormonal, physical and environmental mechanism contributing to obesity-associated infertility. We then assess weight loss approaches, which include lifestyle modification, medical and surgical approaches, that can improve fertility in obese men. This review focuses also on bariatric surgery for the management of obese men seeking fertility treatment. Anecdotal evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery can impair fertility is also discussed.
Khanbhai, M; Dubb, S; Patel, K; Ahmed, A; Richards, T
As bariatric surgery rates continue to climb, anaemia will become an increasing concern. We assessed the prevalence of anaemia and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Prospective data (anaemia [haemoglobin <12 g/dL], haematinics and length of hospital stay) was analysed on 400 hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Results from a prospective database of 1530 patients undergoing elective general surgery were used as a baseline. Fifty-seven patients (14%) were anaemic pre-operatively, of which 98% were females. Median MCV (fL) and overall median ferritin (μg/L) was lower in anaemic patients (83 vs. 86, p=0.001) and (28 vs. 61, p<0.0001) respectively. In the elective general surgery patients, prevalence of anaemia was similar (14% vs. 16%) but absolute iron deficiency was more common in those undergoing bariatric surgery; microcytosis p<0.0001, ferritin <30 p<0.0001. Mean length of stay (days) was increased in the anaemic compared to in the non-anaemic group (2.7 vs. 1.9) and patients who were anaemic immediately post-operatively, also had an increased length of stay (2.7 vs. 1.9), p<0.05. Absolute iron deficiency was more common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. In bariatric patients with anaemia there was an overall increased length of hospital stay.
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Cassin, Stephanie; Hawa, Raed; Khan, Attia; Wnuk, Susan; Jackson, Timothy; Okrainec, Allan
Attendance at bariatric surgery follow-up appointments has been associated with bariatric surgery outcomes. In this prospective study, we sought to examine psychosocial predictors of attendance at post-operative follow-up appointments. Consecutive bariatric surgery patients (n = 132) were assessed pre-surgery for demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and relationship style. Patients were followed for 12 months post-surgery and, based on their attendance at follow-up appointments, were classified as post-surgery appointment attenders (attenders--attended at least one appointment after post-operative month 6) or post-surgery appointment non-attenders (non-attenders--did not attend at least one appointment after post-operative month 6). Psychosocial and demographic variables were compared between the attender and non-attender groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of attendance at post-bariatric surgery follow-up appointments. At 12 months post-surgery, 68.2 % of patients were classified as attenders. The non-attender group was significantly older (p = 0.04) and had significantly higher avoidant relationship style scores (p = 0.02). There was a trend towards patients in the non-attender group living a greater distance from the bariatric center (p = 0.05). Avoidant relationship style was identified as the only significant predictor of post-operative appointment non-attendance in the logistic regression analysis. These findings suggest that avoidant relationship style is an important predictor of post-bariatric surgery appointment non-attendance. Recognition of patients' relationship style by bariatric surgery psychosocial team members may guide the delivery of interventions aimed at engaging this patient group post-surgery.
Pirola, Ilenia; Formenti, Anna M; Gandossi, Elena; Mittempergher, Francesco; Casella, Claudio; Agosti, Barbara; Cappelli, Carlo
Drug malabsorption is a potential concern after bariatric surgery. We present four case reports of hypothyroid patients who were well replaced with thyroxine tablets to euthyroid thyrotropin (TSH) levels prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. These patients developed elevated TSH levels after the surgery, the TSH responded reversibly to switching from treatment with oral tablets to a liquid formulation.
Ganguly, Sonali; Tan, Hong Chang; Lee, Phong Ching; Tham, Kwang Wei
Abstract Traditional treatment of T2DM consisting of modification of diet, an exercise regimen, and pharmacotherapy has problems of poor lifestyle modifications and fail tend of treatment over time, now bariatric surgery is recommended for treatment of obese patients with T2DM because its great improvements on weight loss and metabolic. In this article, effects of bariatric surgery on diabetes and diabetes-related complications are reviewed. PMID:25859264
Sarwer, David B.; Ritter, Scott; Wadden, Thomas A.; Spitzer, Jacqueline C.; Vetter, Marion L.; Moore, Reneé H.
Background Despite increasing evidence about the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery, little is known about physicians’ attitudes toward it as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Objective To investigate physicians’ attitudes about referring patients with type 2 diabetes for bariatric surgery. Setting Physicians at an academic medical center (142) and community-based physicians (197) in the Philadelphia area in specialties likely to treat type 2 diabetes. Methods Physicians identified from the Pennsylvania Integrated Clinical and Administrative Research Database (PICARD) and non-PICARD databases were surveyed about perceptions of the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Results Ninety-three physicians returned the survey for a combined response rate of 27.4%. Respondents reported having positive impressions of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (79.6% and 67.4%, respectively). Only 20.8% of respondents indicated that they would be likely to refer their type 2 diabetes patients with body mass index (BMI) of 30 to 34.9 kg/m2 to a randomized research trial of bariatric surgery. Conclusions In general, physicians who see patients with type 2 diabetes had favorable impressions about bariatric surgery as a treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, only a minority were willing to refer their type 2 diabetic patients with BMIs of 30-34.9 kg/m2 to randomized research trials of bariatric surgery. This reluctance to refer patients represents an important barrier to the successful completion of studies of the efficacy of bariatric surgery for persons with type 2 diabetes and BMIs < 35 kg/m2. PMID:22386926
Pournaras, D-J; Le Roux, C-W
Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in the long term. Gut hormones are key players in the metabolic mechanisms causing obesity. Furthermore gut hormones are involved in the signalling process of hunger and satiety which leads to the control of nutrient intake. In this review, the role of these hormones as facilitators of appetite control after bariatric and metabolic surgery will be explored.
Lerd Ng, Jia; Ortiz, Roberto; Hughes, Tyler; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Bouhali, Othmane; Arredouani, Abdelilah; Allen, Roland
We consider a scientific mystery which is of central importance in treating the most rapidly emerging national and global health threat: type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mystery involves a surprising effect of certain bariatric surgeries, and specifically Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), a procedure which bypasses most of the stomach and upper intestine. An unanticipated result is that RYGB is usually found to contribute within only a few days to glucose homeostasis. This means the surgery can immediately cure patients even before they start losing weight. We are investigating this wondrous biochemical response with a quantitative model which includes the most important mechanisms. One of the major contributors is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin whose concentration is found to increase by a large amount right after the RYGB surgical procedure. However, our results, in conjunction with the experimental and medical data, indicate that other substances must also contribute. If these substances can be definitively identified, it may be possible to replace the surgery with pharmaceuticals as the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Benediktsdottir, Audur; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Bragadottir, Gudrun Jona; Gudmundsson, Ludvig; Ramel, Alfons
Little is known on how morbidly obese individuals who participate in different treatments differ in relation to anthropometrical measurements and psychological characteristics. In the present study we investigated attrition and treatment choice, i.e., bariatric surgery and conservative treatment, of morbidly obese subjects. Data was collected during screening from 292 morbidly obese women who participated in a weight loss program at an Icelandic rehabilitation center. Information were available on body composition, fasting blood samples, psychological characteristics, medication use, drop-out and whether patients underwent bariatric surgery after the weight loss program at the rehabilitation center. Inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 65 years and BMI>35 kg/m(2), exclusion criteria were alcohol- or drug addiction. Of the 292 women who finished screening, 113 (39%) dropped out, 100 (34%) finished the weight loss program and 79 (27%) finished the weight loss program and consecutively underwent surgery. According to multivariate models individuals with BMI ≥50 kg/m(2) were 4.5 times more likely (P=0.003) to undergo bariatric surgery than individuals with BMI <40 kg/m(2). Individuals with severe depression were 2.4 times more likely (P=0.01) to drop out than individuals with no depression. Serum glucose (+36% for an increase by 1 mmol/L, P=0.036) and use of psychotropic medication (+73%, P=0.05) were also associated with higher odds of dropout. A large proportion of morbidly obese individuals dropped out of a weight loss program at an Icelandic rehabilitation center and severe depression symptoms more than doubles this risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rojano-Rodríguez, M E; Valenzuela-Salazar, C; Cárdenas-Lailson, L E; Romero Loera, L S; Torres-Olalde, M; Moreno-Portillo, M
Human obesity is associated with a proinflammatory state and an elevated level of mediators, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). To establish CRP levels as baseline preoperative values and then at 6 months after bariatric surgery, as well as to determine the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), leukocytes, and glycemia. An observational, analytical, retrospective, longitudinal, and open study was conducted. Serum CRP values were measured in 36 adults presenting with morbid obesity, and their baseline relation to weight, BMI, leukocytes, and glycemia was determined; the relation to the same parameters was established again, 6 months after bariatric surgery. The mean and standard deviation of preoperative and postoperative CRP (mg/L) was 1.15±0.86 and 0.34±0.28, respectively with p<0.0001; weight (kg) 112.10±22.91 and 84.82±17.11, p=0.0443; BMI (kg/m(2)) 42.48±5.97 and 32.2±4.79, p=0.0988; glucose (mg/dL) 100.58±17.82 and 87.11±8.49, p<0.0001, and leukocytes (× 10(3)/mm(3)) 8.62±1.69 and 6.99±1.56, p=0.3192. Baseline CRP only correlated with weight and BMI (p=0.047 and p=0.027 respectively) and there was no correlation between postoperative CRP and the evaluated parameters. Preoperative CRP had a significant lineal relation to weight and body mass index. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery had a significant decrease in CRP, weight, and fasting glucose at 6 months after surgery. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Sierżantowicz, Regina; Lewko, Jolanta; Hady, Hady Razak; Kirpsza, Bożena; Trochimowicz, Lech; Dadan, Jacek
Studies conducted in Poland have found that 1% (~300,000) of Polish adults are obese. The degree of weight loss and reduction of discomfort associated with severe obesity are used to evaluate bariatric surgery outcomes. From the patient's point of view, QoL and mental health are the most important determinants of successful surgery, which is why interest in QoL assessment has increased. To assess the effect of BMI on quality of life and depression levels depending on the type of bariatric surgery. The group included 57 women and 43 men aged 20-60 years (mean age 40 years) with BMI from 36 to 40 (31%) and > 40 (69%). Twelve patients (12%) underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric binding (LAGB), 58 (58%) sleeve gastrectomy, and 30 (30%) Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). The Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS) was used to assess QoL. The severity of mood disorders was assessed using the Self-Rating Scale of Depression and Anxiety. Six months or 1 year after bariatric surgery, the number of patients with BMI > 40 had decreased from 69 to 14%. We found that the time since bariatric surgery contributed to a significant (p < 0.01) difference in BAROS outcomes. In the long-term perspective, we observed better quality of life. MA-QoL II is a useful tool in assessing bariatric surgery, including quality of life. Long-term monitoring will be essential in determining psychological changes and the degree of weight loss.
Al-Bahri, Shadi; Fakhry, Tannous K; Gonzalvo, John Paul; Murr, Michel M
Obesity is a relative contraindication to organ transplantation. Preliminary reports suggest that bariatric surgery may be used as a bridge to transplantation in patients who are not eligible for transplantation because of morbid obesity. The Bariatric Center at Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. We reviewed the outcomes of 16 consecutive patients on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent bariatric surgery from 1998 to 2016. Demographics, comorbidities, weight loss, as well as transplant status were reported. Data is mean ± SD. Six men and ten women aged 43-66 years (median = 54 years) underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB, n = 12), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB, n = 3), or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 1). Preoperative BMI was 48 ± 8 kg/m(2). Follow-up to date was 1-10 years (median = 2.8 years); postoperative BMI was 31 ± 7 kg/m(2); %EBWL was 62 ± 24. Four patients underwent renal transplantation (25%) between 2.5-5 years after bariatric surgery. Five patients are currently listed for transplantation. Five patients were not listed for transplantation due to persistent comorbidities; two of these patients died as a consequence of their comorbidities (12.5%) more than 1 year after bariatric surgery. Two patients were lost to follow-up (12.5%). Bariatric surgery is effective in patients with ESRD and improves access to renal transplantation. Bariatric surgery offers a safe approach to weight loss and improvement in comorbidities in the majority of patients. Referrals of transplant candidates with obesity for bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of ESRD.
Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances
This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach.
Many Canadians seek medical treatment outside our borders. Waiting times, rather than lack of expertise, are the number one culprit, and with globalization of health care, the number of patients who travel to obtain medical care will continue to rise. Though the provinces have covered the costs of complications from surgeries performed abroad for many years, complications from bariatric surgery performed abroad have been receiving negative attention. This commentary discusses associated costs and questions how the Canada Health Act should be covering bariatric procedures.
Lalmohamed, Arief; de Vries, Frank; Bazelier, Marloes T; Cooper, Alun; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C
To estimate fracture risk in patients receiving bariatric surgery versus matched controls. Population based, retrospective cohort study. Use of records from the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, now known as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (from January 1987 to December 2010). Patients with a body mass index of at least 30, with a record of bariatric surgery (n=2079), and matched controls without a record (n=10,442). Each bariatric surgery patient was matched to up to six controls by age, sex, practice, year, and body mass index. Patients were followed from the date of bariatric surgery for the occurrence of any fracture. We used time dependent Cox regression to calculate relative rates of fracture, adjusted for disease and previous drug treatment, and time-interaction terms to evaluate fracture timing patterns. Relative rates of any, osteoporotic, and non-osteoporotic fractures. Mean follow-up time was 2.2 years. Overall, there was no significantly increased risk of fracture in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, compared with controls (8.8 v 8.2 per 1000 person years; adjusted relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 1.33). Bariatric surgery also did not affect risk of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic fractures. However, we saw a trend towards an increased fracture risk after three to five years following surgery, as well as in patients who had a greater decrease in body mass index after surgery, but this was not significant. Bariatric surgery does not have a significant effect on the risk of fracture. For the first few years after surgery, these results are reassuring for patients undergoing such operations, but do not exclude a more protracted adverse influence on skeletal health in the longer term.
Marihart, Cindy L; Brunt, Ardith R; Geraci, Angela A
The aging population is growing exponentially worldwide. Associated with this greater life expectancy is the increased burden of chronic health conditions, many of which are exacerbated by the continued rise in obesity. In the US, the prevalence of obesity in adults aged 60 years and older increased from 23.6% to 37% in 2010. This review examines bariatric surgery as a treatment option for obese adults > 60 years old. The most common types of weight-loss surgery are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and the duodenal switch. A comprehensive literature search found 349 articles that referred to bariatric surgery in older adults. Of these, 70 relevant articles on bariatric surgery for older adults were utilized for this article. Weight-loss surgery procedures were found to be equally safe for both older adults and their younger counterparts. Pre-surgical psychological assessment is critical for positive outcomes for older adults. Benefits of bariatric surgery include a decrease in comorbidities, chronic disease risk, and medication use coupled with improved mobility and quality of life outcomes. Side effects include surgical failure, changes in psychological status, and increased physical and mental stress. Bariatric surgery can offer patients an effective and long-lasting treatment for obesity and related diseases. There does not appear to be any one bariatric procedure that is recommended for older adults, so individual needs should be taken into consideration when exploring options. Costs range from US$17,000 for laparoscopic procedures to US$26,000 for open gastric surgeries. Estimated savings start accruing within 3 months of surgery making bariatric surgery a serious cost saving consideration.
Mozer, Anthony B; Pender, John R; Chapman, William H H; Sippey, Megan E; Pories, Walter J; Spaniolas, Konstantinos
Laparoscopic procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity are commonly offered to patients with comorbidities previously thought to carry prohibitive operative risk. In this study, we reviewed characteristics and perioperative outcomes of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure (DDRF) who underwent laparoscopic bariatric procedures. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database from 2006 to 2011 was reviewed. Preoperative characteristics and 30-day outcome data of patients who underwent three common laparoscopic procedures were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson chi-squared tests. One hundred thirty-eight patients (52.5 % female) with DDRF and a median body mass index (BMI) of 45.5 kg/m(2) were identified; 33.8 % (n = 47) underwent laparoscopic banding (LAGB), 48.9 % (n = 68) laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and 16.5 % (n = 23) laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). No differences were found among groups in age, prevalence of American Society of Anesthesiology IV classification, BMI, weight, gender, prevalence of diabetes, and vascular or neurologic comorbidities. Total operation time and length of hospital stay were significantly different between groups. Mortality was 0.7 %, and overall morbidity was 5.8 %. The case mix reflected a decrease in LAGB procedures from 45.5 to 23.3 % from 2006-2009 to 2010-2011 and an increase in LSG procedures from 9.1 to 24.7 % (p < 0.006). When performed in selected DDRF patients, bariatric surgery is safe. An increase in LSG with a concurrent decline in LAGB procedures was demonstrated over the period of the study.
Meek, Claire L; Lewis, Hannah B; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Park, Adrian J
Bariatric surgery for obesity has proved to be an extremely effective method of promoting long-term weight reduction with additional beneficial metabolic effects, such as improved glucose tolerance and remission of type 2 diabetes. A range of bariatric procedures are in common use, including gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of bariatric surgery are unclear, gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides are thought to play an important role. The aim of this review is to summarise the effects of different bariatric surgery procedures upon gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides, including ghrelin, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin, insulin, glucagon and somatostatin.
Armstrong-Javors, Amy; Pratt, Janey; Kharasch, Sigmund
Roughly 1% of all weight loss surgery is performed in adolescents. There is strong evidence demonstrating significant postsurgical weight loss, improvement in quality of life, and reduction in comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. Reports of postoperative complications in adolescents are few because of the small sample size in most series. Despite vitamin supplementation, nutritional deficiencies requiring hospitalization occur occasionally after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Wernicke encephalopathy, a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and altered mental status, is a serious consequence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Few cases of Wernicke encephalopathy after weight loss surgery have been reported in the literature and even fewer in the pediatric population. Here we describe a teenage girl who develops vomiting after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and presented with nystagmus, irritability, and ataxia. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy in adolescents after bariatric surgery are discussed.
Nguyen, Ninh T; Varela, J Esteban
Obesity is one of the most important public health conditions worldwide. Bariatric surgery for severe obesity is an effective treatment that results in the improvement and remission of many obesity-related comorbidities, as well as providing sustained weight loss and improvement in quality of life. Contemporary bariatric operations include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band and the duodenal switch. The vast majority of these procedures are now performed using laparoscopic technique, the main advantages of which include rapid recovery, the reduction of postoperative pain and the reduction of wound-related complications, compared with open surgery. Contemporary bariatric surgery is now safe, with a mortality of three in 1,000 patients; however, all bariatric operations are associated with their own unique short-term and long-term nutritional and procedural-related complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most studied metabolic disorder associated with obesity, with data demonstrating that improvement and remission of T2DM in patients with obesity is superior after bariatric surgery compared with conventional medical therapy. Bariatric surgery is now a part of some treatment algorithms for the medical management of patients with T2DM and severe obesity. New, minimally invasive and endoscopic devices for the treatment of obesity have now been approved in the USA, which will expand the treatment options for individuals with obesity.
Chuah, L L; le Roux, Carel W
Bariatric surgery is increasingly seen as a treatment option for patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and severe complex obesity (SCO). There is however no consensus on how to manage this cohort preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients with T2DM having cardiac surgery benefit from glycaemic optimisation prior to surgery. National Health Service Diabetes in the United Kingdom recommends that glucose is optimised prior to all elective surgery. However, bariatric surgery such as gastric bypass (RYGB) is distinct from general surgery. Glycaemic control improves immediately after RYGB and thus all T2DM patients need a review of their glucose lowering medications postoperatively. Preoperatively most bariatric centres use a low calorie diet (LCD) which improved glycaemic control and may predisposed patients using insulin or sulphonylureas to risks of hypoglycaemia. There are no protocols and consensus among bariatric centres on how best to manage patients with T2DM preoperatively and postoperatively. Moreover patients with difficult to control T2DM are at risk of microvascular complications of diabetes. So far, there is little evidence on the impact of bariatric surgery on diabetes nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy. In conclusion, bariatric surgery improves glycaemic control; however, there are limited studies, and no guidelines on how to manage patients with T2DM pre and postoperatively. Given the increasing proportion of T2DM patients referred for bariatric surgery, there is a need to review current practice on how to manage these patients in the short term and long term with a specific focus on improving end organ damage such as retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Nehus, Edward J; Khoury, Jane C; Inge, Thomas H; Xiao, Nianzhou; Jenkins, Todd M; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Mitsnefes, Mark M
A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery. At surgery, mean age of participants was 17 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 51 kg/m(2). In those with decreased kidney function at baseline (eGFR under 90 mL/min/1.73m(2)), mean eGFR significantly improved from 76 to 102 mL/min/1.73m(2) at three-year follow-up. Similarly, participants with albuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g and more) at baseline demonstrated significant improvement following surgery: geometric mean of ACR was 74 mg/g at baseline and decreased to 17 mg/g at three years. Those with normal renal function and no albuminuria at baseline remained stable throughout the study period. Among individuals with a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) and more at follow-up, increased BMI was associated with significantly lower eGFR, while no association was observed in those with a BMI under 40 kg/m(2). In adjusted analysis, eGFR increased by 3.9 mL/min/1.73m(2) for each 10-unit loss of BMI. Early kidney abnormalities improved following bariatric surgery in adolescents with evidence of preoperative kidney disease. Thus, kidney disease should be considered as a selection criteria for bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents who fail conventional weight management.
Wang, Yong; Zhang, Cuihua
Morbid obesity, a physiological dysfunction in humans associated with environmental, genetic and endocrinological origins, has significantly increased in the past few decades in the USA. Many methods have emerged for treating morbid obesity, such as diets, exercise, behavior modification, liposuction, drugs, and surgery; among these, bariatric surgery reduces weight and appears to have other curative effects. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the principal form of bariatric surgery, followed by laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, gastric sleeve operation, duodenojejunal bypass and biliopancreatic diversion. This weight-loss surgery may also affect comorbidities of morbid obesity, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), atherosclerosis, hypertension and steatohepatitis. Weight-loss surgery, for example, is associated with a more than 80% diabetes (data indicates > 80%) remission rate in severely obese persons. Empirical evidence also suggests that the use of bariatric surgery reduces atherosclerosis, and may ameliorate other comorbities. This warrants closer examination. PMID:19915685
Ramalho, Sofia; Bastos, Ana Pinto; Silva, Cátia; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brandão, Isabel; Machado, Paulo P P; Conceição, Eva
After bariatric surgery, the majority of patients develop a problem with excessive hanging skin. This can negatively influence the psychological benefits associated with bariatric surgery. The present study aims to explore the relationship between overall impairment related to the presence of excessive skin, body image, depressive symptomatology, sexual functioning, and weight regain in a sample of women after bariatric surgery. Sixty-one women (body mass index (BMI) = 30.45 ± 5.35 kg/m(2)) with excessive skin who had undergone bariatric surgery 19.02 ± 9.98 months before were evaluated as part of a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured clinical interview and completed a set of self-report measures. A path analysis, an extension of multiple regression analysis, using IBM® SPSS® Amos™ was conducted to explore simultaneously the associations between the variables under study. The model tested with path analysis showed a good fit to the data (χ (2) = 1.241, df = 4, p = 0.871; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 1.000, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 1.138, Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 1.049, Root-Mean-Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.000) and suggests that sexual functioning and overall impairment caused by excessive skin were associated with concerns regarding body image and depressive symptomatology, which in turn relate to a greater percentage of total weight regain. These data stress the importance of considering sexual intimacy and body image in order to optimize psychological and weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.
Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia
Introduction Currently, surgical treatment is considered to be the most efficient method of dealing with morbid obesity. Aim To evaluate changes in nutritional status after surgical treatment of obesity in the early postoperative period. Material and methods The study included 50 patients (30 women and 20 men) treated surgically due to morbid obesity. During the preliminary visit and during control visits measurements of body mass, height, and waist and hip circumference were conducted. Also, analysis of body content was performed and blood was taken for biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using the program Statistica 10. Results Six months after the surgery, in the group of women, significant reduction of average body mass, average waist circumference, average hip circumference and average body mass index (BMI) was observed. Also, significant reduction of the percentage of body fat and an increase in the percentage of fat-free body mass were observed. A significant decrease in muscle mass was also noted. Both in women and in men, 6 months after the surgery, a significant decrease in fasting glucose concentration, fasting insulin and triglycerides in blood serum was observed. Conclusions Bariatric procedures lead to significant body mass, BMI, waist and hip circumference reduction. Loss of body mass is caused mainly by the reduction of fat tissue. Application of surgical procedures in morbid obesity treatment also allowed us to achieve improvement in insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:25960802
Ferchak, Cynthia V; Meneghini, Luigi F
Obesity is endemic in the United States and is closely linked to the development of type 2 diabetes. Both obesity and diabetes are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Likewise, both conditions are resistant to treatment. Recent studies have evaluated prevention of type 2 diabetes through intensive lifestyle intervention, while others are examining the impact of bariatric surgery on type 2 diabetes. This article presents an overview of the impact of bariatric surgical and lifestyle interventions on the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although studies using a variety of bariatric surgical techniques are included, the focus is on two interventions in particular: the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the laparoscopic silicone gastric banding procedure. Outcomes of these procedures are further contrasted with recent lifestyle intervention studies, in particular, the Diabetes Prevention Program study. Gastric bypass studies have been associated with a 99 to 100% prevention of diabetes in patients with IGT and an 80 to 90% clinical resolution of diagnosed early type 2 diabetes. Gastric banding procedures are associated with a lower median (50-60%) clinical remission of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle intervention studies of obese and glucose-intolerant patients have achieved a 50% reduction in the progression of IGT to diabetes over the short term, with no reported resolution of the disease. Weight loss by any means in the obese patient appears to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes, at least in the short term. Furthermore, sustained weight loss through bariatric surgical intervention is associated both with prevention of progression of IGT and with clinical remission of early type 2 diabetes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Friedman, Kelli E; Applegate, Katherine; Portenier, Dana; McVay, Megan A
As many as 3% of bariatric surgery candidates are diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. 1) To describe differences between patients with bipolar spectrum disorders who are approved and not approved for surgery by the mental health evaluator and 2) to examine surgical outcomes of patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. Academic medical center, United States. A retrospective record review was conducted of consecutive patients who applied for bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2009. Patients diagnosed with bipolar spectrum disorders who were approved for surgery (n = 42) were compared with patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were not approved (n = 31) and to matched control surgical patients without a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n = 29) on a variety of characteristics and surgical outcomes. Of bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder who applied for surgery, 57% were approved by the psychologist and 48% ultimately had surgery. Patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were approved for surgery were less likely to have had a previous psychiatric hospitalization than those who were not approved for surgery. Bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder were less likely to attend follow-up care appointments 2 or more years postsurgery compared to matched patients without bipolar disorder. Among patients with available data, those with a bipolar spectrum disorder and matched patients had similar weight loss at 12 months (n = 21 for bipolar; n = 24 for matched controls) and at 2 or more years (mean = 51 mo; n = 11 for bipolar; n = 20 for matched controls). Patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder have a high rate of delay/denial for bariatric surgery based on the psychosocial evaluation and are less likely to attend medical follow-up care 2 or more years postsurgery. Carefully screened patients with bipolar disorder who engage in long-term follow-up care may benefit from bariatric
PASSERI, Celso Roberto; ANDRADE, Jacira Alves Caracik de Camargo; TOMAL, Karla Thaíza; PRACUCHO, Eduardo Marcucci; de CAMPOS, Livia Paschoalino; SALES-PERES, Silvia Helena de Carvalho
ABSTRACT Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome can be labeled as worldwide outbreak; thus, both have led to serious public health problem. Oral health can be worsened by both, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Tooth loss harms masticatory function, essential status to whom will be submitted to bariatric surgery. Aim: Assess masticatory function of obese candidates to bariatric surgery, who belong to distinct socioeconomic class range, in order to recognize hazard factors and the bias of socioeconomic factor in this context. Methods: Observational cross-section study, with samples comprised by two groups of patients, with distinct socioeconomic class range, one of them belonging to public health system (SUSG) and the other to private clinic (CPG), candidates to bariatric surgery. Were assessed anthropometric data, comorbidities and medicines usage, blood tests, habits and the number of dental functional units. Results: The groups SUSG and CPG were homogeneous taking into account gender (p=0,890) and age range (p=0,170). The number of dental functional units was higher in the private group (p<0.001). The impaired masticatory function was rather present among public group (p<0.001) and female gender (p<0,001). Regarded as blood tests, fasting glucose was higher in female in SUSG (p<0,001). The following hazard factors have corroborated to have patients rated as impaired masticatory function: belong to public service (OR: 8.420, p=0.003), higher age (OR: 1.186, p<0.001), female gender (OR: 0.153, p=0.029), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.545, p=0.045) and smokers (OR: 2.951, p=0.043). Conclusion: The general health and masticatory function of female SUSG were worse, highlighting the socioeconomic condition as hazard factor. PMID:27683777
Rodríguez-Hurtado, José; Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Fontalba-Navas, Andrés; García-Torrecillas, Juan Manuel; Olvera-Porcel, M Carmen
Bariatric surgery is considered a more effective means of achieving weight loss than non-surgical options in morbid obesity. Rates of failure or relapse range from 20 to 30%. The study aims to analyse the influence of psychological variables (self-esteem, social support, coping strategies and personality) in the maintenance of weight loss after bariatric surgery. A cohort study was conducted involving 64 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for 24 months. At the end of the follow-up period, patients were divided into 2sub-cohorts classified as successes or failures. Success or favorable development was considered when the value of percent excess weight loss was 50 or higher. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2groups in any variable studied. All patients had high self-esteem (87,3 those who failed and 88,1 those who are successful) and social support (90,2 and 90,9). Patients who succeed presented higher scores for cognitive restructuring (57,1) and were more introverted (47,1), while those who failed scored more highly in desiderative thinking (65,7) and were more prone to aggression (50,7) and neuroticism (51,7). High self-esteem and social support does not guarantee successful treatment. The groups differed in how they coped with obesity but the data obtained do not justify the weight evolution. In the absence of psychopathology, personality trait variability between patients is insufficient to predict the results. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Marek, Ryan J; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J; Rish, Julie Merrell
The reasons why some patients who begin the presurgical process for bariatric surgery fail to complete the procedure are understudied. Previous research implies that psychological factors play a role. To examine whether scores from baseline psychological testing incrementally predict failure to proceed with bariatric surgery beyond demographic information in patients' medical charts and data derived from a clinical interview. Cleveland Clinic Bariatric and Metabolic Institute. The sample (n = 1160) was mainly female (72.41%), middle aged (mean age = 46.07 yr, SD = 11.70) and of Caucasian descent (65.76%). Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted to test the incremental validity of baseline Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form scores after controlling for information gathered from the psychological interview and medical charts. Relative risk ratios were calculated to reflect the clinical utility of the results. In total, 27.16% of patients failed to proceed with bariatric surgery after 1 year or more after a recommendation for surgery from their psychological evaluations. Psychological test scores were substantially associated with failure to proceed with surgery and significantly accounted for up to 6% of additional variance after controlling for psychological interview variables and medical chart data. Elevated scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form scales, such as anxiety and substance use, identify patients at up to 2.5 times greater risk for failing to proceed with bariatric surgery. Objective psychological test data-notably, scale scores assessing for substance abuse, anxiety, and demoralization-add to information obtained from a clinical interview and medical records in identifying patients at risk for failing to proceed with bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The proportion of Americans with clinically severe obesity has vast implications for the nation's healthcare system since this population have twice as many chronic medical conditions as people with normal weight. Through the use of review of literature, this article (a) describes the types of weight loss programs; (b) reviews the results from studies on effectiveness of bariatric surgery; and (c) identifies recommendations for obesity and bariatric surgery case management programs. Disease management companies appear to be concentrating on general weight loss strategies associated with wellness and other condition-specific disease management products, whereas larger national healthcare companies with at-risk and insurance products offer specific bariatric surgery management products. Case management programs within healthcare systems, health management organizations, and insurance companies are frequently faced with the management of individuals with morbid obesity and, increasingly, those who are requesting or have undergone bariatric surgery. Research shows that morbid obesity is a disease that remains generally unresponsive to diet and drug therapy but appears to respond well to bariatric surgery. Research findings suggest that surgical treatment is more effective than pharmacological treatment of weight loss and the control of some comorbidities associated with obesity. The number of Americans having weight loss surgery increased by 804% between 1998 and 2004, which appears to be a driver for the recent development of obesity disease management and bariatric surgery case management programs. Although the immaturity and lack of studies citing outcomes of obesity disease and case management programs limit the identification of best practices based on outcomes, emerging practices can be identified and recommendations for case management can be formulated. In addition to primary prevention and treatment programs for obesity, this article describes program
Azin, Arash; Zhou, Carrol; Jackson, Timothy; Cassin, Stephanie; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed
Body-contouring surgery can be a solution to excess skin folds following bariatric surgery. Many patients desire body-contouring surgery, but the cost of the procedure may be a limiting factor. This study aims to examine barriers to access and to compare socioeconomic variables and psychological variables between bariatric surgery patients who have undergone body contouring and those who have not. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire packet was administered to (1) patients who underwent bariatric but not body-contouring surgery and (2) patients who underwent both. The questionnaire included perceived barriers to body-contouring surgery, socioeconomic barriers, measures of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder seven-item scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire nine-item scale), and quality of life (Short Form-36). Among the 58 study participants, 93.1 percent reported having excess skin folds. Of this sample, 95.4 percent desired body-contouring surgery, and the majority (87.8 percent) of this subsample identified cost as the major barrier to access. Mean scores on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (6.08 ± 5.97 versus 3.50 ± 3.10; p = 0.030) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (6.40 ± 6.77 versus 2.40 ± 2.37; p = 0.002) were significantly higher for the bariatric surgery group versus bariatric surgery plus body contouring group. Patients in the latter group had significantly higher Short Form-36 physical health component scores (56.80 ± 4.88 versus 49.57 ± 8.25; p = 0.010). Bariatric surgery patients who desire body-contouring surgery perceive cost as a major barrier. Patients undergoing body-contouring surgery may experience improved physical quality of life but not mental quality of life; however, body-contouring surgery may improve aspects of depression and anxiety.
Celio, Adam C; Pories, Walter J
This article examines the progression of bariatric surgery since its creation more than 60 years ago with a focus on the effect of surgery on weight loss, comorbidity reduction, and safety. The success has been remarkable. It is possible to cure severe obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia in addition to the many other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome with remarkable safety. Equally important are the opportunities for research afforded by the surgery and its outcomes. Until better treatments become available, bariatric surgery is the therapy of choice for patients with morbid obesity for weight control and comorbidity improvement.
Cummings, David E; Cohen, Ricardo V
Bariatric surgery use is largely governed worldwide by a 1991 National Institutes of Health consensus statement that advocates BMI as the primary operative criterion and restricts surgery to severely obese patients. These guidelines have been enormously valuable in standardising practice, thereby facilitating accumulation of a copious database of information regarding long-term surgical benefits and risks, from vast clinical experience and research. However, the National Institutes of Health recommendations had important limitations from the outset and are now gravely outdated. They do not account for remarkable advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques or the development of entirely new procedures. In the two decades since they were crafted, we have gained far greater understanding of the dramatic, weight-independent benefits of some operations on metabolic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes, and of the inadequacy of BMI as a primary criterion for surgical selection. Furthermore, there is now a substantial and rapidly burgeoning body of level-1 evidence from randomised trials comparing surgical versus non-surgical approaches to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic diseases, including among only mildly obese or merely overweight patients. Herein, we present arguments to impel the development of new guidelines for the use of bariatric and so-called metabolic surgery to inform clinical practice and insurance compensation. PMID:24622721
Umemura, Akira; Lee, Wei-Jei; Sasaki, Akira; Wakabayashi, Go
Morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are major public health problems around the world, including in East Asia. Although Asian populations have been shown to have an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia at a relatively lower BMI than Western populations, the Asian perspective on bariatric and metabolic surgeries has not been actively discussed until recently. Bariatric surgery in East Asia has undergone a paradigm shift since the first laparoscopic vertical bariatric surgery was performed in Taiwan in 1998, which was subsequently followed by the introduction of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and mini-gastric bypass. Since 2006, use of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has remarkably increased because of its ease, speed, and safety. With regard to metabolic surgery, a randomized controlled trial in Taiwan demonstrated that laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is more effective than laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for surgical treatment of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In t