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Sample records for barker napsas salman

  1. Cosmological models in Barker's theory of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Yepes, G.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.

    1986-12-15

    A systematic and exhaustive study of homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models in Barker's theory of gravitation is reported, where present values of dynamical functions are consistent with astronomical observations and solar-system experiments. Except in the special case where q/sub 0/ = ..cap omega../sub 0//2, which constitutes a region of zero measure in the allowed zone of the (q/sub 0/,..cap omega../sub 0/) plane, the age of the Universe in these cosmological models is less than the age of old globular clusters. Other specific features of Barker's cosmologies are also presented.

  2. Postcards from the Edge: Salman Rushdie and Postmodern Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Allen

    1994-01-01

    Sketches contours of the postmodern movement and implications for a research agenda in mass media and international communication. Analyzes the furor over Salman Rushdie's novel "The Satanic Verses" to illustrate the difficulties that result from Western interpretations of events whose origins are distant culturally. Offers a number of…

  3. Postcards from the Edge: Salman Rushdie and Postmodern Global Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Allen

    1994-01-01

    Sketches contours of the postmodern movement and implications for a research agenda in mass media and international communication. Analyzes the furor over Salman Rushdie's novel "The Satanic Verses" to illustrate the difficulties that result from Western interpretations of events whose origins are distant culturally. Offers a number of…

  4. Ultrasound strain imaging using Barker code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui; Tie, Juhong; Guo, Dequan

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound strain imaging is showing promise as a new way of imaging soft tissue elasticity in order to help clinicians detect lesions or cancers in tissues. In this paper, Barker code is applied to strain imaging to improve its quality. Barker code as a coded excitation signal can be used to improve the echo signal-to-noise ratio (eSNR) in ultrasound imaging system. For the Baker code of length 13, the sidelobe level of the matched filter output is -22dB, which is unacceptable for ultrasound strain imaging, because high sidelobe level will cause high decorrelation noise. Instead of using the conventional matched filter, we use the Wiener filter to decode the Barker-coded echo signal to suppress the range sidelobes. We also compare the performance of Barker code and the conventional short pulse in simulation method. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the Wiener filter is much better than the matched filter, and Baker code achieves higher elastographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNRe) than the short pulse in low eSNR or great depth conditions due to the increased eSNR with it.

  5. The Value of Post-Colonial Literature for Education Processes: Salman Rushdie's "Midnight's Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrottner, Barbara Theresia

    2009-01-01

    The author Salman Rushdie's post-colonial essay, "Midnight's Children," highlights a different perspective on the problems created by the colonial power where place and displacement are central themes and migration is a painful but emancipating process; both are expressed through the life of the writer, Salman Rushdie. The primary aim of…

  6. The Value of Post-Colonial Literature for Education Processes: Salman Rushdie's "Midnight's Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrottner, Barbara Theresia

    2009-01-01

    The author Salman Rushdie's post-colonial essay, "Midnight's Children," highlights a different perspective on the problems created by the colonial power where place and displacement are central themes and migration is a painful but emancipating process; both are expressed through the life of the writer, Salman Rushdie. The primary aim of…

  7. A Powerful Theory and a Paradox: Ecological Psychologists after Barker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Roger Barker, influenced by Lewin, developed a powerful theory in psychology, behavior setting theory. Paradoxically, this theory is still not widely known or understood in mainstream American psychology. Oral histories of the core group who worked with Barker were collected and examined to determine influences on them and subsequent directions in…

  8. A Powerful Theory and a Paradox: Ecological Psychologists after Barker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    Roger Barker, influenced by Lewin, developed a powerful theory in psychology, behavior setting theory. Paradoxically, this theory is still not widely known or understood in mainstream American psychology. Oral histories of the core group who worked with Barker were collected and examined to determine influences on them and subsequent directions in…

  9. The Salman Mosque: Achmad Noe’man’s Critique of Indonesian Conventional Mosque Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, A. A. R.; Aryanti, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Salman Mosque, designed by Achmad Noe’man, was a striking Islamic architectural design in the 1960s when it was built. Unlike the conventional mosques, particularly in Indonesia, it has no dome. Instead, the roof was made of prestressed concrete and resembles a canoe. Using data drawn from field observations, this paper explores the architectural characteristics of the Salman Mosque as a product of Modern architecture. It argues that the domeless mosque, the simple minaret, the wooden wall panels and floor, the women’s balcony, and the roof demonstrate architectural modernism, as opposed to the conventional mosque typology that flourished in Indonesia at the time. This paper further argues that the Salman Mosque is Noe’man’s critique of the Indonesian conventional mosque architecture. It concludes that the architectural features of the Salman Mosque reflects Noe’man’s modern vision of Islam and Islamic architecture.

  10. Time multiplexing super resolution using a Barker-based array.

    PubMed

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Preter, Eyal; Levanon, Nadav; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-15

    We propose the use of a new encoding mask in order to improve the performance of the conventional time multiplexing super resolution method. The resolution improvement is obtained using a 2D Barker-based array that is placed upon the object and shifted laterally. The Barker-based array is a 2D generalization of the standard 1D Barker code. The Barker-based array has stable autocorrelation sidelobes, making it ideal for the encoding process. A sequence of low resolution images are captured at different positions of the array, and are decoded properly using the same array. After removing the low resolution image from the resulting reconstruction, a high resolution image is established. The proposed method is presented analytically, demonstrated via numerical simulation, and validated by laboratory experiment.

  11. THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers the past year’s papers germane to the Barker hypothesis. While much of the literature has centered on maternal and developmental nutrition, new findings have emerged on the ability of toxic exposures during development to impact fetal/developmental programming....

  12. THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers the past year’s papers germane to the Barker hypothesis. While much of the literature has centered on maternal and developmental nutrition, new findings have emerged on the ability of toxic exposures during development to impact fetal/developmental programming....

  13. Checkmate: Linguistic and Literary Play in Salman Rushdie's "Haroun and the Sea of Stories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bongartz, Christiane; Richey, Esther Gilman

    2010-01-01

    The authors use Noam Chomsky's theories about generative grammar to discuss the notion of linguistic creativity they believe lies at the core of storytelling as Salman Rushdie pictures it in his novel, "Haroun and the Sea of Stories." The production of meaning through the use of narrative helps explain the rules of the literary game,…

  14. Payload specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud floats over pilots chair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud floats above the pilot's station on Discovery's forward flight deck. On one side of him floats a clipboard, on the other side a fire extinguisher is attached to the wall. Through overhead windows beyond him are seen reflections of the Earth's horizon.

  15. Official portrait of Payload Specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Official portrait of Payload Specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud. He is wearing the blue shuttle flight suit and holding his helmet under his arm. Behind him to the right is the Saudi Arabian flag. To his left is the American flag and a model of the Space Shuttle.

  16. Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud prior to mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-04

    S85-29788 (May 1985) --- Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam man the controls on the flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  17. Sidelobe reduction of Barker codes, part 7.1C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Barker codes can be realized as simple digital preprocessors, or with the use of a delay line, can be realized as an analogue device. Assuming the process observed has an autocorrelation time that is long compared to the code length, a gain in signal to noise, G = N where N is the number of elements in the code, may be realized. Typically Barker codes are implemented by shifting the phase of the transmitted signal by 0 or 180 degrees according to the code pattern. A typical detection scheme is shown where the output of the radar receiver is delayed by an analogue delay line or a shift register. The signal in each element of the delay line or shift register is continuously multiplied by the code and all elements are summed. A principal disadvantage was the sidelobe response. In the case of MST or ST radar echoes where there is a dynamic range as large as 60 dB, these unwanted sidelobes cause an increase in the apparent width of atmospheric layers, or some narrow layer to appear at several altitudes. The sidelobes of a Barker code may be reduced by tapering the response of the decoder. Optimum tapers, are shown. It is found that the sidelobe response is greatly reduced with very little loss in G.

  18. Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud prior to mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tour by Saudi prince Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, payload specialists for STS 51-G mission, prior to mission. Al-Saud and Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam, the backup payload specialist, man the controls on the flight deck of the crew compartment trainer in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29788); the Saudi payload specialists share the hatch of the crew compartment trainer (29789); Portrait view of Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam during a visit to the Shuttle mockup and integraion laboratory (29790); Don Sirroco, left, explains the middeck facilities in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory (29791); Portrait view of Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration laboratory (29792); The Saudi payload specialists witness a space food demonstration in the life sciences laboratory at JSC. Al-Saud (left) and Al-Bassam (second left) listen as Rita M. Rapp, food specialist, discusses three preparations of re-hydratable food for space travelers. Lynn S. Coll

  19. [Doctor Levi B. Salmans, founder of The Good Samaritan sanitarium in Guanajuato].

    PubMed

    Olivier-Toledo, Carlos; Viesca-Treviño, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this research we focus on the medical evangelist Levi B. Salmans, and The Good Samaritan sanitarium. Doctor Salmans lived in Mexico for about 50 years (1885-1935). During the first part of his stay, he was devoted to found churches and Methodist schools. However, from 1891 he took a turn in his career by founding dispensaries in different towns of Guanajuato to create, in 1899, the private charity association for the sick and infirm The Good Samaritan. His intense, intellectual, and practical work led him to create health journals, to train nurses, and to promote physiotherapies in accordance with the science advances of that time. By itself, this research shows that the history of medicine in Mexico still has long way to go and that Protestant communities, in favor of modernity and scientific knowledge, took a big part in shaping the history of this discipline in Mexico.

  20. Barker code pulse compression with a large Doppler tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Zhu, Zhaoda

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the application of least square approximate inverse filtering techniques to radar range sidelobe suppression. The method is illustrated by application to the design of a compensated noncoherent sidelobe suppression filter (SSF). The compensated noncoherent SSF of the 13-element Barker code has been found. The -40 kHz to 40 kHz Doppler tolerance of the filter is obtained under the conditions that the subpulse duration is equal to 0.7 microsec and the peak sidelobe level is less than -30 dB. Theoretical computations and experimental results indicate that the SSF implemented has much wider Doppler tolerance than the Rihaczek-Golden (1971) SSF.

  1. Investigating Trauma in Narrating World War I: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Pat Barker's "Regeneration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadjadi, Bakhtiar; Esmkhani, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    The present paper seeks to critically read Pat Barker's "Regeneration" in terms of Cathy Caruth's psychoanalytic study of trauma. This analysis attempts to trace the concepts of latency, post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic memory, and trauma in Barker's novel in order to explore how trauma and history are interrelated in the…

  2. Take a Walk on the Wild Side, with Folk Artist Jack Barker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacruz, Elizabeth Manley

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the life and artwork of Jack Barker who became a folk artist after running a local gas station in Essex, Illinois. Explains that art educators view student interactions with folk artists like Barker as valuable because these artists embody a creative spirit and a thirst for knowledge about materials and processes. (CMK)

  3. Barker-coded excitation in ophthalmological ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Jun; Ji, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yan-Qun

    2014-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is an attractive means to obtain fine-resolution images of biological tissues for ophthalmologic imaging. To solve the tradeoff between axial resolution and detection depth, existing in the conventional single-pulse excitation, this study develops a new method which uses 13-bit Barker-coded excitation and a mismatched filter for high-frequency ophthalmologic imaging. A novel imaging platform has been designed after trying out various encoding methods. The simulation and experiment result show that the mismatched filter can achieve a much higher out signal main to side lobe which is 9.7 times of the matched one. The coded excitation method has significant advantages over the single-pulse excitation system in terms of a lower MI, a higher resolution, and a deeper detection depth, which improve the quality of ophthalmic tissue imaging. Therefore, this method has great values in scientific application and medical market. PMID:25356093

  4. Toward an Instructional Philosophy: "A Theoretical Framework for Teaching and Training at Salman Bin Abdulaziz University (SAU)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qandile, Yasine A.; Al-Qasim, Wajeeh Q.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a clear instructional philosophy for Salman bin Abdulaziz University as a fundamental basis for teaching and training as well as a theoretical framework for curriculum design and development. The study attempts to answer the main questions about pertaining to the basic structure of contemporary higher…

  5. [Nephropathy associated with arterial hypertension: genes and Barker's hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Zoccali, C

    2002-01-01

    For about three decades glomerular diseases have been the most intensively investigated research area in nephrology. The increasing proportion of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to hypertension has now revived interest in hypertension. Prospective studies have firmly established that high blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of renal failure independent of other risk factors. Hypertension-related renal injury might be interpreted in a general context taking into account genes, intrauterine growth and environmental factors. Disturbed intrauterine growth (due to malnutrition or other factors) has a negative influence on the development of the cardiovascular system and favours the occurrence of hypertension, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperuricaemia in adult life (Barker's hypothesis). Altered intrauterine growth has also been associated with a reduced number of nephrons at birth. Damage attributable to glomerular hyperperfusion in kidneys with a reduced number of nephrons is aggravated by vascular lesions in middle and small arterial vessels (secondary to hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and environmental risk factors such as smoking). The observation that subjects homozygous for the D allele of the ACE gene are predisposed to both cardiovascular complications and nephrosclerosis, suggests that genetic factors may interact with altered intrauterine growth in determining the risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

  6. Barker-coded ultrasound color flow imaging: theoretical and practical design considerations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Mo, Larry Y L; Gao, Shangkai

    2007-02-01

    Barker-coded excitation is applied to improve the sensitivity versus resolution tradeoff for ultrasound color flow imaging (CFI). Direct sequence encoding and complex baseband decoding methods that enable flexible combination of demodulation frequency and Barker-chip duration are proposed. Based on a general Wiener decoding filter formulation, three different conditions that pertain to the relationship between the Barker-chip duration and demodulation frequency are found, such that they result in real, complex symmetric and complex asymmetric decoding filter sequences, respectively. It is also shown that the matched filter and the inverse filter represent two extreme cases of the Wiener filter, and the latter is proposed for decoding Barker-coded CFI signals with maximum range sidelobe suppression. Some practical considerations such as coding gain, integrated sidelobe level (ISL) and peak sidelobe level (PSL) for various decoding filter lengths, and the influence of flow rate also are analyzed. Linear array imaging of steady flow in straight tubes is simulated based on a 4-cycle base pulse at 6.25 MHz, a 5-chip Barker code, a 32-tap decoding filter, and standard color flow data processing. The resultant color flow images demonstrate the expected improvements in penetration and axial resolution.

  7. A New Way of Thinking about Technology: An Interview with Futurists Joel Barker and Scott Erickson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Barker, Joel; Erickson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Editor-in-chief James Morrison interviews Joel Barker and Scott Erickson, co-authors of the book "Five Regions of the Future: A New Way to Think about Technology". In their book, the authors propose an ecological model that classifies technology according to different clusters or regions, each of which entails its own perspective of technology and…

  8. Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

  9. Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

  10. A New Way of Thinking about Technology: An Interview with Futurists Joel Barker and Scott Erickson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Barker, Joel; Erickson, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Editor-in-chief James Morrison interviews Joel Barker and Scott Erickson, co-authors of the book "Five Regions of the Future: A New Way to Think about Technology". In their book, the authors propose an ecological model that classifies technology according to different clusters or regions, each of which entails its own perspective of technology and…

  11. Optical schemes for speckle suppression by Barker code diffractive optical elements.

    PubMed

    Lapchuk, A; Kryuchyn, A; Petrov, V; Shyhovets, O V; Pashkevich, G A; Bogdan, O V; Kononov, A; Klymenko, A

    2013-09-01

    A method for speckle suppression based on Barker code and M-sequence code diffractive optical elements (DOEs) is analyzed. An analytical formula for the dependence of speckle contrast on the wavelength of the laser illumination is derived. It is shown that speckle contrast has a wide maximum around the optimal wavelength that makes it possible to obtain large speckle suppression by using only one DOE for red, green, and blue laser illumination. Optical schemes for implementing this method are analyzed. It is shown that the method can use a simple liquid-crystal panel for phase rotation instead of a moving DOE; however, this approach requires a high frequency of liquid-crystal switching. A simple optical scheme is proposed using a 1D Barker code DOE and a simple 1D liquid-crystal panel, which does not require a high frequency of liquid-crystal switching or high-accuracy DOE movement.

  12. Optimal speckle suppression in laser projectors using a single two-dimensional Barker code diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Lapchuk, Anatoliy; Kryuchyn, Andriy; Petrov, Vyacheslav; Klymenko, Volodymyr

    2013-02-01

    An effective method of speckle suppression using one 2D diffractive optical element (DOE) moving with constant velocity based on the periodic Barker code sequence is developed. We prove that this method has the same optical parameters as the method based on two 1D Barker code DOEs stretched and moving in orthogonal directions. We also show that DOE movement in a special direction allows the full numerical aperture of the objective lens to be used for speckle averaging by angle diversity. It is found that the 2D DOE based on a Barker code of length of 13 allows the speckle contrast to be decreased below the sensitivity of the human eye with optical losses of less than 10%.

  13. The Use of Barker Coded Signal on the Measurement of Wave Velocity of Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Wu, H.

    2016-12-01

    The wave velocity of the rock is important petro physics parameters; it can be used to calculate the elastic parameters, monitor the variations in the stress suffered by rock; and the velocity anisotropy reflects the rock anisotropy. Furthermore, since the coda wave is more sensitive to the change in rock properties, its velocity variation has been applied to monitor the variations in rock structures caused by varying temperature, stress, water saturation and other factors. However, the measurements of velocities heavily depend on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the signals, because low signal-to-noise ratio would result in the difficulty in the identification of information. Fortunately coded excitation technique, widely used in radar, and medical system, just can solve the problem above. Although this technique can effectively improve the SNR and resolution of received signal, there exits very high sidelobes after traditional matched filter. So a pseudo inverse filter was successfully applied to suppress the side lobes. After comparing different coded signals, Barker coded signal are selected to measure the velocity of P wave of Plexiglas, sandstone, granite, marble with automatic measurement method, which are compared with the measurement results of single pulse; the results showed that the measurement of coded signals is more closely to the manual measurement. Moreover, coda wave measurement of loading granite was also made with Barker coded signal, the results of which also showed that the detection result of coded signals is better than that of the single pulse. In conclusion, the experiments verify the effectiveness and reliability of coded signals used on the measurement of wave velocity of rock.

  14. Analysis of the Henderson-Abraham-Barker equation in the case of a polar liquid near a neutral hard wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiali, J. P.; Russier, V.; Holovko, M. E.

    1993-11-01

    The physical content of the wall-particle direct correlation function cw(1), defined from the Ornstein-Zernike equation in the framework of the Henderson-Abraham-Barker approach, is analyzed in the case of a dipolar-hard-sphere fluid near a pure and dielectric neutral wall. The exact asymptotic behavior of cw(1) is established and we show that it is not related to simple physical concepts as, e.g., the image potential. We show that the exact Henderson-Abraham-Barker equation introduces some bridge diagrams which are more simple graphs in another approach. Due to this fact, at least for systems with long range interactions, it is misleading to use the usual closures of the theory of homogeneous liquids for cw(1). In the case of a dielectric wall, we emphasize that the diagrammatic structure of cw(1) requires the introduction of a three-body Mayer function. The dipolar-hard-sphere liquid is a good candidate for analyzing cw(1) because some exact results are known and related to simple electrostatic effects; however, the present results are not restricted to this system.

  15. [Famine in the Spanish civil war and mortality from coronary heart disease: a perspective from Barker's hypothesis].

    PubMed

    González Zapata, Laura Inés; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Nolasco Bonmatí, Andreu; Pina Romero, José Aurelio; Medrano, María José

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether the famine experienced during the Spanish civil war and immediate postwar period influenced mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in persons born in this period, following the lines of Barker's hypothesis on fetal programming of chronic diseases in adult life. Using CHD mortality data by age and sex for 1990-2002, annual and age-adjusted rates were calculated by the direct method. Poisson regressions were used to estimate period, age and cohort effects by year of birth (1918-1957). During the study period, CHD mortality fell by a yearly average of -2.3% in both sexes and in all ages yearly. This trend was influenced by both cohort and period effects (p<0.001); an increased risk was observed for both sexes and in all ages in the deaths corresponding to persons born during the war and postwar years when the famine was most intense (1937, 1940, 1943 and 1945). The results obtained by studying yearly CHD mortality are compatible with those expected by Barker's hypothesis of the effect of nutritional stress during pregnancy. In addition to its human, economic and political costs, the Spanish civil war could also have had negative consequences for the health of persons born in this period.

  16. Telescoping the origins of obesity to women's bodies: how gender inequalities are being squeezed out of Barker's hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Warin, Megan; Moore, Vivienne; Zivkovic, Tanya; Davies, Michael

    2011-07-01

    This paper traces the genealogy of the Barker hypothesis and its intersections with popular representations of scientific discourses about pregnancy and maternal obesity. Drawing on Foucault's genealogical method, this study examines the historical 'descent' of the developmental origins of adult disease and its initial grounding in structural factors of gender inequality and low socioeconomic status. In the more recent reproductive medicine literature, Barker's hypothesis has been used to understand the causes and consequences of foetal over-nutrition and has shifted its focus from social determinants to individual, gendered bodies. The print media has gainfully employed this conceptualization of obesity and, in doing so, placed women, and mothers in particular, as causal agents in the reproduction of obesity across generations. Such a 'common sense' understanding of obesity production and reproduction means that both the scientific literature and the public understanding of science has inadvertently assisted in putting women forward as the transmitters of obesity across generations. This powerful telescoping of the origins of obesity to women's bodies and their appetites is in stark contrast to earlier foci on gender inequalities and changing women's circumstances.

  17. The Eco-Behavioral Approach to Surveys and Social Accounts for Rural Communities: Exploratory Analyses and Interpretations of Roger G. Barker's Microdata from the Behavior Setting Survey of Midwest, Kansas in 1963-64.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Karl A.

    The concept of behavior settings--the environments shaping individual behavior--was originated by Roger Barker in 1950 in connection with his community surveys in a small Kansas town, code-named Midwest. This book seeks to provide rural social scientists with an understanding of Barker's eco-behavioral approach and proposed adaptations of it to…

  18. Assessing the Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT)-Form C in Measuring Listening Comprehension of Post-Secondary Hispanic-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Debra L.; Keaton, Shaughan; Cook, John; Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.

    2014-01-01

    The Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT) is one of the most popular measures of listening comprehension. However, participants in studies utilizing this scale have been almost exclusively Anglo-American. At the same time, previous research questions the psychometric properties of the test. This study addressed both of these issues by testing the…

  19. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  20. The Stories We Hear, the Stories We Tell What Can the Life of Jane Barker (1652-1732) Tell Us about Women's Leadership in Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Carol Shiner

    2009-01-01

    Jane Barker--poet, novelist, farm manager, student and practitioner of medical arts--was not allowed to attend university because she was a woman. Yet she was Oxford-educated in the most modern of medical theories of her time. By the end of her life, unmarried by choice, Barker was writing for pay under her own name in an emerging genre--the…

  1. Application of wavelet filtering and Barker-coded pulse compression hybrid method to air-coupled ultrasonic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenggan; Ma, Baoquan; Jiang, Jingtao; Yu, Guang; Liu, Kui; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT) technique has been viewed as a viable solution in defect detection of advanced composites used in aerospace and aviation industries. However, the giant mismatch of acoustic impedance in air-solid interface makes the transmission efficiency of ultrasound low, and leads to poor signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of received signal. The utilisation of signal-processing techniques in non-destructive testing is highly appreciated. This paper presents a wavelet filtering and phase-coded pulse compression hybrid method to improve the SNR and output power of received signal. The wavelet transform is utilised to filter insignificant components from noisy ultrasonic signal, and pulse compression process is used to improve the power of correlated signal based on cross-correction algorithm. For the purpose of reasonable parameter selection, different families of wavelets (Daubechies, Symlet and Coiflet) and decomposition level in discrete wavelet transform are analysed, different Barker codes (5-13 bits) are also analysed to acquire higher main-to-side lobe ratio. The performance of the hybrid method was verified in a honeycomb composite sample. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is very efficient in improving the SNR and signal strength. The applicability of the proposed method seems to be a very promising tool to evaluate the integrity of high ultrasound attenuation composite materials using the ACUT.

  2. Unraveling the variability and genetic structure of barker frog Physalaemus cuvieri (Leiuperinae) populations from different regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Conte, M; Targueta, C P; Zucchi, M I; Souza, A P; Recco-Pimentel, S M

    2014-02-21

    The barker frog Physalaemus cuvieri is widely distributed in South America and is found in all regions of Brazil. Significant intraspecific morphological variation in this species has been reported. To determine the genetic structure of the natural Brazilian populations of P. cuvieri, 10 different populations geographically separated by 99.41 to 2936.75 km were evaluated using 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In addition, mitochondrial DNA data were analyzed to determine genetic distance between the populations. The genetic variation was found to be significant in most of the populations (HE ranged from 0.40 to 0.59, and allelic richness ranged from 2.07 to 3.54). An FST value of 0.27 indicated that high genetic structure was present among the P. cuvieri populations. STRUCTURE analyses grouped the 10 populations into nine clusters and indicated that only two of the populations were not genetically differentiated. The genetic distance calculated from the mitochondrial DNA data showed values <0.03 for seven of the populations.

  3. Facies analysis, diagenesis and sequence stratigraphy of the carbonate-evaporite succession of the Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation: Impacts on reservoir quality (Salman Oil Field, Persian Gulf, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beigi, Maryam; Jafarian, Arman; Javanbakht, Mohammad; Wanas, H. A.; Mattern, Frank; Tabatabaei, Amin

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the depositional facies, diagenetic processes and sequence stratigraphic elements of the subsurface carbonate-evaporite succession of the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) Surmeh Formation of the Salman Oil Field (the Persian Gulf, Iran), in an attempt to explore their impacts on reservoir quality. The Surmeh Formation consists mainly of carbonate rocks, intercalated with evaporite layers. Petrographically, the Surmeh Formation consists of nine microfacies (MF1-MF9). These microfacies are grouped into three facies associations related to three depositional environments (peritidal flat, lagoon and high-energy shoal) sited on the inner part of a homoclinal carbonate ramp. The recorded diagenetic processes include dolomitization, anhydritization, compaction, micritization, neomorphism, dissolution and cementation. Vertical stacking patterns of the studied facies reveal the presence of three third-order depositional sequences, each of which consists of transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). The TSTs comprise intertidal and lagoon facies whereas the HSTs include supratidal and shoal facies. In terms of their impacts on reservoir quality, the shoal facies represent the best reservoir quality, whereas the peritidal and lagoonal facies exhibit moderate to lowest reservoir quality. Also, poikilotopic anhydrite cement played the most significant role in declining the reservoir quality, whereas the widespread dissolution of labile grains and formation of moldic and vuggy pores contributed in enhancing the reservoir quality. In addition, the HSTs have a better reservoir quality than the TSTs. This study represents an approach to use the depositional facies, diagenetic alterations and sequence stratigraphic framework of carbonate -evaporite succession for a more successful reservoir characterization.

  4. Hydrothermal karst and associated breccias in Neoproterozoic limestone from the Barker-Villa Cacique area (Tandilia belt), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan C.; van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Theye, Thomas; Frisicale, María C.; Gregori, Daniel A.

    2017-07-01

    In the Barker-Villa Cacique area (Tandilia belt), remarkable megabreccias, limestone breccias and phosphate-bearing breccias hosted in black limestone and along the contact with the upper section of the sedimentary succession are exposed. These rocks are the result of extensive hydrothermal alteration of the original micritic limestone and other fine-grained clastic sediments. Typical alteration minerals are sericite, chlorite, interstratified chlorite/K-white mica, kaolinite, dickite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, goethite, quartz, calcite, Fe-calcite, dolomite, ankerite, fluor-apatite, barite and aluminium-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals. Quartz and calcite cements from hydraulic breccias in the limestone contain low-salinity aqueous fluid inclusions. Corresponding homogenization temperatures display 200-220 °C and 110-140 °C in hydrothermal quartz, and 130-150 °C in late calcite cement. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses of carbonates from the Loma Negra quarry (LNQ) support the major role of hydrothermal activity. A significant difference was found between δ18Ocar values from unaltered micritic limestone (ca. 23.8‰ SMOW) and secondary calcite (ca. 18.5‰ SMOW). The lower δ18Ocar values are interpreted as a result of calcite precipitation from hot hydrothermal fluids. At a late stage, the hydrothermal fluid containing H2S mixed with descending and oxidizing meteoric waters. Circulation of the ensuing acid fluids resulted in the partly dissolution and collapse brecciation of the Loma Negra Formation. The hydrothermal stage can be tentatively dated ca. 590-620 Ma corresponding to the Brasiliano orogeny.

  5. PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION 1968 ALMANAC, INCLUDING DIRECTORY OF ACTIVE MEMBERS, MEMBERS EMERITUS, AND COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE SUBSCRIBERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Public School Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    PUBLISHED ANNUALLY BY THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR PUBLIC SCHOOL ADULT EDUCATION (NAPSAE), THE ALMANAC INCLUDES A MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORY, REPORT ON FEDERAL LEGISLATION, NAPSAE YEAR IN REVIEW, NAMES OF NAPSAE OFFICERS, BOARD MEMBERS, AND COMMITTEE CHAIRMEN, RECENT ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH, NAPSAE AWARDS RECIPIENTS, AN ANNOTATED LIST OF NAPSAE…

  6. Properties of Even-Length Barker Codes and Specific Polyphase Codes with Barker Type Autocorrelation Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-12

    utilize through the analysis, T’he sin 0/4, term in Eq. (10) is due the basic code etlemun! length TIN, and the terms in the right bracket are due to the...take care of the absolute value in the left side of (28), by placing some :tnknown phases a, in the right side of (29) for each element whose magnitude...900, ± 1800, which result in an integer on the right side of Eqs. (40.1) and (40.2). If I - Sp (multiple of 5), there are other possibilities to get an

  7. How Bob Barker Would (Probably) Teach Discrete Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urness, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a discrete mathematics course in which games from "The Price Is Right" are used to engage students in a deeper, practical study of discrete mathematics. The games themselves are not the focus of the course; rather, the mathematical principles of the games give motivation for the concepts being taught. The game examples are…

  8. Zachary D. Barker: Final DHS HS-STEM Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Z D

    2008-08-14

    Working at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) this summer has provided a very unique and special experience for me. I feel that the research opportunities given to me have allowed me to significantly benefit my research group, the laboratory, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Energy. The researchers in the Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) group were very welcoming and clearly wanted me to get the most out of my time in Livermore. I feel that my research partner, Veena Venkatachalam of MIT, and I have been extremely productive in meeting our research goals throughout this summer, and have learned much about working in research at a national laboratory such as Lawrence Livermore. I have learned much about the technical aspects of research while working at LLNL, however I have also gained important experience and insight into how research groups at national laboratories function. I believe that this internship has given me valuable knowledge and experience which will certainly help my transition to graduate study and a career in engineering. My work with Veena Venkatachalam in the SPAMS group this summer has focused on two major projects. Initially, we were tasked with an analysis of data collected by the group this past spring in a large public environment. The SPAMS instrument was deployed for over two months, collecting information on many of the ambient air particles circulating through the area. Our analysis of the particle data collected during this deployment concerned several aspects, including finding groups, or clusters, of particles that seemed to appear more during certain times of day, analyzing the mass spectral data of clusters and comparing them with mass spectral data of known substances, and comparing the real-time detection capability of the SPAMS instrument with that of a commercially available biological detection instrument. This analysis was performed in support of a group report to the Department of Homeland Security on the results of the deployment. The analysis of the deployment data revealed some interesting applications of the SPAMS instrument to homeland security situations. Using software developed in-house by SPAMS group member Dr. Paul Steele, Veena and I were able to cluster a subset of data over a certain timeframe (ranging from a single hour to an entire week). The software used makes clusters based on the mass spectral characteristics of the each particle in the data set, as well as other parameters. By looking more closely at the characteristics of individual clusters, including the mass spectra, conclusions could be made about what these particles are. This was achieved partially through examination and discussion of the mass spectral data with the members of the SPAMS group, as well as through comparison with known mass spectra collected from substances tested in the laboratory. In many cases, broad conclusions could be drawn about the identity of a cluster of particles.

  9. 2014 Summer Series - Salman Khan - Khan Academy: Education Re-imagined

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-26

    In 2004, Khan began tutoring his young cousin in math. By 2006, word got around and Khan was tutoring 15 family friends and cousins as a hobby. He also began posting videos of his hand-scribbled tutorials on YouTube. In 2009, when the practice problems and instructional videos were reaching tens of thousands of students per month, he quit his day job to commit himself fully to the not-for-profit Khan Academy. It's now the most-used library of educational lessons on the web, with over 10 million unique students per month, over 300 million lessons delivered, and over a billion exercises completed.

  10. Zygosaccharomyces lentus sp. nov., a new member of the yeast genus Zygosaccharomyces Barker.

    PubMed

    Steels, H; Bond, C J; Collins, M D; Roberts, I N; Stratford, M; James, S A

    1999-01-01

    Unusual growth characteristics of a spoilage yeast, originally isolated from spoiled whole-orange drink and previously identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, prompted careful re-examination of its taxonomic position. Small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were determined for this strain and for four other strains also originally described as Z. bailii but which, in contrast to other strains of this species, grew poorly or not at all under aerobic conditions with agitation, failed to grow in the presence of 1% acetic acid and failed to grow at 30 degrees C. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that these strains represented a phylogenetically distinct taxon closely related to, but distinct from, Z. bailii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region showed that, while all five strains had identical ITS2 sequences, they could be subdivided into two groups based on ITS1 sequences. Despite such minor inter-strain sequence variation, these yeasts could readily be distinguished from all other currently described Zygosaccharomyces species by using ITS sequences. On the basis of the phylogenetic results presented, a new species comprising the five strains, Zygosaccharomyces lentus sp. nov., is described and supporting physiological data are discussed, including a demonstration that growth of this species is particularly sensitive to the presence of oxygen. The type strain of Z. lentus is NCYC D2627T.

  11. Difficulties Encountered during Transition from Preclinical to Clinical Endodontics among Salman bin Abdul Aziz University Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Mubashir Baig

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quality of academic training can best be analyzed by including the student’s perceptions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the short comings in preclinical endodontic training and also to find out key areas to stress upon for better student understanding and treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 structured questionnaires were distributed to the dental students who have already entered or finished clinical endodontic training in 4th year after successfully completing the preclinical endodontic course in 3rd year. The questions were focused on the list of difficulties encountered during each step of endodontics including patient consideration, access related difficulties, difficulties during working length determination, cleaning and shaping and obturation. The difficulty level for each of the questions was also rated on a scale of 1-3. About 88% of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were analyzed generating a data showing the type and level of difficulty. Results: Locating the apical constriction and controlling the length of the master cone has the highest percentage of difficulty among all the groups. Conclusions: This study helped in highlighting key areas of difficulties faced by the students. The training for students in future needs to be amended so that they are better able to manage such difficulties. PMID:26225100

  12. Effects on water quality due to flood-water detention by Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, Houston, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred; Goss, R.L.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The third approach was a comparison at each site of the mean, maximum, and minimum values computed for seven constituents that did not correlate with discharge. These constituents or properties of water were temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, total-coliform bacteria, fecal-conform bacteria, and fecal-streptococci bacteria. The only consistent water-quality changes observed were with the three bacteria groups, which were decreased by flood-water detention.

  13. Alpha List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 92-Sep 93. FY93. (American Telecom Corp - Barker Frank Associates). Part 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    n 0 a)N NN ION (~ Y( " ( - oN " -11WLJIC 100.4 I(1 N N N N (0( 0 YC YC i(0 (00 -0U~ -qa000000 If)n)0 0) 0)0C) v C.O leNr -.1. N to I w00-4 11 1,0 000...WOOO-4 4W0 I m0 1 o 0N 4 n cn 0 e.-I leNr * " 4j 1 0 cm 11 to t100 e40000 1 0o o 10 0to 100000 10 10 I,1-KU 1 - 110 0 0 -w 4 41’ w Vcn 11 1 1 cn)eU It

  14. Evolution of Energy Metabolism, Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells: How the Warburg and Barker Hypotheses Might Be Linked

    PubMed Central

    Trosko, James E.; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary transition from single cells to the metazoan forced the appearance of adult stem cells and a hypoxic niche, when oxygenation of the environment forced the appearance of oxidative phosphorylation from that of glycolysis. The prevailing paradigm in the cancer field is that cancers start from the “immortalization” or “re-programming” of a normal, differentiated cell with many mitochondria, that metabolize via oxidative phosphorylation. This paradigm has been challenged with one that assumes that the target cell for carcinogenesis is the normal, immortal adult stem cell, with few mitochondria. This adult organ-specific stem cell is blocked from “mortalizing” or from “programming” to be terminally differentiated. Two hypotheses have been offered to explain cancers, namely, the “stem cell theory” and the “de-differentiation” or “re-programming” theory. This Commentary postulates that the paleochemistry of the oceans, which, initially, provided conditions for life’ s energy to arise via glycolysis, changed to oxidative phosphorylation for life’ s processes. In doing so, stem cells evolved, within hypoxic niches, to protect the species germinal and somatic genomes. This Commentary provides support for the “stem cell theory”, in that cancer cells, which, unlike differentiated cells, have few mitochondria and metabolize via glycolysis. The major argument against the “de-differentiation theory” is that, if re-programming of a differentiated cell to an “induced pluri-potent stem cell” happened in an adult, teratomas, rather than carcinomas, should be the result. PMID:24298354

  15. An Introduction to Student Quality Circle at College of Business Administration, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia--An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faridi, Mohammad Rishad; Al Kahtani, Nasser Saad; Alam, Teg; Malki, Said

    2014-01-01

    Catch 'em young for imparting hands-on rigorous academic training. This is what has been relentlessly pursued while dealing with the undergraduate students of business management who are to be thoroughly exposed to the whole gamut of quality work life. Whether they opt for corporate career or pursue masters or choose be an entrepreneur, their…

  16. The Joseph Barker, Jr. Home: A Comparative Architectural and Historical Study of a 19th Century Brick and Frame Dwelling in Washington County, Ohio,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    34architect" or builder was then chosen: Court House A Plan for a court house forty-eight feet square, with fireproof offices in each corner sixteen feet...items related to the building of the house, many other entries are for a wide range of sundries: whiskey, butter, cloth , salt pork, muslin, stockings

  17. Simple analytic equations of state for hard-core single and double Yukawa fluids and mixtures based on second-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Jiuxun, Sun

    2003-12-01

    A simple analytic expression with high precision for the radial distribution function of hard spheres is proposed. The form of the expression has been carefully selected to combine the well-known Camahan-Starling equation of state in it and satisfy the limit condition at low density, its simplicity and precision is superior to the well-known Percus-Yevick expression. The coefficients contained in the expression have been determined by fitting the Monte Carlo data for the first coordination shell, and by fitting both the Monte Carlo data and the numerical results of the Percus-Yevick expression for the second coordination shell. The expression has been applied to develop simple analytic equations of state for the hard-core single, double Yukawa fluids, and the hard-core Yukawa mixtures. The comparisons show that the agreement of our model with the computer simulation data is slightly better than the mean spherical approximation and other analytic models.

  18. Cableia balistidicola n. sp. (Digenea, Monorchiidae) from Pacific Ocean balistids (Tetraodontiformes) and new reports of Cableia pudica Bray, Cribb and Barker, 1996 in temperate Australian monacanthids.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou; Cribb, Thomas H

    2009-12-01

    Cableia balistidicola n. sp. is described from Abalistes stellatus (type-host) off New Caledonia (type-locality) and the Great Barrier Reef and Pseudobalistes fuscus off New Caledonia and Rhinecanthus aculeatus off Moorea, French Polynesia. It is distinguishable by its large ventral sucker with a highly developed sphincter around the aperture. Cableia pudica is reported from Meuschenia freycineti off northern Tasmania, M. hippocrepis off south-western Western Australia and northern Tasmania and Acanthaluteres spilomelanurus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Measurements of C. pudica are given and the distinguishing features of the three known species of Cableia are discussed and summarised in a key. C. balistidicola is reported only in balistid fishes in the tropical Pacific Ocean and C. pudica is reported only in monacanthid fishes in Australian coastal waters.

  19. The gap junction as a "Biological Rosetta Stone": implications of evolution, stem cells to homeostatic regulation of health and disease in the Barker hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of the gap junction structure, its functions and the family of the "connexin" genes, has been basically ignored by the major biological disciplines. These connexin genes code for proteins that organize to form membrane-associated hemi-channels, "connexons", co-join with the connexons of neighboring cells to form gap junctions. Gap junctions appeared in the early evolution of the metazoan. Their fundamental functions, (e.g., to synchronize electrotonic and metabolic functions of societies of cells, and to regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis), were accomplished via integrating the extra-cellular triggering of intra-cellular signaling, and therefore, regulating gene expression. These functions have been documented by genetic mutations of the connexin genes and by chemical modulation of gap junctions. Via genetic alteration of connexins in knock-out and transgenic mice, as well as inherited connexin mutations in various human syndromes, the gap junction has been shown to be directly linked to many normal cell functions and multiple diseases, such as birth defects, reproductive, neurological disorders, immune dysfunction and cancer. Specifically, the modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), either by increasing or decreasing its functions by non-mutagenic chemicals or by oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in normal or "initiated" stem cells and their progenitor cells, can have a major impact on tumor promotion or cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. The overview of the roles of the gap junction in the evolution of the metazoan and its potential in understanding a "systems" view of human health and aging and the diseases of aging will be attempted.

  20. Programming blood pressure in adult SHR by shifting perinatal balance of NO and reactive oxygen species toward NO: the inverted Barker phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Racasan, Simona; Braam, Branko; Koomans, Hein A; Joles, Jaap A

    2005-04-01

    The "programming hypothesis" proposes that an adverse perinatal milieu leads to adaptation that translates into cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The balance between nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is disturbed in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Conceivably, this balance is also disturbed in pregnancy, altering the fetal environment; however, effects of perinatal manipulation of NO and ROS on adult blood pressure (BP) are unknown. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), NO availability is decreased and ROS are increased compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, and, despite the genetic predisposition, the perinatal environment can modulate adult BP. Our hypothesis is that a disturbed NO-ROS balance in the SHR dam persistently affects BP in her offspring. Dietary supplements, which support NO formation and scavenge ROS, administered during pregnancy and lactation resulted in persistently lower BP for up to 48 wk in SHR offspring. The NO donor molsidomine and the superoxide dismutase mimic tempol-induced comparable effects. Specific inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reduces BP in adult SHR, suggesting that inducible NOS is predominantly a source of ROS in SHR. Indeed, inducible NOS inhibition in SHR dams persistently reduced BP in adult offspring. Persistent reductions in BP were accompanied by prevention of proteinuria in aged SHR. We propose that in SHR the known increase in ANG II type 1 receptor density during development leads to superoxide production, which enhances inducible NOS activity. The relative shortage of substrate and cofactors leads to uncoupling of inducible NOS, resulting in superoxide production, activating transcription factors that subsequently again increase inducible NOS expression. This vicious circle probably is perpetuated into adult life.

  1. Public School Adult Education 1969 Almanac Including Directory of Active Members, Members Emeritus, and Communications Service Subscribers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Public School Adult Education, Washington, DC.

    In the Public School Adult Education 1969 almanac are to be found: (1) details about the National Association for Public School Adult Education (NAPSAE); (2) statistics of public school adult education (for example, state support, educational attainment, teachers' salaries, enrollment data, and expenditures); (3) directories of state associations…

  2. Establishment of a VISAR Measurement System for Material Model Validation in DSTO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    pp. 73-78. 4. Barker L.M., Barker V.J., Barker Z.M., and Barker W.S., “Valyn VISARS User’s Handbook”, VALYN International, Albuquerque, New Mexico ...air supplied from a dive air compressor . The gas gun can be fitted with a variety of barrels. For the tests presented here a 30 mm smooth bore...Barker Z.M., and Barker W.S., “Valyn VISARS User’s Handbook”, VALYN International, Albuquerque, New Mexico , USA, 2009. 2. Resnyansky A.D., Bourne

  3. The 2003 Iraq War and avoidable death toll.

    PubMed

    Rawaf, Salman

    2013-10-01

    Salman Rawaf discusses the implications of the most recent estimate of excess deaths associated with the Iraq war and subsequent occupation in the context of the current situation in Iraq. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  4. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-28

    The Ruling Family and Its Dynamics Bahrain is led by King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa (66 years old ), who succeeded his father, Shaykh Isa bin Sulman...Shaykh Salman bin Hamad, who is about 47 years old . The Crown Prince and his allies, including deputy Prime Minister, Muhammad bin Mubarak Al Khalifa and...Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa, who is about 29 years old , could potentially succeed King Hamad should Salman step aside as heir apparent, although

  5. Bayesian Kernel Methods for Non-Gaussian Distributions: Binary and Multi-class Classification Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-28

    October 2012. Ph.D. student support (on-going) Hiba Baroud 13 References Barker, K., J.E. Ramirez- Marquez , and C.M. Rocco. 2013...and Cybernetics Part A. Baroud, H., J.E. Ramirez- Marquez , K. Barker, and C.M. Rocco. 2013. Measuring and Planning for Stochastic Network...Resilience: Application to Waterway Commodity Flows. Submitted to Risk Analysis. Baroud, H., K. Barker, J.E. Ramirez- Marquez , and C.M. Rocco. 2013

  6. Optimization of radar pulse compression processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Samuel M.; Kim, Woonkyung M.; Lee, Myung-Su

    1997-06-01

    We propose an optimal radar pulse compression technique and evaluate its performance in the presence of Doppler shift. The traditional pulse compression using Barker code increases the signal strength by transmitting a Barker coded long pulse. The received signal is then processed by an appropriate correlation processing. This Barker code radar pulse compression enhances the detection sensitivity while maintaining the range resolution of a single chip of the Barker coded long pulse. But unfortunately, the technique suffers from the addition of range sidelobes which sometimes will mask weak targets in the vicinity of larger targets. Our proposed optimal algorithm completely eliminates the sidelobes at the cost of additional processing.

  7. "No Change There Then!" (? ): The Onward March of School Markets and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Bernard Barker's claims that "the pendulum is swinging", in relation to school markets and competition. Barker's arguments are complex in this regard. He rejects markets and competition as a means of improving outcomes and equity, but supports some of the system features that are often associated with marketisation,…

  8. "No Change There Then!" (? ): The Onward March of School Markets and Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Bernard Barker's claims that "the pendulum is swinging", in relation to school markets and competition. Barker's arguments are complex in this regard. He rejects markets and competition as a means of improving outcomes and equity, but supports some of the system features that are often associated with marketisation,…

  9. Assessing Learning Outcomes in a Broadcast Learning Environment: Application of the Dynamics Concepts Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-30

    maintaining classroom discipline and focusing on broadcast lectures (Brian Barker, Erik Newell-Lavigne, Claudia Heflin , and Edgar Felix, personal...15 Brian Barker, Erik Newell-Lavigne, Claudia Heflin , and Edgar Felix, personal communications, 2007/2008, Interviews with Fresno campus Dynamics students, Loscutoff, December 2007.

  10. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal. Volume 9, Issue 3, September 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Transformation of the Joint Lessons Learned Program ,” by Mr. Mike Barker, looks at the development of the program from the earliest Government Accountability...the Joint Lessons Learned Program ................................................... 42 JCOA Journal, September 2007vi JCOA Journal, September 2007...JCOA Journal, September 200742 The Transformation of the Joint Lessons Learned Program Mike Barker, Joint Center for Operational Analysis Executive

  11. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government.…

  12. A Policy Sociology Reflection on School Reform in England: From the "Third Way" to the "Big Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a policy sociology reflection on Bernard Barker's book, "The Pendulum Swings: Transforming School Reform". The book represents Barker's attempt to intervene in education policy during the lead-up to the 2010 UK general election and is framed by what he imagined might be possible under a new Conservative government.…

  13. Tactical Communications Training Environment for Unmanned Aircraft System Operators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-15

    traditionally learn few of the scout-reconnaissance skills appropriate to MUM-T at the schoolhouse ( Stewart , Bink, Barker, Tremlett & Price, 2011...153 - 189. Stewart , J. E., Bink, M. L., Barker, W. C., Tremlett, M. L., & Price, D. (2011). Training needs for RQ-7B unmanned aircraft system

  14. Economical filters for range sidelobe reduction with combined codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackroyd, M. H.

    1982-06-01

    Approximate inverse filters for combined Barker codes are implemented using a significantly smaller number of coefficients than required for direct implementation. The approach can apply to a longer combined code and give greater sidelobe suppression. A filter to compress a combined code formed by combining two 13-element Barker sequences is presented as an example.

  15. New and little-known pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Storozhenko, Sergey Yu; Dawwrueng, Pattarawich

    2015-12-07

    An annotated list of 39 species in 25 genera and seven subfamilies of the pygmy grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tetrididae) from Thailand is given; from these 18 species are recorded from this country for the first time. Five new species are described: Cotysoides gaponi sp. nov. (subfamily Metrodorinae), Eucriotettix anisyutkini sp. nov., Gavialidium bufocrocodil sp. nov., Scelimena bellula sp. nov. (subfamily Scelimeninae) and Phaesticus uvarovi sp. nov. (subfamily Discotettiginae). One species is transferred from Scelimena to Amphibotettix and a new combination is proposed: Scelimena hafizhaii Mahmmod, Idris et Salman, 2007 = Amphibotettix hafizhaii (Mahmmod, Idris et Salman, 2007), comb. nov. The previously unknown male of Falconius tschernovi Storozhenko, 2014 is described.

  16. Payload specialists Baudry and Al-Saud in the middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-17

    51G-102-035 (17-24 June 1985) --- The two payload specialists for the week-long flight share a middeck scene on the earth-orbiting Discovery. Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud (left) is in the midst of a meal while Patrick Baudry conducts a phase of the French Postural Experiment (FPE) on himself. Sleep restraints are in the background.

  17. Can Khan Move the Bell Curve to the Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2012-01-01

    More than 1 million people have watched the online video in which Salman Khan--a charming MIT math whiz, Harvard Business School graduate, and former Boston hedge-fund analyst--explains how he began tutoring his cousins in math by posting short lessons for them on YouTube. Other people began watching the lessons and sending Khan adulatory notes.…

  18. Can Khan Move the Bell Curve to the Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2012-01-01

    More than 1 million people have watched the online video in which Salman Khan--a charming MIT math whiz, Harvard Business School graduate, and former Boston hedge-fund analyst--explains how he began tutoring his cousins in math by posting short lessons for them on YouTube. Other people began watching the lessons and sending Khan adulatory notes.…

  19. Commentary: The Khan Academy and the Day-Night Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching by night and reflecting on a subject by day is the way that Salman Khan sees education evolving in the age of online lectures. Khan believes he is onto something in what he styles the "flipped classroom." In Khan's view, there is no need for students to be divided into grades by age. Instead, they should learn at their own pace, moving on…

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    what happened is that no develop- ment took place to upset the situation and alter equa- tions overnight. With the eruption of the Salman Rush- die...rhetoric head was a little fresher—like Benazir Bhutto’s aphorism that the best revenge against dictatorship is democracy—and praise for her more effusive

  1. Communicating with Parents of Children with Special Needs in Saudi Arabia: Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Using Email for Regular and Ongoing Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubis, Snaa; Bernadowski, Carianne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study, by Snaa Dubis from Salman Bin Abdu Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, and Robert Morris University, USA, and Carianne Bernadowski from Robert Morris University, was to investigate parents' and special education teachers' perceptions of using email as a component of parental involvement in the academic and/or behavioural…

  2. Portrait of STS 51-G Payload Specialists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Portrait of STS 51-G Payload specialists. Left to right are Patrick Baudry, for the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales of France; Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassan, backup payload specialist to Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud of Saudi Arabia. They are standing in front of a small table containing a model of the Space Shuttle.

  3. Payload specialists Baudry and Al-Saud conduct Postural experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialists Patrick Baudry (left) and Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud team up to conduct a French Postural Experement (FPE) on the middeck of the Space shuttle Discovery during the STS 51-G flight. Behind them on the middeck walls are two sleep restraints.

  4. Payload specialist Al-Saud siting in middeck area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud seated in a posture common to weightlessness as he logs notes in Discovery's middeck area. He has headphones on connected to a portable tape recorder. Behind him on the middeck lockers is a sign which reads 'Welcome to Riyadh'. On the other wall, a sleep restraint is attached to the lockers.

  5. Payload specialist Sultan Abdelazize Al-Saud conducts Postural experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud assists in conducting a French Postural Experement (FPE) on the middeck of the Space shuttle Discovery during the STS 51-G flight. Behind him on the middeck walls are two sleep restraints. At the bottom of the frame, foot restraints are visible.

  6. Transmitters of Culture in the Stream of Stories: Two "East-West" Storytellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withington, Aileen

    1996-01-01

    Examines the work of two "East-West" storytellers, six-year-old Navdeep (born in Britain into a Punjabi Sikh heritage family) and Salman Rushdie. Looks at Navdeep's "The Witch and the Gang" for its narrative competencies. Uses Rushdie's "Haroun and the Sea of Stories" as a means of contextualizing Navdeep's story. (TB)

  7. STS 51-G payload specialists participate in training exercise

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-09

    S85-32002 (17 May 1985) --- The two payload specialists for 51G participate in a training exercise in the Shuttle mission simulation and training facility at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Patrick Baudry, left, and Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud were briefed on the launch and entry phases of their upcoming flight. The photo was taken by Otis Imboden.

  8. STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-22

    51G-21-011 (17-24 June 1985) --- Group portrait on flight deck of all seven STS-51G crew members. Left to right (front) are John O. Creighton, Shannon W. Lucid, Daniel C. Brandenstein; and (back row) are Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, Steven R. Nagel, John M. Fabian and Patrick Baudry. Photo credit: NASA

  9. VISITOR - SULTAN - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-04

    S85-29711 (April 1985) --- Ronald C. Epps, right of the training division in the mission operations directorate, briefs the Saudi Arabian payload specialist, Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, and his backup, Abdulmohsen Hamad Al-Bassam, in the flight control room (FCR) of the mission control center (MCC). Erlinda Stevenson is also pictured.

  10. Payload specialists Baudry and Al-Saud in the middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The two payload specialists for the STS 51-G flight share a middeck scene on Discovery. Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud (left) is in the midst of a meal while Patrick Baudry conducts a phase of the French Postural Experiment (FPE) on himself. Sleep restraints are in the background.

  11. Portrait of STS 51-G crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Portrait of STS 51-G crew. Kneeling in front are Astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein (left) and John O. Creighton, commander and pilot, respectively. Astronauts Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel, and John M. Fabian, mission specialist (l.-r.) joing Payload specialists Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud (second right) and Patrick Baudry on the back row.

  12. STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    STS 51-G crew photo on the flight deck. Left to right in the front are John O. Creighton, Shannon W. Lucid, Daniel C. Brandenstein; and in the back row are Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, Steven R. Nagel, John N. Fabian and Patrick Baudry.

  13. A Clash between Cultures: An Approach To Reducing Cultural Hostility in a Homogeneous Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, David Marshall

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the need to teach cultural awareness and reduce cultural hostility with culturally homogeneous college classes. Recounts use, in a class of graduate business students, of the case of Salman Rushdie being placed under an Iranian death threat for his writings. Explains the six-step process used to structure reading and discussion of the…

  14. Schools "Flip" for Lesson Model Promoted by Khan Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a "flip model" of instruction that has gotten national media attention lately, thanks to its promotion by Khan Academy, the high-profile nonprofit online-tutoring library created by Salman A. Khan, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate who was looking for a way to help his young relatives with their homework. The…

  15. Flip or Flop: Are Math Teachers Using Khan Academy as Envisioned by Sal Khan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargile, Lori A.; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2014-01-01

    Khan Academy (KA) is a free web-based intelligent tutor, which has been featured in countless media outlets for its potential to change mathematics instruction. The founder and executive director, Salman Khan, recommends that KA be used to personalize instruction, freeing up class time for engaging high yield activities like student discourse and…

  16. Toward a One-World Schoolhouse: Interview with Sal Khan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkus, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, Salman Khan, with three degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard, agreed to help tutor his cousin Nadia, who was struggling in math. Using Yahoo's Doodle notepad, Khan offered Nadia a sequence of mini lessons designed to scaffold her learning. Over time, other friends and relatives heard about Khan's success and asked for similar…

  17. Can Khan Move the Bell Curve to the Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2012-01-01

    This article features Khan Academy which offers an online math program and short video lectures embedded in the "module", or math concept, that fit students' goals. By now, more than 1 million people have watched the online video in which Salman Khan--a charming MIT math whiz, Harvard Business School graduate, and former Boston hedge-fund…

  18. Commentary: The Khan Academy and the Day-Night Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching by night and reflecting on a subject by day is the way that Salman Khan sees education evolving in the age of online lectures. Khan believes he is onto something in what he styles the "flipped classroom." In Khan's view, there is no need for students to be divided into grades by age. Instead, they should learn at their own pace, moving on…

  19. Contemporary World Classics in Literature and Film. Fall, 1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Leslie J.

    This packet includes the syllabus of a trimester-long senior elective course on India, designed to begin with two writers of Indian descent, Salman Rushdie and Bharati Mukherjee. The packet contains the daily assignments for the first half of the trimester, which include all of the reading assignments from Rushdie and Mukherjee, as well as the…

  20. Schools "Flip" for Lesson Model Promoted by Khan Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a "flip model" of instruction that has gotten national media attention lately, thanks to its promotion by Khan Academy, the high-profile nonprofit online-tutoring library created by Salman A. Khan, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology graduate who was looking for a way to help his young relatives with their homework. The…

  1. Toward a One-World Schoolhouse: Interview with Sal Khan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkus, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, Salman Khan, with three degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard, agreed to help tutor his cousin Nadia, who was struggling in math. Using Yahoo's Doodle notepad, Khan offered Nadia a sequence of mini lessons designed to scaffold her learning. Over time, other friends and relatives heard about Khan's success and asked for similar…

  2. Can Khan Move the Bell Curve to the Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2012-01-01

    This article features Khan Academy which offers an online math program and short video lectures embedded in the "module", or math concept, that fit students' goals. By now, more than 1 million people have watched the online video in which Salman Khan--a charming MIT math whiz, Harvard Business School graduate, and former Boston hedge-fund…

  3. Communicating with Parents of Children with Special Needs in Saudi Arabia: Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Using Email for Regular and Ongoing Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubis, Snaa; Bernadowski, Carianne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study, by Snaa Dubis from Salman Bin Abdu Aziz University, Saudi Arabia, and Robert Morris University, USA, and Carianne Bernadowski from Robert Morris University, was to investigate parents' and special education teachers' perceptions of using email as a component of parental involvement in the academic and/or behavioural…

  4. Immunohistochemical Profiling of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqian; Husain, Arjumand; Nelson, Gregg S; Rambau, Peter F; Liu, Shuhong; Lee, Cheng-Han; Lee, Sandra; Duggan, Máire A; Köbel, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) is an aggressive neoplasm mainly seen in older women. The objective of this study was to refine immunohistochemical (IHC) panels for the differential diagnoses against endometrial endometrioid grade 3 (EC3), endometrial clear cell, and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma as well as exploring the prognostic role of selected IHC markers. Fifty-two ESC from a single institution were assessed for 20 IHC markers, including ARID1A, CCNE1, CDKN2A, ERBB2, ESR1, HNF1B, FBXW7, IGF2BP3, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NAPSA, PAX8, PGR, PMS2, PTEN, TFF3, TP53, VIM, and WT1. ERBB2 chromogenic in situ hybridization was evaluated on tissue microarrays. Statistical analysis was performed. All ESC showed aberrant TP53, normal mismatch repair protein, and retained ARID1A and PTEN expression. ESR1 expression was present in 80% of ESC. A combination of TP53, PTEN, and CDKN2A had a sensitivity of 93.6% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84%-98%] and specificity of 87.8% (95% CI, 75%-95%) for ESC versus EC3. A combination of NAPSA and ESR1 had a sensitivity of 97.9% (95% CI, 89%-99%) and specificity of 72.2% (95% CI, 46%-90%) for ESC versus clear cell carcinoma. Absence of WT1 alone had a sensitivity of 66.0% (95% CI, 51%-79%) and specificity of 98.0% (95% CI, 94%-99%) for ESC versus ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Among all 52 ESCs, ERBB2 amplification was present in 23%, FBXW7 expression was absent in 10%, and CCNE1 was overexpressed in 59%, however, none were associated with prognosis. Our data support the value of IHC marker panels for histotyping of high-grade endometrial carcinomas.

  5. Streaming in English Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acland, H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend our knowledge of ability grouping through the reanalysis of two sets of survey data, the Plowden survey (Peaker, 1967) and the NFER streaming survey (Barker Lunn, 1970). (Editor)

  6. Do we need another model for mental health care?

    PubMed

    Noak, J

    In this discussion, James Noak critiques Fletcher and Stevenson's (2001) article 'Launching the Tidal Model in an adult mental health programme'. Responses from the authors and Phil Barker, author of the Tidal Model, follow.

  7. 77 FR 76483 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants The Commission gives notice that the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... International, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 2259 University Drive, Naperville, IL 60565. Officers: Peter R. Barker... V. Gregory, Secretary. [FR Doc. 2012-31312 Filed 12-27-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6730-01-P...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: generalized pustular psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... C, Valeyrie-Allanore L, Vicente MA, Trembath RC, Smith CH, Barker JN, Capon F. IL36RN mutations define ... A, Simpson MA, Pink AE, Di Meglio P, Smith CH, Pullabhatla V, Knight J, Spain SL, Nestle ...

  9. 77 FR 68764 - Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare An Environmental Impact Statement and Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    .... Name of Project: Parker Knoll Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At Parker Mountain...)-825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Justin Barker, Parker Knoll Hydro, LLC., 975 South State Highway, Logan...

  10. 78 FR 67459 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... applications, FMCSA exempts Charles E. Anderson (MN), Ross D. Barker (UT), Phillip B. Blythe (IL), Jay H. Byers.... Moreau (NH), James M. O'Rourke (MA), Joshua T. Paumer (MT), Kent F. Peters (KS), Vladimir B. Petkov...

  11. High Energy Density Nastic Structures Using Biological Transport Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-28

    higher plants was identified and reported by Frommer et. al[7]. Further investigation by Frommer’s group following their first report in 2000...Plant Biologists, Vol. 133, October 2003, pp. 885–892. [7] Weise, A., Barker, L., Kuhn, C., Lalonde, S., Buschmann, H., Frommer , W. B., and Ward, J. M...12, August 2000, pp. 1345–1355. [8] Lalonde, S., Boles, E., Hellmann, H., Barker, L., Patrick, J. W., Frommer , W. B., and Ward, J. M., “The Dual

  12. Engineered Approaches to In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Fundamentals and Field Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    microorganisms received a continuous supply of the nutrients required to support biodegradation ( Devlin and Barker 1994). Bioventing - the process of...Volume 58. Number 11. Pages 3622-3629. Devlin , J. F. and J. F. Barker. 1994. “A semi-passive nutrient injection scheme for enhanced in situ...and J-M. Bollag. 1996. Soil Biochemistry . Marcel Dekker. New York. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1996. A Citizen’s Guide to

  13. Excess Gibbs free energies at several temperatures of butanone with 1-hexanol or 1-octanol

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, R.; Sanchez, F.; Perez, P.; Gracia, M.

    1996-09-01

    Vapor pressures of butanone + 1-hexanol or 1-octanol, at several temperatures between 288.15 K and 323.15 K, were measured by a static method. Activity coefficients and excess molar Gibbs free energies G{sup E} were calculated by Barker`s method. Reduction of the vapor pressure data is carried out by means of the Redlich-Kister and Wilson correlations.

  14. Quantum Interactive Proofs with Short Messages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-22

    state tomography, quantumde Finetti theorem, quantum computation Salman Beigi, Peter Shor, John Watrousw Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT...through the use of quantum state tomography, along with the finite quantum de Finetti theorem for the first variant. Note: this appeard in the...along with the finite quantum de Finetti theorem for the first variant. 1 Introduction The interactive proof system model extends the notion of

  15. Effect of Freestream Turbulence on a Two Dimensional Cascade, with Different Surface Roughness, at High Reynolds Number.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    The Theory And Design Of Gas Turbines And Jet Engines . New York McGraw-Hill Book Company Incorporated, 1950. 14. Evans, R. L. The Effects Of Free...Fulfillment of the Requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautical Engineering SQN.LDR (MAJ.) Salman Absar Pakistan Air Force March 1988...center blade . Variation of the above parameters was studied for a cascade with NACA 65-A506 aerofoils . Three different categories of surface roughness

  16. India in Africa: Implications of an Emerging Power for AFRICOM and U.S. Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    bridgehead for Indian in- terests— cultural , economic, and political—in Africa. The former Indian foreign secretary, Salman Haidar, for example, has...the burgeoning Indian -African relationship presents good prospects for security and stability in Africa; in fact, India’s his- tory enables its...maintaining peace and security along the Indian Ocean littoral, including the eastern coast of Africa— align quite well with America’s broader military and

  17. STS 51-G crewmembers depart KSC's operations and checkout building

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-20

    51G-S-117 (17 June 1985) --- 51-G crewmembers depart the Kennedy Space Center's operations and checkout building on their way to the launch pad for the launch of the Discovery. Leading the seven are Daniel C. Brandenstein, commander; and John O. Creighton, pilot. Following are Payload specialist Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud; John M. Fabian, mission specialist; Patrick Baudry, payload specialist; Shannon Lucid and Steven R. Nagel, mission specialists.

  18. Crew of the STS 51-G Discovery egress the orbiter in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew of the STS 51-G Discovery egress the orbiter in California at the end of the mission. Astronaut Danel C. Brandenstein, crew commander, shakes hands with George W.S. Abbey, Director of Flight Crew Operations at JSC. Behind Brandenstein are (bottom to top) John O. Creighton, John M. Fabian, Shannon W. Lucid, Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud, Patrick Baudry and Steven R. Nagel.

  19. On Target: Organizing and Executing the Strategic Air Campaign Against Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    and the Arab powers in the Persian Gulf as dramatic as that of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat over the Israelis in October 1973.2 This action followed...between intelligence, operations, and planners. 23. Intvw, Col. Crigger, Mar 5, 1992. Wild Weasels operating from Shaikh Isa in Bahrain, also close to...Mohammed Sabah al-Salam: 27, 278 Sadat, Anwar : 1 Saddam International Airport (IAP): 201 Safwan airfield: 290 Salah Al Din SAM plant: 269 Salman Pak AM

  20. An Adult Protective Services' view of collaboration with Mental Health Services.

    PubMed

    Teaster, Pamela B; Stansbury, Kim L; Nerenberg, Lisa; Stanis, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Mental Health Services (MHS) meet mental health needs of older adults through active, outpatient, community-based care. Adult Protective Services (APS) are involved with needs of older adults who have mental disability and mental illness. Adult Protective Services and MHS staff may to work together when they respond to the needs of victims and adults at risk for abuse, neglect, self-neglect, and exploitation. The purpose of this study was to understand effective APS-MHS collaborations (e.g., leadership, organizational culture, administration, and resources in predicting success). A survey that was sent to members of the National Adult Protective Services Association (NAPSA) revealed that both APS and MHS have strong commitments to protecting clients' rights and autonomy, but there appear to be differences between the two with regard to implementation, apparent in cases involving clients with diminished mental capacity who are at imminent risk, but who refuse help. Strengths of APS-MHS collaborations included improved communication and better service for at-risk clients.

  1. Conflicting Perceptions of the Status of Field Biology and Identification Skills in UK Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond; Scott, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews of the state of biology fieldwork in UK schools and universities at the beginning of the twenty-first century (Barker, Slingsby, and Tilling 2002; Smith 2004) were not entirely pessimistic; rather they suggested ways forward that might lead to an increase in fieldwork. Whether their hopes have been realised has, perhaps, been revealed by…

  2. Novel concepts in the developmental origins of adult health and disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seminal epidemiological observations of David Barker demonstrated that birth weight across the normal range is inversely proportional to the risk for hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Increasing evidence suggests that either low birth weight or accelerated p...

  3. Can In Utero Exposures Program an Increased Risk for Diseases Later in Life?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1990's, David Barker and his colleagues studied the relationship between the incidence of coronary heart disease and birth weight in a population of adult men and women in Hertfordshire, England. They found an inverse correlation between the incidence of coronary hea...

  4. Mentoring Influence on Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity Based on Institutional Carnegie Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are being called to provide leaders capable of operating in increasingly complex environments (Astin & Astin, 2000; Daloz Parks, 2005; Longo & Gibson, 2011; Rost & Barker, 2000). As immersion into these complex environments has been found to assist students in developing leadership capacities, mentoring is…

  5. EMBRYONIC AND FETAL PROGRAMMING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, numerous epidemiological studies have indicated strong inverse associations between birth weight and risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2-diabetes and other diseases in adulthood. The ¿Barker hypothesis¿ thus postulates that a number of organ ...

  6. Examining the Implementation of an Innovative Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Heidi Britte

    2010-01-01

    Reform in mathematics instruction at the college level has been slow to arrive (Dossey, Halvorson, & McCrone, 2008), and many institutions of higher learning still follow the calculus model, while fewer and fewer students need calculus for their chosen areas of study (Ganter & Barker, 2003). Instead, mathematics that is applicable and transferable…

  7. Answering Questions about Complex Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-19

    STRIPS: Fikes and Nilsson 1971) to work in probabilistic models of planning, events and causality ( Astrom 1965; Pearl 2001), employing many... Astrom , K. J. (1965). "Optimal control of Markov decision processes with incomplete state estimation." J1 Math1 Anal1 Applic. 10: 174-205. Barker, K

  8. Adding a New Dimension to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2013-01-01

    Much of what is taught, especially in college, is designed to support other disciplines. To determine the current mathematical needs of twenty-three partner disciplines, the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) conducted the Curriculum Foundations Project (Ganter and Barker 2004; Ganter and Haver 2011), as discussed in the appendix…

  9. Between "Bastard" and "Wicked" Leadership? School Leadership and the Emerging Policies of the UK Coalition Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Barker argues that in England under New Labour, school leaders and teachers have been "bastardised" and suggests that the situation in 2010, with a general election afforded an opportunity in education policy for the "pendulum to swing". In this article, the key points about "bastard Leadership" are briefly…

  10. Entry into Nursing Practice. Presentations Made at the Spring 1979 Meeting of the Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This publication includes six papers presented at the 1979 meeting of the Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing. Specific presentations made were (1) Entry into Practice: History, Trends, and Issues, by Virginia Barker; (2) The Appropriate Preparation for Licensure Is the Associate Degree, by Virginia Allen; (3) The Appropriate Preparation…

  11. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE PFOA INDUCES LOW DEVELOPMENTAL BODY WEIGHT FOLLOWED BY ADULT ONSET OBESITY THAT IS BLUNTED IN OVARIECTOMIZED ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Barker hypothesis, or fetal origins of adult disease, proposes that individuals born to mothers who were pregnant during lean times develop a "thrifty" phenotype with a smaller body size and lowered metabolic rates, leading to a propensity for obesity and development of disor...

  12. Examining the Implementation of an Innovative Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Heidi Britte

    2010-01-01

    Reform in mathematics instruction at the college level has been slow to arrive (Dossey, Halvorson, & McCrone, 2008), and many institutions of higher learning still follow the calculus model, while fewer and fewer students need calculus for their chosen areas of study (Ganter & Barker, 2003). Instead, mathematics that is applicable and transferable…

  13. Solid-state properties of argon, krypton, and xenon near 0 K from an [n(r)]-6 potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobetic, M. V.; Barker, J. A.

    1983-12-01

    The solid-state properties for Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated using the [n(r)]-6 potential function of Maitland, Smith, and Gough. The obtained results are then compared with experimental data and with the results obtained from the best potentials of Barker and co-workers.

  14. The Five E's: Ethnicity, Education, Economy, Equity, and Environment. Proceedings [of the] Annual Conference of the Global Awareness Society International (Chicago, Illinois, June 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, James H., Ed.; And Others

    The 23 conference papers in this proceedings include: (1) "Global Awareness Society International: Retrospectives and Prospectives" (Chang Shub Roh); (2) "Technology Transfer in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey (1989-1994)" (Huseyin Ates; Asim Sen); (3) "Indigenous People, Environmental Protection and Globalization" (Edward D. Barker); (4)…

  15. Manliness and Exploration: The Discovery of the North Pole.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Americans crowded newsstands in early 1910 to read Robert Peary's firsthand account of his expedition to the North Pole. As they read "The Discovery of the North Pole," serialized exclusively in Hampton's Magazine, few knew that this harrowing, hypermasculine tale was really crafted by New York poet Elsa Barker. Barker's authorship of the North Pole story put her at the center of a large community of explorers, writers, patrons, and fans who were taken with Arctic exploration as much for its national symbolism as for its thrilling tales. The fact that Barker was a woman made her ascent into elite expeditionary circles remarkable. Yet this essay argues that it was also representative: women shaped the ideas and practices of manly exploration at home as well as in the field. Peary's dependence upon women writers, patrons, and audiences came at a time when explorers were breaking away from their traditional base of support: male scientific networks that had promoted their expeditions since the 1850s. Despite the "go-it-alone" ideals of their expedition accounts, explorers adopted masculine roles shaped by the world around them: by the growing influence of women writers, readers, and lecture-goers and, simultaneously, by the declining influence of traditional scientific peers and patrons. Barker and Peary's story, then, reveals a new fault line that opened up between scientists and explorers in the late nineteenth century over the issue of manliness, a fault line still largely uncharted in historical scholarship.

  16. Mentoring Influence on Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity Based on Institutional Carnegie Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are being called to provide leaders capable of operating in increasingly complex environments (Astin & Astin, 2000; Daloz Parks, 2005; Longo & Gibson, 2011; Rost & Barker, 2000). As immersion into these complex environments has been found to assist students in developing leadership capacities, mentoring is…

  17. Facing Up to Radical Changes in Universities and Colleges. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Steve, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 18 essays focuses on efforts to manage change in higher education, primarily at universities in the United Kingdom. It includes: (1) "Changing Universities: From Evolution to Revolution" (Gail Thompson); (2) "Assessing Attitudes to Electronic Lectures" (Philip Barker); (3) "Teaching and Learning…

  18. Can In Utero Exposures Program an Increased Risk for Diseases Later in Life?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the early 1990's, David Barker and his colleagues studied the relationship between the incidence of coronary heart disease and birth weight in a population of adult men and women in Hertfordshire, England. They found an inverse correlation between the incidence of coronary hea...

  19. Animal Models for Testing the DOHaD Hypothesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the seminal work in human populations by David Barker and colleagues, several species of animals have been used in the laboratory to test the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs and non-human primates have bee...

  20. The Market for Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Chris, Ed.; Kenyon, Richard, Ed.

    These 43 conference papers on vocational education and training (VET) markets are grouped under three broad themes describing them. Sixteen papers deal with the VET product and providers: "The VET Market" (Kemp); "Market Frameworks in VET" (FitzGerald); "The New Zealand Market Approach" (Barker); "An Economic…

  1. Teaching Web Search Skills: Techniques and Strategies of Top Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    2006-01-01

    Here is a unique and practical reference for anyone who teaches Web searching. Greg Notess shares his own techniques and strategies along with expert tips and advice from a virtual "who's who" of Web search training: Joe Barker, Paul Barron, Phil Bradley, John Ferguson, Alice Fulbright, Ran Hock, Jeff Humphrey, Diane Kovacs, Gary Price, Danny…

  2. The Market for Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Chris, Ed.; Kenyon, Richard, Ed.

    These 43 conference papers on vocational education and training (VET) markets are grouped under three broad themes describing them. Sixteen papers deal with the VET product and providers: "The VET Market" (Kemp); "Market Frameworks in VET" (FitzGerald); "The New Zealand Market Approach" (Barker); "An Economic…

  3. Pet Therapy: Man's Best Friend as Healer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 261. Barker SB, et al. The benefits of human-companion animal interaction: A review. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education. 2008;35:487. Mills D, et al. Animal-assisted interventions: Making better use of the human-animal bond Veterinary Record. 2014;174:269. Harper ...

  4. The Influence of Temperature and Composition on the Activation Energy for Creep in Binary Aluminum Lithium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    thermocouples. Special self aligning grips, manufactured with Inconel Alloy 625, were designed to hold the creep specimens (Figure 4). These grips were made...manually ground to 600 grit and polished with 1 Am diamond paste. The samples were subsequently electropolished and etched using a 20 modified Barker’s

  5. How Autism Affects Speech Understanding in Multitalker Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    autism spectrum disorder using the Let’s Face It! skills battery. Autism Research, 1(6), 329-340. ...adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders have particular difficulty recognizing speech in acoustically-hostile environments (e.g., Alcantara et al...other talkers (Barker & Newman, 2004; van de Weijer, 1998). Studies suggest that adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may have

  6. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium of 1,2-dibromoethane + tetrachlorolmethane at temperatures between 283. 15 and 323. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.; Valero, J.; Gracia, M. . Dept. de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica)

    1994-10-01

    Vapor pressures of 1, 2-dibromoethane + tetrachlormethane, at 5 K interval between 283.15 and 323.15 K, were measured by a static method. Activity coefficients and excess molar Gibbs free energies G[sup E] were calculated by Barker's method. Reduction of the vapor pressure results is well represented by the Redlich-Kister, Wilson, and NRTL correlations.

  7. Traditional-Aged College Juniors' Career Planning Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to explore and describe traditional-age college juniors' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) regarding Career Planning (Barker & Kellen, 1998). More specifically, the career planning confidence levels of college juniors enrolled in a required career development course at a private business…

  8. Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment: A Study of UNC System Business School Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luton, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Ample evidence is available citing a positive relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment (Boerner et al., 2007; Bono & Judge, 2003; Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995; Chen, 2004; Emery & Barker, 2007; Walumbwa, Orwa, Wang, & Lawler, 2005). The majority of research on leadership in higher education,…

  9. Animal Models for Testing the DOHaD Hypothesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the seminal work in human populations by David Barker and colleagues, several species of animals have been used in the laboratory to test the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, sheep, pigs and non-human primates have bee...

  10. Conflicting Perceptions of the Status of Field Biology and Identification Skills in UK Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond; Scott, Graham W.

    2016-01-01

    Reviews of the state of biology fieldwork in UK schools and universities at the beginning of the twenty-first century (Barker, Slingsby, and Tilling 2002; Smith 2004) were not entirely pessimistic; rather they suggested ways forward that might lead to an increase in fieldwork. Whether their hopes have been realised has, perhaps, been revealed by…

  11. Prevention focus as inspector calls rise.

    PubMed

    Barker, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Peter Barker, senior consultant at fire testing, consultancy, and certification specialist Chiltern International Fire, discusses the importance for healthcare estates personnel of training and competence in all aspects of passive fire prevention/protection, with a special focus on ensuring that fire doors are properly specified for purpose and regularly maintained.

  12. Solar Zenith Angle Effects on Forest Canopy Hemispherical Reflectances Calculated with a Geometric-Optical Bidirectional Reflectance Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    when using visible wavelength satellite C. Barker Schaaf is with the Geophysics Directorate, Philips Laboratory, measurements over Tasmania. They...angles, making daily computations [III M. Nunez, W. J. Skirving, and N. R. Viney , "A technique for estimating regional surface albedos using

  13. Improving Exam Results, but to What End? The Limitations of New Labour's Control Mechanism for Schools: Assessment-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Warwick

    2011-01-01

    Bernard Barker's thesis that schools have been undermined over the past quarter of a century by a damaging combination of top-down, centralised reform and a desire to impose a market philosophy on education is powerful. This article analyses the nature of the apparatus of control--both statist and free-market--which has been applied to schools…

  14. EMBRYONIC AND FETAL PROGRAMMING OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN ADULTHOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, numerous epidemiological studies have indicated strong inverse associations between birth weight and risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2-diabetes and other diseases in adulthood. The ¿Barker hypothesis¿ thus postulates that a number of organ ...

  15. Group Complementary Codes With Optimized Aperiodic Correlation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    efforts have addressed this problem in the past, and several waveform designs have resulted in the potential reduction or elimination of the range ... sidelobe problem. For example, Barker codes (also known as perfect binary words) limit the range sidelobes to a value of 1/N, expressed in the

  16. Traditional-Aged College Juniors' Career Planning Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to explore and describe traditional-age college juniors' reports of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) regarding Career Planning (Barker & Kellen, 1998). More specifically, the career planning confidence levels of college juniors enrolled in a required career development course at a private business…

  17. The Acquisition of Case in Spanish Pronominal Object Clitics in English-Speaking College-Level L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Michael Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The second language acquisition (SLA) of Spanish pronominal object clitics (POCs) has been a topic of research with regards to clitic placement (Houston, 1997; Lee, 1987; LoCoco, 1987; VanPatten, 1984; and VanPatten & Houston 1998), acquiring specific dialectal norms (Geeslin, Garcia-Amaya, Hasler-Barker, Henriksen, & Killam, 2010), and…

  18. The Reality of Sustaining Community-Based Sport and Physical Activity Programs to Enhance the Development of Underserved Youth: Challenges and Potential Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Meredith A.; Forneris, Tanya; Barker, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Many community-based sport and physical activity programs take a positive youth development approach when operating in underserved communities around the world (Forneris, Whitley, & Barker, 2013). However, one of the biggest challenges for these programs is sustainability (Lindsey, 2008). The purpose of this article is to present the 3…

  19. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE PFOA INDUCES LOW DEVELOPMENTAL BODY WEIGHT FOLLOWED BY ADULT ONSET OBESITY THAT IS BLUNTED IN OVARIECTOMIZED ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Barker hypothesis, or fetal origins of adult disease, proposes that individuals born to mothers who were pregnant during lean times develop a "thrifty" phenotype with a smaller body size and lowered metabolic rates, leading to a propensity for obesity and development of disor...

  20. Notes from City College Advisory Service to Open Corridors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Deborah; And Others

    Contents of this booklet include: (1) "What's wrong with reading tests?", Deborah Meier, covering the following areas: the definition of reading, the social context of testing, the trouble with the tests, and how children handle tests; (2) "An English view of evaluation," an excerpt from a longer interview with Kenneth Barker at Froebel Institute…

  1. Facing Up to Radical Changes in Universities and Colleges. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Steve, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of 18 essays focuses on efforts to manage change in higher education, primarily at universities in the United Kingdom. It includes: (1) "Changing Universities: From Evolution to Revolution" (Gail Thompson); (2) "Assessing Attitudes to Electronic Lectures" (Philip Barker); (3) "Teaching and Learning…

  2. The Reality of Sustaining Community-Based Sport and Physical Activity Programs to Enhance the Development of Underserved Youth: Challenges and Potential Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Meredith A.; Forneris, Tanya; Barker, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Many community-based sport and physical activity programs take a positive youth development approach when operating in underserved communities around the world (Forneris, Whitley, & Barker, 2013). However, one of the biggest challenges for these programs is sustainability (Lindsey, 2008). The purpose of this article is to present the 3…

  3. Mutational Analysis of Cell Types in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    astrocytoma in tuberous sclerosis complex. Neurology 64(8):1446-9 Green, A.J., Smith, M., and Yates , J.R. (1994). Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome...128-139 Ridler K, Bullmore ET, De Vries PJ, Suckling J, Barker GJ , Meara SJ, Williams SC, Bolton PF.Widespread anatomical abnormalities of grey

  4. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Park River Subbasin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Gary Larson, and Richard Williams. 1976. "Rare and Unique Plants of North...A History of North Dakota. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Saylor , Stanley. 1975. "DhLbl: Early Period Occupation near Glacial Lake Agassiz...Pale 71, Bibliography Citation No. 1 should read as follows: Barker, William T., Gary Larson and Richard Williams. 1976. "Rare and Unique Plants

  5. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 12, Number 3, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    AFB by Mr. Joe Piccorossi; Panama City Beach tornado by Ms. Jacqui Barker; flipped planes at Hurlburt Field and boat carried ashore at Hurlburt...began in June 2004, and is expected to be finished in November 2006. The 47,716-square-foot facility will include optometry , dentistry, a family

  6. A Comparative Examination and Analysis of Three Listening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rebecca B.; Roberts, Charles V.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the conceptual and methodological similarities and differences of three listening measures--the Watson-Barker Listening Test, Kentucky Comprehensive Listening Test, and the Communication Competency Assessment Instrument. Provides information on the concepts being assessed in each and illuminates major methodological issues for listening…

  7. Evaluation of Linear Ozone Photochemistry Parametrizations in a Stratosphere-Troposphere Data Assimilation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-21

    liminary System, Met Office Forecasting Research Technical Re- port, 394, available from Met Office, UK, 2002. Josse, B., Simon , P., and Peuch, V.-H...A. C., Ballard, S. P., Bell, R. S., Ingleby, N. B., Andrews, P. L. F., Barker, D. M., Bray, J. R., Clayton, A. M., Dalby , T. D., Li, D., Payne, T. J

  8. 77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... area. The project is located on National Forest System Lands in Powell County, Kentucky bounded on the east by Natural Bridge State Resort Park. Includes lands in Sand Lick Fork, Barker Branch, Pot Hollow... they are allowed to stay open, the greater the pollution they will cause. Homes are located less than...

  9. [Papers of the ELF Project].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; And Others

    The five papers in this collection discuss various aspects of the Electronic Learning-Package Factory (ELF) project at the University of Bradford in England. In the first paper, "Adoption of CAL in Higher Education: A Cooperative Approach to Research, Development and Implementation," Philip Barker considers the opportunities for…

  10. Portrait - STS 51G Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-01-01

    S85-32877 (20 May 1985) --- Seven 51-G crew members take a break from training and other preparations for their June flight aboard the Discovery to pose for a group photograph. Kneeling in front are astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein (left) and John O. Creighton, commander and pilot, respectively. Astronauts Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel and John M. Fabian, mission specialists (l.-r.) join Payload Specialists Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud (second right) and Patrick Baudry on the back row. Photo credit: NASA

  11. STS-51G Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-51G mission included (kneeling front left to right) Daniel C. Brandenstein, commander; and John O. Creighton, pilot. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel, and John M. Fabian; and payload specialists Sultan Salman Al-Saud, and Patrick Baudrey. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on June 17, 1985 at 7:33:00 am (EDT), the STS-51G mission's primary payloads were three communications satellites: MORELOS-A for Mexico; ARABSAT-A , for Arab Satellite communications; and TELSTAR-3D, for ATT.

  12. STS 51-G crewmembers participate in training in crew compartment trainer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-07

    S85-31933 (17 May 1985) --- Four members of the STS 51-G crew participate in a training exercise in the shuttle mission simulation and training facility at the Johnson Space Center. Steven R. Nagel, left foreground, is a mission specialist for the flight, while Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud (right foreground) is a payload specialist. In the background are astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein (left) in the commander's station and John O. Creighton in the pilot's position. Photo credit: NASA/ Otis Imboden of National Geographic

  13. View of the STS 51-L Memorial service on JSC's main mall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Memorial services for the Challenger Seven were conducted on the morning of Jan. 31, 1986 at JSC's main mall. Among those in attendance were former and present astronauts and Space Shuttle payload specialists (PS). U.S. Sen. Jake Garn (R., Utah) vists at center with Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud of Saudi Arabia. Others pictured include German PS Ulf Merbold, French PS Patrick Baudry and NASA Astronauts Robert L. Stewart, Marsha S. Ivins, David C. Leestma and C. Gordon Fullerton, along with former astronaut Eugene A. Cernan.

  14. Bahrain: Reform, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-14

    2014) is William V. Roebuck, a career diplomat. The Ruling Family and Its Dynamics Bahrain is led by King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa (66 years old ), who...the U.S.- and U.K.-educated Crown Prince Shaykh Salman bin Hamad, who is about 47 years old . The Crown Prince and his allies, including deputy Prime...Prime Minister. A younger son of the king, Shaykh Nasser bin Hamad Al Khalifa, who is about 29 years old , could potentially succeed King Hamad should

  15. Markov bases and toric ideals for some contingency tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, N. F.; Rakhimov, I. S.; Shitan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this work is to study Markov bases and toric ideals for p/(v -1 )(p -v ) 2 v ×v ×p/v - contingency tables that has fixed two-dimensional marginal when p is a multiple of v and greater than or equal to 2v. Moreover, the connected bipartite graph is also constructed by using elements of Markov basis. This work is an extension on results, that has been found by Hadi and Salman in 2014.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-07-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-51G mission included (kneeling front left to right) Daniel C. Brandenstein, commander; and John O. Creighton, pilot. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Shannon W. Lucid, Steven R. Nagel, and John M. Fabian; and payload specialists Sultan Salman Al-Saud, and Patrick Baudrey. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on June 17, 1985 at 7:33:00 am (EDT), the STS-51G mission’s primary payloads were three communications satellites: MORELOS-A for Mexico; ARABSAT-A , for Arab Satellite communications; and TELSTAR-3D, for ATT.

  17. Microarray expression profiling identifies genes, including cytokines, and biofunctions, as diapedesis, associated with a brain metastasis from a papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Hussein, Deema; Al-Adwani, Fatima; Karim, Sajjad; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Al-Sharif, Mona; Jamal, Awatif; Bakhashab, Sherin; Weaver, Jolanta; Al-Ghamdi, Fahad; Baeesa, Saleh S; Bangash, Mohammed; Chaudhary, Adeel; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) are afflicted with unfavorable prognosis; however, the underlying molecular genetics of these rare metastases are virtually unknown. In this study, we compared whole transcript microarray expression profiles of a BRAF mutant, brain metastasis from a PTC, including its technical replicate (TR), with eight non-brain metastatic PTCs and eight primary brain tumors. The top 95 probe sets (false discovery rate (FDR) p-value < 0.05 and fold change (FC) > 2) that were differentially expressed between the brain metastatic PTC, including the TR, and both, non-brain metastatic PTCs and primary brain tumors were in the vast majority upregulated and comprise, e.g. ROS1, MYBPH, SLC18A3, HP, SAA2-SAA4, CP, CCL20, GFAP, RNU1-120P, DMBT1, XDH, CXCL1, PI3, and NAPSA. Cytokines were represented by 10 members in the top 95 probe sets. Pathway and network analysis (p-value < 0.05 and FC > 2) identified granulocytes adhesion and diapedesis as top canonical pathway. Most significant upstream regulators were lipopolysaccharide, TNF, NKkB (complex), IL1A, and CSF2. Top networks categorized under diseases & functions were entitled migration of cells, cell movement, cell survival, apoptosis, and proliferation of cells. Probe sets that were significantly shared between the brain metastatic PTC, the TR, and primary brain tumors include CASP1, CASP4, C1R, CC2D2B, RNY1P16, WDR72, LRRC2, ZHX2, CITED1, and the noncoding transcript AK128523. Taken together, this study identified a set of candidate genes and biofunctions implicated in, so far nearly uncharacterized, molecular processes of a brain metastasis from a PTC.

  18. Microarray expression profiling identifies genes, including cytokines, and biofunctions, as diapedesis, associated with a brain metastasis from a papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Hussein, Deema; Al-Adwani, Fatima; Karim, Sajjad; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Al-Sharif, Mona; Jamal, Awatif; Bakhashab, Sherin; Weaver, Jolanta; Al-Ghamdi, Fahad; Baeesa, Saleh S; Bangash, Mohammed; Chaudhary, Adeel; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) are afflicted with unfavorable prognosis; however, the underlying molecular genetics of these rare metastases are virtually unknown. In this study, we compared whole transcript microarray expression profiles of a BRAF mutant, brain metastasis from a PTC, including its technical replicate (TR), with eight non-brain metastatic PTCs and eight primary brain tumors. The top 95 probe sets (false discovery rate (FDR) p-value < 0.05 and fold change (FC) > 2) that were differentially expressed between the brain metastatic PTC, including the TR, and both, non-brain metastatic PTCs and primary brain tumors were in the vast majority upregulated and comprise, e.g. ROS1, MYBPH, SLC18A3, HP, SAA2-SAA4, CP, CCL20, GFAP, RNU1-120P, DMBT1, XDH, CXCL1, PI3, and NAPSA. Cytokines were represented by 10 members in the top 95 probe sets. Pathway and network analysis (p-value < 0.05 and FC > 2) identified granulocytes adhesion and diapedesis as top canonical pathway. Most significant upstream regulators were lipopolysaccharide, TNF, NKkB (complex), IL1A, and CSF2. Top networks categorized under diseases & functions were entitled migration of cells, cell movement, cell survival, apoptosis, and proliferation of cells. Probe sets that were significantly shared between the brain metastatic PTC, the TR, and primary brain tumors include CASP1, CASP4, C1R, CC2D2B, RNY1P16, WDR72, LRRC2, ZHX2, CITED1, and the noncoding transcript AK128523. Taken together, this study identified a set of candidate genes and biofunctions implicated in, so far nearly uncharacterized, molecular processes of a brain metastasis from a PTC. PMID:27822408

  19. Record length, mass, and clutch size in the nonindigenous Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krysko, Kenneth L.; Hart, Kristen M.; Smith, Brian J.; Selby, Thomas H.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Coutu, Nicholas T.; Reichart, Rebecca M.; Nuñez, Leroy P.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    The Burmese Python, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820 (Squamata: Pythonidae), is indigenous to northern India,east to southern China, and south to Vietnam and a few islands in Indonesia (Barker and Barker 2008, Reed and Rodda 2009). This species has been introduced since at least 1979 in southern Florida, USA, where it likely began reproducing and became established during the 1980s (Meshaka et al. 2000, Snowet al. 2007b,Kraus 2009, Krysko et al. 2011, Willson et al. 2011). Python bivittatus has been documented in Florida consuming a variety of mammals and birds, and the American Alligator(Alligator mississippiensis) (Snowet al. 2007a, 2007b; Harvey et al. 2008; Rochford et al. 2010b; Holbrook and Chesnes 2011), many of which are protected species. Herein, we provide details on two of the largest known wild P. bivittatus in Florida to date, including current records on length,mass,clutch size, and diet.

  20. Time dependent thermal lensing measurements of V-T energy transfer from highly excited NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toselli, Beatriz M.; Walunas, Theresa L.; Barker, John R.

    1990-04-01

    The vibrational relaxation of NO2 (excited at 21,631/cm) by Ar, Kr, and Xe is investigated experimentally using the time-dependent thermal lensing (TDTL) apparatus and methods described by Barker and Rothem (1982) and Barker and Toselli (1989). The theoretical basis of TDTL is reviewed; the techniques used to analyze the TDTL signals and determine the beam size are discussed; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The bulk average energy transfer per collision is shown to depend strongly on the vibrational energy, and a sharp increase above about 10,000/cm is tentatively attributed to large-amplitude vibration associated with coupled electronic states. Ar deactivation of NO2 (010) is found to have a V-T rate constant of (5.1 + or - 1.0) x 10 to the -14th cu cm/sec.

  1. Improved determination of the astrophysical S(0) factor of the N15(p,α)C12 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cognata, M. La; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tribble, R. E.

    2009-07-01

    We present new improved R matrix fits of direct data and indirect Trojan Horse data for the N15(p,α)C12 reaction and provide a more accurate recommended value of S(0)=73.0±5.0 MeV b from direct Redder data [A. Redder , Z. Phys. A 305, 325 (1982)] and S(0)=70.0±13.5 MeV b from the Trojan Horse data [M. La Cognata , Phys. Rev. C 76, 065804 (2007)]. We also analyze a recent fit by Barker [F. C. Barker, Phys. Rev. C 78, 044611 (2008)] and demonstrate that when all the uncertainties are taken into account, our results overlap with his. We also provide a fit of the Trojan Horse data that properly takes into account finite residual energy resolution of the data.

  2. Improved determination of the astrophysical S(0) factor of the {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C reaction

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Tribble, R. E.

    2009-07-15

    We present new improved R matrix fits of direct data and indirect Trojan Horse data for the {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C reaction and provide a more accurate recommended value of S(0)=73.0{+-}5.0 MeV b from direct Redder data [A. Redder et al., Z. Phys. A 305, 325 (1982)] and S(0)=70.0{+-}13.5 MeV b from the Trojan Horse data [M. La Cognata et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 065804 (2007)]. We also analyze a recent fit by Barker [F. C. Barker, Phys. Rev. C 78, 044611 (2008)] and demonstrate that when all the uncertainties are taken into account, our results overlap with his. We also provide a fit of the Trojan Horse data that properly takes into account finite residual energy resolution of the data.

  3. Vagueness as Probabilistic Linguistic Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassiter, Daniel

    Consideration of the metalinguistic effects of utterances involving vague terms has led Barker [1] to treat vagueness using a modified Stalnakerian model of assertion. I present a sorites-like puzzle for factual beliefs in the standard Stalnakerian model [28] and show that it can be resolved by enriching the model to make use of probabilistic belief spaces. An analogous problem arises for metalinguistic information in Barker's model, and I suggest that a similar enrichment is needed here as well. The result is a probabilistic theory of linguistic representation that retains a classical metalanguage but avoids the undesirable divorce between meaning and use inherent in the epistemic theory [34]. I also show that the probabilistic approach provides a plausible account of the sorites paradox and higher-order vagueness and that it fares well empirically and conceptually in comparison to leading competitors.

  4. Automatic Detection and Recognition of the First Arrival Phase of Seismic Event Signals Contaminated by Noise. The Curious Case of the Missing Explosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-29

    SAI4PD.E VAR1*4E MAU-. T1iE ATOCOARIANCE AT LAG 0. c N C- NORMALIZE THE AUTC Y" RIRNCES TO OBTAIN TrE AUOCORRE.TICIN c R"-V 113. LJ TRCSEOLD4, pATTEN IST...Dr. Lawrence J. Burdick Dr. Jeff Barker P.O. Box 93245 Pasadena, CA 91109-3245 (2 copies) Dr. Roy Burger 1221 Serry Rd. Schenectady, NY 12309

  5. Center for Geosciences/Atmospheric Research (CG/AR) Quarterly Report Number 21

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-30

    Reising, S. Padmanabhan, J. Vivekanandan, F . Iturbide-Sanchez, N. Pierdicca, E. Pichelli, and D . Cimini, 2010: 3- D humidity retrieval using a network of...poster to the 2011 Joint CALIPSO-CloudSat Science Team Meeting in Montreal. Drs. Miller and Haynes created a prototype 3- D view of clouds using...Reynolds (NRL), Dale Barker (NCAR), Brian Ancell (Univ. Washington), Ron Errico and others (NASA Goddard), and international colleagues - Stan Kidder

  6. Task-Specific Optimization of Mammographic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    interval between the time the mammo- gram was displayed and the time the radiologist recorded his or her rating. The observer experiment controlled for...Hall, 1993. 25. Manning D, Barker-Mill SC, Donovan T, Crawford T. Time- dependent observer errors in pulmonary nodule detection. Br J Radiol...clinical perfor- mance. Three earlier works examined observer perfor- mance for different chest radiography tasks, the detection of pulmonary nodules

  7. The Role of Cumulative Genetic Defeats in NF1 Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    NIH; Grant number: F32CA72199 (to S.A.R.);National Neurofibromatosis Foundation (to S.A.R.); NIH; Grant neurofibromas usually involve deep nerves...tumor, in Jadayel D, Fain P, Upadhyaya M, Ponder MA, Huson SM, Carey J, Fryer A, Mathew CGP, Barker DF, Ponder BAJ. 1990. Paternal which case LOH...cumulative data support the tumor suppressor hy- form neurofibromas are usually congenital, typically involve deep or named nerves, can become very large

  8. Theoretical and Numerical Study of Anomalous Turbulent Transport in Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-05

    Robert Barker of AFOSR and our plasma laboratory was involved in the program during the period of the contract. The selected undergraduate students were...involved in the related research. They participated in a weekly plasma seminar with graduate students and presented their assigned topics at the...seminar. The names of undergraduate students and the titles of their final reports are listed here. From May 16 to August 31. 1987: 1. Theodore Christopher

  9. NPS State Vector Analysis and Relative Motion Plotting Software for STS-51. Appendix C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A282 910 ,: ,.TIC ELECTE THESIS NPS STATE VECTOR ANALYSIS AND RELATIVE MOTION PLOTTING SOFTWARE FOR...STS-51 APPENDIX C by Lieutenant Lee A. Barker March, 1994 Thesis Advisor: Dr. Rudolf Panholzer "Approved -for public releas; distribution is...buffer, then process "* all the valid samples. */ if (this- > ring-full YES) I samples = this- > ringmax; begin-time - this->begintme = this-> ring

  10. Analysis of Detonation Structure in Porous Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Stewart, Associate Professor Herman Krier, Professor Annual Technical Report submitted to Air Force Office of Scientific Research Dr. Robert Barker...Office of Scientific Research 6c. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code) Dept. of Mechanical & Industrial...PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Air Force Office Orappicable) of Scientific Research k)P Grant AFOSR-85-0311 Sc. ADDRESS

  11. Command, Leadership and Control Essence and Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-03

    Kippur War. New York : Charles Scribners & Sons, 1982. 4. Amos, John B., II. Arab-Israeli Military Political Relations, Arab Perceptions and the Politics of...Escalation. New York : Pergamon Press, Inc., 1979. 5. Barker, A. J. Arab-Israeli Wars. New York : Hippocrene Books, 1981. 6. Bennis, Warner and Nanus...Burt Leader. The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York : Hamper and Row Publisher, 1985. 7. Blair, John D. and Hart, James G. Leadership on the Future

  12. Cultural Resource Survey, Government Townsites Study, Fort Peck, Montana, Pickstown, South Dakota, Riverdale, North Dakota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Fort Peck, Montana ZA ’ . Plate 6: Recreation Building Fort Peck, Montana 20 Plate 7: Lutheran Church Fort Peck, Montana Poo Plate 8: Lutheran Church...Joel Barker, Chief of Archives, Federal Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado. July 27, August 13, 1979. _ Interview with Dolores Barnard...Records Center, Denver, Colorado Dolores Barnard, Librarian, State Historical Society of North Dakota Library, Bismarck, North Dakota Leonard Bingham

  13. Ultrasonic Physical Modeling of Seismic Wave Propagation from a Graben-Like Structure: A Preliminary Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Abdel-Gawad Woodward-Clyde Consultants Rockwell International Sciente Center Attn: Dr. Lawrence J . Burdick 1049 Camino Dos Rios Dr. Jeff Barker Thousand...34’ HANSCOM AIR FORCE BASE, MASSACHUSETTS 01731 ~ 2YJ~- J - - -- --.. . *i "This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication...INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION j (if applicable) I Fl9628-85-C-0034 ft ADDRESS ’Cay. Stale wa ZIP Co&-) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NO~s PROGRAM

  14. Joint Center for Lessons Learned. Quarterly Bulletin, Volume 3, Issue 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Learned Program �A Com- mon Framework, by Col Egon Hawrylak, USA, details the purpose and framework of the Chairman�s Joint Lessons Learned Program . Our...Joint Lessons Learned Conference and the Joint Lessons Learned Program Configu- ration Management Board. Mr. Mike Barker JCLL Director v Joint Center...CURRENT DOCTRINE ADEQUATE? (Section 3) .... 18 The Joint Lessons Learned Program � Building a Common Framework ...................................... 23

  15. Coded excitation for infrared non-destructive testing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    PubMed

    Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Venkata Ghali, Subbarao

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a Barker coded excitation for defect detection using infrared non-destructive testing. Capability of the proposed excitation scheme is highlighted with recently introduced correlation based post processing approach and compared with the existing phase based analysis by taking the signal to noise ratio into consideration. Applicability of the proposed scheme has been experimentally validated on a carbon fiber reinforced plastic specimen containing flat bottom holes located at different depths.

  16. Basic Studies on High Pressure Air Plasmas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-30

    33, 2268 (2000). [3] Non- Equilibrium Air Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure, K.H. Becker, U. Kogelschatz, K.H. Schoenbach, and R.J. Barker, eds., IOP...10). Note that LIFBASE assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium . 120 100 oExperimentalm Siuation 80 60 20- 0 -J ~ LkXi 3060 3070 3080 3090 3100...Dual laser interferometer for plasma density measurements on large tokamaks >>, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49 p.919 (1978) [5] C.W. Gowers, C. Lamb, « A

  17. On analytic design of loudspeaker arrays with uniform radiation characteristics

    PubMed

    Aarts; Janssen

    2000-01-01

    Some notes on analytical derived loudspeaker arrays with uniform radiation characteristics are presented. The array coefficients are derived via analytical means and compared with so-called maximal flat sequences known from telecommunications and information theory. It appears that the newly derived array, i.e., the quadratic phase array, has a higher efficiency than the Bessel array and a flatter response than the Barker array. The method discussed admits generalization to the design of arrays with desired nonuniform radiating characteristics.

  18. Density analysis of the neutron structure factor and the determination of the pair potential of krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barocchi, F.; Zoppi, M.; Egelstaff, P. A.

    1985-04-01

    We propose a method of analysis of the density behavior of the experimental neutron scattering structure factor which permits us to derive directly from the experimental results an ``experimental'' pair potential. We apply the method to the recent results of Teitsma and Egelstaff in krypton gas and derive a pair potential which is in good agreement with the empirical potential of Barker et al. Some discrepancies in the range 4

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of Supplier Performance Evaluation Efficacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Barker, Associate Professor, University of Oklahoma Jose E. Ramirez-Marquez, Associate Professor, Stevens Institute of Technology Seyedmohsen Hosseini...Bowling Green , KY. He researches and teaches in the realm of supply chain management, government contracting, and strategic sourcing. He has 20...Force Institute of Technology , and BA with majors in Spanish and Anthropology from Washington University in St. Louis. Prior to his academic career

  20. Humanized in vivo Model for Autoimmune Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Noorchashm H , Noorchashm N, Kern J, Rostami SY, Barker CF, Naji A. B-cells are required for the initiation of insulitis and sialitis in nonobese...HUnrath KA H , HYue BBH, HMiyake T H , HFalk BAH, HNepom GTH. 2007. Autoreactive human T-cell receptor initiates insulitis and impaired glucose...AAALAC-accredited animal facility. For intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT) mice were fasted (given water only) for 6 h . At the end of 6 h mice

  1. Folded Acoustic and Quantized Optic Phonons in Semiconductor Superlattices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    with the search Laboratory under Grant ISF-DWI-03523. V - References 1. A.S. Barker and A.J. Sievers, Review of 11. K.C. Cadien, A.H. Eltoukhy and J.E...view Letters 47, 860 (1981). 21. R.J. Kobliska and S.A. Solin, Physical Re- 10. L.C. Cadien, A.H. Eltoukhy and J.E. Greene, view 38, 756 (1973

  2. Contract Design, Supply Chain Complexity, and Accountability in Federal Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    multinomial logistical regression model to test our hypotheses. We estimate preferences for incentive contracts compared to fixed price contracts, cost...University of Tennessee Amanda Girth, Assistant Professor, The Ohio State University An Approach for Modeling Supplier Resilience Kash Barker, Associate...endogenous risk is low, suppliers tend to bear most of the disruption risk by agreeing to fixed price contracts. Conversely, when endogenous risk is

  3. Range sidelobe elimination in phase-coded pulse radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle Mese, E.; Giuli, D.

    1982-08-01

    A method for reducing sidelobes in processing echoes received in phase-coded pulse radars is proposed. A recursive stable time-variant filter structure is derived which approximates an inverse code filter according to a least-squares optimality criterion. The application to the case of phase coding with binary Barker sequences is examined in detail. Performance of less complex but suboptimal filter structures are also evaluated.

  4. Minimum peak range sidelobe filters for binary phase-coded waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoraster, S.

    1980-01-01

    Linear programming techniques are utilized to determine the optimal filter weights for minimizing the peak range sidelobes of a binary phase-coded waveform. The resulting filter is compared with the filter obtained by use of the least square approximation to the ideal inverse filter. For a test case using the 13-element Barker code the linear programming filter is found to have peak sidelobes as much as 5 dB lower than the least squares filter of the same length.

  5. Investigation of Acoustic Emission during Fracture Toughness Testing of Chevron-Notched Specimens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    8 ACKNOWLEDGMENT This report is based on part of the results of a study of ESR casting technology sponsored by...behavior in chevron-notched specimens depend in part on the microstructural characteristics of a material, as well as inher- ent material properties ...remelting (ESR) the alloys into ingots approximately 200mm ( 8 -inches) long by 76mm (3-inches) in diameter. Each steel was heat 1 Barker, L. M

  6. Materials Processing Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    possibility of developing a surface-pressure sensor for forging dies using an ultrasonic probe. The work conducted by UES in support of this project...NUMBER 4347 5e. TASK NUMBER 53 6. AUTHOR(S) Douglas R. Barker Robert L. Goetz 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 06 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...2 2.1.1 A Criterion for Intergranular Fracture During Hot Working of a Near Gamma

  7. From Language to Knowledge: Starting Hawk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Gowin , 1984; Novak, 1998) and restricted natural languages such as Ogden’s Basic English (Ogden, 1968) and the ACE specification language (Fuchs et 3...Toronto, Canada. Barker, K., Blythe, J., Borchardt, G., Chaudhri, V . K., Clark, P. E., Cohen, P., Fitzgerald, J., Forbus, K., Gil, Y., Katz, B., Kim...Acapulco, Mexico, 2003. Lin, J., Quan, D., Sinha, V ., Bakshi, K., Huynh, D., Katz, B., and Karger, D. R. "What Makes a Good Answer? The Role of Context

  8. Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    Error Covariance Estimation and Representation for Mesoscale Data Assimilation Dr. Qin Xu CIMMS , University of Oklahoma, 100 E. Boyd (Rm 1110...by project-supported research scientists at CIMMS , the University of Oklahoma. The required innovation data were collected by Drs. Edward Barker and...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CIMMS , University of Oklahoma

  9. Inversion for Source Parameters of Underground Nuclear Explosions with Implications for Yield Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-15

    earthquake. Several investigators have inverted teleseismic body waves to obtain the seismic moment tensor. A few examples include Stump and Johnson (19T7...approaches. Applications to data from other sites might include surface and borehole records of Yucca Flats events modeled by Wallace and Barker (1986), as...1982). Inverting for the ocean sound speed structure, Ph.D. thesis, UCSD. Burdick, L. J. and G. R. Mellman (1976). Inversion of the body waves from

  10. The Aorta: Built to Last a Lifetime?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    that coronary heart disease [14], stroke [15], hypertension [16] and atherosclerosis [17], are associated with impaired growth and development...in adult life," Lancet, vol. 341, pp. 938-941, 1993. [15] D.J. Barker, "Intrauterine programming of coronary heart disease and stroke," Acta...Abstract-The pulse pressure generated by the heart is determined by the hydraulic input impedance of the circulation which, in turn is governed by

  11. Characterization of SPINK1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    between human epidermal growth factor-urogastrone, human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, and members of porcine secretin family. Arch...Biochem Biophys 1983; 226:411-3. 9. Hunt LT, Barker WC, Dayhoff MO. Epidermal growth factor: internal duplication and probable relationship to pancreatic ... pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor. Amino acid sequence of the reduced S-aminoethylated protein. Arch Biochem Biophys 1977; 179:189-99. 11

  12. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Turtle River Subbasin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Valley, the beach ridges of Lake Agassiz became suitable, sometimes preferred, sites for human settlement (Johnson, 1962:126; Saylor , 1975:251). Many...64 BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY garter, William T., Gary Larson, and Richard Williams. No date. "Rare and Unique Plants of North Dakota". North Dakota...thoroughly Investigated. *.17. Page 65, Bibliography Citation No. I should read as follows:1’ Barker, William T., Gary Larson and Richard Williams

  13. SDAV Viz July Progress Update: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, Christopher Meyer

    2012-07-30

    SDAV Viz July Progress Update: (1) VPIC (Vector Particle in Cell) Kinetic Plasma Simulation Code - (a) Implemented first version of an in-situ adapter based on Paraview CoProcessing Library, (b) Three pipelines: vtkDataSetMapper, vtkContourFilter, vtkPistonContour, (c) Next, resolve issue at boundaries of processor domains; add more advanced viz/analysis pipelines; (2) Halo finding/merger trees - (a) Summer student Wathsala W. from University of Utah is working on data-parallel halo finder algorithm using PISTON, (b) Timo Bremer (LLNL), Valerio Pascucci (Utah), George Zagaris (Kitware), and LANL people are interested in using merger trees for tracking the evolution of halos in cosmo simulations; discussed possible overlap with work by Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann (Argonne) during their visit to LANL 7/11; (3) PISTON integration in ParaView - Now available from ParaView github.

  14. "Resilience in Palestinian adolescents living in Gaza": Correction to Aitcheson et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    Reports an error in "Resilience in Palestinian Adolescents Living in Gaza" by Rozanna J. Aitcheson, Soleman H. Abu-Bader, Mary K. Howell, Deena Khalil and Salman Elbedour (Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Advanced Online Publication, May 30, 2016, np). There were grammatical errors to the Method section of the abstract and the Method subsection Participants. Corrected versions are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-26488-001.) Objective: The pathogenic impact of ongoing political conflict on children and adolescents has been well-documented in the literature. The present study, by contrast, examined the factors that support adolescent health and utilized a salutogenic model to examine prevalence of depression and anxiety and predictors of resilience in a group of adolescents attending secondary school in Gaza.

  15. Supercomputing Sheds Light on the Dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Salman Habib

    2012-11-15

    At Argonne National Laboratory, scientists are using supercomputers to shed light on one of the great mysteries in science today, the Dark Universe. With Mira, a petascale supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, a team led by physicists Salman Habib and Katrin Heitmann will run the largest, most complex simulation of the universe ever attempted. By contrasting the results from Mira with state-of-the-art telescope surveys, the scientists hope to gain new insights into the distribution of matter in the universe, advancing future investigations of dark energy and dark matter into a new realm. The team's research was named a finalist for the 2012 Gordon Bell Prize, an award recognizing outstanding achievement in high-performance computing.

  16. Open abdomen in gastrointestinal surgery: Which technique is the best for temporary closure during damage control?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo A F; Barros, Emily Alves; de Carvalho, Sabrina Marques; Nascimento, Vinicius Pereira; Cruvinel Neto, José; Fonseca, Alexandre Zanchenko

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the 3 main techniques of temporary closure of the abdominal cavity, vacuum assisted closure (vacuum-assisted closure therapy - VAC), Bogota bag and Barker technique, in damage control surgery. METHODS After systematic review of the literature, 33 articles were selected to compare the efficiency of the three procedures. Criteria such as cost, infections, capacity of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, diseases associated with the technique, among others were analyzed. RESULTS The Bogota bag and Barker techniques present as advantage the availability of material and low cost, what is not observed in the VAC procedure. The VAC technique is the most efficient, not only because it reduces the tension on the boarders of the lesion, but also removes stagnant fluids and debris and acts at cellular level increasing cell proliferation and division. Bogota bag presents the higher rates of skin laceration and evisceration, greater need for a stent for draining fluids and wash-ups, higher rates of intestinal adhesion to the abdominal wall. The Barker technique presents lack of efficiency in closing the abdominal wall and difficulty on maintaining pressure on the dressing. The VAC dressing can generate irritation and dermatitis when the drape is applied, in addition to pain, infection and bleeding, as well as toxic shock syndrome, anaerobic sepsis and thrombosis. CONCLUSION The VAC technique, showed to be superior allowing a better control of liquid on the third space, avoiding complications such as fistula with small mortality, low infection rate, and easier capability on primary closure of the abdominal cavity. PMID:27648164

  17. Incorporating movement patterns to improve survival estimates for juvenile bull trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowerman, Tracy; Budy, Phaedra

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many fish species are sensitive to changes in vital rates during early life stages, but our understanding of the factors affecting growth, survival, and movement patterns is often extremely limited for juvenile fish. These critical information gaps are particularly evident for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a threatened Pacific Northwest char. We combined several active and passive mark–recapture and resight techniques to assess migration rates and estimate survival for juvenile bull trout (70–170 mm total length). We evaluated the relative performance of multiple survival estimation techniques by comparing results from a common Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model, the less widely used Barker model, and a simple return rate (an index of survival). Juvenile bull trout of all sizes emigrated from their natal habitat throughout the year, and thereafter migrated up to 50 km downstream. With the CJS model, high emigration rates led to an extreme underestimate of apparent survival, a combined estimate of site fidelity and survival. In contrast, the Barker model, which allows survival and emigration to be modeled as separate parameters, produced estimates of survival that were much less biased than the return rate. Estimates of age-class-specific annual survival from the Barker model based on all available data were 0.218±0.028 (estimate±SE) for age-1 bull trout and 0.231±0.065 for age-2 bull trout. This research demonstrates the importance of incorporating movement patterns into survival analyses, and we provide one of the first field-based estimates of juvenile bull trout annual survival in relatively pristine rearing conditions. These estimates can provide a baseline for comparison with future studies in more impacted systems and will help managers develop reliable stage-structured population models to evaluate future recovery strategies.

  18. Summary Report of the Defense Sciences Research Council Summer Conference Held in La Jolla, California on July 6 - 31, 1992.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Barker DSO H. L Buchanan DSO I W. S. Coblenz DSO J. M. Crowley DSO L. N. Durvasula DSO B. H. Hui DSO R. T. Loda DSO F. W. Patten DSO I. D. Skurnick DSO B...Wargaming (703)696-2242 Neurgaonkar, R.R. Rockwell Intl. (805)373-4109 Osgood, Richard Columbia/DSRC (212)854-4462 Patten , Frank DARPA (703)696-2285...Dielectrics for Multilayer Packaging - Jeff Labadie, IBM 3D Polymer/Metal Structures Processing & Mfg. Issues - Gayle Lamer, Techtronics LIGA - Henry Guckel

  19. A new genus for the American Tree Sparrow (Aves: Passeriformes: Passerellidae).

    PubMed

    Slager, David L

    2014-06-23

    The genus Spizella (Bonaparte) contains seven species of North American sparrows in the recently resurrected family Passerellidae (Bock 1994; Barker et al. 2013), formerly placed in the Emberizidae, and includes a few of the region's most common and familiar bird species. Spizella sparrows occupy more or less open habitats; most species are at least partially migratory and form small flocks when not breeding. On the basis of their similar morphology and behavior, they have long been treated as a natural group (Ridgway 1901; American Ornithologists' Union 1998). 

  20. Calculation of Source and Strucutral Parameters at Regional and Teleseismic Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-28

    Williams, L.A.J., 1972. Geology of the Eastern Rift System; Geol. Soc. of Amer. Spec. Paper #136, 67 p. Barker, J.S. & Langston, CA., 1981. Inversion of...Parameters, Regional Wave Propagation, Waveguide Scattering, T-Matrix. Upper Mantle Structure. Australia . India 1». ABSTRACT (Continu* on nttftrt« if...8hort-Period ^ *nd near-regional seismograms from l?t:L^ 5 ~A ) ^ar^uake3 located 1« Australia and India. When the effect of crusta

  1. Workshop on the Physics and Modeling of Submicron Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    workshop. 4o *1i SIcmtlTl CAMsazvIxnOiN: Unolanasfled Page 3 H. U. Baranger and J. W. Wilkins John Bardeen J. R. Barker Herbert Bennett Robert Buhrman...University Ithaca, NY 14853 6. John Bardeen Department of Physics University of Illinois 211 Loomis Laboratory 1110 West Green St. Urbana, IL 61801 7...electronics. This was also stressed by Bardeen in his introductory talk and by G. J. Iafrate and Bruce McCombe in their overviews. (iii) The third major

  2. Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Studies of 9, 10-Anthraquinone in a Room Temperature Molten Salt.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    to a decrease in the size of the maximum, an effect noted by Anson et. al.31 Reverse pulse polarography of AQ in the basic melt (Figure 5) (scanning...6, 46. 30. Barker, G. C.; Boizan, J. A. Z. Anal. Chem. 1955, 216, 215. 31. Flanagan, J. B.; Takahashi, K.; Anson , F. C. 3. Electroanal. Chemn. 19ZZ...6130 Washin&ton, D.C. 20375 Dr. H. Freiser UnIiversity of Arizona Department of Chemistry 7uscon, Arizon3 85721 Dr. Fred Saalfeld Nav:1 Research

  3. Coded excitation ultrasonic needle tracking: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenfeng; Ginsberg, Yuval; West, Simeon J.; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accurate and efficient guidance of medical devices to procedural targets lies at the heart of interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used for device guidance, but determining the location of the device tip can be challenging. Various methods have been proposed to track medical devices during ultrasound-guided procedures, but widespread clinical adoption has remained elusive. With ultrasonic tracking, the location of a medical device is determined by ultrasonic communication between the ultrasound imaging probe and a transducer integrated into the medical device. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the transducer data is an important determinant of the depth in tissue at which tracking can be performed. In this paper, the authors present a new generation of ultrasonic tracking in which coded excitation is used to improve the SNR without spatial averaging. Methods A fiber optic hydrophone was integrated into the cannula of a 20 gauge insertion needle. This transducer received transmissions from the ultrasound imaging probe, and the data were processed to obtain a tracking image of the needle tip. Excitation using Barker or Golay codes was performed to improve the SNR, and conventional bipolar excitation was performed for comparison. The performance of the coded excitation ultrasonic tracking system was evaluated in an in vivo ovine model with insertions to the brachial plexus and the uterine cavity. Results Coded excitation significantly increased the SNRs of the tracking images, as compared with bipolar excitation. During an insertion to the brachial plexus, the SNR was increased by factors of 3.5 for Barker coding and 7.1 for Golay coding. During insertions into the uterine cavity, these factors ranged from 2.9 to 4.2 for Barker coding and 5.4 to 8.5 for Golay coding. The maximum SNR was 670, which was obtained with Golay coding during needle withdrawal from the brachial plexus. Range sidelobe artifacts were observed in tracking images

  4. Mesospheric Precursors to the Major Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2009: Validation and Dynamical Attribution using a Ground-to-Edge-of-Space Data Assimilation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ground to ∼0.0005 hPa , and interfaced to the Naval Research Laboratory three-dimensional variational DAS (NAVDAS: Daley and Barker 2001) in a fully...satellites, respectively, up to 0.002 hPa (∼90 km), well above the altitudes spanned by the oper- ational sensor data. In computing Eliassen-Palm (EP...by up- per mesospheric cooling, then by disappearance of the stratopause near 1 hPa and reformation at ∼0.01 hPa in February. These features agree

  5. Pulse Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojek, Zbigniew

    The idea of imposing potential pulses and measuring the currents at the end of each pulse was proposed by Barker in a little-known journal as early as in 1958 [1]. However, the first reliable trouble-free and affordable polarographs offering voltammetric pulse techniques appeared on the market only in the 1970s. This delay was due to some limitations on the electronic side. In the 1990s, again substantial progress in electrochemical pulse instrumentation took place. This was related to the introduction of microprocessors, computers, and advanced software.

  6. Di-proton decay of the 6.15 MeV 1- state in 18Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. A.; Barker, F. C.; Millener, D. J.

    2002-05-01

    The widths for one- and two-proton decay of the 1-2 state in 18Ne are calculated. Shell-model wave functions are used to obtain the spectroscopic factors. The R-matrix theory of Barker which incorporates the final-state interaction between the two protons is used for the di-proton decay model. The calculated widths for both one- and two-proton decay are in qualitative agreement with experiment. We find that the decay width for sequential two-proton decay through the ghost of the 1/2+ bound state in 17F is comparable to the width of the direct di-proton decay.

  7. Thin Film Phase Transition Materials Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    clearly appropriate. Re ference 1. Verleur, Barker and Berglund, Phys. Rev. 172, 788 (1968). r 2U VOUGHT S MOT H 8000A 803-14A *ALL SAPPHIRE #RES. RAT...shift can occur effect- ing a change from equally spaced V ions to a homopolar V-V bonding pairs. These two transitions occur similtaneously in pure...The secondary homopolar V-V bonding/metallic V-V bonding transition, is also effected by the Ti substitu- tion because the 3d* configuration

  8. Some empirical evidence for ecological dissonance theory.

    PubMed

    Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E

    2000-04-01

    Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.

  9. Africa’s Information Revolution: Implications for Crime, Policing, and Citizen Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Flaking” or “ Padding ” Planting of or adding to evidence. Table 7. Types and Dimensions of Police Corruption Source: Roebuck and Barker. 22 Africa’s...Children’s Fund (UNICEF) as a way to contact its teams in the field via SMS. Since then it has expanded to a wide array of uses. It can, for example, record...aggregate and process the data wherever there is a wireless connection. Essentially, it has been used as an inexpensive but highly effective supply-chain

  10. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

  11. In Franklin's Path: Establishing Physics at the University of Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2008-04-01

    In 1751 Benjamin Franklin established the Academy of Philadelphia, the precursor of the University of Pennsylvania. Among its curricular mandates he envisioned included ``Natural and Mechanic History,'' using a popular text he suggested by No"el Antoine Pluche that encompassed optics and celestial dynamics among its subjects. This talk will trace the history of physics research and education at Penn from its establishment, to the appointment of the first designated physics professor, George Frederic Barker, in 1873, to the opening of the Randall Morgan Laboratory in 1901 under the directorship of Arthur Goodspeed, and finally to the inauguration of the David Rittenhouse Laboratory in 1954 under the university leadership of Gaylord Harnwell.

  12. Multi-agent System for Rapid TST Decision Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    13th ICCRTS: C2 for Complex Endeavors “ Multi - agent System for Rapid TST Decision Support” Topic #5, #8 and #9 Joseph Barker, Dr. Robert...OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi - agent System for...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 13th ICCRTS: C2 for Complex Endeavors Multi - agent System for Rapid TST Decision

  13. Forward and Inverse Modeling of Near-Field Seismic Waveforms from Underground Nuclear Explosions for Effective Source Functions and Structure Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-05

    constituative laws to treat the problem in its entirety. However, solutions to such problems are much more complex than those commonly used in seismology ...WCCP-R-85-02. Contract F49620-83-C-0028, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Pasadena. Barker, J. S., L. J. Burdick and T. C. Wallace (1985b . Anal\\sis of...Mountain earthquake to the source mechanism, Bul. Seism. So-. Am. , 66, 1485-1499. Burdick, L. J., D. M. Cole, D. V. Helmberger, T. Lay and T. Wallace 41982

  14. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Science spreadsheets Richard Beare Institute of Education, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Calculating the `lost energy' Zhang Yongzhao and Zhang Shuyan Police Frontier Guard Patrol Boat Institute, Zhejiang, Ningbo 315801, People's Republic of China Cartesian diver solves the inverse sprinkler problem Boris M Valiyov and Vladimir D Yegorenkov Department of Physics, Kharkov State University, 4 Svobody sq., 310077, Kharkov, Ukraine Update excellence Karen Barker Lytham St Annes, Lancs, UK

  15. Infrared analysis of clustering in the II-VI-VI compound CdSexTe1-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkowitz, S.; Kim, L. S.; Becla, P.

    1991-03-01

    Infrared reflectivity spectra at 82 K for Bridgman-grown CdSexTe1-x crystals (x=0.05-0.35) show the two expected transverse-optical phonon modes and an unexpected third mode. Analysis of the data, using the cluster model of Verleur and Barker, shows that these spectra represent substantial nonrandom clustering of the anions around the cations. The magnitude and x dependence of the clustering is similar to that seen in the related compound CdSexS1-x grown at the same temperature, although by a different growth method.

  16. Advanced Technologies in Trauma Critical Care Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    casualty care.94 Damage Control Closure Temporary closure techniques of the open abdomen have evolved significantly since the introduction of damage...Cullinane DC, Dutton WD, et al. The management of the open abdomen in trauma and emergency general surgery: part 1—damage control. J Trauma 2010;68(6...1425–38. Cannon et al922 97. Campbell AM, Kuhn WP, Barker P. Vacuum-assisted closure of the open abdomen in a resource-limited setting. S Afr J Surg

  17. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger. Task 3, Long term testing at the ECTC

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this task is to demonstrate long term operation of a condensing heat exchanger for coal-fired conditions. A small condensing heat exchanger will be installed at the Environmental Control Technology Center in Barker, New York. It will be installed downstream of the flue gas particulate removal system. The test will determine the amount of wear, if any, on the Teflon{trademark} covered internals of the heat exchanger. Visual inspection and measurements will be obtained for the Teflon{trademark} covered tubes during the test. The material wear study will conducted over a one year calendar period, and the CHX equipment will be operated to the fullest extent allowable.

  18. Compatibility of Army Systems with Anthropometric Characteristics of Female Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    mittens are made of an insulated, wind-resistant, water-repellent, cotton /nylon blend with a deerskin leather palm. The mittens are available in two...Strap: 2 (l"xl8") Webbing, Textile Textured Nylon (MEL-W-43668) $0.80 4700 $3,760 2 Grommets, Brass Spur Type, Size #1 $0.30 4700 $1,410 2 Nut and...Women. In RL Barker and GC Coletta (Eds.), Performance of Protective Clothing (pp. 581-592). Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and

  19. Radar sensitivity and resolution in presence of range sidelobe reducing networks designed using linear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicocchi, R.; Melacci, P. T.; Bucciarelli, T.

    1984-06-01

    The design of a sidelobe-reduction network for coherent high-resolution radars using Barker codes and the results of an analytical investigation of its performance are presented and illustrated graphically. Compression is achieved by a matched filter followed by a weighting network designed using linear programming to minimize the implementation to adapt to different operating modes. It is found that the network gives significant increases in sensitivity and resolution while limiting mismatching losses to about 0.2 dB. A typical digital implementation requires only 66 devices for 10-bit input and sampling rate 150 nsec.

  20. [Magnetic stimulation of the human nervous system. Theoretic basis and clinical application].

    PubMed

    Jaskólski, D J; Jarrat, J A; Jakubowski, J

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the nervous system is a new technique introduced in 1985 by Barker, Jalinous and Freeston. Using short pulses of a time-varying magnetic field it allows a noninvasive stimulation of the motor cortex and deeply placed peripheral nerves. The authors presented basic principles and applications of this method. Stimulation procedures were described and the problem of safety and possible side-effects was discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of the method were presented in comparison to electrical stimulation. Preliminary results of the clinical studies conducted chiefly in patients with multiple sclerosis and cervical spondylosis were reviewed.

  1. Explosion Source Modeling, Seismic Waveform Prediction and Yield Verification Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    rhyolite (Cherry, et al., 1975; Barker, et al., 1976) used a laboratory deter- mined failure envelope for granite. Taking this as a start- ing point, we...amplitude of the reduced velocity potential, I-1’()I, is plotted in Figure 3.2 for the four sources of Table 3.1. Also shown is the rhyolite source used...0 101 -~ Frequency (Hz) Figure 3.2. The source function amplitudes for the tuff ~ 1 sources of Table 3.1 and the rhyolite sourcefor MAST. The source

  2. Mercedes-Benz water molecules near hydrophobic wall: integral equation theories vs Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Urbic, T; Holovko, M F

    2011-10-07

    Associative version of Henderson-Abraham-Barker theory is applied for the study of Mercedes-Benz model of water near hydrophobic surface. We calculated density profiles and adsorption coefficients using Percus-Yevick and soft mean spherical associative approximations. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation data. It is shown that at higher temperatures both approximations satisfactory reproduce the simulation data. For lower temperatures, soft mean spherical approximation gives good agreement at low and at high densities while in at mid range densities, the prediction is only qualitative. The formation of a depletion layer between water and hydrophobic surface was also demonstrated and studied. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Low birthweight or rapid catch-up growth: which is more associated with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in later life? A systematic review and cryptanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kelishadi, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Jamshidi, Fahimeh; Aliramezany, Maryam; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2015-05-01

    The effects of birthweight (the Barker hypothesis) and growth trajectory in early life on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in later life have been investigated in a number of studies. To undertake a systematic review and cryptanalysis of the association of low birthweight (LBW) and the postnatal growth trajectory with CVD and its risk factors. English-language publications in PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus were searched. Initially, two independent reviewers identified relevant papers in several steps and the quality of papers was then determined by a validated quality-appraisal checklist. By applying maximum sensitivity, 7259 paper were identified, 382 of which were duplicates and 1273 were considered to be relevant to the topic. Then, after title and abstract review, 628 irrelevant papers were excluded; 26 papers were added after reference-checking. Then, 250 other papers were deleted after full text review. Finally, 39 relevant papers remained and were entered into the systematic review. Overall, 79·6% of all CVD risk factors reported in primary studies of the rapid catch-up growth hypothesis were statistically significant, whereas the corresponding figure was 58·5% for the effects of LBW (Barker hypothesis). This systematic review highlights the importance of low birthweight in increasing the risk of CVD and its risk factors in later life. The results support rapid postnatal catch-up growth of LBW neonates as a more important factor than LBW alone in CVD and its risk factors.

  4. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:28295027

  5. Model description and evaluation of the mark-recapture survival model used to parameterize the 2012 status and threats analysis for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, Catherine A.; Kendall, William L.; Beck, Cathy A.; Kochman, Howard I.; Teague, Amy L.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Peñaloza, Claudia L.

    2016-11-30

    This report provides supporting details and evidence for the rationale, validity and efficacy of a new mark-recapture model, the Barker Robust Design, to estimate regional manatee survival rates used to parameterize several components of the 2012 version of the Manatee Core Biological Model (CBM) and Threats Analysis (TA).  The CBM and TA provide scientific analyses on population viability of the Florida manatee subspecies (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s 5-year reviews of the status of the species as listed under the Endangered Species Act.  The model evaluation is presented in a standardized reporting framework, modified from the TRACE (TRAnsparent and Comprehensive model Evaluation) protocol first introduced for environmental threat analyses.  We identify this new protocol as TRACE-MANATEE SURVIVAL and this model evaluation specifically as TRACE-MANATEE SURVIVAL, Barker RD version 1. The longer-term objectives of the manatee standard reporting format are to (1) communicate to resource managers consistent evaluation information over sequential modeling efforts; (2) build understanding and expertise on the structure and function of the models; (3) document changes in model structures and applications in response to evolving management objectives, new biological and ecological knowledge, and new statistical advances; and (4) provide greater transparency for management and research review.

  6. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-03-15

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  7. The development of the VISAR, and its use in shock compression science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Lynn M.

    2000-04-01

    VISAR predecessors are described, including the displacement and velocity interferometer techniques for shock instrumentation. The advance to the VISAR in 1972 made laser interferometry applicable to a very wide range of shockwave experiments. With a 1974 refinement of the VISAR data reduction equation, the VISAR was shown to produce velocity measurements with better than 1% accuracy, and with time resolution to about 2 ns. The power of the VISAR was demonstrated in a plate impact study of the 13 GPa phase transition in iron. Rate effects in shock compressed iron were measured and correlated with theory, and the unloading stress-volume path was determined, revealing the reverse phase transition stress to unprecedented accuracy. Later improvements in VISARs are reviewed, including the lens delay VISAR (Amery), the push-pull VISAR (Hemsing), the ORVIS (Bloomquist and Sheffield), the line VISAR (Hemsing), the fixed-cavity VISAR (Sweat, et al.), the "never-search-for-fringes" VISAR (Barker), and the multi-beam VISAR (Barker).

  8. Experimental investigation of the transient dynamics of slow light in ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski-Barker, Emma; Gibson, Graham M.; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Shi, Zhimin; Narum, Paul; Boyd, Robert W.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2014-12-01

    When a pulsed light beam propagates through ruby, it is delayed by a slow-light mechanism. This mechanism has been the subject of debate (Wisniewski-Barker et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 083020; Kozlov et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 038001; Wisniewski-Barker et al 2014 New J. Phys. 16 038002). To distinguish between the two main proposed mechanisms, we investigate the trailing edge of a square-wave pulsed laser beam propagating through ruby. Our observation of a pronounced tail on the trailing edge of the transmitted pulse cannot be explained solely by the effects of a time-varying absorber acting upon the incident pulse. Therefore, our observation of the creation of a tail at the trailing edge of the pulse provides evidence for a complicated model of slow light in ruby that requires more than pulse reshaping. The different delays of individual Fourier components of the pulse signal explain the pulse distortion that occurs upon transmission through the ruby and must be accounted for by any model that attempts to describe the effects of slow light in ruby.

  9. Auxological perspectives on 'growth' in DOHaD.

    PubMed

    Lampl, M; Mummert, A; Schoen, M

    2015-10-01

    David Barker established growth as a seminal link between early development and later health attainment and disease risk. This was nothing less than a paradigm shift in health and medicine, turning the focus of disease causality away from contemporary environmental influences to earliest growth as a time when functional anatomy and physiology sets in place critical structures and function for a lifetime. Barker's prodigious work investigated time- and place-specific interactions between maternal condition and exogenous environmental influences, focusing on how growth unfolds across development to function as a mechanistic link to ensuing health. Subsequent applications do not always attend to the specificity and sensitivity issues included in his original work, and commonly overlook the long-standing methods and knowledge base of auxology. Methodological areas in need of refinement include enhanced precision in how growth is represented and assessed. For example, multiple variables have been used as a referent for 'growth,' which is problematic because different body dimensions grow by different biological clocks with unique functional physiologies. In addition, categorical clinical variables obscure the spectrum of variability in growth experienced at the individual level. Finally, size alone is a limited measure as it does not capture how individuals change across age, or actually grow. The ground-breaking notion that prenatal influences are important for future health gave rise to robust interest in studying the fetus. Identifying the many pathways by which size is realized permits targeted interventions addressing meaningful mechanistic links between growth and disease risk to promote health across the lifespan.

  10. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xiaodong; Bao, Jing; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-03-01

    Medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging is one of the most important domains of modern medical imaging technology. The application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system has the potential of higher SNR and deeper penetration depth than conventional pulse-echo imaging system, it also improves the image quality, and enhances the sensitivity of feeble signal, furthermore, proper coded excitation is beneficial to received spectrum of Doppler signal. Firstly, this paper analyzes the application of coded excitation technology in medical ultrasonic Doppler imaging system abstractly, showing the advantage and bright future of coded excitation technology, then introduces the principle and the theory of coded excitation. Secondly, we compare some coded serials (including Chirp and fake Chirp signal, Barker codes, Golay's complementary serial, M-sequence, etc). Considering Mainlobe Width, Range Sidelobe Level, Signal-to-Noise Ratio and sensitivity of Doppler signal, we choose Barker codes as coded serial. At last, we design the coded excitation circuit. The result in B-mode imaging and Doppler flow measurement coincided with our expectation, which incarnated the advantage of application of coded excitation technology in Digital Medical Ultrasonic Doppler Endoscope Imaging System.

  11. Evaluation of knowledge of Health care professionals on warfarin interactions with drug and herb medicinal in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.; Wajid, Syed; Al-Manie, Nawaf K.; Al-Saker, Faisal M.; Babelgaith, Salmeen D.; Asiri, Yousif A.; Sales, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate health care professionals’ knowledge on warfarin interactions with drugs and herbs. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess health care professionals’ knowledge on warfarin interactions with drug and herb. Respondents were asked to classify 15 drugs that may effect on warfarin action as “enhance”, “inhibit “, “no effect”. The study sample involved health care professionals (physicians, pharmacists and nurses) from king Salman hospital, Saudi Arabia. Results: About 92.2% of health care professionals identified warfarin interactions with aspirin, 4.4% for warfarin and fluoxetine. Warfarin and cardiac agents (atenolol) was correctly identified by 11.1% of respondents. In warfarin –herb interactions section, the majority of respondents (66.7%) identified the interaction between green tea and warfarin. Approximately one-third of respondents (n=33) correctly classified warfarin interactions with cardamom. No significant difference was found between the health care professionals (p=0.49) for warfarin-drug interactions knowledge score and p= 0.52 for warfarin- herb interactions knowledge score. Conclusion: This study suggests that health care professionals’ knowledge of warfarin- drug-herb interactions was inadequate. Therefore, health care professionals should receive more education programs about drug-drug/herb interactions to provide appropriate patient counseling and optimal therapeutic outcomes. PMID:27022381

  12. Splenectomy in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in Tabuk

    PubMed Central

    Ghmaird, Asmaa; Alnoaiji, Mohammad Mohammad; Al-Blewi, Sawsan; Zaki, Shaimaa; El-lewi, Ahmad; Ahmad, Nehal

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a common genetic disease in Saudi Arabia; it is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Acute splenic sequestration is a life-threatening complication for this disease. Prophylactic splenectomy is the only effective strategy for preventing future life-threatening episodes. AIM: The aim of this study was to study hospital records for all children aged 2 to 12 year old with Sickle cell disease who underwent splenectomy in Tabuk in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Records of 24 children (13 males, 11 females) who underwent splenectomy in surgery department of King Salman North West Armed Hospital, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia between 2008 and 2015 were reviewed retrospectively and analyzed for age, sex, indications for splenectomy, surgical technique, preoperative and postoperative length of stay, operative and postoperative complications, acute chest syndrome, painful crises, blood transfusion and fever (preoperative and postoperative). RESULTS: We stressed on the information about the details of operation, the frequency of blood transfusion, fever, acute chest syndrome and painful crisis before and after operation. CONCLUSION: Here we found that blood transfusion frequency decreased after splenectomy. PMID:27275341

  13. Trabasa - Traditional Architecture Recorded by Means of Building Archaeology in Saudi Arabia: Workshop in Jeddah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Aydın, G.

    2013-07-01

    Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

  14. STS-51G Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The STS-51G flight crew, Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein, Pilot John O. Creighton, Mission Specialists Shannon W. Lucid, John M. Fabian, and Steven R Nagel, and Payload Specialists Patrick, Baudry, and Sultan Salman Al-Saud are seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating of the traditional breakfast, ride out to the launch pad, and crew suit-up for an early morning launch. Also, included are various panoramic views of Discovery on the pad. The main objective of this mission is to deploy three communication satellites. The satellites being deployed are MORE LOS-A, for Mexico; ARABSAT-A, for the Arab Satellite Communications Organization; and TELSTAR-3D, for AT&T. The crew also retrieve the SPARTAN-1 satellite. Scenes include the crew in the mess deck via video link with Mission Control Center in celebration of the 100th American in space. Al-Saud also spoke with his father in Saudi Arabia via video link. Views of certain experiments are also seen. Al-Saud is seen conducting the postural experiment, and Baudry is seen conducting the equilibrium experiments. Panoramic views of the Hawaiian Island Archipelago, and Wadi Habawnah, Saudi Arabia are also visible from the shuttle. Live footage ends with the re-entry of the vehicle into the Earth's Atmosphere, an early morning touchdown at Edwards Air Force Base and crew departure from the craft.

  15. STS-51G - CREW INSIGNIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-23

    S85-31266 (May 1985) --- The STS-51G insignia illustrates the advances in aviation technology in the United States within a relatively short span of the twentieth century. The surnames of the crew members for the Discovery's mission appear near the center edge of the circular design. They are astronauts Daniel C. Brandenstein, mission commander; John O. Creighton, pilot; John M. Fabian, Steven R. Nagel and Shannon W. Lucid, mission specialists; Sultan Salman Abdelazize Al-Saud and Patrick Baudry, payload specialists. Al-Saud is flying as part of the reimbursable agreement with the Arab Satellite Communications Organization covering the launch of the Arabsat 1B communications satellite and Baudry represents France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. The NASA insignia design for space shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the forms of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which is not anticipated, the change will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Ultrasound Transducer and System for Real-Time Simultaneous Therapy and Diagnosis for Noninvasive Surgery of Prostate Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Seob; Chang, Jin Ho; Shung, K. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    For noninvasive treatment of prostate tissue using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), this paper proposes a design of an integrated multi-functional confocal phased array (IMCPA) and a strategy to perform both imaging and therapy simultaneously with this array. IMCPA is composed of triple-row phased arrays: a 6 MHz array in the center row for imaging and two 4 MHz arrays in the outer rows for therapy. Different types of piezoelectric materials and stack configurations may be employed to maximize their respective functionalities, i.e., therapy and imaging. Fabrication complexity of IMCPA may be reduced by assembling already constructed arrays. In IMCPA, reflected therapeutic signals may corrupt the quality of imaging signals received by the center row array. This problem can be overcome by implementing a coded excitation approach and/or a notch filter when B-mode images are formed during therapy. The 13-bit Barker code, which is a binary code with unique autocorrelation properties, is preferred for implementing coded excitation, although other codes may also be used. From both Field II simulation and experimental results, whether these remedial approaches would make it feasible to simultaneously carry out imaging and therapy by IMCPA was verifeid. The results showed that the 13-bit Barker code with 3 cycles per bit provided acceptable performances. The measured −6 dB and −20 dB range mainlobe widths were 0.52 mm and 0.91 mm, respectively, and a range sidelobe level was measured to be −48 dB regardless of whether a notch filter was used. The 13-bit Barker code with 2 cycles per bit yielded −6dB and −20dB range mainlobe widths of 0.39 mm and 0.67 mm. Its range sidelobe level was found to be −40 dB after notch filtering. These results indicate the feasibility of the proposed transducer design and system for real-time imaging during therapy. PMID:19811994

  17. Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Derek J; Jenne, Craig N; Ball, Chad G; Tiruta, Corina; Léger, Caroline; Xiao, Zhengwen; Faris, Peter D; McBeth, Paul B; Doig, Christopher J; Skinner, Christine R; Ruddell, Stacy G; Kubes, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2013-05-16

    Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker's vacuum pack. The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker's vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient's abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and

  18. What veterinary practice managers can learn from other health care professions.

    PubMed

    Wood, F

    1996-02-01

    Joel Barker, a noted futurist, points out that the best ideas usually come from outside an industry or profession. As a management consultant, I often get new ideas from industries completely unrelated to my clients' industry. For example, companies interested in offering outstanding customer service might study Nordstrom's, L.L. Bean, or Lexus. Those interested in world class distribution might research Federal Express or United Parcel Service. Airlines, trying to minimize downtime of jets at the terminal, learn secrets from Indianapolis 500 pit crews. Similarly, in observing optometrists and dentists, there are valuable lessons for veterinarians. Dentists identified a business model or organizational structure that generates healthy profits. Independent optometrists experienced the onslaught of intense competition from huge corporate players and weathered the storm. The veterinary profession is not so unique. By studying other professions, we need not recreate the wheel.

  19. Can In Utero Exposures Program an Increased Risk for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the early 1990's, David Barker and his colleagues studied the relationship between the incidence of coronary heart disease and birth weight in a population of adult men and women in Hertfordshire, England. They found an inverse correlation between the incidence of coronary heart disease and birth weight -the lower the weight at birth, the higher the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. Importantly, this was not simply a problem of low birth weight or premature birth, as the inverse relationship was evident among full-term births within a normal birth weight range (i.e., 5-10 pounds). Subsequent studies by this group and others expanded the range of adult diseases inversely correlated with birth weight to include hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. These are components of the metabolic syndrome, and all contribute to increased risk of coronary heart disease. Since that time, a number of studies around the world have corroborated these findings. The

  20. Lin28 and let-7 in the Metabolic Physiology of Aging.

    PubMed

    Jun-Hao, Elwin Tan; Gupta, Renuka Ravi; Shyh-Chang, Ng

    2016-03-01

    The Lin28/let-7 molecular switch has emerged as a central regulator of growth signaling pathways and metabolic enzymes. Initially discovered to regulate developmental timing in the nematode, the Lin28/let-7 pathway of RNA regulation has gained prominence for its role in mammalian stem cells, cancer cells, tissue development, and aging. By regulating RNAs, the pathway coordinates cellular growth and cellular metabolism to influence metabolic physiology. Here, we review this regulatory mechanism and its impact on cancers, which reactivate Lin28, cardiovascular diseases, which implicate let-7, human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of growth, and metabolic diseases, which implicate the Lin28/let-7 pathway. We also highlight questions relating to Barker's Hypothesis and the potential actions of the Lin28/let-7 pathway on programming long-lasting epigenetic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Finite element modelling of SAW correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikka, Ajay C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Abbott, Derek

    2007-12-01

    Numerical simulations of SAW correlators so far are limited to delta function and equivalent circuit models. These models are not accurate as they do not replicate the actual behaviour of the device. Manufacturing a correlator to specifically realise a different configuration is both expensive and time consuming. With the continuous improvement in computing capacity, switching to finite element modelling would be more appropriate. In this paper a novel way of modelling a SAW correlator using finite element analysis is presented. This modelling approach allows the consideration of different code implementation and device structures. This is demonstrated through simulation results for a 5×2-bit Barker sequence encoded SAW correlator. These results show the effect of both bulk and leaky modes on the device performance at various operating frequencies. Moreover, the ways in which the gain of the correlator can be optimised though variation of design parameters will also be outlined.

  2. Dissociative adsorption of O2 on unreconstructed metal (100) surfaces: Pathways, energetics, and sticking kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2014-05-01

    An accurate description of oxygen dissociation pathways and kinetics for various local adlayer environments is key for an understanding not just of the coverage dependence of oxygen sticking, but also of reactive steady states in oxidation reactions. Density functional theory analysis for M(100) surfaces with M =Pd, Rh, and Ni, where O prefers the fourfold hollow adsorption site, does not support the traditional Brundle-Behm-Barker picture of dissociative adsorption onto second-nearest-neighbor hollow sites with an additional blocking constraint. Rather adsorption via neighboring vicinal bridge sites dominates, although other pathways can be active. The same conclusion also applies for M =Pt and Ir, where oxygen prefers the bridge adsorption site. Statistical mechanical analysis is performed based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a multisite lattice-gas model consistent with our revised picture of adsorption. This analysis determines the coverage and temperature dependence of sticking for a realistic treatment of the oxygen adlayer structure.

  3. [In utero fetal programming and its impact on health in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Adverse events during intrauterine life may program organ growth and favor disease later in life. This is the usually called 'Barker's hypothesis'. Increasing evidence suggests that conditions like vascular disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are programmed during the early stages of fetal development and become manifest in late stages of life, when there is an added impact of lifestyle and other conventional acquired environmental risk factors that interact with genetic factors. The aim of this review was to provide additional, updated evidence to support the association between intrauterine fetal health and increased prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Various potential cellular and molecular mechanisms proposed to be related to the above hypothesis are discussed, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of van der Waals fluids from Monte Carlo simulations and perturbative Monte Carlo theory.

    PubMed

    Díez, A; Largo, J; Solana, J R

    2006-08-21

    Computer simulations have been performed for fluids with van der Waals potential, that is, hard spheres with attractive inverse power tails, to determine the equation of state and the excess energy. On the other hand, the first- and second-order perturbative contributions to the energy and the zero- and first-order perturbative contributions to the compressibility factor have been determined too from Monte Carlo simulations performed on the reference hard-sphere system. The aim was to test the reliability of this "exact" perturbation theory. It has been found that the results obtained from the Monte Carlo perturbation theory for these two thermodynamic properties agree well with the direct Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, it has been found that results from the Barker-Henderson [J. Chem. Phys. 47, 2856 (1967)] perturbation theory are in good agreement with those from the exact perturbation theory.

  5. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Valim, Michel P.; Cicchino, Armando C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long. PMID:26798280

  6. A species pair of Bivesicula Yamaguti, 1934 (Trematoda: Bivesiculidae) in unrelated Great Barrier Reef fishes: implications for the basis of speciation in coral reef fish trematodes.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Nancy; Cutmore, Scott C; Miller, Terrence L; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-07-01

    Combined morphological and molecular analysis shows that a species of Bivesicula Yamaguti, 1934 from four species of Apogonidae Günther [Nectamia fusca (Quoy & Gaimard), Ostorhinchus angustatus (Smith & Radcliffe), O. cookii (Macleay) and Taeniamia fucata (Cantor)] on the Great Barrier Reef is morphologically similar to, but clearly distinct from B. unexpecta Cribb, Bray & Barker, 1994 which infects a sympatric pomacentrid, Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker). Bivesicula neglecta n. sp. is proposed for the form from apogonids. Novel ITS2 rDNA sequences generated for the two species differ at just one consistent base position, implying that the two species are closely related. The combination of their close relationship, high but distinct specificity and co-occurrence suggests that speciation was driven by a recent host switching event enabled by similar dietary ecomorphology.

  7. HR 7578 - A K dwarf double-lined spectroscopic binary with peculiar abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, F. C., Jr.; Beavers, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    The number of double-lined K and M dwarf binaries which is currently known is quite small, only a dozen or less of each type. The HR 7578 system was classified as dK5 on the Mount Wilson system and as K2 V on the MK ystem. A summary of radial-velocity measurements including the observatory and weight of each observation is given in a table. The star with the stronger lines has been called component A. The final orbital element solution with all observations appropriately weighted was computed with a differential corrections computer program described by Barker et al. (1967). The program had been modified for the double-lined case. Of particular interest are the very large eccentricity of the system and the large minimum masses for each component. These large minimum masses suggest that eclipses may be detectable despite the relatively long period and small radii of the stars.

  8. Sustainable development of geothermal fields in the Pannonian Basin - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Panu, Dumitru; Mitrofan, Horia; Serbu, Viorel

    1996-01-24

    As suggested by the discusssion of Barker, 1988, on the influence of flow dimension on the late-time behaviour of the generalized line source solution, it was inferred that observed long term reservoir pressure decline was an outcome of the 1D (linear) flow geometry, indicated by well tests. The detrimental effects of the reservoir pressure decline can be partly mitigated by taking advantage of the two-phase flow which occurs when methane, originally dissolved in the geothermal brine, is released within the well bore. Sustainable artesiar withdrawal scenarios for existing geothermal fields are devised, based on an accurate prediction of bottomhole pressure decline trends and an adequate selection of the diameter and length of the production tubing. Overall analysis and forecast are performed by an integrated reservoir & well bore simulator.

  9. Dissociative adsorption of O2 on unreconstructed metal (100) surfaces: Pathways, energetics, and sticking kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2014-05-06

    An accurate description of oxygen dissociation pathways and kinetics for various local adlayer environments is key for an understanding not just of the coverage dependence of oxygen sticking, but also of reactive steady states in oxidation reactions. Density functional theory analysis for M(100) surfaces with M=Pd, Rh, and Ni, where O prefers the fourfold hollow adsorption site, does not support the traditional Brundle-Behm-Barker picture of dissociative adsorption onto second-nearest-neighbor hollow sites with an additional blocking constraint. Rather adsorption via neighboring vicinal bridge sites dominates, although other pathways can be active. The same conclusion also applies for M=Pt and Ir, where oxygen prefers the bridge adsorption site. Statistical mechanical analysis is performed based on kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a multisite lattice-gas model consistent with our revised picture of adsorption. This analysis determines the coverage and temperature dependence of sticking for a realistic treatment of the oxygen adlayer structure.

  10. Perturbation theory for multicomponent fluids based on structural properties of hard-sphere chain mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hlushak, Stepan

    2015-09-28

    An analytical expression for the Laplace transform of the radial distribution function of a mixture of hard-sphere chains of arbitrary segment size and chain length is used to rigorously formulate the first-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory for the contribution of the segment-segment dispersive interactions into thermodynamics of the Lennard-Jones chain mixtures. Based on this approximation, a simple variant of the statistical associating fluid theory is proposed and used to predict properties of several mixtures of chains of different lengths and segment sizes. The theory treats the dispersive interactions more rigorously than the conventional theories and provides means for more accurate description of dispersive interactions in the mixtures of highly asymmetric components.

  11. Inverse solution of Kepler's equation for hyperbolic orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for efficient inverse solution of Kepler's equation for hyperbolic orbits. It is shown that an expansion of Barker's equation into a bicubic polynomial provides a good approximation to obtain accurate starting values for rapid numerical solution of Kepler's equation. In the approximate equation a cubic in normalized elapsed flight time from pericenter is set equal to a cubic in a function S of eccentricity and true anomaly. The initial estimate of S to use in an iteration formula is obtained by evaluating the cubic in normalized flight time and finding in most cases the single real root of the other cubic. This initial estimate has an accuracy corresponding to values of true anomaly in error by less than 0.5 degrees generally.

  12. A remarkable new genus and a new species of chewing louse (Phthiraptera, Ischnocera, Philopteridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Cicchino, Armando C

    2015-01-01

    A new genus of chewing louse as Bobdalgleishia, and its type species Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus sp. n. (Phthiraptera) belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are described. Adults of the new species are fully described, illustrated and compared morphologically with the type species of Motmotnirmus Mey & Barker, 2014, which is its closest relative. The type host of Bobdalgleishia stephanophallus is a subspecies of the great jacamar Jacamerops aureus ridgwayi Todd, 1943, an endemic Amazonian bird distributed in northern Brazil, and the type locality is the State of Pará. Bobdalgleishia is a remarkable genus with unique morphological and chaetotaxic characters which readily separate it from other members of the Brueelia-complex, in particular by having the first two marginal temporal and ocular setae very long.

  13. Volcano monitoring using short wavelength infrared data from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that Landsat TM and MSS data provide useful and sometimes unique information on magmatic and fumarolic events at poorly monitored active volcanoes. The digital number data recorded in each spectral band by TM and MSS can be converted into spectral radiance, measured in W/sq m per micron per sr, using calibration data such as those provided by Markham and Barker (1986) and can provide temperature information on the lava fountain, lava lakes, pahoehoe flows, blocky lava, pyroclastic flow, and fumarole. The examples of Landsat data documenting otherwise unobserved precursors and/or activity include the September 1986 eruption of Lascar volcano, Chile; the continued presence of lava lakes at Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia (in the absence of any ground-based observations); and minor eruptions at Mount Erebus, Antarctica.

  14. Volcano monitoring using short wavelength infrared data from satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-07-01

    It is shown that Landsat TM and MSS data provide useful and sometimes unique information on magmatic and fumarolic events at poorly monitored active volcanoes. The digital number data recorded in each spectral band by TM and MSS can be converted into spectral radiance, measured in W/sq m per micron per sr, using calibration data such as those provided by Markham and Barker (1986) and can provide temperature information on the lava fountain, lava lakes, pahoehoe flows, blocky lava, pyroclastic flow, and fumarole. The examples of Landsat data documenting otherwise unobserved precursors and/or activity include the September 1986 eruption of Lascar volcano, Chile; the continued presence of lava lakes at Erta 'Ale, Ethiopia (in the absence of any ground-based observations); and minor eruptions at Mount Erebus, Antarctica.

  15. Characterizing the scientific potential of satellite sensors. [San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Eleven thematic mapper (TM) radiometric calibration programs were tested and evaluated in support of the task to characterize the potential of LANDSAT TM digital imagery for scientific investigations in the Earth sciences and terrestrial physics. Three software errors related to integer overflow, divide by zero, and nonexist file group were found and solved. Raw, calibrated, and corrected image groups that were created and stored on the Barker2 disk are enumerated. Black and white pixel print files were created for various subscenes of a San Francisco scene (ID 40392-18152). The development of linear regression software is discussed. The output of the software and its function are described. Future work in TM radiometric calibration, image processing, and software development is outlined.

  16. Fluids and fluid mixtures containing square-well diatomics: Equations of state and canonical molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Harpreet S.; Hall, Carol K.

    1997-09-01

    We present new perturbation theory equations of state for square-well dimer fluids, square-well dimer mixtures, square-well dimer/monomer mixtures and square-well heteronuclear dumbbell fluids. Our first- and second-order perturbation terms are based on Barker and Henderson's local compressibility approximation and Chang and Sandler's perturbation theory, respectively. The perturbation approach requires knowledge of the radial distribution functions of the reference hard-dimer fluid and hard dimer/monomer mixture, which are obtained from molecular dynamics simulation. For mixtures we use one fluid mixing rules to approximate the average mixture structure and perturbation parameters. The predictions of the perturbation theory are compared to the compressibility factors obtained from discontinuous canonical molecular dynamics simulation, an adaptation of Anderson's canonical ensemble molecular dynamics method to the case in which the potential is discontinuous.

  17. Historical saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and selected contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ardis, Ann F.; Barker, Rene A.

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of this report are to illustrate the historical distribution of saturated thickness (hereafter referred to as the saturated thickness) in the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, summarize the reasons for the variation in the saturated thickness, and relate the regional effects of this variation to the distribution of transmissivity. The saturated thickness map (sheet 2) was determined for most of the area by subtracting the altitude of the base of the aquifer system (Barker and Ardis, 1992) from the altitude of the historical potentiometric surface (Bush and others, 1993). Where the Edwards and Trinity aquifers are confined in the Balcones fault zone, the saturated thickness is defined by the thickness of the aquifer system, which was determined by subtracting the altitude of the base of the aquifer system from the altitude of the base of the Navarro-Del Rio confining unit (G.E. Groschen and W.G. Stein, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun, 1990).

  18. Effect of salt identity on the phase diagram for a globularprotein in aqueous electrolyte solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bostrom, Mathias; Tavares, Frederico W.; Ninham, Barry W.; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-02-22

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to establish the potential of mean force between two globular proteins in an aqueous electrolyte solution. This potential includes nonelectrostatic contributions arising from dispersion forces first, between the globular proteins, and second, between ions in solution and between each ion and the globular protein. These latter contributions are missing from standard models. The potential of mean force, obtained from simulation, is fitted to an analytic equation. Using our analytic potential of mean force and Barker-Henderson perturbation theory, we obtain phase diagrams for lysozyme solutions that include stable and metastable fluid-fluid and solid-fluid phases when the electrolyte is 0.2 M NaSCN or NaI or NaCl. The nature of the electrolyte has a significant effect on the phase diagram.

  19. Research of acousto-optic correlator for new telecommunication receiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Dingrong; Li, Shujian; Zhou, Bin

    1994-01-01

    A promising receive system model working in high frequency and wideband, with large processing gain, is researched. As the crux, an acousto-optic correlator is discussed especially. Analyzing the principle of a bulk wave space integrating A-O correlator/convolver, an experimental signal processor with large Gp using a high frequency wideband A-O device is configured. By this system, operation of correlation/convolution with BPSK modulated by Barker code is completed. The result is in accordance with the theoretic calculation. This model works in 175 MHz center frequency, 120 MHz bandwidth, and 29.4 dB processing gain. The method of detecting the first order diffracted light beam is proved theoretically and experimentally to expend dynamic range.

  20. Applications of surface acoustic and shallow bulk acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin K.

    1989-10-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device coverage includes delay lines and filters operating at selected frequencies in the range from about 10 MHz to 11 GHz; modeling with single-crystal piezoelectrics and layered structures; resonators and low-loss filters; comb filters and multiplexers; antenna duplexers; harmonic devices; chirp filters for pulse compression; coding with fixed and programmable transversal filters; Barker and quadraphase coding; adaptive filters; acoustic and acoustoelectric convolvers and correlators for radar, spread spectrum, and packet radio; acoustooptic processors for Bragg modulation and spectrum analysis; real-time Fourier-transform and cepstrum processors for radar and sonar; compressive receivers; Nyquist filters for microwave digital radio; clock-recovery filters for fiber communications; fixed-, tunable-, and multimode oscillators and frequency synthesizers; acoustic charge transport; and other SAW devices for signal processing on gallium arsenide. Shallow bulk acoustic wave device applications include gigahertz delay lines, surface-transverse-wave resonators employing energy-trapping gratings, and oscillators with enhanced performance and capability.

  1. [Developmental origin of health and adult diseases (DOHaD): evolution of a concept over three decades].

    PubMed

    Charles, Marie-Aline; Delpierre, Cyrille; Bréant, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s, D. Barker and his team proposed the hypothesis of a fetal origin of adult diseases. The concept subsequently evolved into the developmental origins of health and diseases. Progresses in various domains such as social epidemiology, neuroscience, toxicology have contributed to establish the early years of life as a key period for future health. Finally, epigenetics has provided biological plausibility to long-term programming of health by early exposures. The convergence of all these currents has led to conceptualize human health in a complex and dynamic continuum, the Lifecourse Health Development, beginning in the prenatal period and covering the whole life. Many animal models have been developed to try to unravel the mechanisms involved. Their contributions are described in this paper with the example of type 2 diabetes.

  2. New signatures of underground nuclear tests revealed by satellite radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vincent, P.; Larsen, S.; Galloway, D.; Laczniak, R.J.; Walter, W.R.; Foxall, W.; Zucca, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    New observations of surface displacement caused by past underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are presented using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). The InSAR data reveal both coseismic and postseismic subsidence signals that extend one kilometer or more across regardless of whether or not a surface crater was formed from each test. While surface craters and other coseismic surface effects (ground cracks, etc.) may be detectable using high resolution optical or other remote sensing techniques, these broader, more subtle subsidence signals (one to several centimeters distributed over an area 1-2 kilometers across) are not detectable using other methods [Barker et al., 1998]. A time series of interferograms reveal that the postseismic signals develop and persist for months to years after the tests and that different rates and styles of deformation occur depending on the geologic and hydrologic setting and conditions of the local test area.

  3. Acidic episodes and surface-water chemistry: a comparison of northeast and southeast study sites. Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, D.E.; Malcom, J.T.; Murdoch, P.S.; Olem, H.; Witt, E.C.

    1987-05-01

    Much of the emphasis in the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) has been on historical or long-term trends in surface-water acidification. Short-term acidic episodes, however, also might have significant adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. EPA is presently designing an Episodic Response Project to investigate the regional extent, frequency, duration and magnitude of acidic episodes. The studies discussed in the report, however, were conducted under NAPAP Task Group E2-Aquatic Effects. A total of four episodic studies were conducted in the Catskill Mountains of New York (Murdoch, USGS), Laurel Hills, PA (Witt and Barker, USGS), Southern Blue Ridge Province, NC, TN (Olem, TVA), and Ouachita Mountains, AR (Nix et al., Ouachita Baptist University).

  4. Quasiclassical trajectory study of collisional energy transfer in toluene systems. I. Argon bath gas: Energy dependence and isotope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies of collisional energy transfer from highly vibrationally excited toluene to various bath gases have recently been reported [Toselli and Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1809 (1992), and references therein]. A quasiclassical trajectory investigation for toluene in argon bath gas at 300 K for initial internal energies E'=41 000, 30 000, and 15 000 cm-1 is reported here. Collisional energy transfer is almost linearly dependent on E'. Predictions of energy transfer quantities are very sensitive to the average well depth of the assumed individual pairwise potentials, but is less sensitive to the detailed shape. Qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained where the overall well depth is physically realistic. Isotope studies using 40Ar and pseudohelium (4Ar) bath gases indicate that energy transfer is independent of the mass of the bath-gas collider, but perdeuteration increases <ΔE2>1/2 by 13% over the undeuterated values.

  5. Vapor pressures of binary mixtures of hexane + 1-butanol, + 2-butanol, + 2-methyl-1-propanol, or + 2-methyl-2-propanol at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, V.; Pardo, J.; Lopez, M.C.; Royo, F.M.; Urieta, J.S. . Dept. de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica)

    1993-07-01

    Previous papers from this laboratory reported measurements of excess enthalpies, excess volumes, vapor pressures, and dipole moments for mixtures containing an alkanol. The authors have now begun a systematic study of the properties of mixtures containing isomeric butanols. While many studies of the thermodynamic properties of 1-butanol have been published, only a few systematic investigations have been carried out for mixtures containing isomeric butanols. The total vapor pressures of binary mixtures of hexane + 1-butanol, + 2-butanol, + 2-methyl-1-propanol, or + 2-methyl-2-propanol were measured by a static method at 298.15 K. Vapor-phase compositions, activity coefficients, and excess molar Gibbs energies were calculated by Barker's method.

  6. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  7. Perturbation theory for multicomponent fluids based on structural properties of hard-sphere chain mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hlushak, Stepan

    2015-09-28

    An analytical expression for the Laplace transform of the radial distribution function of a mixture of hard-sphere chains of arbitrary segment size and chain length is used to rigorously formulate the first-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory for the contribution of the segment-segment dispersive interactions into thermodynamics of the Lennard-Jones chain mixtures. Based on this approximation, a simple variant of the statistical associating fluid theory is proposed and used to predict properties of several mixtures of chains of different lengths and segment sizes. The theory treats the dispersive interactions more rigorously than the conventional theories and provides means for more accurate description of dispersive interactions in the mixtures of highly asymmetric components.

  8. Phase-coded microwave signal generation based on a single electro-optical modulator and its application in accurate distance measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Ge, Xiaozhong; Gao, Bindong; Pan, Shilong

    2015-08-24

    A novel scheme for photonic generation of a phase-coded microwave signal is proposed and its application in one-dimension distance measurement is demonstrated. The proposed signal generator has a simple and compact structure based on a single dual-polarization modulator. Besides, the generated phase-coded signal is stable and free from the DC and low-frequency backgrounds. An experiment is carried out. A 2 Gb/s phase-coded signal at 20 GHz is successfully generated, and the recovered phase information agrees well with the input 13-bit Barker code. To further investigate the performance of the proposed signal generator, its application in one-dimension distance measurement is demonstrated. The measurement accuracy is less than 1.7 centimeters within a measurement range of ~2 meters. The experimental results can verify the feasibility of the proposed phase-coded microwave signal generator and also provide strong evidence to support its practical applications.

  9. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of water modelled by a Kim-Gordon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Maerzke, K A; McGrath, M J; Kuo, I W; Tabacchi, G; Siepmann, J I; Mundy, C J

    2009-03-16

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to investigate the properties of a frozen-electron-density (or Kim-Gordon, KG) model of water along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. Because of its theoretical basis, such a KG model provides for seamless coupling to Kohn-Sham density functional theory for use in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) implementations. The Gibbs ensemble simulations indicate rather limited transferability of such a simple KG model to other state points. Specifically, a KG model that was parameterized by Barker and Sprik to the properties of liquid water at 300 K, yields saturated vapor pressures and a critical temperature that are significantly under- and over-estimated, respectively.

  10. Killing Me Softly: The Fetal Origins Hypothesis*

    PubMed Central

    Almond, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In the epidemiological literature, the fetal origins hypothesis associated with David J. Barker posits that chronic, degenerative conditions of adult health, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes, may be triggered by circumstance decades earlier, in utero nutrition in particular. Economists have expanded on this hypothesis, investigating a broader range of fetal shocks and circumstances and have found a wealth of later-life impacts on outcomes including test scores, educational attainment, and income, along with health. In the process, they have provided some of the most credible observational evidence in support of the hypothesis. The magnitude of the impacts is generally large. Thus, the fetal origins hypothesis has not only survived contact with economics, but has flourished. PMID:25152565

  11. Pressure tensor and heat flux vector for inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids under the influence of three-body forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junfang; Todd, B. D.

    2004-03-01

    We present a derivation of the pressure tensor and heat flux vector for inhomogeneous fluids under the influence of three-body forces. The derivation is based on the method of planes formalism of Todd, Evans, and Daivis [Phys. Rev. E 52, 1627 (1995); 51, 4362 (1995)]. Our derivation is validated against nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a confined fluid acted upon by a two-body Barker-Fisher-Watts force coupled with the Axilrod-Teller three-body force. Our method of planes calculations agree perfectly with the equivalent mesoscopic route of integrating the momentum and energy continuity equations directly from the simulation data. Our calculations reveal that three-body forces have an important consequence for the isotropic pressure, but have negligible influence on the shear stress (hence viscosity) and heat flux vector (hence thermal conductivity) for a confined simple fluid.

  12. Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

    2013-10-01

    The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O’Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  13. Vapour-liquid equilibrium in the krypton-xenon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, Jorge C. G.; Chang, Elaine; Streett, William B.

    1983-01-01

    Isothermal vapour-liquid data were measured for the krypton-xenon system at ten temperatures between 165 and 270 K and pressures to 6.7 MPa, using a vapour recirculating technique. The mixture critical line has been located in ( P, T, x) space. Barker's method of data reduction has been used to test the thermodynamic consistency of isotherms below the critical temperature of krypton (209.4 K) and the excess Gibbs energy was evaluated, at the same temperatures, as a function of composition. The results of the experiments have been compared with predictions of the Peng-Robinson equation of state. With interaction parameter calculated by fitting the isotherm of 200.64 K, this equation predicts the liquid and vapour phase compositions to within about a few mole per cent over most of the experimental range.

  14. Prenatal Programming of Mental Illness: Current Understanding of Relationship and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Tracy L.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2015-01-01

    The British epidemiologist Dr. David J. Barker documented the relationship between infant birth weight and later onset of hypertension, coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes. A stressful in utero environment can cause long-term consequences for offspring through prenatal programming. Prenatal programming most commonly occurs through epigenetic mechanisms and can be dependent on the type and timing of exposure as well as the sex of the fetus. In this review, we highlight the most recent evidence that prenatal programming is implicated in the development of psychiatric disorders in offspring exposed to maternal stress during pregnancy. Methodological differences between studies contribute to unavoidable heterogeneity in study findings. Current data suggest that fetal exposure to maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation, excessive glucocorticoids, and inflammation with resulting epigenetic changes at both the placental and fetal levels are important areas of continued investigation. PMID:25617041

  15. Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) and the nucleus of Darkschewitsch: a discursive commentary.

    PubMed

    Golden, Richard L

    2009-02-01

    Gertrude Stein is an icon of American literature whose scientific and medical background has become shrouded in obscurity. As an undergraduate at Radcliffe she was strongly influenced by William James and published two papers on motor automatism in the Psychological Review. As a medical student at Johns Hopkins University, her research on the nucleus of Darkschewitsch was quoted in Lewellys F Barker's acclaimed textbook on neuroanatomy; Stein's first book appearance. The background of the Russian neurologist Liverji O Darkschewitsch, little known in the West, is explored particularly in regard to his relationship and collaboration with Sigmund Freud whose letters provide considerable insight. Gertrude Stein failed to graduate with her class of 1901 at Johns Hopkins and soon after departed for an expatriate life in Europe devoted to art and literature.

  16. Environmental induction of the fetal epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Odom, Lawrence N; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-01-01

    The healthy adult is the result of successful interaction between the maternal environment and the developing fetal epigenome. The Barker hypothesis first suggested that in utero exposure to the maternal environment impacts adult health and disease. Since the origin of this theory, numerous studies have lent further support. Epigenomic alteration involves DNA methylation and histone modifications. Pregnancy, when the epigenome is typically actively programmed, is a vulnerable time, when exposures may have the most profound epigenetic effect. Recent advances have allowed an understanding of the extent and mechanism by which environmental exposures alter the epigenome of the fetus. Healthcare providers who treat and counsel reproductive-age women are in a unique position to protect against these epigenetic alterations and therefore prevent adverse impact on the developing fetus that may manifest throughout life. PMID:21297874

  17. [Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and Epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Sata, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Japan has the highest proportion of low-birth-weight infants among OECD countries for over 20 years. In 2011, the proportion of low-birth-weight infants in Japan was 9.6%, whereas the mean proportion in OECD countries was only 6.8%. In particular, young Japanese women's strong desire to be thin has been pointed out as the underlying cause. Indeed, the frequencies of unhealthy thinness among third-year female junior and senior high school Japanese students have been increasing since the start of "Healthy Parents and Children 21", and both groups have reached about 20%. The hypothesis of the fetal origins of adult disease (Barker's theory) was proposed by Professor David J. Barker of Southampton University, who had conducted descriptive epidemiological studies in England and Wales and birth cohort studies in Hertfordshire, for example. In early 21st century, it became the wider theory known as the "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD)", which was composed of developmental plasticity and the mismatch concept. Birth cohort studies are believed to be suitable for epidemiological studies to demonstrate the DOHaD theory. These studies and their collaborations are very popular in European countries, whereas such collaborations lagged behind in Japan. Recently, a new paradigm, "preemptive medicine", has been proposed in Japan. The importance of interdisciplinary studies focusing on fetal and childhood periods was also recommended as a political strategy. We just expect the realization of nationwide large-scale interdisciplinary research projects based on DOHaD and preemptive medicine and the establishment of a central research institute of these studies.

  18. Active Negative Pressure Peritoneal Therapy After Abbreviated Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Derek J.; Faris, Peter D.; Ball, Chad G.; Kubes, Paul; Tiruta, Corina; Xiao, Zhengwen; Holodinsky, Jessalyn K.; McBeth, Paul B.; Doig, Christopher J.; Jenne, Craig N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether active negative pressure peritoneal therapy with the ABThera temporary abdominal closure device reduces systemic inflammation after abbreviated laparotomy. Background: Excessive systemic inflammation after abdominal injury or intra-abdominal sepsis is associated with poor outcomes. Methods: We conducted a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Forty-five adults with abdominal injury (46.7%) or intra-abdominal sepsis (52.3%) were randomly allocated to the ABThera (n = 23) or Barker's vacuum pack (n = 22). On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood and peritoneal fluid were collected. The primary endpoint was the difference in the plasma concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) 24 and 48 hours after temporary abdominal closure application. Results: There was a significantly lower peritoneal fluid drainage from the ABThera at 48 hours after randomization. Despite this, there was no difference in plasma concentration of IL-6 at baseline versus 24 (P = 0.52) or 48 hours (P = 0.82) between the groups. There was also no significant intergroup difference in the plasma concentrations of IL-1β, −8, −10, or −12 p70 or tumor necrosis factor α between these time points. The cumulative incidence of primary fascial closure at 90 days was similar between groups (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.82–3.0; P = 0.17). However, 90-day mortality was improved in the ABThera group (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.11–0.93; P = 0.04). Conclusions: This trial observed a survival difference between patients randomized to the ABThera versus Barker's vacuum pack that did not seem to be mediated by an improvement in peritoneal fluid drainage, fascial closure rates, or markers of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01355094. PMID:25536308

  19. Estimation of ultrasonic attenuation in a bone using coded excitation.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, A; Litniewski, J; Secomski, W; Lewin, P A; Trots, I

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to estimate broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in a bone structure in human in vivo using coded excitation. BUA is an accepted indicator for assessment of osteoporosis. In the tested approach a coded acoustic signal is emitted and then the received echoes are compressed into brief, high amplitude pulses making use of matched filters and correlation receivers. In this way the acoustic peak pressure amplitude probing the tissue can be markedly decreased whereas the average transmitted intensity increases proportionally to the length of the code. This paper examines the properties of three different transmission schemes, based on Barker code, chirp and Golay code. The system designed is capable of generating 16 bits complementary Golay code (CGC), linear frequency modulated (LFM) chirp and 13-bit Barker code (BC) at 0.5 and 1 MHz center frequencies. Both in vivo data acquired from healthy heel bones and in vitro data obtained from human calcaneus were examined and the comparison between the results using coded excitation and two cycles sine burst is presented. It is shown that CGC system allows the effective range of frequencies employed in the measurement of broadband acoustic energy attenuation in the trabecular bone to be doubled in comparison to the standard 0.5 MHz pulse transmission. The algorithm used to calculate the pairs of Golay sequences of the different length, which provide the temporal side-lobe cancellation is also presented. Current efforts are focused on adapting the system developed for operation in pulse-echo mode; this would allow examination and diagnosis of bones with limited access such as hip bone.

  20. Système de traitement acousto-optique de signaux numériques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutin, P.; Logette, P.; Rouvaen, J. M.; Bridoux, E.

    1991-10-01

    The transversal filter is a fundamental device in numerical signal processing. Among all available techniques, the acousto-optic convolution is very well matched to this function. Some penalties occur however, for very long input signals, owing to the physical configuration of the convolver and to the propagation of acoustic waves in its bulk. This calls for the study of a convenient computation algorithm taking all the constraints into account. The realization of an hybrid processor enabled us to evaluate its main characteristics using experiments like autoconvolution, F.I.R. filtering, Golay's and Barker's codes or matrix multiplication. Since the built system is actually a prototype, a number of extensions and improvements are presented, which may lead to the optimization of the processing speed. L'élément fondamental du traitement numérique du signal est le filtre transversal. Parmi les techniques utilisables, la convolution acousto-optique est particulièrement bien adaptée à cette fonction. Les difficultés de cette opération, pour le traitement d'un signal d'entrée relativement long, proviennent de la configuration propre du convoluteur et du phénomène de propagation. Celles-ci vont nécessiter l'étude d'un algorithme de calcul respectant certaines contraintes. La réalisation du processeur hybride nous a permis d'en évaluer les caractéristiques à partir des résultats expérimentaux tels que : autoconvolutions, filtrage F.I.R., corrélations, codes de Golay, codes de Barker et multiplication matricielle. Le fait même de la nature prototype du système réalisé nous amène à présenter un grand nombre d'extensions et d'améliorations qui permettent d'optimiser fortement la vitesse de traitement.

  1. Increasing average power in medical ultrasonic endoscope imaging system by coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-12-01

    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through biopsy channel of electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro pre-motor, which requires that the length of ultrasonic probe is no more than 14mm and the diameter is no more than 2.2mm. As a result, the ultrasonic excitation power is very low and it is difficult to obtain a sharp image. In order to increase the energy and SNR of ultrasonic signal, we introduce coded excitation into the ultrasonic imaging system, which is widely used in radar system. Coded excitation uses a long coded pulse to drive ultrasonic transducer, which can increase the average transmitting power accordingly. In this paper, in order to avoid the overlapping between adjacent echo, we used a four-figure Barker code to drive the ultrasonic transducer, which is modulated at the operating frequency of transducer to improve the emission efficiency. The implementation of coded excitation is closely associated with the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer. In this paper, the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer excited by a shock pulse δ(t) is firstly analyzed, and then the exciting pulse generated by special ultrasonic transmitting circuit composing of MD1211 and TC6320. In the final part of the paper, we designed an experiment to validate the coded excitation with transducer operating at 5MHz and a glass filled with ultrasonic coupling liquid as the object. Driven by a FPGA, the ultrasonic transmitting circuit output a four-figure Barker excitation pulse modulated at 5MHz, +/-20 voltage and is consistent with the transient operating characteristic of ultrasonic transducer after matched by matching circuit. The reflected echo from glass possesses coded character, which is identical with the simulating result by Matlab. Furthermore, the signal's amplitude is higher.

  2. On the biomechanics of stem cell niche formation in the gut--modelling growing organoids.

    PubMed

    Buske, Peter; Przybilla, Jens; Loeffler, Markus; Sachs, Norman; Sato, Toshiro; Clevers, Hans; Galle, Joerg

    2012-09-01

    In vitro culture of intestinal tissue has been attempted for decades. Only recently did Sato et al. [Sato, T., Vries, R. G., Snippert, H. J., van de Wetering, M., Barker, N., Stange, D. E., van Es, J. H., Abo, A., Kujala, P., Peters, P. J., et al. (2009) Nature 459, 262-265] succeed in establishing long-term intestinal culture, demonstrating that cells expressing the Lgr5 gene can give rise to organoids with crypt-like domains similar to those found in vivo. In these cultures, Paneth cells provide essential signals supporting stem cell function. We have recently developed an individual cell-based computational model of the intestinal tissue [Buske, P., Galle, J., Barker, N., Aust, G., Clevers, H. & Loeffler, M. (2011) PLoS Comput Biol 7, e1001045]. The model is capable of quantitatively reproducing a comprehensive set of experimental data on intestinal cell organization. Here, we present a significant extension of this model that allows simulation of intestinal organoid formation in silico. For this purpose, we introduce a flexible basal membrane that assigns a bending modulus to the organoid surface. This membrane may be re-organized by cells attached to it depending on their differentiation status. Accordingly, the morphology of the epithelium is self-organized. We hypothesize that local tissue curvature is a key regulatory factor in stem cell organization in the intestinal tissue by controlling Paneth cell specification. In simulation studies, our model closely resembles the spatio-temporal organization of intestinal organoids. According to our results, proliferation-induced shape fluctuations are sufficient to induce crypt-like domains, and spontaneous tissue curvature induced by Paneth cells can control cell number ratios. Thus, stem cell expansion in an organoid depends sensitively on its biomechanics. We suggest a number of experiments that will enable new insights into mechano-transduction in the intestine, and suggest model extensions in the field of gland

  3. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J.; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E.; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis. PMID:28121926

  4. Active transport on disordered microtubule networks: the generalized random velocity model.

    PubMed

    Kahana, Aviv; Kenan, Gilad; Feingold, Mario; Elbaum, Michael; Granek, Rony

    2008-11-01

    The motion of small cargo particles on microtubules by means of motor proteins in disordered microtubule networks is investigated theoretically using both analytical tools and computer simulations. Different network topologies in two and three dimensions are considered, one of which has been recently studied experimentally by Salman [Biophys. J. 89, 2134 (2005)]. A generalization of the random velocity model is used to derive the mean-square displacement of the cargo particle. We find that all cases belong to the class of anomalous superdiffusion, which is sensitive mainly to the dimensionality of the network and only marginally to its topology. Yet in three dimensions the motion is very close to simple diffusion, with sublogarithmic corrections that depend on the network topology. When details of the thermal diffusion in the bulk solution are included, no significant change to the asymptotic time behavior is found. However, a small asymmetry in the mean microtubule polarity affects the corresponding long-time behavior. We also study a three-dimensional model of the microtubule network in living animal cells. Three first-passage-time problems of intracellular transport are simulated and analyzed for different motor processivities: (i) cargo that originates near the nucleus and has to reach the membrane, (ii) cargo that originates from the membrane and has to reach the nucleus, and (iii) cargo that leaves the nucleus and has to reach a specific target in the cytoplasm. We conclude that while a higher motor processivity increases the transport efficiency in cases (i) and (ii), in case (iii) it has the opposite effect. We conjecture that the balance between the different network tasks, as manifested in cases (i) and (ii) versus case (iii), may be the reason for the evolutionary choice of a finite motor processivity.

  5. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Hegde, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based blood group on tooth pulp obtained from teeth stored for 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year following extraction and to evaluate the stability of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in primary tooth subjected to a temperature of 200°C ± 5°C for 15 minutes. Materials and methods Dental pulp tissue was collected from 40 exfoliated primary teeth stored for various time durations and temperature and preserved at 4°C till DNA extraction was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using silica membrane-based spin-column procedure of QIAamp DNA minikit from BioRad. Deoxyribonucleic acid was subjected to PCR amplification and monoplex allele-specific PCR primers for ABO genotyping. Statistical analysis used The data were analyzed by comparison (based on percentage). Results In our study, overall, 85% samples showed a DNA yield. Cent percent results were obtained for samples studied at the end of 1 month followed by 90 and 80% for samples studied for 6 months and 1 year respectively. Heated samples showed 70% result. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction was found to be an effective method for blood group determination for teeth stored at various time durations and temperatures. However, as the time interval increased, the number of positive results obtained decreased. How to cite this article Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Hegde S. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):308-312. PMID:28127161

  6. Ground-water quality in east-central Idaho valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    From May through November 1978, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 108 wells in the Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, Salman River (Stanley to Salmon), Big Lost River, and Little Lost River valleys in east-central Idaho. Data were assembled to define, on a reconnaissance level, water-quality conditions in major aquifers and to develop an understanding of factors that affected conditions in 1978 and could affect future ground-water quality. Water-quality characteristics determined include specific conductance, pH, water temperature, major dissolved cations, major dissolved anions, and coliform bacteria. Concentrations of hardness, nitrite plus nitrate, coliform bacteria, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, fluoride , iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium or bicarbonate exceed public drinking water regulation limits or were anomalously high in some water samples. Highly mineralized ground water probably is due to the natural composition of the aquifers and not to surface contamination. Concentrations of coliform bacteria that exceed public drinking water limits and anomalously high dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrite concentrations are from 15- to 20-year old irrigation wells in heavily irrigated or more densely populated areas of the valleys. Ground-water quality and quantity in most of the study area are sufficient to meet current (1978) population and economic demands. Ground water in all valleys is characterized by significant concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Variations in the general trend of ground-water composition (especially in the Lemhi Valley) probably are most directly related to variability in aquifer lithology and proximity of sampling site to source of recharge. (USGS)

  7. Inflammation as a contributing factor among postmenopausal Saudi women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Aziz, Ibrahim; Yakout, Sobhy; Aljohani, Naji J; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Amer, Osama E; Sheshah, Eman; Younis, Ghaida Zakaria; Al-Badr, Fahad Badr M

    2017-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important metabolic bone disease characterized by rapid bone loss occurring in the postmenopausal period. Recently, the most prevalent form of clinically significant osteopenia and osteoporosis involves various inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) with bone turnover markers (BTMs) in postmenopausal Saudi women with and without osteoporosis. A total of 200 postmenopausal Saudi women ≥50 years old, 100 with osteoporosis and 100 without osteoporosis (control) were recruited under the supervision of qualified physicians in King Salman Hospital and King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined using Luminex xMAP technology. N-telopeptides of collagen type I (NTx) was assessed using ELISA, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin were determined using electrochemiluminescence, serum calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were measured by a chemical analyzer. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, NTx, and PTH levels in women with osteoporosis were significantly higher than controls. Although IL-4 and osteocalcin were significantly lower than controls. IL-1β and TNF-α were positively associated with NTx in osteoporosis women. TNF-α, IL-6, and TNF-α were positively correlated with IL-lβ in both groups. A significant negative correlation between osteocalcin and IL-1β in healthy women and women with osteoporosis were observed. Findings of the present study implicate a role for cytokine pattern-mediated inflammation in patients with osteoporosis.

  8. Active transport on disordered microtubule networks: The generalized random velocity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahana, Aviv; Kenan, Gilad; Feingold, Mario; Elbaum, Michael; Granek, Rony

    2008-11-01

    The motion of small cargo particles on microtubules by means of motor proteins in disordered microtubule networks is investigated theoretically using both analytical tools and computer simulations. Different network topologies in two and three dimensions are considered, one of which has been recently studied experimentally by Salman [Biophys. J. 89, 2134 (2005)]. A generalization of the random velocity model is used to derive the mean-square displacement of the cargo particle. We find that all cases belong to the class of anomalous superdiffusion, which is sensitive mainly to the dimensionality of the network and only marginally to its topology. Yet in three dimensions the motion is very close to simple diffusion, with sublogarithmic corrections that depend on the network topology. When details of the thermal diffusion in the bulk solution are included, no significant change to the asymptotic time behavior is found. However, a small asymmetry in the mean microtubule polarity affects the corresponding long-time behavior. We also study a three-dimensional model of the microtubule network in living animal cells. Three first-passage-time problems of intracellular transport are simulated and analyzed for different motor processivities: (i) cargo that originates near the nucleus and has to reach the membrane, (ii) cargo that originates from the membrane and has to reach the nucleus, and (iii) cargo that leaves the nucleus and has to reach a specific target in the cytoplasm. We conclude that while a higher motor processivity increases the transport efficiency in cases (i) and (ii), in case (iii) it has the opposite effect. We conjecture that the balance between the different network tasks, as manifested in cases (i) and (ii) versus case (iii), may be the reason for the evolutionary choice of a finite motor processivity.

  9. Screening of coeliac disease in undetected adults and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S

    2016-07-01

    The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.

  10. Metal levels in seston and marine fish flesh near industrial and metropolitan centres in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J W; Edyvane, K S; Boxall, V A; Hamann, M; Soole, K L

    2001-05-01

    Port Pirie is the site of the largest lead smelter in the world, depositing 250 t of zinc, and 100 t of lead annually into Spencer Gulf. Barker Inlet is adjacent to metropolitan Adelaide, and receives unknown quantities of urban and industrial discharges. Both areas are sites of major commercial and recreational fisheries, contained within delicately balanced marine wetland ecosystems, comprising large areas of mangrove and seagrass habitats. Aldrichetta forsteri and Sillago schomburgkii are major species within these fisheries and as estuarine-dependent species were chosen for this study as indicator species for the detection and monitoring of pollutant impacts in the nearshore marine ecosystems of South Australia. Seston sediment collectors were deployed at each site and analysed seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper. Flesh samples from A. forsteri and S. schomburgkii were examined seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper and the results correlated with levels found in the seston sediment at each site. Metal concentrations were also correlated with a biomarker of genotoxicity measured in the same animals (micronuclei in erythrocytes) that were reported previously. Seston levels of cadmium, lead and copper were highest at Port Pirie, followed by Barker Inlet and were lowest at Wills Creek, with cadmium undetectable at the latter site. Metals in seston varied considerably with season, with generally higher levels in winter samples. In fish flesh, metal levels followed broadly similar trends as for seston. Spearman rank correlations between metals in seston and in flesh were strongly positive. There was also a significant correlation between flesh concentrations of each metal and the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes. This study has shown that seston concentration of pollutant metals are high in areas of industrial activity, and that these levels are also reflected in metal content of fish flesh. Mean flesh levels of cadmium

  11. Interview: partnering with the industry: the Olympic laboratory model.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David A; Barker, Campbell P

    2012-07-01

    David A Cowan and Campbell P Barker speak to Ryan De Vooght-Johnson at Bioanalysis in May 2012 about the partnership between industry and academia for the setup and running of the doping-control laboratory for the London 2012 Olympic Games. David A Cowan is Director of the London 2012 anti-doping laboratory as well as Director of the King's College London Drug Control Centre, the UK's only WADA-accredited anti-doping laboratory, and Head of the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring. Cowan co-founded the Drug Control Centre in 1978 and became its Director in 1990. He has published extensively in the field of pharmaceutical analysis, especially as it relates to detecting drug administration in sport, and was awarded a personal chair in pharmaceutical toxicology in 1996. Cowan became Head of the Department of Forensic Science and Drug Monitoring at King's College London in 2002. He has served on a number of national and international committees, including the Council of Europe Working Party Investigating Drug Abuse in Sport that led to the first World Anti-Doping Convention, the Laboratory Representative on the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission, and WADA's Laboratory Accreditation Subcommittee. He is a member of the Crippen Club for Distinguished Toxicologists. In 1998 he was awarded the IOC Trophy for Sport Ethics by the BOA. He was a founding member of the World Association of Anti-Doping Scientists and became its first President serving on its Executive Board between 2001 and 2004. He was a Visiting Laboratory Director at the Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games 2002, where the first novel erythropoiesis-stimulating protein (NESP) positive was discovered. He was also a senior advisory scientist at both the Turin Winter Olympic Games in 2006 and the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. He was also a member of the IOC Medical Commission for the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000 and the Vancouver Winter Olympic Games in 2010. The Drug Control

  12. Geochemistry of sedimentary-derived migmatite from NE Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Scodina, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    In NE Sardinia at Porto Ottiolu, about 30 km south of Olbia (NE Sardinia), crops out a sequence of migmatized ortho and paragneiss, belonging to the Variscan basement's axial zone. Sedimentary-derived migmatite, which have a layered appearance in the field, were affected by three major variscan folding phase. D2, which is characterized by tight folds, is the most widespread deformation in the field. Leucosomes consists of discontinuous centimetre-thick, coarse-grained layers, that follow the S2 schistosity and are folded by D2 deformation phase. The contact with mesosome is sharp and sometimes marked by melanosome trails. They consist of quartz, plagioclase, very rare K-feldspar, muscovite, biotite, fibrolite, and rare kyanite. Plagioclase is unzoned oligoclase, though in some cases a thin albite rim is observed. Muscovite occurs as: i) single small- to medium-grained flakes enclosed in feldspar; ii) coarse grained crystals associated to biotite, fibrolite, and opaques, iii) in intergrowth with biotite to form thin elongated, slightly oriented trails, marking the faint foliation. Mesosomes are medium-grained, well foliated rocks, consisting of quartz, plagioclase muscovite, , biotite, fibrolite ± K-feldspar ± garnet. Fibrolite, muscovite and biotite are associated, to form strongly oriented, thick levels. Muscovite also occurs as unoriented crystals, showing quartz exsolutions and thin rims. A few mm-thick melanosome is usually present at the boundary between the leucosomes and mesosomes. Leucosomes are characterized by: SiO2: 75.4-77.9; Al2O3: 13.2-14.5; Fe2O3tot: 0.3-0.5; MgO: 0.1-0.2; CaO: 2.7- 3.7; Na2O: 3.9-4.6; K2O: 0.4-0.6 wt.%. An interesting feature is the relative high calcium content already described in other sedimentary-derived migmatite from Sardinia (Cruciani et al., 2008). In the normative Ab-An-Or diagram (Barker, 1979) the leucosomes plot at the boundary between trondhjemite/tonalite fields. All leucosomes are corundum normative and peraluminous

  13. Slugtests in fractured aquifers - advantages and caveats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The hydraulic characterisation of fractured aquifers is a challenge due to the large contrast between conductive fractures and a relative low conductive rock matrix. Depending on the type of problem, spanning from water resources issues at catchment scale to contaminant transport at local, borehole scale, different methodological approaches are required. The employment of slugtests as a characterisation method has a major advantage above classical pumping tests since they provide information also for the lower end of the permeability spectrum and are less logistically demanding. However, the volume of investigation of slugtests is generally small and limited to the immediate borehole area. The application of slug tests to fractured systems was investigated by Barker and Black (1983); Dougherty and Babu (1984) and Karasaki et al. (1988). Barker and Black (1983) pointed out the non-uniqueness of type curves with re¬spect to determining reservoir parameters, apart from hydraulic conductivity and sto¬rage coefficients. The unknowns in¬clude fissure densities, apertures and the hy¬draulic parameters of the rock matrix. They found that the Cooper method syste¬matically overestimates aquifer transmis-sivities by a factor of up to three. This figure however applies to a fairly homogeneously fissured aquifer such as the English Chalk. Dougherty and Babu (1984) examined in detail the effects of partial penetration, dif¬ferent skin factors and mass exchange coef-ficients in a double porosity system. They did however not present any parameter estimation solu¬tion. Karasaki et al. (1988) developed type curves for heterogeneous aquifer systems and came to the conclusion that "slug tests suffer problems of non-uniqueness to a greater ex¬tent than other well tests". In this paper, this aspect of non-uniqueness is addressed in detail, based on slugtest data in a fractured and karstified aquifer from the Swabian Alb in the SW of Germany, explanations and models of

  14. The Influence of the Rock Properties on the Pulse Compression Performance of Coded Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Zhu, W.

    2016-12-01

    Coded excitation technology (CET) is an effective measurement method to enhance the penetrability and resolution of ultrasound. However, the high complexity of rock structure may lead to significant influence on pulse compression performance of coded signals. To analyze the influences, a numerical simulation, and an ultrasonic testing experiment on different samples—Plexiglas, sandstone, granite, and three marbles of different thickness—were performed; by these two experiment, tapered linear frequency modulated (TLFM) signal, Barker with sine carrier (BS), and Barker with TLFM carrier (BTL) in rock, and the change of pulse compression performances of them are investigated and discussed. For random noise, colored noise, and ultrasound transducer also have influences on the performance of the coded signals, simulation and transducer docking experiment were performed. The results show that the random and colored noise have less effects on gain in signal-to-noise ratio (GSNR), of which can be alleviated by filtering; and the transducer has the most impact on coded signals with minimum impact on BTL signal. Furthermore, the propagation of coded excitation ultrasound in the homogenous rock is also simulated with finite difference method, which is compared with the simulation of single pulse. The experimental results show that the change of waveform has minimum influence on performance of pulse compression. On the basis of the simulation above, six samples are detected with ultrasonic signals excited by single pulse, TLFM, BS, and BTL. By analyzing the variations in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and main lobe width (MLW) of received signals, several meaningful findings are obtained: firstly, the porosity, heterogeneity, and attenuation could decrease the gain in SNR and broaden the mainlobe width; secondly, TLFM has the maximum GSNG loss and lowest resolution loss. On the contrary, BS has the least GSNG loss and maximum resolution loss, and overall, BTL has a higher

  15. Pregnancy: An Underutilized Window of Opportunity to Improve Long-term Maternal and Infant Health-An Appeal for Continuous Family Care and Interdisciplinary Communication.

    PubMed

    Arabin, Birgit; Baschat, Ahmet A

    2017-01-01

    Physiologic adaptations during pregnancy unmask a woman's predisposition to diseases. Complications are increasingly predicted by first-trimester algorithms, amplify a pre-existing maternal phenotype and accelerate risks for chronic diseases in the offspring up to adulthood (Barker hypothesis). Recent evidence suggests that vice versa, pregnancy diseases also indicate maternal and even grandparent's risks for chronic diseases (reverse Barker hypothesis). Pub-Med and Embase were reviewed for Mesh terms "fetal programming" and "pregnancy complications combined with maternal disease" until January 2017. Studies linking pregnancy complications to future cardiovascular, metabolic, and thrombotic risks for mother and offspring were reviewed. Women with a history of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, subfertility, and thrombophilia more frequently demonstrate with echocardiographic abnormalities, higher fasting insulin, deviating lipids or clotting factors and show defective endothelial function. Thrombophilia hints to thrombotic risks in later life. Pregnancy abnormalities correlate with future cardiovascular and metabolic complications and earlier mortality. Conversely, women with a normal pregnancy have lower rates of subsequent diseases than the general female population creating the term: "Pregnancy as a window for future health." Although the placenta works as a gatekeeper, many pregnancy complications may lead to sickness and earlier death in later life when the child becomes an adult. The epigenetic mechanisms and the mismatch between pre- and postnatal life have created the term "fetal origin of adult disease." Up to now, the impact of cardiovascular, metabolic, or thrombotic risk profiles has been investigated separately for mother and child. In this manuscript, we strive to illustrate the consequences for both, fetus and mother within a cohesive perspective and

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martin, J L R; Barbanoj, M J; Pérez, V; Sacristán, M

    2003-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was introduced as a neurophysiological technique in 1985 when Anthony Barker and his team developed a compact machine that permitted non-invasive stimulation of the cerebral cortex (Barker 1985). Since its introduction, TMS has been used to evaluate the motor system, to study the function of several cerebral regions, and for the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric illnesses. In addition, it has been suggested that TMS might have therapeutic potential. Some controlled studies have evaluated the effects of repetitive TMS (rTMS) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Greenberg (Greenberg 1997) observed that a single session of right prefrontal cortex stimulation produced a significant decrease in compulsive urges in OCD patients lasting over eight hours. Other studies have reported transitory improvements in mood but there are no observations for changes in anxiety or obsessions. To develop a systematic review on the clinical efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation from randomised controlled trials in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. An electronic search was performed including the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group trials register (last searched June, 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 2, 2002), MEDLINE (1966-2002), EMBASE (1974-2002), PsycLIT (1980-2002), and bibliographies from reviewed articles. Randomised controlled trials assessing the therapeutic efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder. All reviewers independently extracted the information and verified it by cross-checking. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Three trials were included in the review and only two contained data in a suitable form for quantitative analysis. It was not possible to pool any results for a meta-analysis. No difference was seen between rTMS and sham TMS using the Yale

  17. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  18. A 400-kyr record of millennial-scale carbonate preservation events in the Southern Ocean: Implications for Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodell, D. A.; Vautravers, M. J.; Barker, S.; Charles, C.; Crowhurst, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hodell et al. (2001) suggested that carbonate preservation in the deep Cape Basin represented a qualitative, high-resolution record of the temporal evolution of the carbonate saturation state of the deep sea. The carbonate signal reflects both transient events in the redistribution of alkalinity and DIC in the deep ocean and steady-state mass balance processes. Here we re-analyzed the carbonate records of Sites 1089/TN057-21 using an Avaatech XRF core scanner and measured elemental variations at 2.5-mm resolution for the past 400 kyrs. Log Ca/Ti is highly correlated to weight percent carbonate content and other dissolution proxies and resolves millennial-scale events in carbonate preservation. A high-pass filter removes the low-frequency (orbital) variability in carbonate preservation, which is attributed mainly to steady-state mass balance processes. The high-frequency (suborbital) component reflects transient responses to the redistribution of carbonate ion that is related mainly to changing deep-water circulation. During the last glacial period, distinct millennial-scale increases in carbonate preservation in piston core TN057-21 occurred during times of enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overtunring Circulation (AMOC) (Barker et al., 2010; Barker and Diz, 2014), as supported by increases in benthic δ13C and less radiogenic ɛNd values. Carbonate preservation peaked particularly during long, warm interstadials in Greenland when a deep water mass with high carbonate ion concentration was formed in the North Atlantic. Export of NADW may have been greater than the Holocene during some of these events ("overshoots") and/or preformed carbonate ion concentrations in North Atlantic source areas may have been higher owing to lower atmospheric CO2 and less carbonate production in surface water. Each South Atlantic carbonate peak is associated with the start of Antarctic cooling and declining or leveling of atmospheric CO2, reflecting the signature of a thermal bipolar seesaw

  19. Assimilation of DMSP/SSUSI UV data into IDA4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Bust, G. S.; Brinkman, D. G.; Straus, P. R.; Swartz, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) is a continuous-time, three-dimensional imaging algorithm that can produce 4D electron density specifications for various science investigations [e.g., Bust et al., 2007]. IDA4D is based on three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation [Daley and Barker, 2001]. The algorithm combines various data sources and their associated error covariances with a background model (in this case the IRI) and its covariances to produce an ionospheric specification with formal uncertainties. IDA4D employs a Gauss- Markov Kalman filter technique similar to that used by operational assimilation models. The model can ingest a broad spectrum of data types that are either linearly or non-linearly related to electron density, including ground-based TEC, space-based TEC as measured by GPS occultation sensors and UV emissions associated with nightside recombination of O+. IDA4D has been undergoing testing at The Aerospace Corporation to determine its performance with respect to combinations of input data sets under different conditions (solar minimum, solar maximum, geomagnetic activity). The results presented here summarize the performance of IDA4D when UV data is ingested, both with and without additional TEC measurements. The UV data used in the study summarized here are 135.6 nm emissions measured the SSUSI instruments on F16 and F18 DMSP. We discuss the process by which UV data is ingested into IDA4D, including data binning, error estimation and correction of 135.6 nm contamination from mutual neutralization of O+ and O-. Model performance is then assessed using comparisons to various ground truth data, including ISR data, Jason VTEC, CNOF/S in-situ plasma density and ionosonde-derived NmF2 values. The results of this study show that UV data improves model performance, particularly when TEC data coverage is sparse. Bust, G. S., G. Crowley, T. W. Garner, T. L. Gaussiran II, R. W. Meggs, C. N. Mitchell, P. S. J. Spencer, P

  20. Pregnancy: An Underutilized Window of Opportunity to Improve Long-term Maternal and Infant Health—An Appeal for Continuous Family Care and Interdisciplinary Communication

    PubMed Central

    Arabin, Birgit; Baschat, Ahmet A.

    2017-01-01

    Physiologic adaptations during pregnancy unmask a woman’s predisposition to diseases. Complications are increasingly predicted by first-trimester algorithms, amplify a pre-existing maternal phenotype and accelerate risks for chronic diseases in the offspring up to adulthood (Barker hypothesis). Recent evidence suggests that vice versa, pregnancy diseases also indicate maternal and even grandparent’s risks for chronic diseases (reverse Barker hypothesis). Pub-Med and Embase were reviewed for Mesh terms “fetal programming” and “pregnancy complications combined with maternal disease” until January 2017. Studies linking pregnancy complications to future cardiovascular, metabolic, and thrombotic risks for mother and offspring were reviewed. Women with a history of miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, subfertility, and thrombophilia more frequently demonstrate with echocardiographic abnormalities, higher fasting insulin, deviating lipids or clotting factors and show defective endothelial function. Thrombophilia hints to thrombotic risks in later life. Pregnancy abnormalities correlate with future cardiovascular and metabolic complications and earlier mortality. Conversely, women with a normal pregnancy have lower rates of subsequent diseases than the general female population creating the term: “Pregnancy as a window for future health.” Although the placenta works as a gatekeeper, many pregnancy complications may lead to sickness and earlier death in later life when the child becomes an adult. The epigenetic mechanisms and the mismatch between pre- and postnatal life have created the term “fetal origin of adult disease.” Up to now, the impact of cardiovascular, metabolic, or thrombotic risk profiles has been investigated separately for mother and child. In this manuscript, we strive to illustrate the consequences for both, fetus and mother within a

  1. Polar Climate Connections of the Last Glacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Rial, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ever since the cross-core chronology became available, the connection between the Earth's polar regions - or the lack of such [Wunsch, 2003; 2006] - has been an on-going debate in the paleoclimate community. While the inverse relationship inferred from the bipolar seesaw model [Crowley, 1992] could not account for the difference in signal shape of the polar records, integration/differentiation (I/D) has been proposed as the linkage between them [Schmittner et al., 2003; Huybers, 2004; Roe and Steig, 2004; Schmittner et al., 2004]. Stoker and Johnsen [2003] have proposed a revised (thermal) bipolar seesaw model (TBS), demonstrating that the climate record from Antarctic is that of the Greenland convolved with an exponential decaying function, which represents the heat reservoir of the Southern Ocean. More recently, Rial [2012] has proposed phase synchronization (PS) as the polar climate connection from which polar climate records can be treated approximately as a Hilbert transform pair. All three models (I/D, TBS, and PS) have been used to reconstruct past climate of the north from the longer climate record of the south [Siddall et al., 2006; Barker et al., 2011; Oh et al., 2014]. However, no comparison has been made to test and analyze these models against one another for their performance and stabilities. Here we investigated the aforementioned models with polar climate data on the recent AICC2012 chronology to derive the similarities and differences among them in both time and frequency domains. Most importantly we discussed how such differences translate to the discrepancies in reconstructions of the northern climate and possible physical mechanism(s) of connection each model limits and allows. ReferencesBarker et al., 2011, Science, 334(6054), 347-351. Crowley, 1992, Paleoceanography, 7(4), 489-497. Huybers, 2004, QSR, 23(1-2), 207-210. Oh et al., 2014, QSR, 83, 129-142. Rial, 2012, Am J Sci, 312(4), 417-448. Roe & Steig, 2004, Journal of Climate, 17(10), 1929

  2. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J

    2012-05-01

    THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: Is an excellent explanation of the process where human and animal foetuses exposed to malnutrition, either by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, are metabolically programmed, with selective stunting of cell differentiation and organ growth. With the postnatal excess of nutrition observed in developed countries, this irreversible programming causes metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Metabolic programming involves epigenetic changes including imprinting which might be transmitted through more than one generation rather than being completely re-set or erased during reproduction. The Barker hypothesis was supported by epidemiological data that recognised no excess fetal or postnatal mortality when pregnant women were starved during the Dutch famine in World War II. This argued against the "thrifty genotype" theory introduced in 1962, which proposed that starvation selected against members of the population with less "thrifty" genes, but the survivors who had "thrifty" genes developed metabolic syndrome if they were subsequently over-nourished. EMBRYONIC/FETAL SELECTION: Embryos or early foetuses could be selected very early in pregnancy on the basis of their genotype, by maternal malnutrition, hypertension, obesity or other causes of placental insufficiency. The genotype that allows embryos, or cells within them, to survive a less hospitable environment in the decidua after implantation might contribute to the later development of metabolic syndrome. This article hypothesises that an adverse intrauterine environment, caused by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, kills a proportion of embryos and selects a surviving population of early embryos whose growth in utero is retarded by their genotype, their environment or a combination of both. The metabolic syndrome follows if the offspring is over-nourished later in life. The embryonic selection hypothesis presented here could be

  3. Perseveration and choice in Parkinson's disease: the impact of progressive frontostriatal dysfunction on action decisions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura E; Altena, Ellemarije; Barker, Roger A; Rowe, James B

    2013-07-01

    We have previously shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) perseverate in their choice of action relative to healthy controls, and that this is affected by dopaminergic medication (Hughes LE, Barker RA, Owen AM, Rowe JB. 2010. Parkinson's disease and healthy aging: Independent and interacting effects on action selection. Hum Brain Mapp. 31:1886-1899). To understand further the neural basis of these phenomena, we used a new task that manipulated the options to repeat responses. Seventeen patients with idiopathic PD were studied both "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication and 18 healthy adults were scanned twice as controls. All subjects performed a right-handed 3-choice button press task, which controlled the availability of repeatable responses. The frequency of choosing to repeat a response (a form of perseveration) in patients was related to dopamine therapy and disease severity as a "U-shaped" function. For repetitive trials, this "U-shaped" relationship was also reflected in the BOLD response in the caudate nuclei and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Our results support a U-shaped model of optimized cortico-striatal circuit function and clearly demonstrate that flexibility in response choice is modulated by an interaction of dopamine and disease severity.

  4. Generalized radial flow in synthetic flow systems.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dale O; Roberts, Randall M; Holt, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Traditional analysis methods used to determine hydraulic properties from pumping tests work well in many porous media aquifers, but they often do not work in heterogeneous and fractured-rock aquifers, producing non-plausible and erroneous results. The generalized radial flow model developed by Barker (1988) can reveal information about heterogeneity characteristics and aquifer geometry from pumping test data by way of a flow dimension parameter. The physical meaning of non-integer flow dimensions has long been a subject of debate and research. We focus on understanding and interpreting non-radial flow through high permeability conduits within fractured aquifers. We develop and simulate flow within idealized non-radial flow conduits and expand on this concept by simulating pumping in non-fractal random fields with specific properties that mimic persistent sub-radial flow responses. Our results demonstrate that non-integer flow dimensions can arise from non-fractal geometries within aquifers. We expand on these geometric concepts and successfully simulate pumping in random fields that mimic well-test responses seen in the Culebra Dolomite above the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  6. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  7. Entangled lives: Implications of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis for bioarchaeology and the life course.

    PubMed

    Gowland, Rebecca L

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological research since the 1980s has highlighted the consequences of early life adversity, particularly during gestation and early infancy, for adult health (the "Barker hypothesis"). The fast-evolving field of molecular epigenetics is providing explanatory mechanisms concerning phenotypic plasticity in response to developmental stressors and the accumulation of disease risk throughout life. In addition, there is now evidence for the heritability of poor health across generations via epigenetic modifications. This research has the potential to invoke a paradigmatic shift in how we interpret factors such as growth insults and immune response in past skeletal remains. It demonstrates that health cannot be understood in terms of immediate environmental circumstances alone. Furthermore, it requires both a theoretical and practical re-evaluation of disease biographies and the life course more generally. Individual life courses can no longer be regarded as discrete, bounded, life histories, with clearly defined beginning and end points. If socioeconomic circumstances can have intergenerational effects, including disease susceptibility and growth stunting, then individual biographies should be viewed as nested or "embedded" within the lives of others. This commingling of life courses may prove problematic to unravel; nevertheless, this review aims to consider the potential consequences for bioarchaeological interpretations. These include a greater consideration of: the temporal power of human skeletons and a life course approach to past health; infant health and the implications for maternal well-being; and the impact of non-proximate stressors (e.g., early life and ancestral environments) on the presence of health indicators.

  8. Feasibility of coded vibration in a vibro-ultrasound system for tissue elasticity measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinxin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Li, Tianjie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The ability of various methods for elasticity measurement and imaging is hampered by the vibration amplitude on biological tissues. Based on the inference that coded excitation will improve the performance of the cross-correlation function of the tissue displacement waves, the idea of exerting encoded external vibration on tested samples for measuring its elasticity is proposed. It was implemented by integrating a programmable vibration generation function into a customized vibro-ultrasound system to generate Barker coded vibration for elasticity measurement. Experiments were conducted on silicone phantoms and porcine muscles. The results showed that coded excitation of the vibration enhanced the accuracy and robustness of the elasticity measurement especially in low signal-to-noise ratio scenarios. In the phantom study, the measured shear modulus values with coded vibration had an R(2 )= 0.993 linear correlation to that of referenced indentation, while for single-cycle pulse the R(2) decreased to 0.987. In porcine muscle study, the coded vibration also obtained a shear modulus value which is more accurate than the single-cycle pulse by 0.16 kPa and 0.33 kPa at two different depths. These results demonstrated the feasibility and potentiality of the coded vibration for enhancing the quality of elasticity measurement and imaging.

  9. A review of fundamental principles for animal models of DOHaD research: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, H; Moss, T J; Gatford, K L; Moritz, K M; Akison, L; Fullston, T; Hryciw, D H; Maloney, C A; Morris, M J; Wooldridge, A L; Schjenken, J E; Robertson, S A; Waddell, B J; Mark, P J; Wyrwoll, C S; Ellery, S J; Thornburg, K L; Muhlhausler, B S; Morrison, J L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiology formed the basis of 'the Barker hypothesis', the concept of 'developmental programming' and today's discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.

  10. Behavior analysis and ecological psychology: past, present, and future. a review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in context.

    PubMed

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-09-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001)Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology-past and present-as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present.

  11. A generalized Forchheimer radial flow model for constant-rate tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhan, Hongbin; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2017-09-01

    Models used for data interpretation of constant-rate tests (CRTs) are commonly derived with the assumption of Darcian flow in an idealized integer flow dimension, where the non-Darcian nature of fluid flow and the complexity of flow geometry are disregarded. In this study, a Forchheimer's law-based analytical model is proposed with the assumption of buildup (or drawdown) decomposition for characterizing the non-Darcian flow in a generalized radial formation where the flow dimension n may become non-integer. The proposed model immediately reduces to Barker's (1988) model for Darcian flow in the generalized radial formation and to Mathias et al.'s (2008) model for non-Darcian flow in a two-dimensional confined aquifer. A comparison with numerical simulations shows that the proposed model behaves well at late times for flow dimension n > 1.5. The proposed model is finally applied for data interpretation of the constant-rate pumping tests performed at Ploemeur (Le Borgne et al., 2004), showing that the intrinsic hydraulic conductivity of formations will be underestimated and the specific storage will be overestimated if the non-Darcian effect is ignored. The proposed model is an extension of the generalized radial flow (GRF) model based on Forchheimer's law, which would be of significance for data interpretation of CRTs in aquifers of complex flow geometry in which non-Darcian flow occurs.

  12. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Liu, Lutao; Diao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI) radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM), BPSK (Barker code modulation), Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4). The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN), and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA), image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR) is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of −2 dB. PMID:27754325

  13. A list of the 70 species of Australian ticks; diagnostic guides to and species accounts of Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick) and Rhipicephalus australis (Australian cattle tick); and consideration of the place of Australia in the evolution of ticks with comments on four controversial ideas.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen C; Walker, Alan R; Campelo, Dayana

    2014-10-15

    Seventy species of ticks are known from Australia: 14 soft ticks (family Argasidae) and 56 hard ticks (family Ixodidae). Sixteen of the 70 ticks in Australia may feed on humans and domestic animals (Barker and Walker 2014). The other 54 species of ticks in Australia feed only on wild mammals, reptiles and birds. At least 12 of the species of ticks in Australian also occur in Papua New Guinea. We use an image-matching system much like the image-matching systems of field guides to birds and flowers to identify Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick). Our species accounts have reviews of the literature on I. holocyclus (paralysis tick) from the first paper on the biology of an Australian tick by Bancroft (1884), on paralysis of dogs by I. holocyclus, to papers published recently, and of I. cornuatus (southern paralysis tick) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick). We comment on four controversial questions in the evolutionary biology of ticks: (i) were labyrinthodont amphibians in Australia in the Devonian the first hosts of soft, hard and nuttalliellid ticks?; (ii) are the nuttalliellid ticks the sister-group to the hard ticks or the soft ticks?; (iii) is Nuttalliella namaqua the missing link between the soft and hard ticks?; and (iv) the evidence for a lineage of large bodied parasitiform mites (ticks plus the holothyrid mites plus the opiliocarid mites).

  14. Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) habitat preference in a heterogeneous, urban, coastal environment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding the habitat preference of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in South Australian estuarine environments. The need to overcome this paucity of information is crucial for management and conservation initiatives. This preliminary study investigates the space-time patterns of habitat preference by the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin in the Port Adelaide River-Barker Inlet estuary, a South Australian, urbanised, coastal environment. More specifically, the study aim was to identify a potential preference between bare sand substrate and seagrass beds, the two habitat types present in this environment, through the resighting frequency of recognisable individual dolphins. Results Photo-identification surveys covering the 118 km2 sanctuary area were conducted over 2 survey periods May to August 2006 and from March 2009 to February 2010. Sighting frequency of recognisable individual Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins established a significant preference for the bare sand habitat. More specifically, 72 and 18% of the individuals sighted at least on two occasions were observed in the bare sand and seagrass habitats respectively. This trend was consistently observed at both seasonal and annual scales, suggesting a consistency in the distinct use of these two habitats. Conclusions It is anticipated that these results will benefit the further development of management and conservation strategies. PMID:23369354

  15. Maternal inflammation, growth retardation, and preterm birth: insights into adult cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lynette K; Velten, Markus

    2011-09-26

    The "fetal origin of adult disease Hypothesis" originally described by Barker et al. identified the relationship between impaired in utero growth and adult cardiovascular disease risk and death. Since then, numerous clinical and experimental studies have confirmed that early developmental influences can lead to cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, and psychological diseases during adulthood with and without alterations in birth weight. This so called "fetal programming" includes developmental disruption, immediate adaptation, or predictive adaptation and can lead to epigenetic changes affecting a specific organ or overall health. The intrauterine environment is dramatically impacted by the overall maternal health. Both premature birth or low birth weight can result from a variety of maternal conditions including undernutrition or dysnutrition, metabolic diseases, chronic maternal stresses induced by infections and inflammation, as well as hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Numerous animal studies have supported the importance of both maternal health and maternal environment on the long term outcomes of the offspring. With increasing rates of obesity and diabetes and survival of preterm infants born at early gestational ages, the need to elucidate mechanisms responsible for programming of adult cardiovascular disease is essential for the treatment of upcoming generations.

  16. A study of ion emissions in MAVEN/IUVS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connour, Kyle; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Stevens, Michael H.; Evans, Scott; Stewart, Ian; Crismani, Matteo; Stiepen, Arnaud; Chaffin, Michael S.; McClintock, William; Holsclaw, Gregory; Lefevre, Franck; Lo, Daniel; Clarke, John T.; Mayyasi, Majd A.; Montmessin, Franck; Jakosky, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutionN (MAVEN) mission is designed to measure radiances of several of the most abundant species present in Mars' atmosphere. Many spectral features are associated with ions; one of the most prominent spectral features in the mid-ultraviolet region is the CO2+ Ultraviolet Doublet (UVD) at 289 nm. However this emission, and many others, results from several radiative processes, some of which originate from the ionization process and is therefore not diagnostic of the ion densities. Several other emissions are diagnostic of ion densities, especially at high altitudes, and therefore lend themselves to density retrievals based on inclusion of all radiative processes. The most promising of these is the Fox-Duffendack-Barker (FDB) (3,0) band at 314 nm, near the long-wavelength limit of the IUVS instrument. We report on a new process for performing density retrievals of CO2+ with particular attention to the credibility of high-altitude signal in the FDB bands as well as the associated uncertainties. We also investigate the feasibility of C+ and other ion density retrievals.

  17. Stability of Viscous St. Venant Roll Waves: From Onset to Infinite Froude Number Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Blake; Johnson, Mathew A.; Noble, Pascal; Rodrigues, L. Miguel; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We study the spectral stability of roll wave solutions of the viscous St. Venant equations modeling inclined shallow water flow, both at onset in the small Froude number or "weakly unstable" limit F→ 2^+ and for general values of the Froude number F, including the limit F→ +∞ . In the former, F→ 2^+, limit, the shallow water equations are formally approximated by a Korteweg-de Vries/Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KdV-KS) equation that is a singular perturbation of the standard Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation modeling horizontal shallow water flow. Our main analytical result is to rigorously validate this formal limit, showing that stability as F→ 2^+ is equivalent to stability of the corresponding KdV-KS waves in the KdV limit. Together with recent results obtained for KdV-KS by Johnson-Noble-Rodrigues-Zumbrun and Barker, this gives not only the first rigorous verification of stability for any single viscous St. Venant roll wave, but a complete classification of stability in the weakly unstable limit. In the remainder of the paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the evolution of the stability diagram as Froude number increases to infinity. Notably, we find transition at around F=2.3 from weakly unstable to different, large- F behavior, with stability determined by simple power-law relations. The latter stability criteria are potentially useful in hydraulic engineering applications, for which typically 2.5≤ F≤ 6.0.

  18. The early programming of metabolic health: is epigenetic setting the missing link?

    PubMed

    Sebert, Sylvain; Sharkey, Don; Budge, Helen; Symonds, Michael E

    2011-12-01

    Adult health is dependent, in part, on maternal nutrition and growth during early life, which may independently affect insulin sensitivity, body composition, and overall energy homeostasis. Since the publication of the "thrifty phenotype hypothesis" by Hales and Barker (Diabetologia 1992;35:595-601), animal experiments have focused on establishing the mechanisms involved, which include changes in fetal cortisol, insulin, and leptin secretion or sensitivity. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced by either prolonged modest changes in maternal diet or by more severe changes in uterine blood supply near to term. These contrasting challenges result in different amounts of cellular stress in the offspring. In addition, shifts in the transcriptional activity of DNA may produce sustained metabolic adaptations. Within tissues and organs that control metabolic homeostasis (eg, hypothalamus, adipose tissue, stomach, skeletal muscle, and heart), a range of phenotypes can be induced by sustained changes in maternal diet via modulation of genes that control DNA methylation and by histone acetylation, which suggests epigenetic programming. We now need to understand how changes in maternal diet affect DNA and how they are conserved on exposure to oxidative stress. A main challenge will be to establish how the dietary environment interacts with the programmed phenotype to trigger the development of metabolic disease. This may aid in the establishment of nutrigenomic strategies to prevent the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Developmental origins of health and disease: brief history of the approach and current focus on epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia; Entringer, Sonja; Swanson, James M

    2009-09-01

    "Barker's hypothesis" emerged almost 25 years ago from epidemiological studies of birth and death records that revealed a high geographic correlation between rates of infant mortality and certain classes of later adult deaths as well as an association between birthweight and rates of adult death from ischemic heart disease. These observations led to a theory that undernutrition during gestation was an important early origin of adult cardiac and metabolic disorders due to fetal programming that permanently shaped the body's structure, function, and metabolism and contributed to adult disease. This theory stimulated interest in the fetal origins of adult disorders, which expanded and coalesced approximately 5 years ago with the formation of an international society for developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). Here we review a few examples of the many emergent themes of the DOHaD approach, including theoretical advances related to predictive adaptive responses of the fetus to a broad range of environmental cues, empirical observations of effects of overnutrition and stress during pregnancy on outcomes in childhood and adulthood, and potential epigenetic mechanisms that may underlie these observations and theory. Next, we discuss the relevance of the DOHaD approach to reproductive medicine. Finally, we consider the next steps that might be taken to apply, evaluate, and extend the DOHaD approach.

  20. The identification and characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort. 1914) new comb. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) based on experimental evidence of the life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanev, I.; Sorensen, R.; Sterner, M.; Cole, R.; Fried, B.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort, 1914) comb. n. has been completed experimentally. All of the developmental stages egg, miracidium, sporocyst, mother and daughter rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, and adult were examined and described. The miracidia infected freshwater snails of the genus Physa , P. gyrina and P. occidentalis. Attempts to infect snails of the genera Lymnaea, L. auricularis, L. peregra, L. truncatula and Bulinus, B. truncatus failed. Cercariae infected various pulmonate and prosobranch freshwater snails, mussels, frogs, water turtles and planarians. The adults developed in the small intestine of birds and mammals. The identity and major characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum are discussed. Synonyms of E. rubrum are Cercaria rubra Cort, 1914; Cercaria biflexa Faust, 1917; Cercaria chisolenata Faust, 1918; Echinostoma callawayensis Barker et Noll, 1915; Echinostoma revolutum of Johnson (1920); Echinoparyphium elegans of Cannon (1938), of Bain and Trelfall (1977), of Mahoney and Trelfall (1977); and Echinoparyphium recurvatum of Jilek (1977), Harley (1972), Sankurathri and Holmes (1976). Comparisons are made between E. rubrum and its 43-collar-spined allies: E. flexum from North America, E. cinctum from Europe, E. dunni from Asia and E. elegans from Africa.

  1. Super-resolution processing for multi-functional LPI waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengzheng; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shang; Cai, Jingxiao

    2014-05-01

    Super-resolution (SR) is a radar processing technique closely related to the pulse compression (or correlation receiver). There are many super-resolution algorithms developed for the improved range resolution and reduced sidelobe contaminations. Traditionally, the waveforms used for the SR have been either phase-coding (such as LKP3 code, Barker code) or the frequency modulation (chirp, or nonlinear frequency modulation). There are, however, an important class of waveforms which are either random in nature (such as random noise waveform), or randomly modulated for multiple function operations (such as the ADS-B radar signals in [1]). These waveforms have the advantages of low-probability-of-intercept (LPI). If the existing SR techniques can be applied to these waveforms, there will be much more flexibility for using these waveforms in actual sensing missions. Also, SR usually has great advantage that the final output (as estimation of ground truth) is largely independent of the waveform. Such benefits are attractive to many important primary radar applications. In this paper the general introduction of the SR algorithms are provided first, and some implementation considerations are discussed. The selected algorithms are applied to the typical LPI waveforms, and the results are discussed. It is observed that SR algorithms can be reliably used for LPI waveforms, on the other hand, practical considerations should be kept in mind in order to obtain the optimal estimation results.

  2. An efficient method for unfolding kinetic pressure driven VISAR data

    DOE PAGES

    Mark Harry Hess; Peterson, Kyle; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James

    2015-08-18

    Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) [Barker and Hollenbach, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4669 (1972)] is a well-known diagnostic that is employed on many shock physics and pulsed-power experiments. With the VISAR diagnostic, the velocity on the surface of any metal flyer can be found. For most experiments employing VISAR, either a kinetic pressure [Grady, Mech. Mater. 29, 181 (1998)] or a magnetic pressure [Lemke et al., Intl J. Impact Eng. 38, 480 (2011)] drives the motion of the flyer. Moreover, reliable prediction of the time-dependent pressure is often a critical component to understanding the physics of these experiments.more » Although VISAR can provide a precise measurement of a flyer’s surface velocity, the real challenge of this diagnostic implementation is using this velocity to unfold the time-dependent pressure. The purpose of this study is to elucidate a new method for quickly and reliably unfolding VISAR data.« less

  3. Narrating ageing: deconstructing negative conceptions of old age in four contemporary English novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2013-01-01

    Characters in their late sixties, seventies and even eighties have become the main protagonists and narrators in contemporary fiction. Narratives of ageing not only allow the reader to go into deep confines of an ageing protagonist, they also offer a detailed account of how these protagonists as well as the society around them deal with an increasing reality within the Western world, namely, that a demographic change is taking place and, thus, social and individual conceptions related to old age and ageing need to be revised and redefined. Novels such as Pat Barker's The Century's Daughter, Margaret Forster's Diary of an Ordinary Woman, Doris Lessing's The Diaries of Jane Somers and Rose Tremain's The Cupboard invite the reader to explore the ageing process, both at an individual and social level, through the stories their main protagonists narrate to a member of a younger generation. As a human complex process within a broader demographic change, stories of ageing succeed in helping young and old protagonists (and ultimately the reader) to reflect on the ageing process from a multiplicity of perspectives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improvement of depression following transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    George, M S; Nahas, Z; Kozel, F A; Goldman, J; Molloy, M; Oliver, N

    1999-12-01

    Psychiatry as a field was transformed by the discovery and introduction of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as a treatment in the early part of this century. ECT demonstrated that depression was a disease of the brain and that it could be treated with a direct brain intervention. Psychiatry's evolution continued in 1958 with the discovery of the antidepressant activity of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Interestingly, although the area of neuropsychopharmacology has continued to advance, the realm of physical somatic interventions in psychiatry has lagged behind. With perhaps the exception of light therapy, there were no advances in somatic interventions in psychiatry. However, in 1985, Barker et al. developed a brief high intensity electromagnet capable of depolarizing cortical neurons, called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). There has been much interest in the past 10 years in whether TMS might have antidepressant actions, similar to ECT but without causing a seizure and with no apparent cognitive side effects. This review examines the basic principles underlying TMS, and describes how TMS differs from electrical stimulation and the other uses of magnets.

  5. Competition for /sup 15/N labelled ammonium between Trifolium subterraneum L. and Lolium multiflorium L. when grown in a mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Espinoza, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Grasses and legumes are often grown in association in pastures because total herbage yield and forage quality is often higher than a monoculture grass sward. The competitive ability of the forage species for mineral N influences the stability of the mixed pasture. Mt. Barker subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) Gulf ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L.) were grown in pure stands and in mixtures in 3.8 I pots filled with exploded vermiculite to quantity the competition for applied mineral nitrogen (N). The isotope dilution technique using /sup 15/NH/sub 4/ was used. Also, the effect of increasing rates of fertilizer N on nodulation and fixation by subterranean clover and the rate of N uptake of subterranean clover and ryegrass was measured. The acetylene-ethylene technique and nodulation rating were used to examine the effect of N fertilization on fixation and nodulation. The uptake of N fertilizer by subterranean clover and ryegrass in both pure stands and the mixtures increased as the rate of fertilizer N applied increased. When grown in a pure stand, subterranean clover recovered a comparable amount of fertilizer N, but when grown in mixture with ryegrass, subterranean clover recovered from 44 to 364 mg of N. Ryegrass recovered 2 times the amount of labelled N in 6 hours than subterranean clover. The rate of N uptake was not due to differences in root fresh weight or dry weight. Ryegrass appeared to be a better competitor for NH/sub 4/ than subterranean clover because of the greater rate of uptake.

  6. Paternal HLA-C and Maternal Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genotypes in the Development of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Gamliel, Moriya; Anderson, Karen L.; Ebstein, Richard P.; Yirmiya, Nurit; Mankuta, David

    2016-01-01

    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface proteins found on natural killer cells, which are components of the innate immune system. KIRs recognize MHC class I proteins, mainly HLA-C and are further divided into two groups: short-tailed 2/3DS activating receptors and long-tailed 2/3DL inhibitory receptors. Based on the Barker Hypothesis, the origins of illness can be traced back to embryonic development in the uterus, and since KIR:HLA interaction figures prominently in the maternal–fetal interface, we investigated whether specific KIR:HLA combinations may be found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) children compared with their healthy parents. This study enrolled 49 ASD children from different Israeli families, and their healthy parents. Among the parents, a higher frequency of HLA-C2 allotypes was found in the fathers, while its corresponding ligand 2DS1 was found in higher percentage in the maternal group. However, such skewing in KIR:HLA frequencies did not appear in the ASD children. Additionally, analysis of “overall activation” indicated higher activation in maternal than in paternal cohorts. PMID:27517034

  7. Review: The placenta is a programming agent for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, K L; O'Tierney, P F; Louey, S

    2010-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in western nations in spite of declines in death rates following improvements in clinical care. It has been 20 years since David Barker and colleagues showed that slow rates of prenatal growth predict mortality from ischemic heart disease. Thus, fetal undergrowth and its associated cardiovascular diseases must be due, in part, to placental inadequacies. This conclusion is supported by a number of studies linking placental characteristics with various adult diseases. A "U" shaped relationship between placental-to-fetal weight ratio and heart disease provides powerful evidence that placental growth-regulating processes initiate vulnerabilities for later heart disease in offspring. Recent evidence from Finland indicates that placental morphological characteristics predict risks for coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension and several cancers. The level of risk imparted by placental shape is sex dependent. Further, maternal diet and body composition strongly influence placental growth, levels of inflammation, nutrient transport capacity and oxidative stress, with subsequent effects on offspring health. Several animal models have demonstrated the placental roots of vulnerability for heart disease. These include findings that abnormal endothelial development in the placenta is associated with undergrown myocardial walls in the embryo, and that placental insufficiency leads to depressed maturation and proliferation of working cardiomyocytes in the fetal heart. Together these models suggest that the ultimate fitness of the heart is determined by hemodynamic, growth factor, and oxygen/nutrient cues before birth, all of which are influenced, if not regulated by the placenta.

  8. Coded excitation of ultrasonic guided waves in long bone fracture assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huilin; Wu, Shengju; Ta, Dean; Xu, Kailiang; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave (GW) assessment of long bone fracture have conventionally been based on pulse excitation. However, the high attenuation during propagation diminishes the amplitude of received GWs and results in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The Barker code (BC) excitation and the optimal binary code (OBC) excitation were utilized in this study to overcome this limitation. Both simulations and in vitro experiments were performed on the fractured cortical bone plate model, and measured signals from both the BC and OBC excitations were decoded using the finite impulse response least squares inverse filter (FIR-LSIF) and then compared with sine pulse (SP) excited signals. The results suggest the efficiency of coded excitation for amplitude and SNR improvement. Furthermore, time-frequency representation (TFR) analysis was applied to experimental signals; with increasing fracture depth, energy transformation between predominate GW modes A1 and S2 was confirmed. These results show the potential of using BC and OBC excitations to evaluate the depth of long bone fracture.

  9. Behavior Analysis and Ecological Psychology: Past, Present, and Future. A Review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in Context

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-01-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology—past and present—as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present. PMID:20354604

  10. Microvascular and mitochondrial dysfunction in the female F1 generation after gestational TiO2 nanoparticle exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Nichols, Cody E.; Yi, Jinghai; McBride, Carroll R.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Shepherd, Danielle L.; Hollander, John M.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the ongoing evolution of nanotechnology, there is a growing need to assess the toxicological outcomes in under-studied populations in order to properly consider the potential of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and fully enhance their safety. Recently, we and others have explored the vascular consequences associated with gestational nanomaterial exposure, reporting microvascular dysfunction within the uterine circulation of pregnant dams and the tail artery of fetal pups. It has been proposed (via work derived by the Barker Hypothesis) that mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress mechanisms as a possible link between a hostile gestational environment and adult disease. Therefore, in this study, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to nanosized titanium dioxide aerosols after implantation (gestational day 6). Pups were delivered, and the progeny grew into adulthood. Microvascular reactivity, mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide production of the coronary and uterine circulations of the female offspring were evaluated. While there were no significant differences within the maternal or litter characteristics, endothelium-dependent dilation and active mechanotransduction in both coronary and uterine arterioles were significantly impaired. In addition, there was a significant reduction in maximal mitochondrial respiration (state 3) in the left ventricle and uterus. These studies demonstrate microvascular dysfunction and coincide with mitochondrial inefficiencies in both the cardiac and uterine tissues, which may represent initial evidence that prenatal ENM exposure produces microvascular impairments that persist throughout multiple developmental stages. PMID:25475392

  11. Thermodynamics and elastic moduli of fluids with steeply repulsive potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, D. M.

    1997-08-01

    Analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and elastic moduli of molecular fluids interacting with steeply repulsive potentials are derived using Rowlinson's hard-sphere perturbation treatment which employs a softness parameter, λ specifying the deviation from the hard-sphere potential. Generic potentials of this form might be used to represent the interactions between near-hard-sphere stabilized colloids. Analytic expressions for the equivalent hard-sphere diameter of inverse power [ɛ(σ/r)n where ɛ sets the energy scale and σ the distance scale] exponential and logarithmic potential forms are derived using the Barker-Henderson formula. The internal energies in the hard-sphere limit are predicted essentially exactly by the perturbation approach when compared against molecular dynamics simulation data using the same potentials. The elastic moduli are similarly accurately predicted in the hard-sphere limit, as they are trivially related to the internal energy. The compressibility factors from the perturbation expansion do not compare as favorably with simulation data, and in this case the Carnahan-Starling equation of state prediction using the analytic effective hard-sphere diameter would appear to be a preferable route for this thermodynamic property. A more refined state point dependent definition for the effective hard-sphere diameter is probably required for this property.

  12. Theoretical and numerical investigations of inverse patchy colloids in the fluid phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Bianchi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Silvano; Kahl, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of a new class of patchy colloids, referred to as inverse patchy colloids (IPCs) in their fluid phase via both theoretical methods and simulations. IPCs are nano- or micro- meter sized particles with differently charged surface regions. We extend conventional integral equation schemes to this particular class of systems: our approach is based on the so-called multi-density Ornstein-Zernike equation, supplemented with the associative Percus-Yevick approximation (APY). To validate the accuracy of our framework, we compare the obtained results with data extracted from NpT and NVT Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, other theoretical approaches are used to calculate the properties of the system: the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) method and the Barker-Henderson thermodynamic perturbation theory. Both APY and RHNC frameworks provide accurate predictions for the pair distribution functions: APY results are in slightly better agreement with MC data, in particular at lower temperatures where the RHNC solution does not converge.

  13. Early postnatal alteration of body composition in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants: implications of catch-up fat.

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomoo; Takahashi, Shigeru; Nagano, Nobuhiko; Yoshikawa, Kayo; Usukura, Yukihiro; Hosono, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the developmental origins of health and disease is based on studies by Barker et al. They proposed a hypothesis that undernutrition in utero permanently changes the body's structure, function, and metabolism in ways that lead to atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in later life. In addition, profound effects on the extent of body fatness and insulin sensitivity are demonstrated, if there is a "mismatch" between prenatal and postnatal environments. In previous studies, undernutrition in utero has been evaluated simply by birth weight itself or birth weight for gestational age, and the degree of mismatch has been estimated by postnatal rapid weight gain. Recently, we investigated subcutaneous fat accumulation in small-for-gestational-age infants and found that a rapid catch-up in skinfold thickness developed prior to the body weight catch-up. Furthermore, insulin-like growth factor-I and lipoprotein lipase mass concentrations also demonstrate rapid increase during the neonatal period with fat accumulation. Investigating the precise mechanisms of developmental origins of health and disease including mediating metabolic and hormonal factors may provide a new approach to prevent atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Better management of undernutrition during gestation and neonatal growth during the early postnatal period is an important theme for future health.

  14. The Role of Clouds: An Introduction and Rapporteur Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of discussions during the Cloud s Role session at the Observing and Modelling Earth s Energy Flows Workshop. N. Loeb and B. Soden convened this session including 10 presentations by B. Stevens, B. Wielicki, G. Stephens, A. Clement, K. Sassen, D. Hartmann, T. Andrews, A. Del Genio, H. Barker, and M. Sugi addressing critical aspects of the role of clouds in modulating Earth energy flows. Presentation topics covered a diverse range of areas from cloud microphysics and dynamics, cloud radiative transfer, and the role of clouds in large-scale atmospheric circulations patterns in both observations and atmospheric models. The presentations and discussions, summarized below, are organized around several key questions raised during the session. (1) What is the best way to evaluate clouds in climate models? (2) How well do models need to represent clouds to be acceptable for making climate predictions? (3) What are the largest uncertainties in clouds? (4) How can these uncertainties be reduced? (5) What new observations are needed to address these problems? Answers to these critical questions are the topics of ongoing research and will guide the future direction of this area of research.

  15. No, management is not a profession.

    PubMed

    Barker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Because managers hold a status in society similar to that of doctors and lawyers, it is natural to think of business as a profession--and of business schools as professional schools. But, argues Barker, a professor at Cambridge University's Judge Business School, that can lead to inappropriate analysis and misguided perceptions. We turn to professionals for advice, he writes, because they have knowledge that we don't. We trust their advice because they've been guaranteed by professional associations that establish the boundaries of the field and reach consensus on what body of learning is required for formal training and certification. These associations make a market for professional services feasible. Although business schools might be able to reach consensus on what they should teach, the proper question is whether what they teach qualifies students to manage. After all, successful businesses are commonly run by people without MBAs. Managers' roles are inherently general, variable, and indefinable; their core skill is to integrate across functional areas, groups of people, and circumstances. Integration is learned in the minds of MBA students, whose experiences and careers are widely diverse, rather than taught in the content of program modules. Thus business education must be highly collaborative, with grading downplayed, and learning must differ according to the stage of a student's career. Business schools are not professional schools. They are incubators for business leadership.

  16. Effects of Atmospheric Dust on Residual South Polar Cap Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonrv, B. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Hansen, G. B.; James, P. B.; Wolff, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Martian polar caps have been studied from the time of Herschel. Neither polar cap normally disappears in summer. The Residual North Polar Cap (portion that remains through summer) is composed of a mixture of water ice and dust, and its interannual stability is due to its low sublimation rate at the summer temperatures in the North Polar Region. The Residual South Polar Cap (RSPC) is more enigmatic, surviving the relatively hot perihelic summer season despite being composed of much more volatile CO2. It is able to do so because of its unusually high albedo, which is larger than that of other bright regions in the seasonal cap (e.g. Mountains of Mitchel). The proximity of the albedo of the RSPC to the critical albedo for stability raises the question of whether the RSPC exists in every Martian year. The ground based record is somewhat ambivalent. Douglass and Lowell reported that RSPC suddenly vanished at Ls=297deg in 1894 and did not reappear until Ls=0deg [1], and Kuiper reported that it disappeared in 1956 [2]; but both observations were questioned by contemporaries, who tended to attribute them to obscuring dust. Barker [3] reported a large amount of water vapor over the south polar cap in 1969 that could be attributed to exposure of near surface water ice during partial removal of the CO2 in the RSPC in 1969.

  17. Molecular equilibria and condensation sequences in carbon rich gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical equilibria in stellar atmospheres have been investigated by many authors. Lattimer, Schramm, and Grossman presented calculations in both O rich and C rich environments and predicted possible presolar condensates. A recent paper by Cherchneff and Barker considered a C rich composition with PAH's included in the calculations. However, the condensation sequences of C bearing species have not been investigated in detail. In a carbon rich gas surrounding an AGB star, it is often assumed that graphite (or diamond) condenses out before TiC and SiC. However, Lattimer et al. found some conditions under which TiC condenses before graphite. We have performed molecular equilibrium calculations to establish the stability fields of C(s), TiC(s), and SiC(s) and other high temperature phases under conditions of different pressures and C/O. The preserved presolar interstellar dust grains so far discovered in meteorites are graphite, diamond, SiC, TiC, and possibly Al2O3.

  18. Collisional deactivation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laurie A.; Barker, John R.

    1996-07-01

    The collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited pyrazine (C4N2H4) in the electronic ground state by 19 collider gases was studied using the time-resolved infrared fluorescence (IRF) technique. The pyrazine was photoexcited with a 308 nm laser and its vibrational deactivation was monitored following rapid radiationless transitions to produce vibrationally excited molecules in the electronic ground state. The IRF data were analyzed by a simple approximate inversion method, as well as with full collisional master equation simulations. The average energies transferred in deactivating collisions (<ΔE>d) exhibit a near-linear dependence on vibrational energy at lower energies and less dependence at higher energies. The deactivation of ground state pyrazine was found to be similar to that of ground state benzene [J. R. Barker and B. M. Toselli, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 12, 305 (1990)], but it is strikingly different from the deactivation of triplet state pyrazine [T. J. Bevilacqua and R. B. Weisman, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 6316 (1993)].

  19. Automated cleaning of foraminifera shells before Mg/Ca analysis using a pipette robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Heather J. H.; Steinke, Stephan; Kuhnert, Henning; Bickert, Torsten; Pälike, Heiko; Mohtadi, Mahyar

    2016-08-01

    The molar ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in foraminiferal calcite is a widely used proxy for reconstructing past seawater temperatures. Thorough cleaning of tests is required before analysis to remove contaminant phases such as clay and organic matter. We have adapted a commercial pipette robot to automate an established cleaning procedure, the "Mg-cleaning" protocol of Barker et al. (2003). Efficiency of the automated nine-step method was assessed through monitoring Al/Ca of trial samples (GeoB4420-2 core catcher). Planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei from this sample gave Mg/Ca consistent with the habitat range of the three species, and 40-60% sample recovery after cleaning. Comparison between manually cleaned and robot-cleaned samples of G. ruber (white) from a sediment core (GeoB16602) showed good correspondence between the two methods for Mg/Ca (r = 0.93, p < 0001, n = 27). Average Al/Ca in robot-cleaned samples was 0.05 mmol/mol, showing that the samples are cleaned effectively by the robot. The robot offers increased sample throughput as batch sizes of up to 88 samples/blanks can be processed in ˜7 h with little intervention.

  20. Life-history implications of large-scale spatial variation in adult survival of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Chelgren, Nathan; Lindberg, Mark S.; Obritchkewitch, Tim; Kirk, Morgan T.; Martin, Philip D.; Anderson, Betty A.; Ward, David H.

    2002-01-01

    We used capture-recapture methods to estimate adult survival rates for adult female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter “brant”) from three colonies in Alaska, two on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and one on Alaska's Arctic coast. Costs of migration and reproductive effort varied among those colonies, enabling us to examine variation in survival in relation to variation in these other variables. We used the Barker model in program MARK to estimate true annual survival for brant from the three colonies. Models allowing for spatial variation in survival were among the most parsimonious models but were indistinguishable from a model with no spatial variation. Point estimates of annual survival were slightly higher for brant from the Arctic (0.90 ± 0.036) than for brant from either Tutakoke River (0.85 ± 0.004) or Kokechik Bay (0.86 ± 0.011). Thus, our survival estimates do not support a hypothesis that the cost of longer migrations or harvest experienced by brant from the Arctic reduced their annual survival relative to brant from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Spatial variation in survival provides weak support for life-history theory because brant from the region with lower reproductive investment had slightly higher survival.

  1. Quantum vs Classical Mechanics for a 'Simple' Dissociation Reaction. Should They Give the Same Results?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    When performing molecular dynamical simulations on light systems at low energies, there is always the risk of producing data that bear no similarity to experiment. Indeed, John Barker himself was particularly anxious about treating Ar scattering from surfaces using classical mechanics where it had been shown experimentally in his own lab that diffraction occurs. In such cases, the correct procedure is probably to play the trump card "... well of course, quantum effects will modify this so that....." and retire gracefully. For our particular interests, the tables are turned in that we are interested in gas-surface dynamical studies for highly quantized systems, but would be interested to know when it is possible to use classical mechanics in order that a greater dimensionality might be treated. For molecular dissociation and scattering, it has been oft quoted that the greater the number of degrees of freedom, the more appropriate is classical mechanics, primarily because of the mass averaging over the quantized dimensions. Is this true? We have been investigating the dissociation of hydrogen molecules at surfaces and in this talk I will present quantum results for dissociation and scattering, along with a novel method for their interpretation based upon adiabatic potential energy surfaces. Comparison with classical calculations will be made and conclusions drawn. a novel method for their interpretation based upon adiabatic potential energy surfaces

  2. IDENTITY OF THE PINK-PIGMENTED METHANOL-OXIDIZING BACTERIA AS VIBRIO EXTORQUENS

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Peter K.; McCleskey, C. S.

    1964-01-01

    Stocks, Peter K. (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge), and C. S. McCleskey. Identity of the pink-pigmented methanol-oxidizing bacteria as Vibrio extorquens. J. Bacteriol. 88:1065–1070. 1964.—Pink-pigmented bacteria isolated from enrichment cultures of methane oxidizers were found to possess similar morphological, cultural, and physiological characteristics. All the strains utilized methanol, formate, oxalate, succinate, glycerol, and benzene as sole carbon sources; methanol, formate, and glycerol afforded best growth. Most strains utilized fructose and ribose; other carbohydrates tested were not available as carbon and energy sources. There was strain variation in the use of hexane, heptane, n-propanol, n-butanol, acetate, and propionate. Methane, ethane, n-propane, and n-butane were not utilized. Our isolates, and Pseudomonas methanica of Harrington and Kallio (not the methane-dependent P. methanica of Dworkin and Foster), Pseudomonas AM1 of Peele and Quayle, Pseudomonas PRL-W4 of Kaneda and Roxburgh, and Protaminobacter ruber den Dooren de Jong are nearly identical with Vibrio extorquens (Bassalik) Bhat and Barker, and should be considered the same species. Images PMID:14219020

  3. Freeman Dyson and Gravitational Spin Precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hari Dass, N. D.

    2014-04-01

    In 1974 Hulse and Taylor1 discovered the binary pulsar. At that time Prof. Dyson was visiting the Max Planck Institute for Physics at Munich, where I was also working. He initiated a number of discussions on this object. During them it occurred to me that this system could be used to test Geodetic Precession in Einsteins theory, which, even after years of work by the Stanford gyroscope expt,2 had remained a challenge. I showed some preliminary calculations to Prof Dyson and he encouraged me to do a more refined job. To be applicable to the binary pulsar, one needed to generalise the general relativistic calculations to beyond the so called test particle assumption. Barker and O'Connell3 had obtained such a result from analysing the gravitational interactions of spin-1/2 Dirac fermions in linearized spin-2 theories of gravitation. With C. F. Cho I produced a purely classical calculation, using Schwingers Source theory.4 Börner, Ehlers and Rudolf confirmed this result with their general relativistic calculations shortly after.5 With V. Radhakrishnan, I gave a detailed model for the pulse width and polarization sweep as a means of observing this effect.6-9 All throughout Prof. Dyson was supportive with reading the manuscripts and his critical comments. In 2005, coincidentally the centennial of the Annus Mirabilis (1905), Hotan, Bailes and Ord observed this in the binary pulsar J1141-6545.10

  4. Perinatal programming and functional teratogenesis: impact on body weight regulation and obesity.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, Andreas

    2005-12-15

    It is increasingly accepted that alterations of the intrauterine and early postnatal nutritional, metabolic, and hormonal environment may cause predispositions for the development of diseases in later life. Studies in the offspring of diabetic mothers have decisively contributed to this perception. Alterations of the fetal and neonatal environment which offspring of diabetic mothers 'experience' seem to program a disposition to develop obesity, diabetes mellitus and Syndrome X-like alterations throughout later life. Underweight at birth is also suggested to lead to an increased risk of Syndrome X in later life ('Barker hypothesis'). Pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Hormones are important environment-dependent organizers of the developing neuro-endocrine-immune network, which finally regulates all fundamental processes of life. When present in non-physiological concentrations during 'critical periods' of perinatal life, induced by alterations in the intrauterine or neonatal environment, hormones can act as 'endogenous functional teratogens'. Perinatal hyperinsulinism is pathognomonic in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Early hyperinsulinism also occurs as a result of early postnatal overfeeding. In rats, endogenous hyperinsulinism, as well as peripheral or only intrahypothalamic insulin treatment during perinatal development, may lead to 'malprogramming' of neuroendocrine systems regulating body weight, food intake and metabolism. This results in an increased disposition to become obese and to develop diabetes throughout life. In conclusion, a complex malprogramming of the central regulation of body weight and metabolism may provide a general etiopathogenetic concept, explaining perinatally acquired dispositions, thereby opening a wide field of primary prevention.

  5. Enacting a social ecology: radically embodied intersubjectivity

    PubMed Central

    McGann, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognitive science frequently describe the mind as “world-involving,” indicating complementary and interdependent relationships between an agent and its environment. The precise nature of the environment is frequently left ill-described, however, and provides a challenge for such approaches, particularly, it is noted here, for the enactive approach which emphasizes this complementarity in quite radical terms. This paper argues that enactivists should work to find common cause with a dynamic form of ecological psychology, a theoretical perspective that provides the most explicit theory of the psychological environment currently extant. In doing so, the intersubjective, cultural nature of the ecology of human psychology is explored, with the challenges this poses for both enactivist and ecological approaches outlined. The theory of behavior settings (Barker, 1968; Schoggen, 1989) is used to present a framework for resolving some of these challenges. Drawing these various strands together an outline of a radical embodied account of intersubjectivity and social activity is presented. PMID:25477844

  6. Molecular equilibria and condensation sequences in carbon rich gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, C. M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical equilibria in stellar atmospheres have been investigated by many authors. Lattimer, Schramm, and Grossman presented calculations in both O rich and C rich environments and predicted possible presolar condensates. A recent paper by Cherchneff and Barker considered a C rich composition with PAH's included in the calculations. However, the condensation sequences of C bearing species have not been investigated in detail. In a carbon rich gas surrounding an AGB star, it is often assumed that graphite (or diamond) condenses out before TiC and SiC. However, Lattimer et al. found some conditions under which TiC condenses before graphite. We have performed molecular equilibrium calculations to establish the stability fields of C(s), TiC(s), and SiC(s) and other high temperature phases under conditions of different pressures and C/O. The preserved presolar interstellar dust grains so far discovered in meteorites are graphite, diamond, SiC, TiC, and possibly Al2O3.

  7. A new concept of sequence data distribution on wide area networks.

    PubMed

    Heumann, K; George, D; Mewes, H W

    1994-09-01

    Accepted concepts in distributed applications design have been applied in the development of a network-based system for the synchronization of remote sequence database access sites by an incremental update mechanism. Computer hardware requirements, network bandwidth, and stability considerations make centralized access to essential computerized resources undesirable. A network model has been developed to distribute access over a collection of remotely situated computer centers. The formally independent database-access nodes join to form a heterogeneous, long distance, co-operating network that can compensate for the deficiencies of unstable network links thereby ensuring uninterrupted access to the resource. In order to guarantee consistency among these nodes, several distributed transaction protocols have been investigated; based on these results, a prototype system has been implemented. A layered software architecture makes the distributed transaction protocol transparent to the individual database system and the underlying network. Individual components of this network communicate by means of Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs). A prototype software system operates to synchronize up to data copies of the PIR-International Protein Sequence Database (Barker et al., 1993) at a number of different sites using the public Internet as the transport vehicle.

  8. Theoretical and numerical investigations of inverse patchy colloids in the fluid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Bianchi, Emanuela Ferrari, Silvano; Kahl, Gerhard

    2015-03-21

    We investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of a new class of patchy colloids, referred to as inverse patchy colloids (IPCs) in their fluid phase via both theoretical methods and simulations. IPCs are nano- or micro- meter sized particles with differently charged surface regions. We extend conventional integral equation schemes to this particular class of systems: our approach is based on the so-called multi-density Ornstein-Zernike equation, supplemented with the associative Percus-Yevick approximation (APY). To validate the accuracy of our framework, we compare the obtained results with data extracted from NpT and NVT Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, other theoretical approaches are used to calculate the properties of the system: the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) method and the Barker-Henderson thermodynamic perturbation theory. Both APY and RHNC frameworks provide accurate predictions for the pair distribution functions: APY results are in slightly better agreement with MC data, in particular at lower temperatures where the RHNC solution does not converge.

  9. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Liu, Lutao; Diao, Ming

    2016-10-12

    In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI) radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM), BPSK (Barker code modulation), Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4). The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN), and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA), image binarization algorithm and Pseudo-Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi-Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD) image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR) is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -2 dB.

  10. From square-well to Janus: Improved algorithm for integral equation theory and comparison with thermodynamic perturbation theory within the Kern-Frenkel model

    SciTech Connect

    Giacometti, Achille; Gögelein, Christoph; Lado, Fred; Sciortino, Francesco; Ferrari, Silvano

    2014-03-07

    Building upon past work on the phase diagram of Janus fluids [F. Sciortino, A. Giacometti, and G. Pastore, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 237801 (2009)], we perform a detailed study of integral equation theory of the Kern-Frenkel potential with coverage that is tuned from the isotropic square-well fluid to the Janus limit. An improved algorithm for the reference hypernetted-chain (RHNC) equation for this problem is implemented that significantly extends the range of applicability of RHNC. Results for both structure and thermodynamics are presented and compared with numerical simulations. Unlike previous attempts, this algorithm is shown to be stable down to the Janus limit, thus paving the way for analyzing the frustration mechanism characteristic of the gas-liquid transition in the Janus system. The results are also compared with Barker-Henderson thermodynamic perturbation theory on the same model. We then discuss the pros and cons of both approaches within a unified treatment. On balance, RHNC integral equation theory, even with an isotropic hard-sphere reference system, is found to be a good compromise between accuracy of the results, computational effort, and uniform quality to tackle self-assembly processes in patchy colloids of complex nature. Further improvement in RHNC however clearly requires an anisotropic reference bridge function.

  11. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. © 2014 The authors.

  12. Gender differences in developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Although multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, studies by Dr David Barker reporting an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure led to the hypothesis that slow growth during fetal life increased blood pressure and the risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. It is now recognized that growth during infancy and childhood, in addition to exposure to adverse influences during fetal life, contributes to the developmental programming of increased cardiovascular risk. Numerous epidemiological studies support the link between influences during early life and later cardiovascular health; experimental models provide proof of principle and indicate that numerous mechanisms contribute to the developmental origins of chronic disease. Sex has an impact on the severity of cardiovascular risk in experimental models of developmental insult. Yet, few studies examine the influence of sex on blood pressure and cardiovascular health in low-birth weight men and women. Fewer still assess the impact of ageing on sex differences in programmed cardiovascular risk. Thus, the aim of the present review is to highlight current data about sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Gender differences in developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Although multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, studies by Dr. David Barker reporting an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure led to the hypothesis that slow growth during fetal life increases blood pressure and the risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. It is now recognized that growth during infancy and childhood in addition to exposure to adverse influences during fetal life contribute to the developmental programming of increased cardiovascular risk. Numerous epidemiological studies support the link between influences during early life with later cardiovascular health; experimental models provide proof of principle and indicate that numerous mechanisms contribute to the developmental origins of chronic disease. Sex impacts the severity of cardiovascular risk in experimental models of developmental insult. Yet, few studies examine the influence of sex on blood pressure and cardiovascular health in low birth weight men and women. Fewer still assess how aging impacts sex differences in programmed cardiovascular risk. Thus, the aim of this review is to highlight current data regarding sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26814204

  14. Quasiclassical trajectory study of collisional energy transfer in toluene systems. II. Helium bath gas: Energy and temperature dependences, and angular momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    1994-11-01

    The collisional deactivation of highly vibrationally excited toluene-d0 and toluene-d8 by helium bath gas has been investigated using quasiclassical trajectory simulations. Collisional energy transfer was found to increase with initial toluene internal energy, in agreement with the experiments of Toselli and Barker [J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1809 (1992), and references therein]. The temperature dependence of <ΔE2>1/2 is predicted to be T(0.44±0.10), in agreement with the experiments of Heymann, Hippler, and Troe [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 1853 (1984)]. Toluene is found to have no net angular-momentum (rotational-energy) transfer to helium bath gas, although <ΔJ2>1/2 has a temperature dependence of T(0.31±0.07). Re-evaluation of earlier calculations [``Paper I:'' Lim, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7385 (1994)] found that rotational energy transfer could be induced by increasing the mass of the collider, or by increasing the strength of the intermolecular interaction: in these cases, angular-momentum transfer depended on the initial excitation energy. In all cases, the final rotational distributions remained Boltzmann.

  15. Atmospherically Related Studies of O(D-1) and O2 (b'Sigma(sub g, sup +)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.

    1998-01-01

    For the third year of the grant, we propose to investigate the (beta)'(Sigma)(sub g, sup +). Our earlier value of 0.77 +/- 0.23, which has been used for a long time, should be updated, and the error limits reduced. Current measurements in J. Barker's group at the University of Michigan have assigned a value closer to 0.9, and we will conduct a new evaluation. The goals of this project are to investigate various aspects of the photochemistry of O('D) and O2(beta)'(Sigma)(sub g, sup +) that are of relevance to the photochemistry and energy balance of the terrestrial atmosphere. Over the last six months, we have obtained new sky spectra data files from the Keck telescope via Don Osterbrock at UC Santa Cruz, and now 120 hours of data have been accumulated. Thus, we have been able to make large signal/noise improvements of the O2(b'(Sigma)(sub g, sup +) - X(sup 3)(Sigma)(Sub g, sup -) Atmospheric Band data that we are collecting.

  16. The future of preconception care in the United States: multigenerational impact on reproductive outcomes

    PubMed Central

    St. Fleur, Michelle; Damus, Karla

    2016-01-01

    The future of preconception care will require an innovative multigenerational approach to health promotion for women and men to achieve optimal reproductive health outcomes. In this paper we provide a summary of historical trends in perinatal interventions in the United States that have effectively reduced adverse perinatal outcomes but have not improved disparities among ethnic/racial groups. We describe evidence pointing to an enhanced preconception care paradigm that spans the time periods before, during, and between pregnancies and across generations for all women and men. We describe how the weathering, Barker, and life course theories point to stress and non-chromosomal inheritance as key mediators in racial disparities. Finally, we provide evidence that indicates that humans exposed to toxic stress can be impacted in future generations and that these phenomena are potentially related to epigenetic inheritance, resulting in perinatal disparities. We believe that this expanded view will define preconception care as a critical area for research in the years ahead. PMID:27434227

  17. Rural Alaska Coal Bed Methane: Application of New Technologies to Explore and Produce Energy

    SciTech Connect

    David O. Ogbe; Shirish L. Patil; Doug Reynolds

    2005-06-30

    The Petroleum Development Laboratory, University of Alaska Fairbanks prepared this report. The US Department of Energy NETL sponsored this project through the Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory (AETDL) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The financial support of the AETDL is gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge the co-operation from the other investigators, including James G. Clough of the State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys; Art Clark, Charles Barker and Ed Weeks of the USGS; Beth Mclean and Robert Fisk of the Bureau of Land Management. James Ferguson and David Ogbe carried out the pre-drilling economic analysis, and Doug Reynolds conducted post drilling economic analysis. We also acknowledge the support received from Eric Opstad of Elko International, LLC; Anchorage, Alaska who provided a comprehensive AFE (Authorization for Expenditure) for pilot well drilling and completion at Fort Yukon. This report was prepared by David Ogbe, Shirish Patil, Doug Reynolds, and Santanu Khataniar of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and James Clough of the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. The following research assistants, Kanhaiyalal Patel, Amy Rodman, and Michael Olaniran worked on this project.

  18. On the molecular origin of high-pressure effects in nanoconfinement: The role of surface chemistry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yun; Palmer, Jeremy C.; Coasne, Benoit; Śliwinska-Bartkowiak, Małgorzata; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A.; Gubbins, Keith E.

    2013-10-01

    Experiments and simulations both suggest that the pressure experienced by an adsorbed phase confined within a carbon nanoporous material can be several orders of magnitude larger than the bulk phase pressure in equilibrium with the system. To investigate this pressure enhancement, we report a molecular-simulation study of the pressure tensor of argon confined in slit-shaped nanopores with walls of various models, including carbon and silica materials. We show that the pressure is strongly enhanced by confinement, arising from the effect of strongly attractive wall forces; confinement within purely repulsive walls does not lead to such enhanced pressures. Simulations with both the Lennard-Jones and Barker-Fisher-Watts intermolecular potentials for argon-argon interactions give rise to similar results. We also show that an increase in the wall roughness significantly decreases the in-pore pressure due to its influence on the structure of the adsorbate. Finally, we demonstrate that the pressures calculated from the mechanical (direct pressure tensor calculations) and the thermodynamic (volume perturbation method) routes yield almost identical results, suggesting that both methods can be used to calculate the local pressure tensor components in the case of these planar geometries.

  19. Epigenetic and developmental influences on the risk of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caitlin J; Ryckman, Kelli K

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the presence of a variety of metabolic disturbances including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood sugar. Although the risk for metabolic syndrome has largely been attributed to adult lifestyle factors such as poor nutrition, lack of exercise, and smoking, there is now strong evidence suggesting that predisposition to the development of metabolic syndrome begins in utero. First posited by Hales and Barker in 1992, the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis proposes that susceptibility to adult chronic diseases can occur in response to exposures in the prenatal and perinatal periods. This hypothesis has been continually supported by epidemiologic studies and studies involving animal models. In this review, we describe the structural, metabolic and epigenetic changes that occur in response to adverse intrauterine environments including prenatal and postnatal diet, maternal obesity, and pregnancy complications. Given the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in both the developed and developing worlds, a greater understanding and appreciation for the role of the intrauterine environment in adult chronic disease etiology is imperative. PMID:26170704

  20. Industrially induced changes in Earth structure at the geysers geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Grant, C.C.; Ross, A.; Julian, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Industrial exploitation is causing clearly-measurable changes in Earth structure at The Geysers geothermal area, California. Production at The Geysers peaked in the late 1980s at ???3.5 ?? 103 kg s-1 of steam and 1800 MW of electricity. It subsequently decreased by about 10% per year [Barker et al., 1992] because of declining reservoir pressure. The steam reservoir coincides with a strong negative anomaly (???0.16, ???9%) in the compressional-to-shear seismic wave speed ratio vP/vS, consistent with the expected effects of low-pressure vapor-phase pore fluid [Julian et al., 1996]. Between 1991 and 1994 this anomaly increased in amplitude by up to about 0.07 (???4%). This is consistent with the expected effects of continued pressure reduction and conversion of pore water to steam as a result of exploitation. These unique results show that vP/vS tomography can easily detect saturation changes caused by exploitation of reservoirs, and is a potentially valuable technique for monitoring environmental change. They also provide geophysical observational evidence that geothermal energy is not a renewable energy source.

  1. Thyroid hormone dysregulation in intrauterine growth retardation associated with maternal malnutrition and/or anemia.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, S D; Aalinkeel, R; Singh, S; Shah, P; Gupta, N; Kochupillai, N

    2005-10-01

    Data on the effect of maternal malnutrition and/or anemia on thyroid hormone regulation in human fetuses are scarce, and would be of great importance in examining the relevance of Barker's hypothesis, which proposes adaptation of fetuses to undernutrition leading to permanent metabolic and endocrine changes that form the basis of adult diseases. To examine the quantitative variations in thyroid hormone profile of neonates born to malnourished and/or anemic mothers, we quantitated the T3, T4, rT3 and TSH levels in cord blood of neonates and maternal blood of their corresponding mothers that are malnourished and/or anemic. Further, we classified neonates born to each of these groups of mothers into Small for Gestational Age (SGA) or Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) based on the intrauterine growth curve for our population, and examined the thyroid hormone profile in these neonates. Our results show that firstly, the effects of malnutrition or anemia on thyroid hormone profile are distinct, secondly, significantly higher levels of cord blood T4 and correspondingly lower levels of T3 and rT3 are observed in the neonates born to anemic and malnourished mothers and thirdly, decreases in cord blood T3 levels were observed in Small for Gestational Age neonates born to anemic mothers. These observations lead us to speculate that alterations in the pituitary-thyroid function result in beneficial adaptations to the hostile intrauterine environment in malnutrition related growth retardation and anemia.

  2. A critical evaluation of perturbation theories by Monte Carlo simulation of the first four perturbation terms in a Helmholtz energy expansion for the Lennard-Jones fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Westen, Thijs; Gross, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The Helmholtz energy of a fluid interacting by a Lennard-Jones pair potential is expanded in a perturbation series. Both the methods of Barker-Henderson (BH) and of Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) are evaluated for the division of the intermolecular potential into reference and perturbation parts. The first four perturbation terms are evaluated for various densities and temperatures (in the ranges ρ*=0 -1.5 and T*=0.5 -12 ) using Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble. The simulation results are used to test several approximate theoretical methods for describing perturbation terms or for developing an approximate infinite order perturbation series. Additionally, the simulations serve as a basis for developing fully analytical third order BH and WCA perturbation theories. The development of analytical theories allows (1) a careful comparison between the BH and WCA formalisms, and (2) a systematic examination of the effect of higher-order perturbation terms on calculated thermodynamic properties of fluids. Properties included in the comparison are supercritical thermodynamic properties (pressure, internal energy, and chemical potential), vapor-liquid phase equilibria, second virial coefficients, and heat capacities. For all properties studied, we find a systematically improved description upon using a higher-order perturbation theory. A result of particular relevance is that a third order perturbation theory is capable of providing a quantitative description of second virial coefficients to temperatures as low as the triple-point of the Lennard-Jones fluid. We find no reason to prefer the WCA formalism over the BH formalism.

  3. Effect of frequency characteristic of excitation pulse on lateral spatial resolution in coded ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    Recently, portable ultrasonic diagnostic equipment has frequently been used in clinical situations. The use of portable ultrasonic diagnostic equipment expands various diagnosis areas, such as remote medical diagnosis, and emergent diagnosis at disaster. It is expected that portable ultrasonic diagnostic equipment will be used more frequently in the future. To make ultrasonic diagnostic equipment portable, the number of transducer elements in an ultrasonic probe should be reduced significantly. Therefore, the transmit-receive sensitivity of the ultrasonic probe is degraded. For the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received ultrasonic echo, coded excitation was introduced in ultrasonic imaging. Owing to pulse compression applied to the received echo signal, its SNR significantly improved without the degradation of the range spatial resolution. However, the lateral spatial resolution in coded ultrasound imaging has not been investigated in previous studies. The present study showed that the lateral resolution in coded ultrasound imaging using a typical code, 5-bit Barker code, was worse than that using a conventional short pulse. Such degradation was discussed in terms of the frequency characteristics of the impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer and the excitation pulse. Also, the Gaussian phase coherence factor was introduced as one of the methods to overcome such degradation in lateral spatial resolution.

  4. Influence of Past Changes in Atmospheric CO2 on Boron/Calcium of Planktic Fossil Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeyko, R. A.; Allen, K. A.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Culture experiments have revealed that B/Ca of shells grown by the foraminiferal species Globigerinoides ruber increase with increasing seawater pH. Specifically, B/Ca responds to changes in the relative abundance of pH-sensitive dissolved carbon and boron species (Allen et al. 2011, 2012). Here, we present a high-resolution study on fossilized G. ruber from two sites in North Atlantic subtropical gyres (VM25-21 and ODP 1055B) through 20 ka BP to evaluate how B/Ca responds to past changes in atmospheric CO2. Forams were picked and crushed gently, then cleaned and dissolved using a variation of the Boyle and Keigwin (1985) and Barker et al. (2003) cleaning protocols prior to analysis. ODP 1055B (from Carolina Slope, West Atlantic) produced a high-resolution record with lower B/Ca values during the glacial period followed by a rapid shift to higher B/Ca values in the early deglaciation, with values remaining high through the Holocene. These results were not predicted by culture calibrations, but they are consistent with B/Ca records from the Caribbean (ODP 999, Foster et al. 2008), suggesting this pattern is characteristic of surface waters in the greater North Atlantic region.

  5. [Childhood's determinants for high blood pressure in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Bucher, Barbara S; Tschumi, Sibyelle; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2012-05-01

    Hypertension has been estimated to affect 20 - 25% of the adult population and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease like coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral artery occlusive disease. In addition, hypertension supports the development and progression of chronic kidney insufficiency. The interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors are felt to influence the level of blood pressure. Epidemiological data in the sixties and seventies demonstrated a correlation between cardiovascular disease and infant mortality in the same population. In the late eighties Barker and coworkers described a strong correlation between low birth weight and increased risk for the development of cardiovascular complications. It has been supposed that factors influencing the intrauterine growth and development can lead to adult cardiovascular diseases, known as the concept of "fetal programming". Beside the effect of fetal programming, multiple (preventable and non-preventable) factors determine the blood pressure level in childhood, which will define adult blood pressure level through the blood pressure tracking from childhood to adulthood. Hence, the prevention of cardiovascular disease in adulthood begins in childhood through identification of preventable risk factors as for example obesity and passive smoking and recognition of risk groups like small for gestational age or preterm children.

  6. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Climate Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyere, C. L.; Tye, M. R.; Keellings, D.; Jaye, A.

    2014-12-01

    A high-resolution Regional Climate Ensemble is used to investigate the limits of predictability of climate simulations, with a focus on high-impact weather. A diverse set of approaches are being applied to examine the impact of the different physics parameterizations on the simulated climate and high-impact weather statistics and to determine the physics combinations that result in realistic scenarios. In this paper we focus on the ensemble members' ability to correctly simulate current climate variability in terms of: 1) extreme temperature and precipitation over different regions, and 2) tropical cyclone statistics. A twenty-four member physics ensemble of climate simulations has been generated using the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Skamarock et al. 2008). The ensemble model has been run over an extended North American domain of approximately 25° S to 70° N and from the African coast to the East Pacific, and at sufficient resolution to capture high-impact weather events. Skamarock, W., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. Barker, M. G. Duda, X. Huang, and W. Wang, 2008: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-475+STR. Boulder, CO.

  7. Evaluation of a Regional Climate Ensemble using Self-Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaye, A.; Bruyere, C. L.; Seefeldt, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    A Regional Climate Ensemble is used to investigate the limits of predictability of climate simulations, with a focus on high-impact weather. A twenty-four member physics ensemble of climate simulations using the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting Model at sufficient resolution to capture high-impact weather has been run over an extended North American domain of approximately 25° S to 70° N and from the African coast to the East Pacific. A diverse set of approaches are being applied to examine the impact of the different physics parameterizations on the simulated climate and high-impact weather statistics and to determine the physics combinations that result in physically realistic scenarios. In this paper we explore one such approach that evaluates the performance of the ensemble using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). The SOMs are used to: 1) identify the ensemble members that are able to capture current climate weather patterns and their relative frequencies, and 2) investigate the underlying interactions between the different physics components that leads to differences in these patterns across the ensemble. Results will be used to inform selection of ensemble members for future climate change impact studies. Skamarock, W., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. Barker, M. G. Duda, X. Huang, and W. Wang, 2008: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-475+STR. Boulder, CO.

  8. [Global trends in food consumption and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    2000-01-10

    Obesity and lifestyle diseases increase all over the world, especially in developing countries. One reason is the change in diet. This nutrition transition is characterised by improvement in dietary variation, but also by increase in the content of fat and sugar. The transition seems to start at a lower level of income, compared to what occurred in the Western countries after the Second World War. The reason is that many foods are relatively cheaper, especially fat and sugar. The world market is presently flooded with cheap vegetable fat. Urbanisation leads to over-consumption by increasing market access to fatty and sugary foods, including fast foods. Globalization increases the consumption of sweet soda pops, biscuits and snacks produced by multinational companies. Western supermarkets and fast food franchises also promote these dietary changes (McDonaldization). It has been proposed that the population in developing countries is more vulnerable towards these dietary changes in regard to obesity and chronic diseases, due to undernutrition in early life (the Barker hypothesis). We may therefore expect an unprecedented increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, especially diabetes type 2 in the developing countries. One may question if this increase will be a transient phenomenon, or if we can expect the same pattern as we have seen in the West, namely that the poor become the fat-test segment of the population, with the highest prevalence of chronic diseases.

  9. Pulse compression using binary phase codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    In most MST applications pulsed radars are peak power limited and have excess average power capacity. Short pulses are required for good range resolution, but the problem of range ambiguity (signals received simultaneously from more than one altitude) sets a minimum limit on the interpulse period (IPP). Pulse compression is a technique which allows more of the transmitter average power capacity to be used without sacrificing range resolution. As the name implies, a pulse of power P and duration T is in a certain sense converted into one of power nP and duration T/n. In the frequency domain, compression involves manipulating the phases of the different frequency components of the pulse. One way to compress a pulse is via phase coding, especially binary phase coding, a technique which is particularly amenable to digital processing techniques. This method, which is used extensively in radar probing of the atmosphere and ionosphere is discussed. Barker codes, complementary and quasi-complementary code sets, and cyclic codes are addressed.

  10. Tin--a toxic heavy metal? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, S G; Femfert, U

    1984-03-01

    A tolerable limit for tin concentration in canned food of 250 ppm (Fritsch et al., 1977) is generally accepted. However, biochemical effects attributable to tin have been observed even after oral administration of 1 and 3 mg Sn/kg body wt (Yamaguchi et al., 1980). These doses reflect 10 and 30 ppm tin in the diet. The experiments of de Groot (1973) showed that hemoglobin concentrations in the blood of rats decreased significantly feeding a diet containing 150 ppm tin. The absorption of iron was diminished after simultaneous administration of 0.8 mumol Sn(II) and iron, reflecting a tin dose of 95 ppm tin, by injection into jejunal loops of rats (Schäfer and Forth, 1983). In general, however, canned food usually plays a secondary role in daily nutrition. Fortunately, concentrations of about 2000 ppm tin as reported by Warburton et al. (1962) and Barker and Runte (1972) are not found in canned food, but values between 50 and 500 ppm are not unusual (Piscator, 1979). If a large amount of canned food is eaten daily over a long period, disturbances of gastric acid secretion and a reduction in iron absorption or heme metabolism cannot be excluded. The storage of food, especially acid foods, in opened cans should be avoided as this practice increases the amount of tin in the food when it is consumed.

  11. Assessing the passerine "Tapestry": phylogenetic relationships of the Muscicapoidea inferred from nuclear DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Cibois, Alice; Cracraft, Joel

    2004-07-01

    This study presents new comparative sequence data from the nuclear RAG-1 gene for an increased taxon sample in order to investigate phylogenetic relationships among a diverse songbird superfamily, the Muscicapoidea, which has variously included the waxwings, silky flycatchers, Palm Chat, dippers, starlings, mockingbirds, thrushes, chats, and Old World flycatchers. At the same time, our results provide a test of the often-cited relationships inferred from the phenetic studies of Sibley and Ahlquist [Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1990] using DNA hybridization distances. Nuclear DNA sequences confirm the monophyly of the "core muscicapoid" group, as defined by Barker et al. [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269 (2002) 295] and also support the sister-group relationship of the Sturnidae and Mimidae, on the one hand, and the large-bodied thrushes (Turdini)+the Old World flycatchers and robins, on the other. The results of the phylogenetic analysis allow preliminary inferences about muscicapoid biogeographic history. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Magnetic flimmers: 'light in the electromagnetic darkness'.

    PubMed

    Martens, Johannes W; Koehler, Peter J; Vijselaar, Joost

    2013-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation has become an important field for both research in neuroscience and for therapy since Barker in 1985 showed that it was possible to stimulate the human motor cortex with an electromagnet. Today for instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to measure nerve conduction velocities and to create virtual lesions in the brain. The latter option creates the possibility to inactivate parts of the brain temporarily without permanent damage. In 2008, the American Food and Drugs Administration approved repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapy for major depression under strict conditions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has not yet been cleared for treatment of other diseases, including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, obesity and Parkinson's disease, but results seem promising. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, however, was not invented at the end of the 20th century. The discovery of electromagnetism, the enthusiasm for electricity and electrotherapy, and the interest in Beard's concept of neurasthenia already resulted in the first electromagnetic treatments in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this article, we provide a history of electromagnetic stimulation circa 1900. From the data, we conclude that Mesmer's late 18th century ideas of 'animal magnetism' and the 19th century absence of physiological proof had a negative influence on the acceptance of this therapy during the first decades of the 20th century. Electromagnetism disappeared from neurological textbooks in the early 20th century to recur at the end of that century.

  13. Magnetostimulation of vision: direct noninvasive stimulation of the retina and the visual brain.

    PubMed

    Marg, E

    1991-06-01

    The history of magnetophosphenes and their closely related predecessor, electrophosphenes, is described from the mid-18th century to the present time. The current era of magnetic stimulation started in 1985 with the development of a practical capacitor-discharge electromagnetic stimulator by Barker and his colleagues at the University of Sheffield, and their application of it to the brain with Merton and Morton at the National Hospital, London. The safety of magnetostimulation of the brain is discussed as well as the advantages of magnetostimulation over electrostimulation. Principles of magnetostimulation of nerves and magnetic measurement are considered. Effects on motor and sensory systems of the brain are described including magnetic perceptual suppression in the visual cortex and other pioneering work of Amassian, Cracco and Maccabee at SUNY Health, Brooklyn. Magnetophosphenes from retinal and cortical magnetostimulation are distinguished. Now that visual cortical stimulation is possible with the strong magnetic pulses generated by capacitor-discharge instruments, the functional viability of the visual cortex may be tested directly and noninvasively.

  14. What Do TMS-Evoked Motor Potentials Tell Us About Motor Learning?

    PubMed

    Carson, Richard G; Ruddy, Kathy L; McNickle, Emmet

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first magnetic device capable of stimulating the human brain without discomfort through the intact skull was unveiled in Sheffield, England (Barker et al. in Lancet 1:1106-1107, 1985). Since that time, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become the tool of choice for many scientists investigating human motor control and learning. In light of the fact that there are limits to the information that can be provided by any experimental technique, we first make the case that the necessarily restricted explanatory scope of the TMS technique-and the motor-evoked potentials to which it gives rise, is not yet reflected adequately in the research literature. We also argue that this inattention, coupled with the pervasive adoption of TMS as an investigative tool, may be restricting the elaboration of knowledge concerning the neural processes that mediate human motor learning. In order to make these points, we use as an exemplar the study of cross-education-the interlimb transfer of functional capacity.

  15. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  16. Tin--a toxic heavy metal. A review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, S.G.; Femfert, U.

    1984-03-01

    A tolerable limit for tin concentration in canned food of 250 ppm (Fritsch et al., 1977) is generally accepted. However, biochemical effects attributable to tin have been observed even after oral administration of 1 and 3 mg Sn/kg body wt (Yamaguchi et al., 1980). These doses reflect 10 and 30 ppm tin in the diet. The experiments of de Groot (1973) showed that hemoglobin concentrations in the blood of rats decreased significantly feeding a diet containing 150 ppm tin. The absorption of iron was diminished after simultaneous administration of 0.8 mumol Sn(II) and iron, reflecting a tin dose of 95 ppm tin, by injection into jejunal loops of rats (Schaefer and Forth, 1983). In general, however, canned food usually plays a secondary role in daily nutrition. Fortunately, concentrations of about 2000 ppm tin as reported by Warburton et al. (1962) and Barker and Runte (1972) are not found in canned food, but values between 50 and 500 ppm are not unusual (Piscator, 1979). If a large amount of canned food is eaten daily over a long period, disturbances of gastric acid secretion and a reduction in iron absorption or heme metabolism cannot be excluded. The storage of food, especially acid foods, in opened cans should be avoided as this practice increases the amount of tin in the food when it is consumed.

  17. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau phase field formalism for shock-induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Belof, Jonathan L.; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-field models have become popular in the last two decades to describe a host of free-boundary problems. The strength of the method relies on implicitly describing the dynamics of surfaces and interfaces by a continuous scalar field that enters the global grand free energy functional of the system. Here we explore the potential utility of this method in order to describe shock-induced phase transitions. To this end we make use of the Multiphase Field Theory (MFT) to account for the existence of multiple phases during the transition, and we couple MFT to a hydrodynamic model in the context of a new LLNL code for phase transitions, SAMSA. As a demonstration of this approach, we apply our code to the α - ɛ-Fe phase transition under shock wave loading conditions and compare our results with experiments of Jensen et. al. [J. Appl. Phys., 105:103502 (2009)] and Barker and Hollenbach [J. Appl. Phys., 45:4872 (1974)].

  18. The programming of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, K L

    2015-10-01

    In spite of improving life expectancy over the course of the previous century, the health of the U.S. population is now worsening. Recent increasing rates of type 2 diabetes, obesity and uncontrolled high blood pressure predict a growing incidence of cardiovascular disease and shortened average lifespan. The daily >$1billion current price tag for cardiovascular disease in the United States is expected to double within the next decade or two. Other countries are seeing similar trends. Current popular explanations for these trends are inadequate. Rather, increasingly poor diets in young people and in women during pregnancy are a likely cause of declining health in the U.S. population through a process known as programming. The fetal cardiovascular system is sensitive to poor maternal nutritional conditions during the periconceptional period, in the womb and in early postnatal life. Developmental plasticity accommodates changes in organ systems that lead to endothelial dysfunction, small coronary arteries, stiffer vascular tree, fewer nephrons, fewer cardiomyocytes, coagulopathies and atherogenic blood lipid profiles in fetuses born at the extremes of birthweight. Of equal importance are epigenetic modifications to genes driving important growth regulatory processes. Changes in microRNA, DNA methylation patterns and histone structure have all been implicated in the cardiovascular disease vulnerabilities that cross-generations. Recent experiments offer hope that detrimental epigenetic changes can be prevented or reversed. The large number of studies that provide the foundational concepts for the developmental origins of disease can be traced to the brilliant discoveries of David J.P. Barker.

  19. Bayesian response-adaptive designs for basket trials.

    PubMed

    Ventz, Steffen; Barry, William T; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Trippa, Lorenzo

    2017-02-17

    We develop a general class of response-adaptive Bayesian designs using hierarchical models, and provide open source software to implement them. Our work is motivated by recent master protocols in oncology, where several treatments are investigated simultaneously in one or multiple disease types, and treatment efficacy is expected to vary across biomarker-defined subpopulations. Adaptive trials such as I-SPY-2 (Barker et al., 2009) and BATTLE (Zhou et al., 2008) are special cases within our framework. We discuss the application of our adaptive scheme to two distinct research goals. The first is to identify a biomarker subpopulation for which a therapy shows evidence of treatment efficacy, and to exclude other subpopulations for which such evidence does not exist. This leads to a subpopulation-finding design. The second is to identify, within biomarker-defined subpopulations, a set of cancer types for which an experimental therapy is superior to the standard-of-care. This goal leads to a subpopulation-stratified design. Using simulations constructed to faithfully represent ongoing cancer sequencing projects, we quantify the potential gains of our proposed designs relative to conventional non-adaptive designs.

  20. FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF COBAMIDE COENZYMES IN CLOSTRIDIUM TETANOMORPHUM

    PubMed Central

    Toohey, J. I.; Barker, H. A.

    1964-01-01

    Toohey, J. I. (University of California, Berkeley), and H. A. Barker. Factors affecting the formation of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum. J. Bacteriol. 87:504–509. 1964.—Tests were carried out to determine the optimal culture conditions for the production of cobamide coenzymes in Clostridium tetanomorphum strain H1. A method is described for carrying out coenzyme determinations on the cells from 10-ml cultures of the bacterium. In a basal medium containing magnesium sulfate, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, sodium molybdate, calcium chloride, and potassium phosphate, the optimal concentration of monosodium glutamate was 0.1 m and of yeast extract was 3 g per liter. Addition of glucose at a concentration of 0.05 m was found to double the yield of cells and to increase tenfold the specific coenzyme yield. Addition of cobaltous chloride (2 × 10−5m) also increased coenzyme production. Addition of benzimidazole caused an apparent increase in coenzyme production by causing the synthesis of the highly active benzimidazole analogue. Addition of methionine (5 × 10−6m) appeared to inhibit coenzyme production. PMID:14127565

  1. [Correlations between the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Góth, Miklós; Hubina, Erika; Korbonits, Márta

    2005-01-09

    The metabolic syndrome has several similarities with Cushing's syndrome (impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity) suggesting that abnormalities in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may have a link with the metabolic syndrome. Several studies suggested an association between the clinical signs of the metabolic syndrome and the increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity based on increased cortisol concentration at 09.00 a.m. and increased cortisol response to corticotropin. According to the Barker hypothesis the fetal malnutrition could determine adult cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension), some endocrine and metabolic disorders (obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia). The suggested mechanism of the phenomenon is that the suboptimal fetal nutrition results in glucocorticoid overproduction. The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (converts biological inactive cortisone to cortisol and vice versa) is an important enzyme in cortisol metabolism. The increased expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in fat tissue could lead to central obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. The hypothesis that increased corticotropin-releasing hormone production drives the overactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis was not proven. Further investigations are needed to identify additional pathogenetic factors and to find new therapeutic possibilities.

  2. The early life origin theory in the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Runa; Ververis, Katherine; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Life expectancy has been examined from a variety of perspectives in recent history. Epidemiology is one perspective which examines causes of morbidity and mortality at the population level. Over the past few 100 years there have been dramatic shifts in the major causes of death and expected life length. This change has suffered from inconsistency across time and space with vast inequalities observed between population groups. In current focus is the challenge of rising non-communicable diseases (NCD), such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the search to discover methods to combat the rising incidence of these diseases, a number of new theories on the development of morbidity have arisen. A pertinent example is the hypothesis published by David Barker in 1995 which postulates the prenatal and early developmental origin of adult onset disease, and highlights the importance of the maternal environment. This theory has been subject to criticism however it has gradually gained acceptance. In addition, the relatively new field of epigenetics is contributing evidence in support of the theory. This review aims to explore the implication and limitations of the developmental origin hypothesis, via an historical perspective, in order to enhance understanding of the increasing incidence of NCDs, and facilitate an improvement in planning public health policy.

  3. High Mobility Group Box-1 Protein and Outcomes in Critically Ill Surgical Patients Requiring Open Abdominal Management

    PubMed Central

    Malig, Michelle S.; Jenne, Craig N.; Ball, Chad G.; Roberts, Derek J.; Xiao, Zhengwen

    2017-01-01

    Background. Previous studies assessing various cytokines in the critically ill/injured have been uninformative in terms of translating to clinical care management. Animal abdominal sepsis work suggests that enhanced intraperitoneal (IP) clearance of Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) improves outcome. Thus measuring the responses of DAMPs offers alternate potential insights and a representative DAMP, High Mobility Group Box-1 protein (HMGB-1), was considered. While IP biomediators are being recognized in critical illness/trauma, HMGB-1 behaviour has not been examined in open abdomen (OA) management. Methods. A modified protocol for HMGB-1 detection was used to examine plasma/IP fluid samples from 44 critically ill/injured OA patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing two negative pressure peritoneal therapies (NPPT): Active NPPT (ANPPT) and Barker's Vacuum Pack NPPT (BVP). Samples were collected and analyzed at the time of laparotomy and at 24 and 48 hours after. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in survivor versus nonsurvivor HMGB-1 plasma or IP concentrations at baseline, 24 hours, or 48 hours. However, plasma HMGB-1 levels tended to increase continuously in the BVP cohort. Conclusions. HMGB-1 appeared to behave differently between NPPT cohorts. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship of HMGB-1 and outcomes in septic/injured patients. PMID:28286376

  4. Sex differences in the developmental programming of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, N B; Intapad, S; Alexander, B T

    2014-02-01

    Experimental models of developmental programming provide proof of concept and support Barker's original findings that link birthweight and blood pressure. Many experimental models of developmental insult demonstrate a sex difference with male offspring exhibiting a higher blood pressure in young adulthood relative to their age-matched female counterparts. It is well recognized that men exhibit a higher blood pressure relative to age-matched women prior to menopause. Yet, whether this sex difference is noted in individuals born with low birthweight is not clear. Sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure may originate from innate sex-specific differences in expression of the renin angiotensin system that occur in response to adverse influences during early life. Sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure may also involve the influence of the hormonal milieu on regulatory systems key to the long-term control of blood pressure such as the renin angiotensin system in adulthood. In addition, the sex difference in blood pressure in offspring exposed to a developmental insult may involve innate sex differences in oxidative status or the endothelin system or may be influenced by age-dependent changes in the developmental programming of cardiovascular risk factors such as adiposity. Therefore, this review will highlight findings from different experimental models to provide the current state of knowledge related to the mechanisms that contribute to the aetiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and hypertension.

  5. Role of diet and nutrition on the alteration of the quality and quantity of stem cells in human aging and the diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    Trosko, J E

    2008-01-01

    An integrative synthesis of concepts and an explosion of experimental and epidemiological findings allow new insights as to how the interactions of genetic, environmental, dietary, cultural (social, psychological, economic) factors can influence the aging and diseases of aging processes. Although the net effect of the best dietary maintenance of homeostatic control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis, systems breakdown of the human being and death will inevitably be the ultimate end result. Reduction of the quantity of the stem cell pool in any tissue will affect the "aging" of that organ. This, in turn, will affect the homeostatic maintenance of the organ systems of the human. Clearly, not all organs of the body age uniformly. The quality of the stem cells in any organ, depending on circumstances, can contribute to various disease pathogeneses. In the case where the quality of the stem cells is altered in utero or early postnatal development by some mutagenic mechanism that could lead to the initiation step of carcinogenesis, then the individual can, to some degree, control the fate of those prenatally and early postnatally-derived initiated stem cells by choosing those environmentally and dietary factors that either enhance or prevent the clonal expansion of these initiated stem cells during the promotion phase of carcinogenesis. This might explain the Barker hypothesis which suggests that prenatal and early postnatal exposures to toxic agents can lead to diseases later in life.

  6. An efficient method for unfolding kinetic pressure driven VISAR data

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Harry Hess; Peterson, Kyle; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James

    2015-08-18

    Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) [Barker and Hollenbach, J. Appl. Phys.43, 4669 (1972)] is a well-known diagnostic that is employed on many shock physics and pulsed-power experiments. With the VISAR diagnostic, the velocity on the surface of any metal flyer can be found. For most experiments employing VISAR, either a kinetic pressure [Grady, Mech. Mater.29, 181 (1998)] or a magnetic pressure [Lemkeet al., Intl J. Impact Eng.38, 480 (2011)] drives the motion of the flyer. Moreover, reliable prediction of the time-dependent pressure is often a critical component to understanding the physics of these experiments. Although VISAR can provide a precise measurement of a flyer’s surface velocity, the real challenge of this diagnostic implementation is using this velocity to unfold the time-dependent pressure. As a result, the purpose of this paper is to elucidate a new method for quickly and reliably unfolding VISAR data.

  7. Pulse compression techniques to improve modulated pulsed laser line scan systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert W.; Nash, Justin K.; Cochenour, Brandon M.; Mullen, Linda J.

    2015-05-01

    A modulated pulse laser imaging system has been developed which utilizes coded/chirped RF modulation to mitigate the adverse effects of optical scattering in degraded visual underwater environments. Current laser imaging techniques employ either short pulses or single frequency modulated pulses to obtain both intensity and range images. Systems using short pulses have high range resolution but are susceptible to scattering due to the wide bandwidth nature of the pulse. Range gating can be used to limit the effects of backscatter, but this can lead to blind spots in the range image. Modulated pulse systems can help suppress the contribution from scattered light in generated imagery without gating the receiver. However, the use of narrowband, single tone modulation results in limited range resolution where small targets are camouflaged within the background. This drives the need for systems which have high range resolution while still suppressing the effects of scattering caused by the environment. Coded/chirped modulated pulses enable the use of radar pulse compression techniques to substantially increase range resolution while also providing a way to discriminate the object of interest from the light scattered from the environment. Linearly frequency chirped waveforms and phase shift keyed barker codes were experimentally investigated to determine the effects that pulse compression would have on intensity/range data. The effect of modulation frequency on the data produced with both wideband and narrowband modulation was also investigated. The results from laboratory experiments will be presented and compared to model predictions.

  8. Inactivation of the Deg protease family in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has impact on the outer cell layers.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Otilia; Miranda, Hélder; Gröbner, Gerhard; Funk, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The serine type Deg/HtrA proteases are distributed in a wide range of organisms from Escherichia coli to humans. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses three Deg protease orthologues: HtrA, HhoA and HhoB. Previously we compared Synechocystis 6803 wild type cells exposed to mild or severe stress conditions with a mutant lacking all three Deg proteases and demonstrated that stress had strong impact on the proteomes and metabolomes. To identify the biochemical processes, which this protease family is involved in, here we compared Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild type cells with a mutant lacking all three Deg proteases grown under normal growth conditions (30°C and 40 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Deletion of the Deg proteases lead to the down-regulation of proteins related to the biosynthesis of outer cell layers (e.g. the GDP mannose 4,6-dehydratase) and affected protein secretion. During the late growth phase of the culture Deg proteases were found to be secreted to the extracellular medium of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild type strain. While cyanobacterial Deg proteases seem to act mainly in the periplasmic space, deletion of the three proteases influences the proteome and metabolome of the whole cell. Impairments in the outer cell layers of the triple mutant might explain the higher sensitivity toward light and oxidative stress, which was observed earlier by Barker and coworkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Martian diffuse aurora: Monte Carlo simulations and comparison with IUVS-MAVEN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, J. C. M. C.; Soret, L.; Schneider, N. M.; Shematovich, V.; Bisikalo, D.; Bougher, S. W.; Jain, S.; Lillis, R. J.; Mitchell, D. L.; Jakosky, B. M.; Deighan, J.; Larson, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar activity on several occasions with the IUVS on board the MAVEN spacecraft. We describe the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the production of several ultraviolet and visible auroral emissions for initial electron energies from 0.1 to 200 keV. These include the CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (UVD) at 288.3 and 289.6 nm and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker (FDB) bands, CO Cameron and Fourth Positive bands, OI 130.4 and 297.2 nm and CI 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm multiplets. We calculate the nadir and limb intensities of several of these emissions for a unit precipitated energy flux. Our results indicate that electrons in the range 100-200 keV produce maximum CO2+ UVD emission near 75 km. We combine SWEA and SEP electron energy spectra measured during diffuse aurora to calculate the volume emission rates and compare with IUVS observations of the emission limb profiles. The strongest predicted emissions are the CO2+ FDB, UVD and the CO Cameron bands. The metastable a 3Π state which radiates the Cameron bands is deactivated by collisions below 110 km. As a consequence, we show that the CO2+ UVD to the Cameron bands ratio increases at low altitude in the energetic diffuse aurora.

  10. Fetal programming of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Faa, Gavino; Manchia, Mirko; Pintus, Roberta; Gerosa, Clara; Marcialis, Maria Antonietta; Fanos, Vassilios

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypotheses proposed by David Barker, namely fetal programming, in the past years, there is a growing evidence of the major role played by epigenetic factors during the intrauterine life and the perinatal period. Furthermore, it has been assessed that these factors can affect the health status in infancy and even in adulthood. In this review, we focus our attention on the fetal programming of the brain, analyzing the most recent literature concerning the epigenetic factors that can influence the development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorders, major depressive disorders, and schizophrenia. The perinatal epigenetic factors have been divided in two main groups: maternal factors and fetal factors. The maternal factors include diet, smoking, alcoholism, hypertension, malnutrition, trace elements, stress, diabetes, substance abuse, and exposure to environmental toxicants, while the fetal factors include hypoxia/asphyxia, placental insufficiency, prematurity, low birth weight, drugs administered to the mother or to the baby, and all factors causing intrauterine growth restriction. A better comprehension of the possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases may help researchers and clinicians develop new diagnostic tools and treatments to offer these patients a tailored medical treatment strategy to improve their quality of life. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:207-223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neurofibromatosis and lessons for the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Karlyne M

    2009-07-01

    In the war on cancer, a great deal of attention is being paid to knowing the 'enemy'. It is widely believed that by understanding the driving forces underlying cancer, researchers can develop better ways to target the disease. Currently, large-scale efforts have been under taken to completely characterize molecular changes in common human cancers (http://cancergenome.nih.gov/) (Collins & Barker, 2007). However, as more is learned about cancer, the debate increases on what exactly the enemy is: cells making up the bulk of the tumour, rare tumour stem cells that can regrow the tumour, tumour microenvironment, the subset of cancer cells with metastatic potential, etc. Studies of the cancers associated with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are helping to define the relationship between many of these different cell types. It is still unclear how these different enemies are related to each other and how they interact to wage cancer's war on the patient. 'If you know the enemy and know yourself you need not fear the results of a hundred battles.' - Sun Tzu, The Art of War, c. 500 B.C.

  12. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  13. Teacher management behaviors and pupil task involvement during small group laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Warren

    A major concern of many beginning and experienced teachers is that of classroom management and control. This article describes recent research into defining classroom management procedures that are used by high school science teachers and their relationship to pupil ontaskness. The classroom is conceptualized as a manipulable behavioral system. This construct arises directly from Barker's (1968) ecological psychology, the classroom and its occupants being conceptualized as a behavior setting. The behaviors of the teacher and the pupils are an integral part of the unit (behavior setting), which in turn coerces certain behaviors from its participants. Thus settings, and, in particular, subsettings, are seen as more important determiners of social behavior than the personality of individual teacher or pupil. The methodology employed in this research has involved the extensive use of video in naturalistic science classrooms. Tapes of both teacher and pupil behaviors were continuously and independently recorded. Intensive analysis using electronic recording instruments interfaced with the computer has allowed the collection and sophisticated analysis of the observational data. Data relating to teacher management behavior in small group settings have been analyzed and the relationships to pupil task involvement have been explored.

  14. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  15. MIPS: a database for genomes and protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Mewes, H W; Frishman, D; Güldener, U; Mannhaupt, G; Mayer, K; Mokrejs, M; Morgenstern, B; Münsterkötter, M; Rudd, S; Weil, B

    2002-01-01

    The Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS-GSF, Neuherberg, Germany) continues to provide genome-related information in a systematic way. MIPS supports both national and European sequencing and functional analysis projects, develops and maintains automatically generated and manually annotated genome-specific databases, develops systematic classification schemes for the functional annotation of protein sequences, and provides tools for the comprehensive analysis of protein sequences. This report updates the information on the yeast genome (CYGD), the Neurospora crassa genome (MNCDB), the databases for the comprehensive set of genomes (PEDANT genomes), the database of annotated human EST clusters (HIB), the database of complete cDNAs from the DHGP (German Human Genome Project), as well as the project specific databases for the GABI (Genome Analysis in Plants) and HNB (Helmholtz-Netzwerk Bioinformatik) networks. The Arabidospsis thaliana database (MATDB), the database of mitochondrial proteins (MITOP) and our contribution to the PIR International Protein Sequence Database have been described elsewhere [Schoof et al. (2002) Nucleic Acids Res., 30, 91-93; Scharfe et al. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 155-158; Barker et al. (2001) Nucleic Acids Res., 29, 29-32]. All databases described, the protein analysis tools provided and the detailed descriptions of our projects can be accessed through the MIPS World Wide Web server (http://mips.gsf.de).

  16. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  17. Earth-atmospheric coupling prior to earthquakes by analyzing remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.

    2003-04-01

    Satellite thermal imaging data indicate long-lived thermal fields associated with large linear structures and fault systems in the Earth's crust [Carreno at al, 2001] but also short-lived anomalies prior to major earthquakes [Chengyu, 2001]. The short-lived anomalies typically appear 7-14 days before an earthquake, affect several thousands or tens of thousand km^2. More recently several processes have been considered as possible contributors to the thermal anomalies: Piezoelectric and elastic strain dilatation forces; Positive holes migration as result of activation of electric charge by deformation processes; Rising fluids that would lead to increased gas seepage and, hence, to the emanation of warm gases; A transient high in the thermal conductivity profile of the subsurface rocks; Rising well water levels; and CO_2 spreading. [Gorny, 1988; Salman, 1992; Tronin at al, 2002, Freund, 2000]. Because the short-lived anomalies come and go so quickly, the possibility that they would be caused by an actual heat pulse arriving at the surface from deep within the Earth can be ruled out. Connected phenomena to the thermal anomalies include: transient conductivity of rocks, injection of currents, possibly also electromagnetic emission and light emission from high points at the surface of the Earth. To understand this process we analyze vertical atmospheric profiles, land/sea surface and brightness (temperature) data, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA's Terra satellite launched in December 1999. Using MODIS data information about the short-lived thermal anomalies can be retrieved by means of multi-spectral techniques [Ouzounov and Freund, 2001]. We uses the MODIS data to differentiate between true "thermal" signals and IR luminescence. Indeed, on the basis of a temporal and spatial distribution analysis, a thermal anomaly pattern is found that appears to be related to the seismic activity for the world major earthquakes in 2000

  18. A Lightweight, High-performance I/O Management Package for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun

    2011-06-22

    Our group has been working with ANL collaborators on the topic bridging the gap between parallel file system and local file system during the course of this project period. We visited Argonne National Lab -- Dr. Robert Ross's group for one week in the past summer 2007. We looked over our current project progress and planned the activities for the incoming years 2008-09. The PI met Dr. Robert Ross several times such as HEC FSIO workshop 08, SC08 and SC10. We explored the opportunities to develop a production system by leveraging our current prototype to (SOGP+PVFS) a new PVFS version. We delivered SOGP+PVFS codes to ANL PVFS2 group in 2008.We also talked about exploring a potential project on developing new parallel programming models and runtime systems for data-intensive scalable computing (DISC). The methodology is to evolve MPI towards DISC by incorporating some functions of Google MapReduce parallel programming model. More recently, we are together exploring how to leverage existing works to perform (1) coordination/aggregation of local I/O operations prior to movement over the WAN, (2) efficient bulk data movement over the WAN, (3) latency hiding techniques for latency-intensive operations. Since 2009, we start applying Hadoop/MapReduce to some HEC applications with LANL scientists John Bent and Salman Habib. Another on-going work is to improve checkpoint performance at I/O forwarding Layer for the Road Runner super computer with James Nuetz and Gary Gridder at LANL. Two senior undergraduates from our research group did summer internships about high-performance file and storage system projects in LANL since 2008 for consecutive three years. Both of them are now pursuing Ph.D. degree in our group and will be 4th year in the PhD program in Fall 2011 and go to LANL to advance two above-mentioned works during this winter break. Since 2009, we have been collaborating with several computer scientists (Gary Grider, John bent, Parks Fields, James Nunez, Hsing

  19. Global stabilization using LSS-Theorem: Applications to Robotics and Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, AbdulRazzak

    Underactuated mechanical systems are gaining interest as they can sometimes provide the desired motion or functionality at reduced cost due to their using fewer expensive actuators. The term "underactuated" refers to the fact that such mechanical systems have fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, which makes them very difficult to control. Moreover, underactuated robots have nonlinear dynamics which must be tackled with nonlinear control techniques. Furthermore, control theory for underactuated mechanical systems has been an active area of research for the past 15-20 years. Most of the research has focused on local and global asymptotic stabilization by feedback. Underactuated systems can either possess nonminimum phase or minimum phase characteristics. For minimum phase underactuated systems, the stabilization problem is rather simple and many existing control design methodologies have been proved powerful in providing a solution to this problem. For nonminimum phase underactuated systems, asymptotic stabilization problem has been, and still is, an attractive subject to the researchers in the field of nonlinear control system and theory. In particular, global asymptotic stabilization (GAS) at a desired equilibrium point of such systems by means of a single smooth static or dynamic state feedback law is still largely an open problem in the literature. In this thesis, the problem of GAS via a smooth static state feedback law is addressed for a class of an underactuated nonlinear system that is affine (possibly non affine) in the control, partially feedback linearizable, nonminimum phase and (possibly) has a non-integrable acceleration constraint. The core result of the thesis is formulated through a theorem that the author refers to through this thesis as the Legend of Salah Salman (LSS) Theorem. LSS theorem states the existence of a smooth static state feedback law that globally asymptotically stabilizes the origin of the nonlinear underactuated system that is

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a novel sublingual spray formulation of the antimalarial drug artemether in African children with malaria.

    PubMed

    Salman, Sam; Bendel, Daryl; Lee, Toong C; Templeton, David; Davis, Timothy M E

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in 91 young African children with severe malaria or who could not tolerate oral antimalarial therapy. Each received 3.0 mg/kg of body weight of artemether at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 h or until the initiation of oral treatment. Few blood samples were drawn postdose. Plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the data were analyzed using established population compartmental pharmacokinetic models. Parasite clearance was prompt (median parasite clearance time, 24 h), and there were no serious adverse events. Consistent with studies in healthy adults (S. Salman, D. Bendel, T. C. Lee, D. Templeton, and T. M. E. Davis, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:3197-3207, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05013-14), the absorption of sublingual artemether was biphasic, and multiple dosing was associated with the autoinduction of the metabolism of artemether to DHA (which itself has potent antimalarial activity). In contrast to studies using healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetic modeling indicated that the first absorption phase did not avoid first-pass metabolism, suggesting that the drug is transferred to the upper intestine through postdose fluid/food intake. Simulations using the present data and those from an earlier study in older Melanesian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemether-lumefantrine tablets suggested that the bioavailability of sublingual artemether was at least equivalent to that after conventional oral artemether-lumefantrine (median [interquartile range] areas under the concentration-time curve for artemether, 3,403 [2,471 to 4,771] versus 3,063 [2,358 to 4,514] μg · h/liter, respectively; and for DHA, 2,958 [2,146 to 4,278] versus 2,839 [1,812 to 3,488] μg · h/liter, respectively; P ≥ 0.42). These findings suggest that sublingual artemether could be used as prereferral treatment for sick

  1. Factors affecting response to hepatitis B vaccine among hemodialysis patients in a large Saudi Hemodialysis Center.

    PubMed

    Al Saran, Khalid; Sabry, Alaa; Al Halawany, Zakaria; Ismail, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to identify the factors that could affect this response. This retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 in the Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD), Riyadh, and included 144 patients (78 males and 66 females) on regular HD, all of whom received hepatitis B vacci-nation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb): Responders group (>10 IU/L) and non-responders group (<10 IU/L). The study looked at the factors that may affect the responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination, like gender, age, co-existence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, dialysis adequacy that was evaluated by urea reduction ratio (URR) and Kt/V, hemoglobin level, albumin level, protein catabolic rate (PCR), body mass index (BMI), subjective global nutritional status (SGA) and HbA1c. There were 129 patients (89.6%) in the responders group including 69 males and 60 females and 15 patients (10.4%) in the non-responders group including nine males and six females. The mean age in the responders group and the non-responders group was 50.56 ± 15.35 and 56.87 ± 12.52 years, respectively (P = 0.128). The mean value of the PCR was 1.03 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17 g/kg/day in the responders group and non-responders group, respectively (P = 0.002). There was no statically significant difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of HCV infection, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, URR, Kt/V, hemoglobin level and albumin level. We report a high response rate (89%) for HBV vaccination in our HD patients. The PCR was the only factor that affected the response to HBV vaccination in these patients.

  2. Integrated magnetobiostratigraphy at the Oligocene/Miocene transition in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (DSDP Leg 72, Hole 516F)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennari, Rocco; Persico, Davide; Florindo, Fabio; Turco, Elena; Villa, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution integrated magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic (planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils) record of the interval encompassing the Oligocene/Miocene transition (OMT) at DSDP Hole 516F is here presented. This stratigraphic interval was previously studied by Berggren et al. (1983), Pujol (1983) and Spezzaferri (1994), although with a lower sample resolution. The magnetobiostratigraphic results of Berggren et al. (1983) are, moreover, considered as reference data for the age calibration of several bioevents along the OMT (Gradstein et al., 2012). Dealing with the same stratigraphic interval, other authors (Pagani et al., 2000; Plancq et al., 2012) based their paleoceanographic reconstruction on age model derived by Berggren et al. (1983). Our high-resolution integrated stratigraphy approach allowed us to obtain: 1) a more detailed succession of magnetic reversals across the OMT, including a better constraining of the base of Subchron C6Cn.2n, which formally defines the base of the Neogene (Steininger et al., 1997); 2) an integrated planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil quantitative biostratigraphy across the OMT. Particular focus has been addressed to the Lowest Common Occurrence of Paragloborotalia kugleri and the Highest Occurrences of Sphenolithus delphix and Sphenolithus capricornutus, which approximate the O/M boundary; 3) an updated age model of the OMT at Hole 516F. Finally, the new data here presented contributed to a critical review of the calcareous planktonic biostratigraphy across the OMT. References Berggren, W.A., Aubry, M.P. and Hamilton, N., 1983. Neogene magnetobiostratigraphy of deep sea drilling project site 516 (Rio Grande Rise, South Atlantic). In: Barker, P., et al. (Eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 72, 675-713. Pagani, M., Arthur, M. A. and Freeman, K. H. 2000. Variations in Miocene phytoplankton growth rates in the southwest Atlantic: Evidence for changes in ocean circulation

  3. The interrelationships of the inositol phosphates formed in vasopressin-stimulated WRK-1 rat mammary tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C J; Wong, N S; Maccallum, S M; Hunt, P A; Michell, R H; Kirk, C J

    1992-01-01

    1. Temporal changes in the levels of many inositol phosphates, whose structural characterization is presented in the preceding paper [Wong, Barker, Morris, Craxton, Kirk & Michell (1991) Biochem. J. 286, 459-468], have been monitored in vasopressin-stimulated WRK-1 cells. 2. Upon stimulation, Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulated within 1 s, consistent with its role as a rapidly acting second messenger produced by receptor activation of phosphoinositidase C. Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, both of which are immediate products of Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism, also accumulated quickly. Ins4P, Ins(1,3,4)P3, Ins(3,4)P2, Ins(1,3)P2, Ins1P and Ins3P, which are intermediates in the metabolism of Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 to inositol, accumulated after seconds or within a few minutes, and in a temporal sequence consistent with their known metabolic interrelationships. 3. The stimulated accumulation of Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 was delayed, as expected if it is formed by phosphorylation of Ins(1,3,4)P3. 4. Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 accumulated 2-3-fold in a few minutes, and mainly before Ins(1,3,4,6)P4. 5. Using a [3H]-/[14C]-inositol double-labelling protocol, we obtained evidence that all of the compounds that accumulated upon stimulation, except Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, originated from lipid-derived Ins(1,4,5)P3, but that the newly formed Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 came from a different source. 6. There were no consistent changes in the levels of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 and InsP6 during stimulation. 7. Alongside the gradual accumulation of Ins(1:2-cyclic,4,5)P3 during stimulation [Wong, Barker, Shears, Kirk & Michell (1988) Biochem. J. 252, 1-5], there was an accumulation of Ins(1:2-cyclic,4)P2 and Ins(1:2-cyclic)P, probably as either minor side products of phosphoinositidase C action or metabolites of Ins(1:2-cyclic,4,5)P3. 8. When Li+ was present during stimulation, it redirected the dephosphorylation pathways downstream of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in the manner expected from its inhibition of inositol monophosphatase and Ins(1,4)P2/Ins(1,3,4)P

  4. The lost church of Montemurro (Basilicata, Italy): Ground Penetrating Radar and Electrical Resistivity Tomography for detecting its buried remains in S. Maria Square.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Giocoli, Alessandro; de Martino, Gregory; Loperte, Antonio; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    one in the central part and constituted by 48 electrodes 1 m spaced for a length of 47 m, allowed to investigate up to about 4.5 m. Both Wenner and dipole-dipole sequences gathered along two arrays were inverted by using Res2DInv software (Loke and Barker, 1996). They showed several shallow high resistive nuclei. Their positions are in good agreement with those of the reflectors showed in the radargrams and time slices. Joint interpretation of GPR and ERT results suggests the presence of cavities and manmade structures under the square. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the traffic policeman, the technicians, the workers and the mayor Mario Di Sanzio of the Commune of Montemurro. References Bavusi M., Chianese D., Giano S.I., Mucciarelli M. (2004). Multidisciplinary investigations on the Roman aqueduct of Grumentum (Basilicata, Southern Itlay). Annals of geophysics, 47 (6), 1791-1801. Cello G., , Tondi E., Micarelli L. and Mattioni L. (2003). Active tectonics and earthquake sources in the epicentral area of the 1857 Basilicata earthquake (southern Italy). Journal of Geodynamics, 36 (1,2), 37-50. Loke M.H., Barker R.D., (1996). Rapid least-square inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections using a quasi-Newton method. Geophysical Prospecting, 44, 131 -152. Mallet R. (1862) - Great Neapolitan Earthquake of 1857. London 1862, 2, Chapmann and Hall.

  5. Flow dimension as an indicator of hydraulic behavior in site characterization of fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Kuusela-Lahtinen, A; Niemi, A; Luukkonen, A

    2003-01-01

    We examine the possibility of using the flow dimension identified from constant pressure injection tests as a tool for characterizing the hydraulic conditions of fractured media. The data comes from a low-conductivity crystalline rock site, from depths of up to 450 m, and is obtained with 2 m and 10 m measurement scales. In the analysis, the general solution for n-dimensional flow by Barker (1988) is applied. The results show that the most prominent characteristics of the medium can be identified; that is, linear and sublinear flow dimensions as distinguished from dimensions higher than two. In many cases, however, there is significant difficulty in distinguishing the dimensions n = 2, 2.5, and 3 from each other. This is usually because of the experimental difficulties in achieving the ideal conditions required by the theory during the early part of the experiment. In such cases, a full flow curve is not available for the type-curve fitting. In the nonunique cases the higher dimensions typically correspond to higher, sometimes unrealistically high, values of specific storage and to the less reliable and less representative early part of the experiment. Therefore, most of the dimensions in categories n = 3 can be excluded, thus leaving the majority observations in the categories of n = 2 and n = 2-2.5. The dominance of dimension n = 2 is more pronounced for data related to fracture zones in comparison to that related to "average" rock, in particular in the 2 m scale data. The proportion of low (n < 1.5) flow dimensions is small, but for the 10 m scale data it is relatively higher at greater depths and corresponds to lower conductivities. For the smaller 2 m scale data, the low dimensions are not linked to greater depths or systematically smaller conductivities, giving preliminary indication of different flow dimension behavior for the two different scales.

  6. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  7. Natural and Anthropogenic Controls on the Ecosystem Services Provided by Dissolved Organic Matter: A Case Study of the Boulder Creek Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, R. S.; McKnight, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) performs a number of vital functions in aquatic ecosystems, playing a substantial role in carbon and nitrogen cycles and the bioavailability of metals as well as generally affecting water chemistry. Additionally, it is considered the main cause of the the formation of harmful disinfection byproducts during water treatment processes. Because DOM is vital for ecosystem functioning, but potentially problematic for some direct human uses of water, it proves a complex case study for the application of the ecosystem services framework. To add to the complexity, human behavior can affect the amount and composition of DOM in water. Increasing concentrations of DOM have been observed in many areas of Northern Europe and North America. Hypotheses which have been suggested to explain these increased concentrations include changing land use, thawing peatlands, increased nitrogen deposition, and a lessening of acid rain, a particularly interesting idea because it would be an unintended consequence of a policy designed to protect other ecosystem functions. This multi-year study investigates DOM in the Boulder Creek Watershed in Colorado to better understand seasonal cycling of DOM and the link between DOM in the river and organic matter in the catchment, which is a substantial DOM source. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical character of the DOM in an attempt to elucidate the watershed processes driving changes in DOM concentration. Because flow in Boulder Creek is partially controlled by Barker dam and reservoir, this study site provides an opportunity to investigate both natural DOM cycling and the impact of an anthropogenic influence. By better understanding DOM cycling and the ecosystem services it provides, we can better predict how DOM dynamics may shift in the future and be prepared to adjust our behavior and water treatment processes accordingly.

  8. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrolytes in a nanometer slab-confinement: Ion-specific structure and solvation forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcher, Immanuel; Schulz, Julius C. F.; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2010-10-01

    We study the liquid structure and solvation forces of dense monovalent electrolytes (LiCl, NaCl, CsCl, and NaI) in a nanometer slab-confinement by explicit-water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, implicit-water Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theories. In order to consistently coarse-grain and to account for specific hydration effects in the implicit methods, realistic ion-ion and ion-surface pair potentials have been derived from infinite-dilution MD simulations. The electrolyte structure calculated from MC simulations is in good agreement with the corresponding MD simulations, thereby validating the coarse-graining approach. The agreement improves if a realistic, MD-derived dielectric constant is employed, which partially corrects for (water-mediated) many-body effects. Further analysis of the ionic structure and solvation pressure demonstrates that nonlocal extensions to PB (NPB) perform well for a wide parameter range when compared to MC simulations, whereas all local extensions mostly fail. A Barker-Henderson mapping of the ions onto a charged, asymmetric, and nonadditive binary hard-sphere mixture shows that the strength of structural correlations is strongly related to the magnitude and sign of the salt-specific nonadditivity. Furthermore, a grand canonical NPB analysis shows that the Donnan effect is dominated by steric correlations, whereas solvation forces and overcharging effects are mainly governed by ion-surface interactions. However, steric corrections to solvation forces are strongly repulsive for high concentrations and low surface charges, while overcharging can also be triggered by steric interactions in strongly correlated systems. Generally, we find that ion-surface and ion-ion correlations are strongly coupled and that coarse-grained methods should include both, the latter nonlocally and nonadditive (as given by our specific ionic diameters), when studying electrolytes in highly inhomogeneous situations.

  10. TIDALLY DRIVEN DYNAMOS IN A ROTATING SPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Cébron, D.; Hollerbach, R. E-mail: r.hollerbach@leeds.ac.uk

    2014-07-01

    Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, these large-scale fields may also be controlled by tides, as previously suggested for the star τ-boo, Mars, or the early Moon. By simulating a small local patch of a rotating fluid, Barker and Lithwick have recently shown that tides can drive small-scale dynamos by exciting a hydrodynamic instability, the so-called elliptical (or tidal) instability. By performing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a rotating spherical fluid body, we investigate if this instability can also drive the observed large-scale magnetic fields. We are thus interested in the dynamo threshold and the generated magnetic field in order to test if such a mechanism is relevant for planets and stars. Rather than solving the problem in a geometry deformed by tides, we consider a spherical fluid body and add a body force to mimic the tidal deformation in the bulk of the fluid. This allows us to use an efficient spectral code to solve the magnetohydrodynamic problem. We first compare the hydrodynamic results with theoretical asymptotic results and numerical results obtained in a truly deformed ellipsoid, which confirms the presence of elliptical instability. We then perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations and investigate the dynamo capability of the flow. Kinematic and self-consistent dynamos are finally simulated, showing that the elliptical instability is capable of generating a dipole-dominated large-scale magnetic field in global simulations of a fluid rotating sphere.

  11. Characterization of two outer membrane proteins, FlgO and FlgP, that influence vibrio cholerae motility.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raquel M; Dharmasena, Madushini N; Kirn, Thomas J; Taylor, Ronald K

    2009-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is highly motile by the action of a single polar flagellum. The loss of motility reduces the infectivity of V. cholerae, demonstrating that motility is an important virulence factor. FlrC is the sigma-54-dependent positive regulator of flagellar genes. Recently, the genes VC2206 (flgP) and VC2207 (flgO) were identified as being regulated by FlrC via a microarray analysis of an flrC mutant (D. C. Morris, F. Peng, J. R. Barker, and K. E. Klose, J. Bacteriol. 190:231-239, 2008). FlgP is reported to be an outer membrane lipoprotein required for motility that functions as a colonization factor. The study reported here focuses on the characterization of flgO, the first gene in the flgOP operon. We show that FlgO and FlgP are important for motility, as strains with mutations in the flgOP genes have reduced motility phenotypes. The flgO and flgP mutant populations display fewer motile cells as well as reduced numbers of flagellated cells. The flagella produced by the flgO and flgP mutant strains are shorter in length than the wild-type flagella, which can be restored by inhibiting rotation of the flagellum. FlgO is an outer membrane protein that localizes throughout the membrane and not at the flagellar pole. Although FlgO and FlgP do not specifically localize to the flagellum, they are required for flagellar stability. Due to the nature of these motility defects, we established that the flagellum is not sufficient for adherence; rather, motility is the essential factor required for attachment and thus colonization by V. cholerae O1 of the classical biotype. This study reveals a novel mechanism for which the outer membrane proteins FlgO and FlgP function in motility to mediate flagellar stability and influence attachment and colonization.

  12. Evidence of Enhanced Respired Carbon in Eastern Equatorial Pacific Deep-Waters over the last 30,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umling, N. E.; Thunell, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid decreases in glacial deep water reservoir ages have been observed in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP; this study), North Pacific (Rae et al., 2014), Southwest Pacific (Sikes et al., 2016), and North Atlantic (Skinner et al., 2013). It has been hypothesized that release of a deep ocean 14C-depleted, respired-carbon reservoir to the surface ocean and atmosphere is the most likely mechanism for the observed increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations recorded in ice cores during the last glacial-interglacial transition (Broecker and Barker, 2007). This study examines whether oxygenation, organic carbon flux, and carbonate chemistry in the EEP deep-waters reflect an increase in respired carbon associated with recorded 14C-depletions using isotopic and trace element records from three Panama Basin cores (2,650-3,200 m water-depth). An increase in glacial deep-water respired carbon storage would result in a shift of DIC speciation towards lower carbonate ion concentrations along with deoxygenation of bottom waters. Specifically, we use the boron to calcium (B/Ca) and uranium to calcium (U/Ca) ratios of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi to reconstruct deep-water carbonate ion concentration (Yu and Elderfield, 2007; Raizsch et al., 2011). Additionally, bottom water oxygenation is estimated from the difference in δ13C of benthic foraminifera living in pore waters at the anoxic boundary and of those living in bottom water (Δ δ13C; Hoogakker et al., 2015, 2016), while carbon flux was assessed from the U/Ca and Cd/Ca of foraminiferal authigenic coatings.

  13. A review of the Lepocreadiidae (Digenea, Lepocreadioidea) from fishes of the waters around New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2012-09-01

    The lepocreadiid fauna of New Caledonia is reported and discussed and a new species and several new host and locality records presented. Hypoporus plataxi sp. nov. from Platax teira is described and distinguished from its only congener by its terminal genitalia, the structure of the anterior part of the alimentary system and other morphological features. New host and locality records and a description are given of Lepotrema cf. clavatum Ozaki, 1932 in Sufflamen fraenatum. New host and locality records are given of Lobatocreadium exiguum (Manter, 1963) in Pseudobalistes fuscus, which is also reported in the known hosts Abalistes filamentosus and Sufflamen fraenatum. New host and locality records are given of Opisthogonoporus amadai Yamaguti, 1937 in Branchiostegus wardi. A new host record is made for Holorchis plectorhynchi Durio et Manter, 1968 in Diagramma pictum. New records in New Caledonian waters are of Bulbocirrus aulostomiYamaguti, 1965 in Aulostomus chinensis, Echeneidocoelium indicum Simha et Pershad, 1964 in Echeneis naucrates, Lepidapedoides kalikali Yamaguti, 1970 in Pristipomoides auricilla, Neomultitestis aspidogastriformis Bray et Cribb, 2003 in Platax teira, Opechona bacillaris (Molin, 1859) in Rastrelliger kanagurta, Prodistomum keyam Bray et Cribb, 1996 in Monodactylus argenteus and Pseudopisthogonoporus vitellosus (Pritchard, 1963) in Naso brevirostris and N. annulatus. New metrical data are presented for Holorchis castex Bray et Justine, 2007 in Diagramma pictum, Hypocreadium patellareYamaguti, 1938 in Sufflamen fraenatum, Intusatrium robustum Durio et Manter, 1968 in Bodianus loxozonus and B. perditio and Lepidapedoides angustus Bray, Cribb et Barker, 1996 in Epinephelus chlorostigma, E. fasciatus, E. maculatus and E. retouti. Literature records are included and the fauna in general discussed.

  14. Downstream Processing Technologies/Capturing and Final Purification : Opportunities for Innovation, Change, and Improvement. A Review of Downstream Processing Developments in Protein Purification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nripen; Herzer, Sibylle

    2017-08-10

    Increased pressure on upstream processes to maximize productivity has been crowned with great success, although at the cost of shifting the bottleneck to purification. As drivers were economical, focus is on now on debottlenecking downstream processes as the main drivers of high manufacturing cost. Devising a holistically efficient and economical process remains a key challenge. Traditional and emerging protein purification strategies with particular emphasis on methodologies implemented for the production of recombinant proteins of biopharmaceutical importance are reviewed. The breadth of innovation is addressed, as well as the challenges the industry faces today, with an eye to remaining impartial, fair, and balanced. In addition, the scope encompasses both chromatographic and non-chromatographic separations directed at the purification of proteins, with a strong emphasis on antibodies. Complete solutions such as integrated USP/DSP strategies (i.e., continuous processing) are discussed as well as gains in data quantity and quality arising from automation and high-throughput screening (HTS). Best practices and advantages through design of experiments (DOE) to access a complex design space such as multi-modal chromatography are reviewed with an outlook on potential future trends. A discussion of single-use technology, its impact and opportunities for further growth, and the exciting developments in modeling and simulation of DSP rounds out the overview. Lastly, emerging trends such as 3D printing and nanotechnology are covered. Graphical Abstract Workflow of high-throughput screening, design of experiments, and high-throughput analytics to understand design space and design space boundaries quickly. (Reproduced with permission from Gregory Barker, Process Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb).

  15. Bringing computational science to the public.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, James L; Barker, Daniel; Alderson, Rosanna G

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of computers in science allows for the scientific analyses of large datasets at an increasing pace. We provided examples and interactive demonstrations at Dundee Science Centre as part of the 2015 Women in Science festival, to present aspects of computational science to the general public. We used low-cost Raspberry Pi computers to provide hands on experience in computer programming and demonstrated the application of computers to biology. Computer games were used as a means to introduce computers to younger visitors. The success of the event was evaluated by voluntary feedback forms completed by visitors, in conjunction with our own self-evaluation. This work builds on the original work of the 4273π bioinformatics education program of Barker et al. (2013, BMC Bioinform. 14:243). 4273π provides open source education materials in bioinformatics. This work looks at the potential to adapt similar materials for public engagement events. It appears, at least in our small sample of visitors (n = 13), that basic computational science can be conveyed to people of all ages by means of interactive demonstrations. Children as young as five were able to successfully edit simple computer programs with supervision. This was, in many cases, their first experience of computer programming. The feedback is predominantly positive, showing strong support for improving computational science education, but also included suggestions for improvement. Our conclusions are necessarily preliminary. However, feedback forms suggest methods were generally well received among the participants; "Easy to follow. Clear explanation" and "Very easy. Demonstrators were very informative." Our event, held at a local Science Centre in Dundee, demonstrates that computer games and programming activities suitable for young children can be performed alongside a more specialised and applied introduction to computational science for older visitors.

  16. On the vapor-liquid equilibrium of attractive chain fluids with variable degree of molecular flexibility.

    PubMed

    van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Gross, Joachim

    2015-06-14

    We study the isotropic (vapor and liquid) phase behavior of attractive chain fluids. Special emphasis is placed on the role of molecular flexibility, which is studied by means of a rod-coil model. Two new equations of state (EoSs) are developed for square-well- (SW) and Lennard-Jones (LJ) chain fluids. The EoSs are developed by applying the perturbation theory of Barker and Henderson (BH) to a reference fluid of hard chain molecules. The novelty of the approach is based on (1) the use of a recently developed hard-chain reference EoS that explicitly incorporates the effects of molecular flexibility, (2) the use of recent molecular simulation data for the radial distribution function of hard-chain fluids, and (3) a newly developed effective segment size, which effectively accounts for the soft repulsion between segments of LJ chains. It is shown that the effective segment size needs to be temperature-, density-, and chain-length dependent. To obtain a simplified analytical EoS, the perturbation terms are fitted by polynomials in density (SW and LJ), chain length (SW and LJ), and temperature (only for LJ). It is shown that the equations of state result in an accurate description of molecular simulation data for vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and isotherms of fully flexible SW- and LJ chain fluids and their mixtures. To evaluate the performance of the equations of state in describing the effects of molecular flexibility on VLE, we present new Monte Carlo simulation results for the VLE of rigid linear- and partially flexible SW- and LJ chain fluids. For SW chains, the developed EoS is in a good agreement with simulation results. For increased rigidity of the chains, both theory and simulations predict an increase of the VL density difference and a slight increase of the VL critical temperature. For LJ chains, the EoS proves incapable of reproducing part of these trends.

  17. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  18. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  19. Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavkin, Michael

    What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

  20. Optical and structural study of GaN nanowires grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy. II. Sub-band-gap luminescence and electron irradiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, Lawrence H.; Bertness, Kris A.; Barker, Joy M.; Sanford, Norman A.; Schlager, John B.

    2007-06-01

    GaN nanowires with diameters of 50-250 nm, grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy, were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at temperatures from 3 to 297 K. Both as-grown samples and dispersions of the nanowires onto other substrates were examined. The properties of the near-band-edge PL and CL spectra were discussed in Part I of this study by [Robins et al. [L. H. Robins, K. A. Bertness, J. M. Barker, N. A. Sanford, and J. B. Schlager, J. Appl. Phys. 101,113505 (2007)]. Spectral features below the band gap, and the effect of extended electron irradiation on the CL, are discussed in Part II. The observed sub-band-gap PL and CL peaks are identified as phonon replicas of the free-exciton transitions, or excitons bound to structural defects or surface states. The defect-related peaks in the nanowires are correlated with luminescence lines previously reported in GaN films, denoted the Y lines [M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 061301 (2005)]. The CL was partially quenched by electron beam irradiation for an extended time; the quenching was stronger for the free and shallow-donor-bound exciton peaks than for the defect-related peaks. The quenching appeared to saturate at high irradiation dose (with final intensity {approx_equal}30% of initial intensity) and was reversible on thermal cycling to room temperature. The electron irradiation-induced quenching of the CL is ascribed to charge injection and trapping phenomena.

  1. Professor Alan Turner (1947-2012). Specialist in Miocene-Pleistocene Carnivora, particularly Felidae and Hyaenidae and their palaeoecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, Hannah; Turner, Adam; Antón, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Alan first trained as a telecom engineer, working for the GPO (General Post Office) which later became British Telecom. He never forgot this early training and was fascinated by how things worked - always happy to take something apart and fix it (although his attempt to close a large plate glass window with a geological hammer was not one of his successes). Following a few years as an engineer, he went to Sheffield University to study archaeology as a mature student in 1973. At this time Sheffield was a hotbed of prehistory with Graeme Barker, Robin Dennell and many others contributing to a truly research-led degree (with tutorials in the pub (well, it was the 1970s)) (Fig. 1). Alan's interest in bones developed at this time, and having graduated in 1976 he went on to take a PhD, supervised by Robin Dennell, on "Aspects of the palaeoecology of large predators, including man, during the British Upper Pleistocene, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships" which resulted in a life-long interest in the Carnivora and particularly hyaenas. Following his PhD, Alan moved to the Environmental Archaeology Unit at York to undertake a Science Research Council project on the morphometrics of domestic cattle and pigs from Coppergate and other major urban excavations in the city. Faced with a lot of measurements and statistics, Alan retained his interest in the animals themselves. The project also confirmed to Alan that prehistory was his metier, rather than the historic periods. Former York colleagues still fondly recall Alan's dry wit, and the day that he successfully put the irritating lab telephone beyond use with no externally visible trace of damage.

  2. Broadband Frequency Comb and Cw-Laser Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of ThF+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Dan; Cossel, Kevin; Ye, Jun; Cornell, Eric

    2015-06-01

    An experimental search for the permanent electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is currently being performed using the metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped HfF^+ ^(^). The use of ThF^+ could significantly increase the sensitivity due to the larger effective electric field and longer ^3Δ_1 state lifetime. Previous work by the Heaven group has identified several low-lying ThF^+ electronic states; however, the ground state could not be conclusively assigned. In addition, transitions to intermediate electronic states have not been identified, but they are necessary for state detection, manipulation, and readout in an eEDM experiment. To date we have acquired 3700 wn of densely-sampled ThF^+ spectra in the 695 - 1020 nm region with frequency comb and cw-laser velocity modulation spectroscopy. With high resolution, we have accurately fit more than 20 ThF^+ vibronic transitions, including electronic states spaced by the known X-a energy separation^b. We will report on the ThF^+ ground state assignment and its implications for an eEDM experiment. H. Loh, K. C. Cossel, M. C. Grau, K.-K. Ni, E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Science 342, 1220 (2013). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, PRL 107, 093002 (2011). K.C. Cossel et. al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 546, 1 (2012).

  3. Voronoi neighbor statistics of hard-disks and hard-spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V. Senthil; Kumaran, V.

    2005-08-01

    The neighbor distribution in hard-sphere and hard-disk fluids is analyzed using Voronoi tessellation. The statistical measures analyzed are the nth neighbor coordination number (Cn), the nth neighbor distance distribution [fn(r )], and the distribution of the number of Voronoi faces (Pn). These statistics are sensitive indicators of microstructure, and they distinguish thermodynamic and annealed structures. A sharp rise in the hexagon population marks the onset of hard-disk freezing transition, and Cn decreases sharply to the hexagonal lattice values. In hard-disk random structures the pentagon and heptagon populations remain significant even at high volume fraction. In dense hard-sphere (three-dimensional) structures at the freezing transition, C1 is close to 14, instead of the value of 12 expected for a face-centered-cubic lattice. This is found to be because of a topological instability, where a slight perturbation of the positions in the centers of a pair of particles transforms a vertex in the Voronoi polyhedron into a Voronoi surface. We demonstrate that the pair distribution function and the equation-of-state obtained from Voronoi tessellation are equal to those obtained from thermodynamic calculations. In hard-sphere random structures, the dodecahedron population decreases with increasing density. To demonstrate the utility of the neighbor analysis, we estimate the effective hard-sphere diameter of the Lennard-Jones fluid by identifying the diameter of the spheres in the hard-sphere fluid which has C1 equal to that for the Lennard-Jones fluid. The estimates are within 2% deviation from the theoretical results of Barker-Henderson and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen.

  4. Electronic coarse graining enhances the predictive power of molecular simulation allowing challenges in water physics to be addressed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipcigan, Flaviu S.; Sokhan, Vlad P.; Crain, Jason; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2016-12-01

    One key factor that limits the predictive power of molecular dynamics simulations is the accuracy and transferability of the input force field. Force fields are challenged by heterogeneous environments, where electronic responses give rise to biologically important forces such as many-body polarisation and dispersion. The importance of polarisation in the condensed phase was recognised early on, as described by Cochran in 1959 [Philosophical Magazine 4 (1959) 1082-1086] [32]. Currently in molecular simulation, dispersion forces are treated at the two-body level and in the dipole limit, although the importance of three-body terms in the condensed phase was demonstrated by Barker in the 1980s [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57 (1986) 230-233] [72]. One approach for treating both polarisation and dispersion on an equal basis is to coarse grain the electrons surrounding a molecular moiety to a single quantum harmonic oscillator (cf. Hirschfelder, Curtiss and Bird 1954 [The Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids (1954)] [37]). The approach, when solved in strong coupling beyond the dipole limit, gives a description of long-range forces that includes two- and many-body terms to all orders. In the last decade, the tools necessary to implement the strong coupling limit have been developed, culminating in a transferable model of water with excellent predictive power across the phase diagram. Transferability arises since the environment automatically identifies the important long range interactions, rather than the modeller through a limited set of expressions. Here, we discuss the role of electronic coarse-graining in predictive multiscale materials modelling and describe the first implementation of the method in a general purpose molecular dynamics software: QDO_MD.

  5. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range.

    PubMed

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-14

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); and ibid. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  6. Fast Gamma Rhythms in the Hippocampus Promote Encoding of Novel Object-Place Pairings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chenguang; Bieri, Kevin Wood; Hwaun, Ernie; Colgin, Laura Lee

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal gamma rhythms increase during mnemonic operations (Johnson and Redish, 2007; Montgomery and Buzsáki, 2007; Sederberg et al., 2007; Jutras et al., 2009; Trimper et al., 2014) and may affect memory encoding by coordinating activity of neurons that code related information (Jensen and Lisman, 2005). Here, a hippocampal-dependent, object-place association task (Clark et al., 2000; Broadbent et al., 2004; Eacott and Norman, 2004; Lee et al., 2005; Winters et al., 2008; Barker and Warburton, 2011) was used in rats to investigate how slow and fast gamma rhythms in the hippocampus relate to encoding of memories for novel object-place associations. In novel object tasks, the degree of hippocampal dependence has been reported to vary depending on the type of novelty (Eichenbaum et al., 2007; Winters et al., 2008). Therefore, gamma activity was examined during three novelty conditions: a novel object presented in a location where a familiar object had been (NO), a familiar object presented in a location where no object had been (NL), and a novel object presented in a location where no object had been (NO+NL). The strongest and most consistent effects were observed for fast gamma rhythms during the NO+NL condition. Fast gamma power, CA3-CA1 phase synchrony, and phase-locking of place cell spikes increased during exploration of novel, compared to familiar, object-place associations. Additionally, place cell spiking during exploration of novel object-place pairings was increased when fast gamma rhythms were present. These results suggest that fast gamma rhythms promote encoding of memories for novel object-place associations.

  7. Recent Advances from the DoD Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative Consortium on Innovative Vacuum Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, N. C.

    2003-12-01

    The MURI Innovative Vacuum Electronics Program is administered by Dr. Robert Barker of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and consists of a collaboration between six premier universities actively engaged in all aspects of multidisciplinary basic research and graduate instruction in innovative microwave vacuum electronics (MIT, Stanford, University of California, Davis, University of Maryland — College Park, University of Michigan, and University of Wisconsin). The dual goals are to address basic research issues of critical importance to the DoD as well as to train the next generation. A wide range of fast wave amplifier concepts is under investigation at frequencies ranging from 15 GHz to 1 THz. Two representative examples are a TE01 100 kW W-Band gyro-TWT under investigation at UC Davis and a 140 GHz confocal waveguide based gyro-TWT concept developed at MIT. Novel, lightweight 100 kW, W-Band klystrinos suitable for configuration in arrays are under investigation at Stanford using advanced microfabrication techniques. Extensive analytic and numerical analyses are underway at Wisconsin augmented by experimental measurements using a custom-modified well diagnosed test TWT are aimed at an understanding of the complicated physics of multi-toned ultra-wideband traveling wave tubes including details of the beam-wave interaction and the nonlinear time and space evolution of the carrier(s) and inter-modulation products. A significant emphasis of the Maryland activity is on theoretical and experimental studies of various frequency-multiplying gyroamplifier concepts which are both of fundamental interest as well as practical importance because of the relaxation on driver requirements. Finally, the Michigan team is devoting much of its attention to fundamental theoretical and experimental issues associated with crossed-field devices. The latest results from these as well as other activities will be presented.

  8. Optical and structural study of GaN nanowires grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy. II. Sub-band-gap luminescence and electron irradiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Lawrence H.; Bertness, Kris A.; Barker, Joy M.; Sanford, Norman A.; Schlager, John B.

    2007-06-01

    GaN nanowires with diameters of 50-250 nm, grown by catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy, were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at temperatures from 3 to 297 K. Both as-grown samples and dispersions of the nanowires onto other substrates were examined. The properties of the near-band-edge PL and CL spectra were discussed in Part I of this study by [Robins et al. [L. H. Robins, K. A. Bertness, J. M. Barker, N. A. Sanford, and J. B. Schlager, J. Appl. Phys. 101,113505 (2007)]. Spectral features below the band gap, and the effect of extended electron irradiation on the CL, are discussed in Part II. The observed sub-band-gap PL and CL peaks are identified as phonon replicas of the free-exciton transitions, or excitons bound to structural defects or surface states. The defect-related peaks in the nanowires are correlated with luminescence lines previously reported in GaN films, denoted the Y lines [M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoc, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 061301 (2005)]. The CL was partially quenched by electron beam irradiation for an extended time; the quenching was stronger for the free and shallow-donor-bound exciton peaks than for the defect-related peaks. The quenching appeared to saturate at high irradiation dose (with final intensity ≈30% of initial intensity) and was reversible on thermal cycling to room temperature. The electron irradiation-induced quenching of the CL is ascribed to charge injection and trapping phenomena.

  9. Density functional theory for the description of spherical non-associating monomers in confined media using the SAFT-VR equation of state and weighted density approximations.

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Carine; Mendiboure, Bruno; Plantier, Frédéric; Blas, Felipe J; Miqueu, Christelle

    2014-04-07

    As a first step of an ongoing study of thermodynamic properties and adsorption of complex fluids in confined media, we present a new theoretical description for spherical monomers using the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for potential of Variable Range (SAFT-VR) and a Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) with Weighted Density Approximations (WDA). The well-known Modified Fundamental Measure Theory is used to describe the inhomogeneous hard-sphere contribution as a reference for the monomer and two WDA approaches are developed for the dispersive terms from the high-temperature Barker and Henderson perturbation expansion. The first approach extends the dispersive contributions using the scalar and vector weighted densities introduced in the Fundamental Measure Theory (FMT) and the second one uses a coarse-grained (CG) approach with a unique weighted density. To test the accuracy of this new NLDFT/SAFT-VR coupling, the two versions of the theoretical model are compared with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) molecular simulations using the same molecular model. Only the version with the "CG" approach for the dispersive terms provides results in excellent agreement with GCMC calculations in a wide range of conditions while the "FMT" extension version gives a good representation solely at low pressures. Hence, the "CG" version of the theoretical model is used to reproduce methane adsorption isotherms in a Carbon Molecular Sieve and compared with experimental data after a characterization of the material. The whole results show an excellent agreement between modeling and experiments. Thus, through a complete and consistent comparison both with molecular simulations and with experimental data, the NLDFT/SAFT-VR theory has been validated for the description of monomers.

  10. Density functional theory for the description of spherical non-associating monomers in confined media using the SAFT-VR equation of state and weighted density approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malheiro, Carine; Mendiboure, Bruno; Plantier, Frédéric; Blas, Felipe J.; Miqueu, Christelle

    2014-04-01

    As a first step of an ongoing study of thermodynamic properties and adsorption of complex fluids in confined media, we present a new theoretical description for spherical monomers using the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for potential of Variable Range (SAFT-VR) and a Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) with Weighted Density Approximations (WDA). The well-known Modified Fundamental Measure Theory is used to describe the inhomogeneous hard-sphere contribution as a reference for the monomer and two WDA approaches are developed for the dispersive terms from the high-temperature Barker and Henderson perturbation expansion. The first approach extends the dispersive contributions using the scalar and vector weighted densities introduced in the Fundamental Measure Theory (FMT) and the second one uses a coarse-grained (CG) approach with a unique weighted density. To test the accuracy of this new NLDFT/SAFT-VR coupling, the two versions of the theoretical model are compared with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) molecular simulations using the same molecular model. Only the version with the "CG" approach for the dispersive terms provides results in excellent agreement with GCMC calculations in a wide range of conditions while the "FMT" extension version gives a good representation solely at low pressures. Hence, the "CG" version of the theoretical model is used to reproduce methane adsorption isotherms in a Carbon Molecular Sieve and compared with experimental data after a characterization of the material. The whole results show an excellent agreement between modeling and experiments. Thus, through a complete and consistent comparison both with molecular simulations and with experimental data, the NLDFT/SAFT-VR theory has been validated for the description of monomers.

  11. An analytical equation of state for describing isotropic-nematic phase equilibria of Lennard-Jones chain fluids with variable degree of molecular flexibility.

    PubMed

    van Westen, Thijs; Oyarzún, Bernardo; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Gross, Joachim

    2015-06-28

    We develop an equation of state (EoS) for describing isotropic-nematic (IN) phase equilibria of Lennard-Jones (LJ) chain fluids. The EoS is developed by applying a second order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory to a reference fluid of hard chain molecules. The chain molecules consist of tangentially bonded spherical segments and are allowed to be fully flexible, partially flexible (rod-coil), or rigid linear. The hard-chain reference contribution to the EoS is obtained from a Vega-Lago rescaled Onsager theory. For the description of the (attractive) dispersion interactions between molecules, we adopt a segment-segment approach. We show that the perturbation contribution for describing these interactions can be divided into an "isotropic" part, which depends only implicitly on orientational ordering of molecules (through density), and an "anisotropic" part, for which an explicit dependence on orientational ordering is included (through an expansion in the nematic order parameter). The perturbation theory is used to study the effect of chain length, molecular flexibility, and attractive interactions on IN phase equilibria of pure LJ chain fluids. Theoretical results for the IN phase equilibrium of rigid linear LJ 10-mers are compared to results obtained from Monte Carlo simulations in the isobaric-isothermal (NPT) ensemble, and an expanded formulation of the Gibbs-ensemble. Our results show that the anisotropic contribution to the dispersion attractions is irrelevant for LJ chain fluids. Using the isotropic (density-dependent) contribution only (i.e., using a zeroth order expansion of the attractive Helmholtz energy contribution in the nematic order parameter), excellent agreement between theory and simulations is observed. These results suggest that an EoS contribution for describing the attractive part of the dispersion interactions in real LCs can be obtained from conventional theoretical approaches designed for isotropic fluids, such as a Perturbed

  12. Plasma Physics Challenges of MM-to-THz and High Power Microwave Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booske, John

    2007-11-01

    Homeland security and military defense technology considerations have stimulated intense interest in mobile, high power sources of millimeter-wave to terahertz regime electromagnetic radiation, from 0.1 to 10 THz. While sources at the low frequency end, i.e., the gyrotron, have been deployed or are being tested for diverse applications such as WARLOC radar and active denial systems, the challenges for higher frequency sources have yet to be completely met for applications including noninvasive sensing of concealed weapons and dangerous agents, high-data-rate communications, and high resolution spectroscopy and atmospheric sensing. The compact size requirements for many of these high frequency sources requires miniscule, micro-fabricated slow wave circuits with high rf ohmic losses. This necessitates electron beams with not only very small transverse dimensions but also very high current density for adequate gain. Thus, the emerging family of mm-to-THz e-beam-driven vacuum electronics devices share many of the same plasma physics challenges that currently confront ``classic'' high power microwave (HPM) generators [1] including bright electron sources, intense beam transport, energetic electron interaction with surfaces and rf air breakdown at output windows. Multidimensional theoretical and computational models are especially important for understanding and addressing these challenges. The contemporary plasma physics issues, recent achievements, as well as the opportunities and outlook on THz and HPM will be addressed. [1] R.J. Barker, J.H. Booske, N.C. Luhmann, and G.S. Nusinovich, Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics (IEEE/Wiley, 2005).

  13. Integrated nutrition.

    PubMed

    Allison, S P

    2005-08-01

    There is no branch of medicine in which nutritional considerations do not play some part. Overnutrition, undernutrition or unbalanced nutrition are the major causes of ill health in the world. Conversely, illness causes important nutritional and metabolic problems. The spectrum from lack to excess of nutrients is seamless as a clinical and scientific discipline, the two extremes being linked by the Barker effect by which intrauterine malnutrition and low birth weight predispose to obesity, diabetes and CVD in later life. However, the teaching of nutrition in medical and nursing schools remains sparse. Nutritional care cannot be practised satisfactorily in isolation from other aspects of management, since factors such as drugs, surgery and fluid and electrolyte balance affect nutritional status. Nutritional treatment may also have adverse or beneficial effects according to the composition, amount and mode of delivery of the diet and the clinical context in which it is given. Any benefits of nutritional support may also be negated by shortcomings in other aspects of treatment and must therefore be fully integrated into overall care. One example of this approach is the enhanced recovery after a surgery protocol incorporating immediate pre-operative carbohydrate and early post-operative oral intake with strict attention to zero fluid balance, epidural analgesia and early mobilisation. Other examples include the deleterious effect on surgical outcome of salt and water overload or hyperglycaemia, either of which may negate the benefits of nutritional support. There is a need, therefore, to integrate clinical nutrition more closely, not just into medical and surgical practice, but also into the organisation of health services in the hospital and the community, and into the training of doctors and nurses. Societies originally devoted to parenteral and enteral nutrition need to widen their scope to embrace wider aspects of clinical nutrition.

  14. Joint geophysical measurements to investigate the Rossano of Vaglio archaeological site affected by landslide phenomena (Basilicata region, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Chianese, D.; Lapenna, V.; Lorenzo, P.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", the I.M.A.A. of the CNR (Tito Scalo, Potenza) and the Di.S.G.G. of the Basilicata University, developed a research activity focussed on the realization of combined geophysical measurements for the study of archaeological areas affected by landslide phenomena in Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Since IV century b.C., the birth and the evolution of many religious places is observed in the Basilicata region. Location and construction of these sanctuaries were influenced by the geological and geomorphological setting: many of them were built near important springs; others on morphological terraces, representing the main effect of the large and ancient landslides, often reactivated during the years. In this work we report the results regarding the application of 2D electrical resistivity tomographies, electromagnetic and magnetic measurements carried out in the Rossano of Vaglio (Potenza, Italy), where in the late IV century b.C. raised a sanctuary devoted to the Mephitis goddess (Adamasteanu and Dilthey, 1992; Masseria and D'Anisi, 2001). The sacred area was affected by a multiple and retrogressive rototranslational slide, historically and actually subject to reactivation. The geophysical results, obtained combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; Ciminale and Loddo, 2001; Nuzzo et al, 2002), allowed us to define the geometrical characteristics of the landslide body, to outline the sliding surfaces and to individuate the buried structures of the sanctuary.

  15. Elevated insulin sensitivity and β-cell function during pregnancy in mothers of growth-restricted newborns.

    PubMed

    Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Pacini, Giovanni; Parretti, Elena; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Mello, Giorgio; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2011-07-01

    The "Barker hypothesis" suggests that low birth weight might predict future risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Identification of the causes of fetal growth restriction (FGR) is critical for preventive and management strategies. Some studies indicate that maternal carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in FGR development. We aimed to evaluate, in a large number of normotensive pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, the effect of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function on unexplained fetal growth. A total of 1,814 Caucasian pregnant women with normal prepregnancy body mass index were tested with a 75-g, 2-h glucose load (24-28 gestation wk). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with fasting (QUICKI) and dynamic index (OGIS) and β-cell function with a modified insulinogenic index as ΔAUC(insulin)/ΔAUC(glucose) and disposition index. FGR was a birth weight below the 5th percentile for gestational age. FGR developed in 99 (5.5%) pregnant women that showed significantly higher QUICKI, OGIS, insulinogenic, and disposition index with respect to women with normal-weight babies (P < 0.0001). By using multiple regression analysis in the FRG group, QUICKI and OGIS appeared as significant independent variables (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0366, respectively). We conclude that elevated insulin sensitivity seems to be one of the factors involved in determining unexplained fetal growth retardation; its assessment, even only in the fasting state, could be useful to guide any possible monitoring and therapeutic strategies to reduce fetal complications.

  16. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca) population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i) private reserve creation ii) later reserve expansions, and iii) cattle ranches’ conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively) in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively). Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability. PMID:26398115

  17. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  18. Broadband Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions for Use in the Jila Electron Edm Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Daniel N.; Cossel, Kevin C.; Cornell, Eric A.; Ye, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment will use a low-lying, metastable ^3Δ_1 state in trapped molecular ions of HfF^+ or ThF^+. Prior to this work, the low-lying states of these molecules had been investigated by PFI-ZEKE spectroscopy. However, there were no detailed studies of the electronic structure. The recently developed technique of frequency comb velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) provides broad-bandwidth, high-resolution, ion-sensitive spectroscopy, allowing the acquisition of 150 cm^{-1} of continuous spectra in 30 minutes over 1500 simultaneous channels. By supplementing this technique with cw-laser VMS, we have investigated the electronic structure of HfF^+ in the frequency range of 9950 to 14600 cm^{-1}, accurately fitting and assigning 16 rovibronic transitions involving 8 different electronic states including the X^1Σ^+ and a^3Δ_1 states. In addition, an observed ^3Π_{0+} state with coupling to both the X and a states has been used in the actual eEDM experiment to coherently transfer population from the rovibronic ground state of HfF^+ to the eEDM science state. Furthermore, we report on current efforts of applying frequency comb VMS at 700 - 900 nm to the study of ThF^+, which has a lower energy ^3Δ_1 state and a greater effective electric field, and will provide increased sensitivity for a measurement of the eEDM. A. E. Leanhardt et. al., Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 270, 1-25 (2011). B. J. Barker, I. O. Antonov, M. C. Heaven, K. A. Peterson, Journal of Chemical Physics 136, 104305 (2012). L. C. Sinclair, K. C. Cossel, T. Coffey, J. Ye, E. A. Cornell, Physical Review Letters 107, 093002 (2011). K.C. Cossel et. al., Chemical Physics Letters 546, 1-11 (2012).

  19. Current Alcohol Use is Associated with Sleep Patterns in First-Year College Students

    PubMed Central

    Van Reen, Eliza; Roane, Brandy M.; Barker, David H.; McGeary, John E.; Borsari, Brian; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether differences exist in self-reported sleep patterns and self-reported alcohol use for first-semester college students who do or do not report drinking during the last 6 months (mo) of high school. Methods: Participants were 878 first-year college students. Students completed a survey in late May/early June about alcohol use and consequences, during the last 6 mo of high school; they later completed a daily record of sleep behavior and alcohol use across the first 9 weeks of the first semester of college. High school drinking status (past 6 mo) was classified as positive (HS−6 mo+) or negative (HS−6mo−) based on any indication of drinking on the May/June survey. Collegiate drinking was determined from first-semester daily diary alcohol reports as non-drinkers (0 reported drinks), drinkers (one or fewer heavy episodic drinking episodes (HED)), and drinkers reporting more than one HED episode. Sleep patterns were compared for non-drinkers, drinkers, and HED with no high school drinking history (HS−6mo−/HED). In addition, a separate analysis compared sleep patterns for college HED with (HS−6mo+/HED) and without (HS−6mo−/HED) high school self-reported alcohol use. Results: Increased alcohol consumption in the first semester of college was associated with later bedtimes and rise times. We found no association of high school alcohol use and sleep in those with collegiate HED. Conclusions: Later sleep timing in those with greater alcohol use, supports a connection between sleep patterns and alcohol use. Such an early appearance of this connection may herald the development of alcohol use disorder in some individuals. Citation: Van Reen E, Roane BM, Barker DH, McGeary JE, Borsari B, Carskadon MA. Current alcohol use is associated with sleep patterns in first-year college students. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1321–1326. PMID:27070138

  20. The impact of birth weight on cardiovascular disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Ryckman, K K; Barnabei, V M; Howard, B V; Isasi, C R; Sarto, G E; Tom, S E; Van Horn, L V; Wallace, R B; Robinson, J G

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditional risk factors predict 75-80% of an individual's risk of incident CVD. However, the role of early life experiences in future disease risk is gaining attention. The Barker hypothesis proposes fetal origins of adult disease, with consistent evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences of birth weight outside the normal range. In this study, we investigate the role of birth weight in CVD risk prediction. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) represents a large national cohort of post-menopausal women with 63,815 participants included in this analysis. Univariable proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the association of 4 self-reported birth weight categories against 3 CVD outcome definitions, which included indicators of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, carotid artery disease and peripheral arterial disease. The role of birth weight was also evaluated for prediction of CVD events in the presence of traditional risk factors using 3 existing CVD risk prediction equations: one body mass index (BMI)-based and two laboratory-based models. Low birth weight (LBW) (<6 lbs.) was significantly associated with all CVD outcome definitions in univariable analyses (HR = 1.086, p = 0.009). LBW was a significant covariate in the BMI-based model (HR = 1.128, p < 0.0001) but not in the lipid-based models. LBW (<6 lbs.) is independently associated with CVD outcomes in the WHI cohort. This finding supports the role of the prenatal and postnatal environment in contributing to the development of adult chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuum viscoplastic simulation of a granular column collapse on large slopes: μ(I) rheology and lateral wall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N.; Ionescu, I. R.; Mangeney, A.; Bouchut, F.; Farin, M.

    2017-01-01

    We simulate here dry granular flows resulting from the collapse of granular columns on an inclined channel (up to 22°) and compare precisely the results with laboratory experiments. Incompressibility is assumed despite the dilatancy observed in the experiments (up to 10%). The 2-D model is based on the so-called μ (I ) rheology that induces a Drucker-Prager yield stress and a variable viscosity. A nonlinear Coulomb friction term, representing the friction on the lateral walls of the channel, is added to the model. We demonstrate that this term is crucial to accurately reproduce granular collapses on slopes ≳10°, whereas it remains of little effect on the horizontal slope. Quantitative comparison between the experimental and numerical changes with time of the thickness profiles and front velocity makes it possible to strongly constrain the rheology. In particular, we show that the use of a variable or a constant viscosity does not change significantly the results provided that these viscosities are of the same order. However, only a fine tuning of the constant viscosity (η =1 Pa s) makes it possible to predict the slow propagation phase observed experimentally at large slopes. Finally, we observed that small-scale instabilities develop when refining the mesh (also called ill-posed behavior, characterized in the work of Barker et al. ["Well-posed and ill-posed behaviour of the μ (I ) -rheology for granular flow," J. Fluid Mech. 779, 794-818 (2015)] and in the present work) associated with the mechanical model. The velocity field becomes stratified and the bands of high velocity gradient appear. These model instabilities are not avoided by using variable viscosity models such as the μ (I ) rheology. However we show that the velocity range, the static-flowing transition, and the thickness profiles are almost not affected by them.

  2. Hypertensive retinopathy and cerebral small vessel disease in Amerindians living in rural Ecuador: The Atahualpa Project.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Viteri, Eduardo M; Pólit, Joaquín; Ledesma, Ernesto A; Cano, José A; Plaza, Karin J; Zambrano, Mauricio; Costa, Aldo F

    2016-09-01

    Diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a challenge in remote areas where MRI is not available. Hypertensive retinopathy (HTRP) has shown to correlate with SVD in different ethnic groups, but there is no information from indigenous Latin American people. We assessed the usefulness of retinal photographs to detect cases with SVD among Amerindians living in rural Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ≥60years with arterial hypertension or prehypertension were identified during a door-to-door survey. A confocal line scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to identify and grade HTRP (according to the Keith-Wagener-Barker classification). MRIs were read with attention to the presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin and lacunar infarcts. Using logistic regression models, we evaluated whether HTRP was independently associated with neuroimaging signatures of SVD. Of 323 eligible candidates, 241 (75%) were enrolled. MRI readings revealed moderate-to-severe WMH in 49 (20%) cases and lacunar infarcts in 29 (12%). HTRP Grade 1 was noticed in 90 (37%) individuals and Grade 2-3 in 42 (17%). After adjusting for demographics and cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate analyses showed a significant association between Grades 2-3 HTRP and moderate-to-severe WMH (OR: 3.87, 95% C.I.: 1.64-9.13) but not with lacunar infarcts (OR: 2.22, 95% C.I.: 0.83-5.92). Amerindians with HTRP Grades 2-3 are almost four times more likely to have SVD-related subcortical damage than those with no- or only Grade 1-HTRP. Retinal photographs might allow recognition of people who need further investigation and therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 5′-Peroxyadenosine and 5′-Peroxyadenosylcobalamin as Intermediates in the Aerobic Photolysis of Adenosylcobalamin.†

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Phillip A.; Frey, Perry A.

    2008-01-01

    The photolysis of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12) results in homolytic cleavage of the Co-C5′ bond, forming cob(II)alamin and the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical. In the presence of molecular oxygen, it has been proposed that the primary reaction is interception of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical by O2 to form adenosine-5′-aldehyde as the product (Hogenkamp, H. P. C., Ladd, J. N., and Barker, H. A. (1962) J. Biol. Chem. 237, 1950—1952). 5′-Peroxyadenosine is here found to be the initial nucleoside product of this reaction and that it decomposes to adenosine-5′-aldehyde. Evidence indicates that 5′-peroxyadenosine arises from the hydrolysis of 5′-peroxyadenosylcobalamin, with the formation of cob(III)alamin. 5′-Peroxyadenosine undergoes further decomposition to adenosine-5′-aldehyde as the major final product of aerobic photolysis, as well as to adenosine and adenine as minor products. In a cobalamin-dependent process, 5′-peroxyadenosine becomes re-ligated to cob(III)alamin to form 5′-peroxyadenosylcobalamin, which quickly decomposes to adenosine-5′-aldehyde and cob(III)alamin. This is supported by spectrophotometric observations of both rapidly photolyzed adenosylcobalamin and of the reaction of cob(III)alamin with excess 5′-peroxyadenosine. 5′-Peroxyadenosine also slowly undergoes cobalamin-independent decomposition to adenosine-5′-aldehyde and the minor products adenosine and adenine. The present study provides a detailed description of the products initially formed when aqueous, homolytically cleaved adenosylcobalamin reacts with molecular oxygen and of the behavior of those products subsequent to photolysis. PMID:17503776

  4. Protein structures of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Gepts, Paul L; Whitaker, John R

    2002-10-23

    Two nucleotide sequences for genes that encode alpha-amylase inhibitor 4 (alphaAI-4) from white kidney bean (WKB) cv. 858, designated gene alphaAI-4 (Accession No. ), and alpha-amylase inhibitor 5 (alphaAI-5) from black bean (BB), designated gene alphaAI-5 (Accession No. ), were determined. Genes alphaAI-4 and alphaAI-5 encode 244 amino acid prepro-alphaAI-4 and prepro-alphaAI-5 polypeptides that are 93 and 95% identical with alpha-amylase inhibitor l (alphaAI-l; Hoffman, L. M.; Ma, Y.; Barker, R. F. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982, 10, 7819-7828), 40 and 43% identical with red kidney bean lectin, and 52 and 55% identical with arcelin l of wild-type bean. The high degree of sequence similarity indicates the evolutionary relationship among these genes. PCR analysis of genomic DNA purified from six genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris showed very similar band patterns in 2% agarose gel, another indication of the conserved size homology among these genes. Proteolytic processing sites were located between Asn77 and Ser78 for pro-alphaAI-4 and pro-alphaAI-5. A bend next to Asn77 in three-dimensional model structures of alphaAI-4 and alphaAI-5 proinhibitors indicates that the proteolytic cleavage is necessary to remove the conformational constraint for activation to the mature protein. Mature WKB alphaAI-4 was composed of four subunits (2alpha2beta) and had a molecular weight of 50000 determined by multiangle laser light scattering and 56714 determined by laser-assisted time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  5. Critical wind velocity for arresting upwind gas and smoke dispersion induced by near-wall fire in a road tunnel.

    PubMed

    Hu, L H; Peng, W; Huo, R

    2008-01-15

    In case of a tunnel fire, toxic gas and smoke particles released are the most fatal contaminations. It is important to supply fresh air from the upwind side to provide a clean and safe environment upstream from the fire source for people evacuation. Thus, the critical longitudinal wind velocity for arresting fire induced upwind gas and smoke dispersion is a key criteria for tunnel safety design. Former studies and thus, the models built for estimating the critical wind velocity are all arbitrarily assuming that the fire takes place at the centre of the tunnel. However, in many real cases in road tunnels, the fire originates near the sidewall. The critical velocity of a near-wall fire should be different with that of a free-standing central fire due to their different plume entrainment process. Theoretical analysis and CFD simulation were performed in this paper to estimate the critical velocity for the fire near the sidewall. Results showed that when fire originates near the sidewall, it needs larger critical velocity to arrest the upwind gas and smoke dispersion than when fire at the centre. The ratio of critical velocity of a near-wall fire to that of a central fire was ideally estimated to be 1.26 by theoretical analysis. Results by CFD modelling showed that the ratio decreased with the increase of the fire size till near to unity. The ratio by CFD modelling was about 1.18 for a 500kW small fire, being near to and a bit lower than the theoretically estimated value of 1.26. However, the former models, including those of Thomas (1958, 1968), Dangizer and Kenndey (1982), Oka and Atkinson (1995), Wu and Barker (2000) and Kunsch (1999, 2002), underestimated the critical velocity needed for a fire near the tunnel sidewall.

  6. [Maternal nutrition during pregnancy conditions the fetal pancreas development, hormonal status and diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome biomarkers at birth].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Gesteiro, E; Espárrago Rodilla, M; Rodríguez Bernal, B; Bastida, S

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital period where several hyperplasic, hypertrophic processes together with metabolic adaptation and preparation for extra-uterine life take place. Present review accounts for central aspects of nutrition throughout gestation on the embryonic and fetal periods. It is centered in the major changes occurring in fetal pancreas, with special mention to the susceptibility of this main glucose homeostasis organ to support nutritional changes during maturation and development. Studies performed in animal models as human are commented considering the role of maternal nutrition on β-cell mass size, insulin and other pancreatic hormones production, and insulin sensitivity. Details of both the thrifty genotype and phenotype hypothesis are given, indicating that hypo/subnutrition causes metabolic adaptations that permit the future body to grow and develop itself in limited environmental and energetic conditions. The Barker hypothesis is considered suggesting that this metabolic hypothesis is a double-edged sword in the actual abundance World. Lastly the review, taking into account our own research and other papers, analyses less known aspects that relate maternal diet with insulin resistance/sensitivity markers at delivery. Particularly the role of the saturated fatty acid/carbohydrate and omega-6/omega-3 ratios in the frame of maternal diet is reviewed considering the quality of those diets under the Healthy Eating Index and the Adherence to Mediterranean Diet scores and the relationship with insulin resistance profile at birth. Present review ends indicating that nutritional habits should be strongly stated before gestation in order to assure a proper nutrition since the first moment of pregnancy. This will support an adequate fetal and pancreatic growth and development, and in turn, adequate glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and later in life, slowing down or preventing from degenerative diseases related with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes

  7. Lactate reduction in Clostridium propionicum. Purification and properties of lactyl-CoA dehydratase.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, R D; Abeles, R H

    1985-10-25

    Clostridium propionicum converts lactate to propionate (Cardon, B.P., and Barker, H.A. (1947) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 12, 165-171). We have obtained a soluble system that carries out this conversion as well as the hydration of acrylate to lactate and the reduction of acrylate to propionate. 3-Pentynyl-CoA inhibits reduction of acrylate and lactate to propionate, but not hydration of acrylate to lactate by cell extracts. The conversion probably involves CoA esters. When [beta-2H3] lactate is used as a substrate, the rate of propionate formation is reduced 1.8-fold, and the methyl group of the resulting propionate has lost 1.4 deuterium atoms. These results are consistent with the intermediate formation of acrylate (acrylyl-CoA) in the conversion of D-lactate to propionate. Two proteins, which we designate E I and E II, were purified to greater than 90% homogeneity. Together, they catalyze the hydration of acrylyl-CoA to lactyl-CoA. E I has an apparent molecular mass of 27,000 daltons and is rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by O2. E II consists of two subunits of molecular mass 41,000 and 48,000 daltons and contains equal amounts of riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide. Hydration of acrylyl-CoA to lactyl-CoA requires Mg2+ and catalytic quantities of ATP. GTP can replace ATP, but ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate cannot. We were unable to detect any stable intermediate during acrylyl-CoA hydration. Finally, we proposed a mechanism for this reaction.

  8. Monitoring the geothermal fluid using time lapse electrical resistivity tomography: The Pisciarelli fumarolic field test site (Campi Flegrei, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Alessandro; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Troiano, Antonio; Somma, Reanto; Caputo, Teresa; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Pisciarelli area is a fumarolic field subject to very short time morphological changes. A number of critical problems affect this area, i.e. increase of temperature of the fumaroles above the average background temperature, local seismicity and occurrence of fumaroles mixed with jets of boiling water. The presence of a very shallow aquifer seem to have the control on the behavior and composition of the fumaroles. This fumarolic field is still largely unknown regarding geophysical surveys mainly because of its limited space, surrounded on the eastern side by intense urbanization inside the large Agnano crater (Troiano et al. 2014). Currently is mainly affected by geochemical, thermal and seismic monitoring which may not fully explain the behaviour of fluids surface. Many monitoring or time lapse (TL) applications are discussed in literature (e.g., White, 1994; Daily et al., 1995; Barker and Moore, 1998; Ramirez and Daily, 2001; Carter, 2002; Slater et al., 2002; Singha and Gorelick, 2005; Cassiani et al., 2006; Swarzenski et al., 2006; de Franco et al., 2009). However all these experiments are devoted to the use of the ERT for tracer tests or in contaminant hydrology and are characterized by a short monitoring period due to the complexity and problems of long-time instrument maintenance. We propose and present a first approach of a geophysical monitoring by time lapse electrical resistivity in a fumarolic field. The profiles were acquired in January 2013, in January, March, May, July, September and November 2014 respectively. They cross the Pisciarelli area following approximately the NS direction and were characterized by a 2.5 m electrode spacing and maximum penetration depth of about 20 m. and will supply fundamental evidences on the possible seasonal resistivity fluctuations or if the resistivity changes are indicative of an increase in volcanic gases present in the hydrothermal system.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of inverse power fluids.

    PubMed

    Brańka, A C; Heyes, D M

    2006-09-01

    The local scaling behavior of the radial distribution function of the soft sphere or inverse power, r-n potential, fluid leads to a formula for the equation of state. From this formula different analytic forms for the compressibility factor, Z, have been derived. In the first, Z is expressed as a product of three functions, the hard sphere equation of state and two other functions incorporating the effects of the potential softness. In the second formula, the compressibility factor is cast in terms of the position and height of the first peak in the radial distribution function. In the final form, Z can be expressed as an exponential function which depends entirely on a combination of the virial coefficients. In each case Z is an explicit expression which has the correct low density limiting behavior and is accurate up to the freezing density for all packing fractions and circa n>or=12. Expressions are derived for the various component functions required for the different forms of Z, and relations between them are established. The compressibility factor manifests a maximum value or "ridge" when plotted as contours on the density-softness plane. It starts for the softer fluids at lower densities, increases with particle stiffness, and crosses the freezing line at n congruent with 33. From the compressibility factor other thermodynamic quantities can be obtained and the density-softness dependence of the infinite frequency limit elastic properties been determined. A self-consistent expression is derived for the effective hard sphere packing fraction (or equivalently, diameter), valid for all packing fractions and circa n>12. The effective hard-sphere diameter is compared with the formulas of Barker and Henderson, and Wheatley.

  10. Are Private Reserves Effective for Jaguar Conservation?

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Carmina E; Gómez-Ramírez, Miguel A; López-González, Carlos A; Doherty, Paul F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of density and apparent survival for a jaguar (Panthera onca) population in northern Mexico using 13 years of camera trap data from 2000 to 2012. We used the Barker robust design model which combines data from closed sampling periods and resight data between these periods to estimate apparent survival and abundance. We identified 467 jaguar pictures that corresponded to 48 jaguar individuals. We included camera type and field technician as covariates for detection probabilities. We used three covariates to evaluate the effect of reserve on jaguar apparent survival: i) private reserve creation ii) later reserve expansions, and iii) cattle ranches' conservation activities. We found that the use of digital cameras in addition to film cameras increased detection probability by a factor of 6x compared with the use of only film cameras (p = 0.34 ± 0.05 and p = 0.05 ± 0.02 respectively) in the closed period and more than three times in the open period (R = 0.91 ± 0.08 and R = 0.30 ± 0.13 mixed and film cameras respectively). Our availability estimates showed no temporary emigration and a fidelity probability of 1. Despite an increase of apparent survival probability from 0.47 ± 0.15 to 0.56 ± 0.11 after 2007, no single covariate explained the change in these point estimates. Mean jaguar density was 1.87 ± 0.47 jaguars/100 km2. We found that 13 years of jaguar population monitoring with our sampling size were not enough for detecting changes in survival or density. Our results provide a baseline for studies evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas and the inclusion of ranch owners in jaguar conservation programs and long-term population viability.

  11. Net charge changes in the calculation of relative ligand-binding free energies via classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-01-30

    The calculation of binding free energies of charged species to a target molecule is a frequently encountered problem in molecular dynamics studies of (bio-)chemical thermodynamics. Many important endogenous receptor-binding molecules, enzyme substrates, or drug molecules have a nonzero net charge. Absolute binding free energies, as well as binding free energies relative to another molecule with a different net charge will be affected by artifacts due to the used effective electrostatic interaction function and associated parameters (e.g., size of the computational box). In the present study, charging contributions to binding free energies of small oligoatomic ions to a series of model host cavities functionalized with different chemical groups are calculated with classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. Electrostatic interactions are treated using a lattice-summation scheme or a cutoff-truncation scheme with Barker-Watts reaction-field correction, and the simulations are conducted in boxes of different edge lengths. It is illustrated that the charging free energies of the guest molecules in water and in the host strongly depend on the applied methodology and that neglect of correction terms for the artifacts introduced by the finite size of the simulated system and the use of an effective electrostatic interaction function considerably impairs the thermodynamic interpretation of guest-host interactions. Application of correction terms for the various artifacts yields consistent results for the charging contribution to binding free energies and is thus a prerequisite for the valid interpretation or prediction of experimental data via molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis and correction of electrostatic artifacts according to the scheme proposed in the present study should therefore be considered an integral part of careful free-energy calculation studies if changes in the net charge are involved. © The Authors Journal of Computational Chemistry

  12. The reaction OH + C2H4: an example of rotational channel switching.

    PubMed

    Golden, David M

    2012-05-03

    The low-temperature data for the reaction between OH and C(2)H(4) is treated canonically as either a two-well or one-well problem using the "Multiwell" suite of codes, in which a "well" refers to a minimum in the potential energy surface. The former is analogous to the two transition state model of Greenwald et al. [Greenwald, E. E.; North, S. W.; Georgievskii, Y.; Klippenstein, S. J. J. Phys. Chem. A2005, 109, 6031], while the latter reflects the dominance of the so-called "inner transition state". External rotations are treated adiabatically, causing changes in the magnitude of effective barriers as a function of temperature. Extant data are well-described with either model using only the average energy transferred in a downward direction, upon collision, ΔE(d)(T), as a fitting parameter. The best value for the parameters describing the rate coefficient as a function of temperature (200 < T/K < 400) (Data at lower temperature is too sparse to yield a recommendation.) and pressure in the form used in the NASA/JPL format [Sander, S. P.; Abbatt, J.; Barker, J. R.; Burkholder, J. B.; Friedl, R. R.; Golden, D. M.; Huie, R. E.; Kolb, C. E.; Kurylo, M. J.; Moortgat, G. K et al., Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 17, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2011] are k(0) = 1.0 × 10(-28)(T/300)(-3.5) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) and k(∞) to 8.0 × 10(-12)(T/300)(-2.3) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1).

  13. Geoelectrical Tomographies for the study of some landslide areas in the Lucanian Apennine Chain (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Lapenna, V.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of the two projects supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Design of geophysical monitoring network in areas of the Basilicata Region characterized by a high hydrogeological hazard" and "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", we developed a research activity focussed on a 2D electromagnetic monitoring and modelling of landslide bodies. Basilicata region (Southern Italy), being dissected by numerous and often significant rivers and characterized by the outcrop of terrains with bad mechanical properties, is one of the more exposed regions of the southern Apennine chain to hydrogeologic hazard and shows a complete panorama of mass movements. In order to study some landslide areas located in the Basilicata region, such as Varco Izzo, Latronico, Campomaggiore and Maratea, we carried out 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), 2D-3D self-potential tomographies and maps, combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; McCann and Forster, 1990; Patella, 1997). The geophysical results allowed us: to outline the discontinuity between landslide material and bedrock, to identify the possible reactivation surfaces, to obtain useful information about the thickness of the mobilised material and the main patterns of the underground fluid flow. Geophysical results were compared with the data coming from geological and hydrogeological surveys and from the analysis of aerial photo and boreholes. The good correlation between the main anomalous geoelectrical zones, the main structural lineaments and hydrogeological characteristics of the investigated areas, allowed us to consider the used geoelectrical methods as a possible powerful tool to investigate landslide areas characterised by very complex geology.

  14. Estimation of protein function using template-based alignment of enzyme active sites.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Brett; Westin, Charles; Rosa, Mario; Grier, Alexander; Osipovitch, Mikhail; MacDonald, Madolyn L; Dodge, Greg; Boli, Paule M; Corwin, Cyprian W; Kessler, Haeja; McKay, Talia; Bernstein, Herbert J; Craig, Paul A

    2014-03-27

    The accumulation of protein structural data occurs more rapidly than it can be characterized by traditional laboratory means. This has motivated widespread efforts to predict enzyme function computationally. The most useful/accurate strategies employed to date are based on the detection of motifs in novel structures that correspond to a specific function. Functional residues are critical components of predictively useful motifs. We have implemented a novel method, to complement current approaches, which detects motifs solely on the basis of distance restraints between catalytic residues. ProMOL is a plugin for the PyMOL molecular graphics environment that can be used to create active site motifs for enzymes. A library of 181 active site motifs has been created with ProMOL, based on definitions published in the Catalytic Site Atlas (CSA). Searches with ProMOL produce better than 50% useful Enzyme Commission (EC) class suggestions for level 1 searches in EC classes 1, 4 and 5, and produce some useful results for other classes. 261 additional motifs automatically translated from Jonathan Barker's JESS motif set [Bioinformatics 19:1644-1649, 2003] and a set of NMR motifs is under development. Alignments are evaluated by visual superposition, Levenshtein distance and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) and are reasonably consistent with related search methods. The ProMOL plugin for PyMOL provides ready access to template-based local alignments. Recent improvements to ProMOL, including the expanded motif library, RMSD calculations and output selection formatting, have greatly increased the program's usability and speed, and have improved the way that the results are presented.

  15. Economic Implementation and Optimization of Secondary Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Cary D. Brock

    2006-01-09

    The St Mary West Barker Sand Unit (SMWBSU or Unit) located in Lafayette County, Arkansas was unitized for secondary recovery operations in 2002 followed by installation of a pilot injection system in the fall of 2003. A second downdip water injection well was added to the pilot project in 2005 and 450,000 barrels of saltwater has been injected into the reservoir sand to date. Daily injection rates have been improved over initial volumes by hydraulic fracture stimulation of the reservoir sand in the injection wells. Modifications to the injection facilities are currently being designed to increase water injection rates for the pilot flood. A fracture treatment on one of the production wells resulted in a seven-fold increase of oil production. Recent water production and increased oil production in a producer closest to the pilot project indicates possible response to the water injection. The reservoir and wellbore injection performance data obtained during the pilot project will be important to the secondary recovery optimization study for which the DOE grant was awarded. The reservoir characterization portion of the modeling and simulation study is in progress by Strand Energy project staff under the guidance of University of Houston Department of Geosciences professor Dr. Janok Bhattacharya and University of Texas at Austin Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering professor Dr. Larry W. Lake. A geologic and petrophysical model of the reservoir is being constructed from geophysical data acquired from core, well log and production performance histories. Possible use of an outcrop analog to aid in three dimensional, geostatistical distribution of the flow unit model developed from the wellbore data will be investigated. The reservoir model will be used for full-field history matching and subsequent fluid flow simulation based on various injection schemes including patterned water flooding, addition of alkaline surfactant-polymer (ASP) to the injected water

  16. Inspection of high-attenuation and high-noise materials using ultrasonic pulse compression technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, P.

    1996-12-31

    Within a highly attenuating material, it is often difficult to identify relevant target signals due to the system`s white noise that is elevated by high gain settings on a conventional ultrasonic system. Ultrasonic pulse compression technique resolves such problem. The ultrasonic pulse compression technique permits an ultrasonic system to operate with long transmitted pulses for an increased detection range, but without sacrificing the depth resolution by signal correlation. The data contains 2048 points sampled at 40 nsec interval using 256 bits long and 100 nsec wide (single bit) Golay codes. Typical pulse compression systems transmit random or pseudorandom codes such as Barker code, maximal-length sequence, and linear FM chirp. And the configuration of such systems varies depending upon the type of code and its generation and processing methodology. However, such systems suffer from inherent limitation, called self noise or range sidelobes when finite integration time limits are used to approximate the signal correlation. To reduce the self noise to a tolerable level, Center for NDE, Iowa State University, has implemented a set of complementary binary codes, known as Golay codes, into a laboratory prototype pulse compression system. Golay code is a set of complementary series of the same length, each has its own auto-correlation having one main response, but the relative polarities are opposite except the main peak. So, if these two correlation results are added, the main response doubles and all others cancel. These characteristics of the Golay codes allow us to obtain a correlated signal of an enhanced SNR without the range sidelobe that is normally produced in other random or pseudorandom codes.

  17. High Resolution Spectroscopy at the 2.7-m H J Smith and 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescopes, 1969-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tull, R. G.

    2000-05-01

    The twentieth century has seen the greatest advances in science and technology in the history of the world. These advances spawned a golden age in astronomy and in the astronomical instrumentation that fueled it. This paper will summarize 31 years of development of high-resolution spectroscopic instrumentation at McDonald Observatory, from the construction of the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith Telescope and its coudé spectrograph through the completion of the 9.2-m Hobby-Eberly Telescope with its high-resolution fiber-fed spectrograph. We begin with photographic spectroscopy and advance through rapid-scanning photon counting spectrometry under computer control, addition of echelle gratings, Reticon and self-scanned Digicon solid-state imaging detectors, and innovative cross-dispersed echelle spectrometers with large-format CCDs. Funding for all these projects by the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is gratefully acknowledged, as are additional support from University of Texas matching grants and from the Texas state legislature. Thanks also to the many colleagues who have shared this adventure with me: Ed Nather, who taught me computer interfacing techniques; Johnnie Floyd, Don Wells, Steve Vogt, Phil Kelton, Richard Stover, Brenda Young, Phillip MacQueen, David Doss, John Good, Harland Epps, and Mark Cornell, who were involved in various phases of instrument development; and Hans Dekker, who shared ideas developed at ESO. The users developed the observing and data reduction techniques; among these are David Lambert, Chris Sneden, Ed Barker, Larry Trafton, Joc Tomkin, and many others. Tom Barnes and Frank Bash provided moral and logistical support, and Joyce Sampson spent many hours in fund-raising efforts. Finally, I wish to dedicate this work to the memory of Harlan J. Smith who gave unswerving encouragement and support over a period of many years.

  18. [Magneto-electrical stimulation (MES)--compared with percutaneous electrical stimulation (PES)].

    PubMed

    Ugawa, Y; Kohara, N; Shimpo, T; Mannen, T

    1989-01-01

    The central motor conduction was studied in 30 normal volunteers using a recently developed magneto-electrical stimulation technique (MES). The results were compared with those obtained by percutaneous electrical stimulation technique (PES) described previously. We made a magnetic stimulator similar to that of Barker et al. To stimulate the motor cortex, the magnetic coil was placed over the head. It was placed over the seventh cervical spinous process (C7) for cervical stimulation, and the first lumbar spinous process (L1) for lumbar stimulation. Cortical stimulation was performed when the subjects were at rest, and also at during weak voluntary contraction in some of them. Recordings were made from the deltoid (Del), biceps brachii (Bi), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), thenar, quadriceps femoris (Quad), tibialis anterior (TA) and flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) muscles with a pair of surface electrodes. The cortical and spinal latent periods (Lcor and Lsp, respectively) were measured. The central conduction time (CCT) was obtained by subtracting Lsp from Lcor for each muscle. In all subjects, responses were readily obtained by cortical, cervical and lumbar stimulations without discomfort in all the muscles examined. The cortical responses with amplitudes of more than 1mV could be recorded even in the lower limb muscles. There were no significant differences in Lsp and CCT between MES and PES, in all the upper limb muscles examined. The Lcors of the lower limb muscles obtained by MES were not different from those obtained by PES. However, the Lsps obtained by MES were significantly shorter than those by PES in the Quad and TA muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Statistical mechanics via the method of complementary variational principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, John E.; Kozak, John J.

    A new, versatile, theoretically self-consistent procedure is proposed for determining the thermodynamic properties of a classical system in the condensed fluid phase. The method of complementary variational principles, developed by A. M. Arthurs and his colleagues, is used to generate reference state (hard core) correlation function data via analysis of a well known (non-linear) integral equation for the pair distribution function (namely, the Yvon-Born-Green equation). These data are then used within the context of the perturbation theory of classical fluids developed by Zwanzig, as implemented by Barker and Henderson, to investigate the role of attractive and repulsive perturbations in influencing the thermodynamics of the reference system. As a specific application of this procedure, one that leads to many new results, we focus on a classical system of particles whose effective interactions are confined to a space of two dimensions. We consider two classes of potential functions (the square well/square shoulder and linear well/linear shoulder potentials) and consider separately the effects of attractive and repulsive perturbations. Where possible, the predictions of the theory are compared against known results (specifically, the results obtained via molecular dynamics simulation); we find that the variational method accurately represents the thermodynamics of the reference state (the hard disc fluid) up to densities of σρ2 ≈0·8, and the variational method in tandem with perturbation theory adequately represents the thermodynamics of the square shoulder system over the same density range. The effects of increasing the strength and range parameters of the potential are explored in detail and quantified. Both for the case of attractive and repulsive perturbations, isotherms of the van der Waals type are found to develop below a certain critical temperature in the dense fluid regime. The possible significance of these mean field results is discussed.

  20. a Variational Approach to Statistical Mechanics with Applications to Molecular Monolayer Assemblies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacCarthy, John Edward

    A new, versatile, theoretically self-consistent procedure is proposed for determining the thermodynamic properties of a classical system in the condensed fluid phase. The method of complementary variational principles, developed by A. M. Arthurs and his colleagues, is used to generate reference state (hard core) correlation function data via analysis of a well known (nonlinear) integral equation for the pair distribution function (namely, the Yvon-Born-Green equation). These data are then used within the context of the perturbation theory of classical fluids developed by Zwanzig, as implemented by Barker and Henderson, to investigate the role of attractive and repulsive perturbations in influencing the thermodynamics of the reference system. As a specific application of this procedure, one that leads to many new results, we focus on a classical system of particles whose effective interactions are confined to a space of two dimensions. We consider two classes of potential functions (the square well/square shoulder and linear well/linear shoulder potentials) and consider separately the effects of attractive and repulsive perturbations. Where possible, the predictions of the theory are compared against known results (specifically, the results obtained via molecular dynamics simulation); we find that the variational method accurately represents the thermodynamics of the reference state (the hard disc fluid) up to densities of (rho)(sigma)('2)(TURNEQ)0.8, and the variational method in tandem with perturbation theory adequately represents the thermodynamics of the square shoulder system over the same density range. The effects of increasing the strength and range parameters of the potential are explored in detail and quantified. Both for the case of attractive and repulsive perturbations, isotherms of the van der Waals type are found to develop below a certain critical temperature in the dense fluid regime. The possible significance of these mean field results to the

  1. The impact of birth weight on cardiovascular disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Smith, CJ; Ryckman, KK; Barnabei, Vanessa M.; Howard, Barbara; Isasi, Carmen R.; Sarto, Gloria; Tom, Sarah E.; Van Horn, Linda; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditional risk factors predict 75-80% of an individual's risk of incident CVD. However, the role of early life experiences in future disease risk is gaining attention. The Barker hypothesis proposes fetal origins of adult disease, with consistent evidence demonstrating the deleterious consequences of birth weight outside the normal range. In this study, we investigate the role of birth weight in CVD risk prediction. Methods and Results The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) represents a large national cohort of post-menopausal women with 63 815 participants included in this analysis. Univariable proportional hazards regression analyses evaluated the association of 4 self-reported birth weight categories against 3 CVD outcome definitions, which included indicators of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, carotid artery disease and peripheral arterial disease. The role of birth weight was also evaluated for prediction of CVD events in the presence of traditional risk factors using 3 existing CVD risk prediction equations: one body mass index (BMI)-based and two laboratory-based models. Low birth weight (LBW) (< 6 lbs.) was significantly associated with all CVD outcome definitions in univariable analyses (HR=1.086, p=0.009). LBW was a significant covariate in the BMI-based model (HR=1.128, p<0.0001) but not in the lipid-based models. Conclusion LBW (<6 lbs.) is independently associated with CVD outcomes in the WHI cohort. This finding supports the role of the prenatal and postnatal environment in contributing to the development of adult chronic disease. PMID:26708645

  2. Maternal Nutrition and Risk of Obesity in Offspring: The Trojan Horse of Developmental Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; MacDougald, Ormond A.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian embryos have evolved to adjust their organ and tissue development in response to an atypical environment. This adaptation, called phenotypic plasticity, allows the organism to thrive in the anticipated environment in which the fetus will emerge. Barker and colleagues proposed that if the environment in which the fetus emerges differs from that in which it develops, phenotypic plasticity may provide an underlying mechanism for disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that humans born small- or large-for-gestational-age, have a higher likelihood of developing obesity as adults. The amount and quality of food that the mother consumes during gestation influences birth weight, and therefore susceptibility of progeny to disease in later life. Studies in experimental animals support these observations, and find that obesity occurs as a result of maternal nutrient-restriction during gestation, followed by rapid compensatory growth associated with ad libitum food consumption. Therefore, obesity associated with maternal nutritional restriction has a developmental origin. Based on this phenomenon, one might predict that gestational exposure to a westernized diet would protect against future obesity in offspring. However, evidence from experimental models indicates that, like maternal dietary restriction, maternal consumption of a westernized diet during gestation and lactation interacts with an adult obesogenic diet to induce further obesity. Mechanistically, restriction of nutrients or consumption of a high fat diet during gestation may promote obesity in progeny by altering hypothalamic neuropeptide production and thereby increasing hyperphagia in offspring. In addition to changes in food intake these animals may also direct energy from muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Surprisingly, generational inheritance studies in rodents have further indicated that effects on body length, body weight, and glucose tolerance appear to be propagated to subsequent

  3. Fast Gamma Rhythms in the Hippocampus Promote Encoding of Novel Object–Place Pairings

    PubMed Central

    Bieri, Kevin Wood; Hwaun, Ernie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hippocampal gamma rhythms increase during mnemonic operations (Johnson and Redish, 2007; Montgomery and Buzsáki, 2007; Sederberg et al., 2007; Jutras et al., 2009; Trimper et al., 2014) and may affect memory encoding by coordinating activity of neurons that code related information (Jensen and Lisman, 2005). Here, a hippocampal-dependent, object–place association task (Clark et al., 2000; Broadbent et al., 2004; Eacott and Norman, 2004; Lee et al., 2005; Winters et al., 2008; Barker and Warburton, 2011) was used in rats to investigate how slow and fast gamma rhythms in the hippocampus relate to encoding of memories for novel object–place associations. In novel object tasks, the degree of hippocampal dependence has been reported to vary depending on the type of novelty (Eichenbaum et al., 2007; Winters et al., 2008). Therefore, gamma activity was examined during three novelty conditions: a novel object presented in a location where a familiar object had been (NO), a familiar object presented in a location where no object had been (NL), and a novel object presented in a location where no object had been (NO+NL). The strongest and most consistent effects were observed for fast gamma rhythms during the NO+NL condition. Fast gamma power, CA3–CA1 phase synchrony, and phase-locking of place cell spikes increased during exploration of novel, compared to familiar, object–place associations. Additionally, place cell spiking during exploration of novel object–place pairings was increased when fast gamma rhythms were present. These results suggest that fast gamma rhythms promote encoding of memories for novel object–place associations. PMID:27257621

  4. Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment.

    PubMed

    Teschke, K; Demers, P A; Davies, H W; Kennedy, S M; Marion, S A; Leung, V

    1999-05-01

    In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA genes of ticks reveals a deep phylogenetic structure within the genus Haemaphysalis and further elucidates the polyphyly of the genus Amblyomma with respect to Amblyomma sphenodonti and Amblyomma elaphense.

    PubMed

    Burger, Thomas D; Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C

    2013-06-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genomes of 3 species of metastriate ticks: Haemaphysalis formosensis, H. parva, and Amblyomma cajennense. We also sequenced two thirds (ca. 9500bp) of the mitochondrial genomes of H. humerosa and H. hystricis. We used these 5 mitochondrial genome sequences together with the 13 tick mitochondrial genomes we sequenced previously and the 2 tick mitochondrial genomes sequenced by Black and Roehrdanz (1998), as well as the nuclear rRNA genes from 84 ticks and mites, in phylogenetic analyses. Our analyses reveal deep phylogenetic structure within the genus Haemaphysalis, with at least 2 species, H. parva and H. inermis that are highly divergent from the rest of the genus Haemaphysalis. We identify a region of the 18S rRNA gene which correlates with this division of the genus Haemaphysalis as well as a novel insertion in the mitochondrial genome of H. parva. We reject the hypotheses of Hoogstraal and Aeschlimann (1982) and Barker and Murrell (2004) on the relationships among metastriate genera. Instead, our analysis provides further evidence for the division of the Metastriata into 2 major lineages: (i) Amblyomma s.s. plus Rhipicephalinae (i.e. Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Rhipicentor, and Dermacentor); and (ii) Haemaphysalis plus Bothriocroton plus Amblyomma sphenodonti. We also provide further evidence for the polyphyly of the genus Amblyomma with respect to A. sphenodonti and A. elaphense. The most likely position of A. elaphense is sister to the rest of the Metastriata; the most likely position of A. sphenodonti is sister to the genus Bothriocroton. These 2 species do not belong in the genus Amblyomma, and we propose that new genera are required for A. sphenodonti and A. elaphense. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced colorectal polyps with the molecular and morphological features of serrated polyps and adenomas: concept of a ‘fusion’ pathway to colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jass, J R; Baker, K; Zlobec, I; Higuchi, T; Barker, M; Buchanan, D; Young, J

    2006-01-01

    Jass J R, Baker K, Zlobec I, Higuchi T, Barker M, Buchanan D & Young J (2006) Histopathology 49, 121–131 Advanced colorectal polyps with the molecular and morphological features of serrated polyps and adenomas: concept of a ‘fusion’ pathway to colorectal cancer Aim To establish and explain the pattern of molecular signatures across colorectal polyps. Methods and results Thirty-two sessile serrated adenomas (SSA), 10 mixed polyps (MP), 15 traditional serrated adenomas (SA), 49 hyperplastic polyps (HP) and 84 adenomas were assessed for mutation of KRAS and BRAF and aberrant expression of p53. The findings were correlated with loss of expression of O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). KRAS mutation occurred more frequently (26.5%) than BRAF mutation (4.8%) in adenomas (P < 0.001) and particularly in adenomas with villous architecture (50%). Loss of expression of MGMT correlated with KRAS mutation in small tubular adenomas (P < 0.04). BRAF mutation was frequent in HPs (67%) and SSAs (81%), while KRAS mutation was infrequent (4% and 3%, respectively). Of MPs and SAs, 72% had either BRAF or KRAS mutation. Aberrant expression of p53 was uncommon overall, but occurred more frequently in MPs and SAs (12%) than adenomas (1%) (P < 0.04) and there was concordant loss of expression of MGMT. Conclusions Molecular alterations that are characteristic of the serrated pathway and adenoma–carcinoma sequence can co-occur in a minority of advanced colorectal polyps that then show morphological features of both pathways. These lesions account for only 2% of colorectal polyps, but may be relatively aggressive. PMID:16879389

  7. Nutritional models of foetal programming and nutrigenomic and epigenomic dysregulations of fatty acid metabolism in the liver and heart.

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Elakoum, Rania; Ziegler, Olivier; Coelho, David; Feigerlova, Eva; Daval, Jean-Luc; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria

    2014-05-01

    Barker's concept of 'foetal programming' proposes that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predicts complex metabolic diseases through relationships that may be further modified by the postnatal environment. Dietary restriction and deficit in methyl donors, folate, vitamin B12, and choline are used as experimental conditions of foetal programming as they lead to IUGR and decreased birth weight. Overfeeding and deficit in methyl donors increase central fat mass and lead to a dramatic increase of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in offspring. Conversely, supplementing the mothers under protein restriction with folic acid reverses metabolic and epigenomic phenotypes of offspring. High-fat diet or methyl donor deficiency (MDD) during pregnancy and lactation produce liver steatosis and myocardium hypertrophy that result from increased import of FFA and impaired fatty acid β-oxidation, respectively. The underlying molecular mechanisms show dysregulations related with similar decreased expression and activity of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and hyperacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). High-fat diet and overfeeding impair AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of PGC-1α, while MDD decreases PGC-1α methylation through decreased expression of PRMT1 and cellular level of S-adenosyl methionine. The visceral manifestations of metabolic syndrome are under the influence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in overnourished animal models. These mechanisms should also deserve attention in the foetal programming effects of MDD since vitamin B12 influences ER stress through impaired SIRT1 deacetylation of HSF1. Taken together, similarities and synergies of high-fat diet and MDD suggest, therefore, considering their consecutive or contemporary influence in the mechanisms of complex metabolic diseases.

  8. Retrospective studies.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2015-01-01

    Large retrospective, epidemiological studies accumulated in the late 1980s, providing increasing evidence to the deeply rooted thought that perinatal events could persistently affect the individual's functioning and health/disease patterns throughout the lifetime. Evidences of such associations can be found in the literature since the beginning of the twentieth century, but studies from Barker, Hales, and colleagues serve as an important hallmark. They proposed the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, stating that poor nutrition in fetal and early infant life is detrimental to the development and function of the individuals' organism, predisposing them to the later development of adult chronic diseases. At first used to explain the increased risk for type 2 diabetes in low birth weight individuals, the hypothesis was soon adapted to other systems, becoming one of the core assumptions of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD) model. The central nervous system is also vulnerable to the effects of environmental variation during fetal or neonatal life. Many researchers have explored the effects of perinatal programming on the human neurodevelopment, and some aspects of the brain structure and/or functioning (such as cognitive function, physiological reactivity to stress, and the risk for behavioral disorders or psychopathology) were shown to be modifiable by the exposure to certain adverse events early in life such as neonatal infections, exposure to gestational psychosocial stress, nutrition during gestation, exposure to drugs, or tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Until recently, most studies focused on birth weight as a strong surrogate of the intrauterine environment, investigating the effects of low birth weight (as a marker of suboptimal fetal environment) on a variety of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite the fact that literature reviews on this topic are as old as 1940, the more recent retrospective studies are summarized in this chapter.

  9. Extension of the AURIC Radiative Transfer Model for Mars Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S.; Lumpe, J. D.; Correira, J.; Stewart, A. I.; Schneider, N. M.; Deighan, J.

    2013-12-01

    We present recent updates to the Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code (AURIC) model that allow it to be used as a forward model for Mars atmospheric research. AURIC is a state of the art far ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (NIR) atmospheric radiance model that has been used extensively for analysis and modeling of terrestrial upper atmospheric remote sensing data. We present recent updates to the Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code (AURIC) model that allow it to be used as a forward model for Mars atmospheric research. AURIC is a state of the art far ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (NIR) atmospheric radiance model that has been used extensively for analysis and modeling of terrestrial upper atmospheric remote sensing data. The airglow modeling capabilities of AURIC make it a powerful tool that can be used to characterize optical backgrounds, simulate data from both rocket and satellite-borne optical instrumentation, and serve as a forward model driver for geophysical retrieval algorithms. Upgrades made to allow modeling of the Martian atmosphere include 1-D Mars photochemistry and molecular transport and the addition of the following molecular band systems: CO Cameron; CO Fourth Positive Group; CO2+ Fox-Duffendack-Barker; CO2+ UV Doublet; CO Hopfield-Birge (B-X); and CO+ First Negative Group. Furthermore, a prototype AURIC-Titan model has also been developed, allowing comparison of AURIC spectral radiances with Cassini-Huygens/UVIS data [Stevens et al., 2011; Stevens et al., in preparation]. Extension of AURIC to the atmospheres of Pluto and it's largest moon, Charon, is also ongoing in support of NASA's New Horizons mission [Stevens, Evans, and Gladstone, 2012; 2013].

  10. The Mars diffuse aurora: A model of ultraviolet and visible emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Bougher, S. W.

    2017-05-01

    A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar activity on several occasions from the MAVEN spacecraft. We describe the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the production of several ultraviolet and violet auroral emissions for initial electron energies extending from 0.25 to 200 keV. These include the CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (UVD) at 288.3 and 289.6 nm and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker (FDB) bands, CO Cameron and Fourth Positive bands, OI 130.4 and 297.2 nm and CI 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm multiplets. We calculate the nadir and limb production rates of several of these emissions for a unit precipitated energy flux. Our results indicate that electrons in the range 50-200 keV produce maximum CO2+ UVD emission below 75 km, in agreement with the MAVEN observations. We calculate the efficiency of photon production per unit precipitated electron power. The strongest emissions are the CO2+ FDB, UVD and CO Cameron bands and the oxygen emission at 297.2 nm. The metastable a 3Π state which radiates the Cameron bands is deactivated by collisions below about 110 km. As a consequence, we show that the Cameron band emission is expected to peak at a higher altitude than the CO2+ UVD and FDB bands. Collisional quenching also causes the intensity ratio of the CO2+ UVD to CO Cameron bands to increase below ∼100 km in the energetic diffuse aurora.

  11. Density functional theory for the description of spherical non-associating monomers in confined media using the SAFT-VR equation of state and weighted density approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Malheiro, Carine; Mendiboure, Bruno; Plantier, Frédéric; Miqueu, Christelle; Blas, Felipe J.

    2014-04-07

    As a first step of an ongoing study of thermodynamic properties and adsorption of complex fluids in confined media, we present a new theoretical description for spherical monomers using the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for potential of Variable Range (SAFT-VR) and a Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) with Weighted Density Approximations (WDA). The well-known Modified Fundamental Measure Theory is used to describe the inhomogeneous hard-sphere contribution as a reference for the monomer and two WDA approaches are developed for the dispersive terms from the high-temperature Barker and Henderson perturbation expansion. The first approach extends the dispersive contributions using the scalar and vector weighted densities introduced in the Fundamental Measure Theory (FMT) and the second one uses a coarse-grained (CG) approach with a unique weighted density. To test the accuracy of this new NLDFT/SAFT-VR coupling, the two versions of the theoretical model are compared with Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) molecular simulations using the same molecular model. Only the version with the “CG” approach for the dispersive terms provides results in excellent agreement with GCMC calculations in a wide range of conditions while the “FMT” extension version gives a good representation solely at low pressures. Hence, the “CG” version of the theoretical model is used to reproduce methane adsorption isotherms in a Carbon Molecular Sieve and compared with experimental data after a characterization of the material. The whole results show an excellent agreement between modeling and experiments. Thus, through a complete and consistent comparison both with molecular simulations and with experimental data, the NLDFT/SAFT-VR theory has been validated for the description of monomers.

  12. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup -}) and ozonide (O{sub 3}{sup -}) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K{sub 2}O: 56 SiO{sub 2} was prepared from reagent grade K{sub 2}CO3 and SiO{sub 2} powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10{sup 8} rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 \\305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  13. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  14. Electrolytes in a nanometer slab-confinement: ion-specific structure and solvation forces.

    PubMed

    Kalcher, Immanuel; Schulz, Julius C F; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2010-10-28

    We study the liquid structure and solvation forces of dense monovalent electrolytes (LiCl, NaCl, CsCl, and NaI) in a nanometer slab-confinement by explicit-water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, implicit-water Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, and modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theories. In order to consistently coarse-grain and to account for specific hydration effects in the implicit methods, realistic ion-ion and ion-surface pair potentials have been derived from infinite-dilution MD simulations. The electrolyte structure calculated from MC simulations is in good agreement with the corresponding MD simulations, thereby validating the coarse-graining approach. The agreement improves if a realistic, MD-derived dielectric constant is employed, which partially corrects for (water-mediated) many-body effects. Further analysis of the ionic structure and solvation pressure demonstrates that nonlocal extensions to PB (NPB) perform well for a wide parameter range when compared to MC simulations, whereas all local extensions mostly fail. A Barker-Henderson mapping of the ions onto a charged, asymmetric, and nonadditive binary hard-sphere mixture shows that the strength of structural correlations is strongly related to the magnitude and sign of the salt-specific nonadditivity. Furthermore, a grand canonical NPB analysis shows that the Donnan effect is dominated by steric correlations, whereas solvation forces and overcharging effects are mainly governed by ion-surface interactions. However, steric corrections to solvation forces are strongly repulsive for high concentrations and low surface charges, while overcharging can also be triggered by steric interactions in strongly correlated systems. Generally, we find that ion-surface and ion-ion correlations are strongly coupled and that coarse-grained methods should include both, the latter nonlocally and nonadditive (as given by our specific ionic diameters), when studying electrolytes in highly inhomogeneous situations.

  15. Does a One-Size-Fits-All Cost-Sharing Approach Incentivize Appropriate Medication Use? A Roundtable on the Fairness and Ethics Associated with Variable Cost Sharing.

    PubMed

    Graff, Jennifer S; Shih, Chuck; Barker, Thomas; Dieguez, Gabriela; Larson, Cheryl; Sherman, Helen; Dubois, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    use of the higher-cost treatment was due to biological reasons such as step therapy (6 = unacceptable, 9 = neutral, 2 = acceptable) or diagnostic results (5 = unacceptable, 10 = neutral, and 2 = acceptable). In contrast, panelists felt it was more acceptable for patients to pay greater OOP costs when treatment choice was based on preferences to avoid a side-effect risk (1 = unacceptable, 3 = neutral, and 13 = acceptable) or the route/frequency of administration (1 = unacceptable, 1 = neutral, and 15 = acceptable). Five guiding principles emerged from the discussion: When patients have tried lower-cost therapies unsuccessfully, the benefits of higher-cost treatments were certain and significant, the cost difference between treatments was aligned with improved benefits, and penalties due to bad luck were mitigated, then cost-sharing differences should be minimized but not eliminated. Patient OOP costs can affect the use of both inappropriate and appropriate medications. This study identified 5 guiding principles to determine when it was more (or less) acceptable for patients with the same or similar conditions to have different OOP costs. Barriers that hinder the alignment of care and patient cost sharing exist. Policies that facilitate the alignment of patient cost sharing with appropriate care are needed. Funding for this roundtable was provided by the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC). Graff and Dubois are employed by the NPC. Shih was employed by the NPC at the time of this study. Barker, Dieguez, Sherman, and Larson received consulting fees for participation in this study. Larson also reports receiving grants and other payment from multiple major pharmaceutical manufacturers outside of this study. The NPC employees developed the study design and chose the case studies in collaboration with the white paper authors. The roundtable was facilitated by Dubois, and the meeting summary and manuscript were written by Graff and Shih, with revisions by all roundtable

  16. On occasion of 800th anniversary of birth of Ibn al-Nafis--discoverer of cardiac and pulmonary circulation.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    . It stemmed back to the sixteenth century. When Michael Servetus (1511-1553), Anderea Vesalius (?1514-1654), Nicolai Massa (1485-1569), Realdo Colombo (1520-1654), Valverde De Hamusco (1508-1565), Andera Cesalpino (1519-1603), Fabrici d'Aquapendent (1533-1619) and William Harvey (1578-1657) developed the concept. However, Muhyi-d-din At-Tatawi (1896-1945) presented his thesis "Der Lungenkreislauf nach El-Korachi. Dissert, z.eil. d. Doktorwrde, Freiburg im Brisgau 1924" of the blood circulation according to al Qurashi relaying on his discovery of his description of pulmonary circulation in one of ancient manuscripts, He proposed that the real credit for the discovery of the pulmonary circulation belongs this eminent physician of the thirteenth century: Ibn al-Nafis. Later another doctor Abdul Kareem Chihade (1922- ) presented another dissertation in Paris 1951 entitled" decouverte de la circulatio pulmonaire chez Ibn an-Nafis". Published by Institut Francais De Damas 1955. Other prominent professors like: Paul Galiounji and Salman Qatayyah researched extensively in his manuscripts and produced very important monographs. The general consensus is that Ibn al-Nafis' work exerted great influence on the development of medical science, both in the Islamic world and Europe. A closer look on Ibn al-Nafis contribution would indicate that he also described the coronary circulation, the cranial nerves the gall bladder anatomy and many new aspect of ophthalmology. He advocated as well therapy through nutrition. His work integrated the medical knowledge with great clarity and emphasized precision.

  17. Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Nick P.; Snoke, David W.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2017-04-01

    . Bose–Einstein condensation of photons and grand-canonical condensate fluctuations J. Klaers and M. Weitz; 20. Laser operation and Bose–Einstein condensation: analogies and differences A. Chiocchetta, A. Gambassi and I. Carusotto; 21. Vortices in resonant polariton condensates in semiconductor microcavities D. N. Krizhanovskii, K. Guda, M. Sich, M. S. Skolnick, L. Dominici and D. Sanvitto; 22. Optical control of polariton condensates G. Christmann, P. G. Savvidis and J. J. Baumberg; 23. Disorder, synchronization and phase-locking in non-equilibrium Bose–Einstein condensates P. R. Eastham and B. Rosenow; 24. Collective topological excitations in 1D polariton quantum fluids H. Terças, D. D. Solnyshkov and G. Malpuech; 25. Microscopic theory of Bose–Einstein condensation of magnons at room temperature H. Salman, N. G. Berloff and S. O. Demokritov; 26. Spintronics and magnon Bose–Einstein condensation R. A. Duine, A. Brataas, S. A. Bender and Y. Tserkovnyak; 27. Spin-superfluidity and spin-current mediated non-local transport H. Chen and A. H. MacDonald; 28. Bose–Einstein condensation in quantum magnets C. Kollath, T. Giamarchi and C. Rüegg; Part V. Condensates in Astrophysics and Cosmology: Editorial notes; 29. Bose–Einstein condensates in neutron stars C. J. Pethick, T. Schäfer and A. Schwenk; 30. A simulated cosmological metric: the superfluid 3He condensate G. R. Pickett; 31. Cosmic axion Bose–Einstein condensation N. Banik and P. Sikivie; 32. Graviton BECs: a new approach to quantum gravity G. Dvali and C. Gomez; Universal Bose–Einstein condensation workshop; Index.

  18. The Upper Pliocene-Quaternary Evolution of the Ioffe Calcareous Contourite Drift, Western South Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Borisov, D.; Murdmaa, I.; Levchenko, O. V.; Dmitrenko, O.; Emelyanov, E.

    2014-12-01

    -05-00744-a. Barash, M.S., Oskina, N.S., Blyum, N., S., 1983. Quaternary biostratigraphy and surface paleotemperatures based on planktonic foraminifers. In: Barker, PF; Carlson, RL; Johnson, DA; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 72, 849-869, doi:10.2973/dsdp.proc.72.142.1983

  19. Subsurface pCO2, nutrient levels and ventilation in the Norwegian Sea during the past 135 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezat, M.; Rasmussen, T. L.; Hoenisch, B.; Olsen, J.; Groeneveld, J.; Skinner, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    deglaciation. Paleoceanography. Sortor, R. N., & Lund, D. C. (2011). No evidence for a deglacial intermediate water Δ14C anomaly in the SW Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Thornalley, D. J. R., Barker, S., Broecker, W. S., Elderfield, H., & McCave, I. N. (2011). The Deglacial Evolution of North Atlantic Deep Convection. Science.

  20. Maternal nutrition and risk of obesity in offspring: the Trojan horse of developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian embryos have evolved to adjust their organ and tissue development in response to an atypical environment. This adaptation, called phenotypic plasticity, allows the organism to thrive in the anticipated environment in which the fetus will emerge. Barker and colleagues proposed that if the environment in which the fetus emerges differs from that in which it develops, phenotypic plasticity may provide an underlying mechanism for disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that humans born small- or large-for-gestational-age, have a higher likelihood of developing obesity as adults. The amount and quality of food that the mother consumes during gestation influences birth weight, and therefore susceptibility of progeny to disease in later life. Studies in experimental animals support these observations, and find that obesity occurs as a result of maternal nutrient-restriction during gestation, followed by rapid compensatory growth associated with ad libitum food consumption. Therefore, obesity associated with maternal nutritional restriction has a developmental origin. Based on this phenomenon, one might predict that gestational exposure to a westernized diet would protect against future obesity in offspring. However, evidence from experimental models indicates that, like maternal dietary restriction, maternal consumption of a westernized diet during gestation and lactation interacts with an adult obesogenic diet to induce further obesity. Mechanistically, restriction of nutrients or consumption of a high fat diet during gestation may promote obesity in progeny by altering hypothalamic neuropeptide production and thereby increasing hyperphagia in offspring. In addition to changes in food intake these animals may also direct energy from muscle toward storage in adipose tissue. Surprisingly, generational inheritance studies in rodents have further indicated that effects on body length, body weight, and glucose tolerance appear to be propagated to subsequent