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Sample records for barley wheat triticale

  1. Triticale powdery mildew: population characterization and wheat gene efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bouguennec, Annaig; Trottet, Maxime; du Cheyron, Philippe; Lonnet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew has emerged on triticale in the early 2000s in many locations, probably due to a host range expansion of the wheat formae speciales, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Many triticale cultivars are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, mainly in seedling stage, revealing a probably narrow genetic basis for powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm). Moreover, as Blumeria graminis is an obligate biotrophic fungus, it is very time consuming and difficult to maintain powdery mildew isolates for a non-specialized laboratory and populations can evolve. In order to identify wheat Pm genes efficient against natural populations of powdery mildew, wheat differential hosts and triticale seedlings were inoculated below susceptible triticale crop naturally contaminated by mildew, in several locations and several years. Symptoms on seedlings were measured after approximately two weeks of incubation in favorable fungus growth conditions. According to these data, we classified the Pm genes presents in our wheat differential hosts set in 3 classes: Pm already overcame by triticale powdery mildew, Pm having variable effects and Pm still efficient against triticale mildew. Data on triticale seedlings allowed us to identify some few triticale cultivars resistant to Blumeria graminis in seedling stage. We will try to identify Pm genes present in those cultivars next year by testing them with the characterized isolates of powdery mildew from Gent University. Nevertheless, interspecific crossing of wheat, resistant to powdery mildew in seedling stage, and rye have been initiated to introduce potentially interesting genes for resistance in triticale.

  2. Preprocessed barley, rye, and triticale as a feedstock for an integrated fuel ethanol-feedlot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sosulski, K.; Wang, Sunmin; Ingledew, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    Rye, triticale, and barley were evaluated as starch feedstock to replace wheat for ethanol production. Preprocessing of grain by abrasion on a Satake mill reduced fiber and increased starch concentrations in feed-stock for fermentations. Higher concentrations of starch in flours from preprocessed cereal grains would increase plant throughput by 8-23% since more starch is processed in the same weight of feedstock. Increased concentrations of starch for fermentation resulted in higher concentrations of ethanol in beer. Energy requirements to produce one L of ethanol from preprocessed grains were reduced, the natural gas by 3.5-11.4%, whereas power consumption was reduced by 5.2-15.6%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) enables the fast and accurate prediction of essential amino acid contents. 2. Results for wheat, barley, corn, triticale, wheat bran/middlings, rice bran, and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Johannes; Schirmer, Barbara; Hörr, Jutta

    2002-07-03

    Further NIRS calibrations were developed for the accurate and fast prediction of the total contents of methionine, cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and other essential amino acids, protein, and moisture in the most important cereals and brans or middlings for animal feed production. More than 1100 samples of global origin collected over five years were analyzed for amino acids following the Official Methods of the United States and European Union. Detailed data and graphics are given to characterize the obtained calibration equations. NIRS was validated with 98 independent samples for wheat and 78 samples for corn and compared to amino acid predictions using linear crude protein regression equations. With a few exceptions, validation showed that 70-98% of the amino acid variance in the samples could be explained using NIRS. Especially for lysine and methionine, the most limiting amino acids for farm animals, NIRS can predict contents in cereals much better than crude protein regressions. Through low cost and high speed of analysis NIRS enables the amino acid analysis of many samples in order to improve the accuracy of feed formulation and obtain better quality and lower production costs.

  4. Evaluation of triticale accessions for resistance to wheat bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on wheat and other small grains. Several triticale accessions were reported to possess high levels of resistance to wheat Xtu strains. In this study, we evaluated a worldwide collection of 502 triticale acces...

  5. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  6. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat – Rye –Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat—rye—Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement. PMID:27182983

  7. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  8. Identification and sequence analysis of grain softness protein in selected wheat, rye and triticale.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, M A S; Bobojonov, V

    2012-08-16

    Grain softness protein (GSP) is an important protein for overcoming milling and grain defenses in the innate immunity systems of cereals. The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand GSP sequences in selected wheat, rye and triticale. Using sequences for this gene from a sequence database, we performed clustering analysis to compare the sequences obtained from 3 germplasms with other studied sequences for GSP. The maximum difference between the Hirmand GSP genotype in wheat and the database sequences was 23% in EF109396 and EF109399. Most amino acid variation between the GSP sequences involved the same amino acids. The Nikita rye GSP gene showed 64% identity with DQ269918 and AY667063. The isoelectric point in the GSP of wheat and Lasko triticale was significantly higher than that of rye GSP. In addition, parameters such as optical density, grand average of hydrophobicity, percentage of hydrophobicity and hydrophilic amino acids, and number of alpha helices and beta sheets in GSP were similar in wheat and triticale but not in wheat and rye.

  9. Biotype differences for resistance to Russian wheat aphid in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a worldwide insect pest of barley, causing crop losses each year. Previously identified resistant barley lines do not show variable reactions to the eight USA RWA biotypes identified by wheat reactions. However, additional RWA isolates have been identified outside the ...

  10. Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

  11. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  12. VARIATION OF SEED AGING RATES AMONG LINES OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE IN RESPONSE TO STORAGE HUMIDITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed deterioration was measured in 50 lines of wheat, rye and triticale that were stored at 35C and a range of relative humidities for over 6 years. Decrease in percent germination and radicle growth with storage time were fit to Avrami kinetics, and longevity of individual lines is expressed as ti...

  13. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  14. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  15. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  16. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  17. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  18. Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

  19. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  20. Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Distelfeld, Assaf; Avni, Raz; Fischer, Andreas M

    2014-07-01

    Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between senescence timing, grain nutrient content, nutrient-use efficiency, and yield needs to be considered to (further) improve cereal varieties for a given environment and end use. The recent characterization of the Gpc-1 (NAM-1) genes in wheat and barley demonstrates the interdependence of these traits. Lines or varieties with functional Gpc-1 genes demonstrate earlier senescence and enhanced grain protein and micronutrient content but, depending on the environment, somewhat reduced yields. A major effort is needed to dissect regulatory networks centred on additional wheat and barley transcription factors and signalling pathways influencing the senescence process. Similarly, while important molecular details of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) remobilization from senescing organs to developing grains have been identified, important knowledge gaps remain. The genes coding for the major proteases involved in senescence-associated plastidial protein degradation are largely unknown. Membrane transport proteins involved in the different transport steps occurring between senescing organ (such as leaf mesophyll) cells and protein bodies in the endosperm of developing grains remain to be identified or further characterized. Existing data suggest that an improved understanding of all these steps will reveal additional, important targets for continued cereal improvement.

  1. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  2. Response of Russian wheat aphid resistance in wheat and barley to four Diuraphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species.

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Scott, J Nicholson; Brown, Michael J; Hammon, R W

    2013-04-01

    Three Diuraphis species, Diuraphis frequens (Walker), Diuraphis mexicana (McVicar Baker), and Diuraphis tritici (Gillette), were known to exist in the United States before the 1986 appearance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov. The Russian wheat aphid soon became a significant pest of wheat although other endemic Diuraphis species were known to infest wheat. Wheat and barley entries resistant and susceptible to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 were evaluated against all four Diuraphis species to determine their host interrelationships. Leaf chlorosis, leaf roll, leaf number, plant height, and infestation levels were assessed 21 d after the plants were infested by aphids in a no-choice caged environment. D. mexicana was unable to survive on wheat by 21 d after infestation and effects on the plant damage variables were negligible. D. frequens survived at low levels on resistant and susceptible plant entries and had a low impact on plant damage and growth. Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 and D. tritici were damaged most wheat and barley lines except the Russian wheat aphid biotype 2-resistant wheat lines containing genes from Dn7, STARS 2414-11, and CI2401; and resistant barley containing genes from STARS 9577B and 9301B. Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 and D. tritici reduced the growth of resistant plants by 25-50% and susceptible entries by 65-75%. Reductions at this level are typical under no-choice studies but resistant cultivars do not have these reductions under field conditions. The Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 resistant wheat lines would be effective in managing both wheat pest species.

  3. Characterization of ω-secalin genes from rye, triticale, and a wheat 1BL/1RS translocation line.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q-T; Wei, Y-M; Andre, L; Lu, Z-X; Pu, Z-E; Peng, Y-Y; Zheng, Y-L

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-two DNA sequences for the coding regions of omega-secalin (ω-secalin) genes have been characterized from rye (Secale cereale L.), hexaploid and octoploid triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1BL/1RS translocation line. Only 19 out of the 62 ω-secalin gene sequences were full-length open reading frames (ORFs), which can be expressed into functional proteins. The other 43 DNA sequences were pseudogenes, as their ORFs were interrupted by one or a few stop codons or frameshift mutations. The 19 ω-secalin genes have a typical primary structure, which is different from wheat gliadins. There was no cysteine residue in ω-secalin proteins, and the potential celiac disease (CD) toxic epitope (PQQP) was identified to appear frequently in the repetitive domains. The ω-secalin genes from various cereal species shared high homology in their gene sequences. The ω-secalin gene family has involved fewer variations after the integration of the rye R chromosome or whole genome into the wheat or triticale genome. The higher Ka/Ks ratio (i.e. non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions per site) in ω-secalin pseudogenes than in ω-secalin ORFs indicate that the pseudogenes may be subject to a reduced selection pressure. Based on the conserved sequences of ω-secalin genes, it will be possible to manipulate the expression of this gene family in rye, triticale, or wheat 1BL/1RS translocation lines, to reduce its negative effects on grain quality.

  4. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  5. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  6. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

  7. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  8. Identification and phenotypic description of new wheat: six-rowed winter barley disomic additions.

    PubMed

    Molnár-Láng, Márta; Kruppa, Klaudia; Cseh, András; Bucsi, Julianna; Linc, Gabriella

    2012-04-01

    To increase the allelic variation in wheat-barley introgressions, new wheat-barley disomic addition lines were developed containing the 2H, 3H, 4H, 6H, and 7H chromosomes of the six-rowed Ukrainian winter barley 'Manas'. This cultivar is agronomically much better adapted to Central European environmental conditions than the two-rowed spring barley 'Betzes' previously used. A single 'Asakaze' × 'Manas' wheat × barley hybrid plant was multiplied in vitro and one backcross plant was obtained after pollinating 354 regenerant hybrids with wheat. The addition lines were selected from the self-fertilized seeds of the 16 BC(2) plants using genomic in situ hybridization. The addition lines were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using repetitive DNA probes (HvT01, GAA, pTa71, and Afa family), followed by confirmation with barley SSR markers. The addition lines were grown in the phytotron and in the field, and morphological parameters (plant height, fertility, tillering, and spike characteristics) were measured. The production of the disomic additions will make it possible to incorporate the DNA of six-rowed winter barley into the wheat genome. Addition lines are useful for genetic studies on the traits of six-rowed winter barley and for producing new barley dissection lines.

  9. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): role of the binary vector system and selection cassettes.

    PubMed

    Bińka, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The influence of two binary vector systems, pGreen and pCAMBIA, on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation ability of wheat and triticale was studied. Both vectors carried selection cassettes with bar or nptII driven by different promoters. Two cultivars of wheat, Kontesa and Torka, and one cultivar of triticale, Wanad, were tested. The transformation rates for the wheat cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 3.58% and from 0.00 to 6.79% for triticale. The best values for wheat were 3.58% for Kontesa and 3.14% for Torka, and these were obtained after transformation with the pGreen vector carrying the nptII selection gene under the control of 35S promoter. In the case of the bar selection system, the best transformation rates were, respectively, 1.46 and 1.79%. Such rates were obtained when the 35S::bar cassette was carried by the pCAMBIA vector; they were significantly lower with the pGreen vector. The triticale cultivar Wanad had its highest transformation rate after transformation with nptII driven by 35S in pCAMBIA. The bar selection system for the same triticale cultivar was better when the gene was driven by nos and the selection cassette was carried by pGreen. The integration of the transgenes was confirmed with at least three pairs of specific starters amplifying the fragments of nptII, bar, or gus. The expression of selection genes, measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in relation to the actin gene, was low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.63 for nptII and from 0.00 to 0.33 for bar. The highest relative transcript accumulation was observed for nptII driven by 35S and expressed in Kontesa that had been transformed with pGreen.

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  11. Brightening triticale's future

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, J.P. ); Francois, L.E. ); Webster, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Triticales, hybrids of wheat and rye, were first developed a century ago to take advantage of the natural disease resistances found in each parent. Yields of up to 30 percent more than wheat have been obtained on marginal lands. The hybrids have been grown mainly for animal feed with some used to make flour for human consumption. Growth under adverse conditions has been found in soils that are sandy, cold, infertile, dry, and mineral deficient as well as in soils of high acidity and alkalinity and of high boron and aluminum content. The NRC predicts that triticales will be grown increasingly on marginal land due to climate changes caused by the greenhouse effect.

  12. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  13. Evolution and Intensity of Hail in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaldo de Quirós, I.; Saa Requejo, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Burgaz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The cereals have represented a very important place in the agriculture along the history. The current expansion and growth of the energetic markets are changing the role of the agriculture. The cereals, with other crops, are becoming more significant as suppliers of raw material for the production of biofuels. The purpose of the present project is to carry out a study about the hail in cereals. The survey is focus in wheat and barley as they both represent the highest cereal production of Spain. Four provinces have been chosen (those with the values of production are higher): Burgos and Zaragoza for the wheat and Cuenca and Valladolid for the barley. The materials and methods that we had available for the study of the evolution and intensity of the damages for hail include an analysis of the correlation between the ratios of agricultural insurances provided by ENESA and the number of days of annual hail (from 1981 to 2007). At the same time, one weather station per province was selected by the longest more complete data recorded (from 1963 to 2007) to perform an analysis of monthly time series of the number of hail days (HD). The results of the study show us that there is no relation between the ratio of the agricultural insurances and the number of hail days. This can be due to the large area of which the ratio refers to and the low density of meteorological stations to cover the hail that is registered in every of the four provinces. On the other hand, it is observed that monthly HD time series don't show a change in pattern except in one of the stations studied. Therefore with the information available we cannot state that there are clear changes in the evolution of the hail registered for each province.

  14. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  15. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  16. Evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calender models for the 1979 crop year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazare, C. V.; Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    During the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment, spring wheat planting date and crop development stage estimates based on historical normals were improved by the use of the Feyerherm planting date and Robertson spring wheat crop calendar models. The Supporting Research Crop Calendar Project element modified the Robertson model to reduce bias at cardinal growth stages within the growing season. These models were tested in 1980 along with a state-of-the-art barley model (Williams) against a ground-truth data set from 49 calendar year 1979 segments in the U.S. Great Plains spring wheat and barley region.

  17. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE.

  18. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  19. Intake and digestion of whole-crop barley and wheat silages by dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P < 0.001, r = 0.46) and negatively correlated to NDF content (P < 0.001, r = -0.42). Organic matter digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages of maturity in all crops (P < 0.001), did not differ between the milk and the dough stages in the 2 barley crops, but increased in the wheat silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.

  20. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains.

  1. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    PubMed

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  2. Survey of Rhizoctonia spp. from wheat soils in the U.S. and determination of pathogenicity on wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch are chronic diseases of wheat and barley in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), but little is known about Rhizoctonia spp. in other cereal growing areas of the U.S. A survey was conducted in the fall of 2009 and 2010 to identify Rhizoctonia spp. from soils collected thro...

  3. Opportunities for manipulating the seed protein composition of wheat and barley in order to improve quality.

    PubMed

    Shewry, P R; Tatham, A S; Halford, N G; Barker, J H; Hannappel, U; Gallois, P; Thomas, M; Kreis, M

    1994-01-01

    Wheat and barley are the major temperate cereals, being used for food, feed and industrial raw material. However, in all cases the quality may be limited by the amount, composition and properties of the grain storage proteins. We describe how a combination of biochemical and molecular studies has led to an understanding of the molecular basis for breadmaking quality in wheat and feed quality in barley, and also provided genes encoding key proteins that determine quality. The control of expression of these genes has been studied in transgenic tobacco plants and by transient expression in cereal protoplasts, providing the basis for the production of transgenic cereals with improved quality characteristics.

  4. Advances and remaining challenges in the transformation of barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Wendy A

    2012-03-01

    Highly efficient and cost-effective transformation technologies are essential for studying gene function in the major cereal crops, wheat and barley. Demand for efficient transformation systems to allow over-expression, or RNAi-mediated silencing of target genes, is greatly increasing. This is due to technology advances, such as rapid genome sequencing, enhancing the rate of gene discovery and thus leading to a large number of genes requiring functional analysis through transformation pipelines. Barley can be transformed at very high efficiency but the methods are genotype-dependent. Wheat is more difficult to transform, however, recent advances are also allowing the development of high-throughput transformation systems in wheat. For many gene function studies, barley can be used as a model for wheat due to its highly efficient transformation rates and smaller, less complex genome. An ideal transformation system needs to be extremely efficient, simple to perform, inexpensive, genotype-independent, and give the required expression of the transgene. Considerable progress has been made in enhancing transformation efficiencies, controlling transgene expression and in understanding and manipulating transgene insertion. However, a number of challenges still remain, one of the key ones being the development of genotype-independent transformation systems for wheat and barley.

  5. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

  6. Registration of 'Mesa' Russian wheat aphid-resistant winter feed barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Mesa' (Reg. No., PI 659768), Russian wheat aphid [RWA, Diruaphis noxia (Kurdjumov)]-resistant six-rowed winter feed barley Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as 97BX 43-99A and STARS 1401B, was developed and released by USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK. Although all crossing, selection, and evaluation was done by...

  7. Modeling light and temperature effects on leaf emergence in wheat and barley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, T.; Bugbee, B.

    1991-01-01

    Phenological development affects canopy structure, radiation interception, and dry matter production; most crop simulation models therefore incorporate leaf emergence rate as a basic parameter. A recent study examined leaf emergence rate as a function of temperature and daylength among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. Leaf emergence rate and phyllochron were modeled as functions of temperature alone, daylength alone, and the interaction between temperature and daylength. The resulting equations contained an unwieldy number of constants. Here we simplify by reducing the constants by > 70%, and show leaf emergence rate as a single response surface with temperature and daylength. In addition, we incorporate the effect of photosynthetic photon flux into the model. Generic fits for wheat and barley show cultivar differences less than +/- 5% for wheat and less than +/- 10% for barley. Barley is more sensitive to daylength changes than wheat for common environmental values of daylength, which may be related to the difference in sensitivity to daylength between spring and winter cultivars. Differences in leaf emergence rate between cultivars can be incorporated into the model by means of a single, nondimensional factor for each cultivar.

  8. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  9. Registration of 'Stoneham' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Stoneham' (REG. No.; PI 641940) a Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov)-resistant, spring, two-rowed, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare) tested as 97BX 27-132, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK and Aberdeen, ID; Colorado State University; and the University of Neb...

  10. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  11. Triticale development in Algeria: genetic gains through decades.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Benbelkacem; Fatiha, Sadli

    2014-01-01

    Algeria started working on triticale since the late seventies, it was first as a scientific curiosity (1974-1980), the production of this crop began in the early eighties and expanded well for a decade (10.000ha) then decreased for another decade due to lack of subsidies and serious interest from decision makers putting all their effort in wheat production which is the predominant crop in the country. Since the 1990s up to date, it is developing again mainly based on feed market requirements (20.500ha in 2001) and a better consideration by stakeholders. Triticale is now developed by the informal seed system. Triticale is grown in Algeria under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, including dryland and marginal soils. Under high input and rainfall environments, the best triticale cultivars have comparable grain yield with wheat but slightly lower to barley. This advantage is larger under dry conditions. Our study was dealing with an evaluation of the progress made in time since their introduction and selection of triticale varieties. The study was conducted on twenty five varieties and advanced lines, selected in the different phases of triticale development, during the three last seasons (2009 - 2012) in two contrasting regions (semi arid and high input environment) showed very interesting results and a linear improvement in grain yield and its components, and also in the feeding quality traits. The improvement was apparent in both sites; although result data was higher in number in the high input environment, the increase rate was larger in the semi arid area of study. In the favorable area, grain yield increased from 2.94t/ha for the varieties developed in the early phase (late 1970s), to 3.98t/ha for the varieties released in the second phase (1990s) up to 5.45t/ha for the latest varieties developed in the 2000s. Grain yield increased in the dry area from 2.42t/ha to 4.92t/ha. The trend is almost the same for all yield components and even for forage

  12. [Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum)-triticum aestivum].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Belova, L I; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Kravtsova, L A

    2009-10-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1Hmr((IB), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7Hma(7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BCIF8- and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (=H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x T. aestivum L.) (2n = 42) (Pyrotrix 28), respectively. Moreover, the alloplasmic wheat-barley ditelosomic addition line 7HLma' isolated among plants from the BC1F6 progeny of a barley-wheat amphiploid was studied, which in this work corresponds to BC2F10 and BC2F11 progeny. It was ascertained that when grown in the field, these alloplasmic lines manifest stable self-fertility. Plants of the given lines are characterized by low height, shortened ears, the fewer number of stems and ears, and of spikelets in the ear, by decreased grain productivity and weight of 1000 grains, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28. The inhibition of trait expression in alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines may be connected not only with the influence of wild barley chromosomes functioning in the genotypic environment of common wheat, but also with the effect of the barley cytoplasm. The alloplasmic line with substitution of chromosomes 1Hmar(1B), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D) or the alloplasmic line 7HLmar with ditelosomic addition have, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28, an increased grain protein content, which is explained by the effect of wild barley H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromosomes.

  13. Anti-staling effects of β-glucan and barley flour in wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Paras; Gujral, Hardeep Singh

    2014-02-15

    Chapatti making behaviour of wheat flour containing barley flour (28%, 56% and 84%) or β-glucan (1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%) and their effect on staling of chapatti was studied. The dough water absorption increased significantly up to 76.7% and 78.3% upon incorporation of barley flour and β-glucan, respectively. Bake loss significantly increased (up to 20%) upon incorporation of barley flour but was not significantly affected by β-glucan. The peak (PV) and final viscosity (FV) significantly increased upon incorporation of barley flour (up to 105% and 65%), whereas incorporating β-glucan decreased the PV and FV by 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. The stored chapatties exhibited higher pasting viscosities compared to the fresh chapatties. Incorporation of barley flour exhibited a gradual increase in the enthalpy of gelatinisation (ΔHgel), similarly β-glucan at 1.5% increased the ΔHgel. Retrogradation was lowered by 23.7%, 41.5% and 63.5% by barley flour and by 19.9%, 27.4% and 44.8% by β-glucan.

  14. Protein and quality characterization of triticale translocation lines in breadmaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-D1d locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of high molecular weight glutenin loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the breadmaking quality of triticale. One means of achieving such restor...

  15. [Effect of rye chromosomes on features of androgenesis in wheat-rye substituted lines of Triticum aestivum L. sort Saratovskaya 29/Secale cerale L. sort Onokhoiskaia and Triticale].

    PubMed

    Dobrovolskaia, O B; Pershina, L A; Kravtsova, L A; Silkova, O G; Shchapova, A I

    2001-05-01

    The characteristic features of androgenesis in six wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Saratovskaya 29)/Secale cereale L. (cv. Onokhoiskaya) and triticale (2n = 56) using anther culture at different concentrations of 2,4-D in the growth medium were studied. Under variable cultivation conditions, the significant effect of genotypic diversity on the variability of such androgenesis parameters as the frequency of productive anthers, the frequency of embryoid formation, and the frequency of total regenerated plantlets, was shown. It was demonstrated that chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7R stimulated the formation of androgenous embryoids, while chromosome 5R produced an opposite effect. In triticale and substitution lines, the regeneration ability of androgenous embryoids induced by elevated 2,4-D concentrations was inhibited. Chromosome 1R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar was suggested to contain genes suppressing regeneration of green plantlets, while chromosome 3R, conversely, stimulated their formation. Chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 7R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar did not inhibit the spontaneous formation of androgenous hexaploids in the substitution lines.

  16. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    PubMed

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods.

  17. Phytochemical profile of main antioxidants in different fractions of purple and blue wheat, and black barley.

    PubMed

    Siebenhandl, Susanne; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Del Rio, Daniele; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pernice, Rita; Berghofer, Emmerich

    2007-10-17

    Two pigmented wheat genotypes (blue and purple) and two black barley genotypes were fractionated in bran and flour fractions, examined, and compared for their free radical scavenging properties against 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic acid composition, carotenoid composition, and total anthocyanin content. The results showed that fractionation has a significant influence on the antioxidant properties, TPC, anthocyanin and carotenoid contents, and phenolic acid composition. Bran fractions had the greatest antioxidant activities (1.9-2.3 mmol TEAC/100 g) in all four grain genotypes and were 3-5-fold higher than the respective flour fractions (0.4-0.7 mmol TEAC/100 g). Ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in wheat genotypes (bran fractions) while p-coumaric acid was the predominant phenolic acid in the bran fractions of barley genotypes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis detected the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin in all fractions with different distribution patterns within the genotypes. The highest contents of anthocyanins were found in the middlings of black barley genotypes or in the shorts of blue and purple wheat. These data suggest the possibility to improve the antioxidant release from cereal-based food through selection of postharvest treatments.

  18. Genetic basis of triticale breeding (x triticale). IV. Embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales

    SciTech Connect

    Gordei, I.A.; Khodortsova, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    Results are reported on enhancing the efficiency of embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales (AABBRR, 2n = 42). The antioxidant tomatoside has a positive effect on the reduction of progamous incompatibility of wheat with rye and increases the output of wheat-rye amphihaploids. It has been established that irradiation of embryos, cultured on nutrient medium, with helium-neon laser, increases significantly (P < 0.01) the regeneration frequency of the wheat-rye hybrid embryos. The highest frequency (40%) of amphidiploids was obtained by treating the plants with 0.15% colchicine through roots during the tillering phase. Hexaploid triticales from 11 cross combinations between tetraploid wheats (AABB, 2n = 28) and diploid rye (RR, 2n = 14) formed the initial material for breeding.

  19. Identification of individual barley chromosomes based on repetitive sequences: conservative distribution of Afa-family repetitive sequences on the chromosomes of barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, H; Mukai, Y; Akagawa, K; Nagaki, K; Fujigaki, J; Yamamoto, M; Sasakuma, T

    1997-10-01

    The Afa-family repetitive sequences were isolated from barley (Hordeum vulgare, 2n = 14) and cloned as pHvA14. This sequence distinguished each barely chromosome by in situ hybridization. Double color fluorescence in situ hybridization using pHvA14 and 5S rDNA or HvRT-family sequence (subtelomeric sequence of barley) allocated individual barley chromosomes showing a specific pattern of pHvA14 to chromosome 1H to 7H. As the case of the D genome chromosomes of Aegilops squarrosa and common wheat (Triticum aestivum) hybridized by its Afa-family sequences, the signals of pHvA14 in barley chromosomes tended to appear in the distal regions that do not carry many chromosome band markers. In the telomeric regions these signals always placed in more proximal portions than those of HvRT-family. Based on the distribution patterns of Afa-family sequences in the chromosomes of barley and D genome chromosomes of wheat, we discuss a possible mechanism of amplification of the repetitive sequences during the evolution of Triticeae. In addition, we show here that HvRT-family also could be used to distinguish individual barley chromosomes from the patterns of in situ hybridization.

  20. Proteins in Intercellular Washing Fluid from Noninoculated and Rust-Affected Leaves of Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Holden, David W.; Rohringer, Roland

    1985-01-01

    Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19°C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF. To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25°C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley. IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19°C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664314

  1. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers.

  2. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers. PMID:27904341

  3. Structural organization of the barley D-hordein locus in comparison with its orthologous regions of wheat genomes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yong Qiang; Anderson, Olin D; Londeorë, Cynthia F; Kong, Xiuying; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Lazo, Gerard R

    2003-12-01

    D hordein, a prolamin storage protein of barley endosperms, is highly homologous to the high molecular weight (HWM) glutenin subunits, which are the major determinants of bread-making quality in wheat flour. In hexaploid wheat (AABBDD), each genome contains two paralogous copies of HMW-glutenin genes that encode the x- and y-type HMW-glutenin subunits. Previously, we reported the sequence analysis of a 102-kb genomic region that contains the HMW-glutenin locus of the D genome from Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Here, we present the sequence analysis of a 120-kb D-hordein region of the barley genome, a more distantly related member of the Triticeae grass tribe. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that gene content and order are generally conserved. Genes included in both of these orthologous regions are arranged in the following order: a Xa21-like receptor kinase, an endosperm globulin, an HMW prolamin, and a serine (threonine) protein kinase. However, in the wheat D genome, a region containing both the globulin and HMW-glutenin gene was duplicated, indicating that this duplication event occurred after the separation of the wheat and barley genomes. The intergenic regions are divergent with regard to the sequence and structural organization. It was found that different types of retroelements are responsible for the intergenic structure divergence in the wheat and barley genomes. In the barley region, we identified 16 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in three distinct nested clusters. These retroelements account for 63% of the contig sequence. In addition, barley D hordein was compared with wheat HMW glutenins in terms of cysteine residue conservation and repeat domain organization.

  4. Early evidence for the use of wheat and barley as staple crops on the margins of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade A.; Lu, Hongliang; Hein, Anke M.; Schmidt, Amanda H.

    2015-01-01

    We report directly dated evidence from circa 1400 calibrated years (cal) B.C. for the early use of wheat, barley, and flax as staple crops on the borders of the Tibetan Plateau. During recent years, an increasing amount of data from the Tibetan Plateau and its margins shows that a transition from millets to wheat and barley agriculture took place during the second millennium B.C. Using thermal niche modeling, we refute previous assertions that the ecological characteristics of wheat and barley delayed their spread into East Asia. Rather, we demonstrate that the ability of these crops to tolerate frost and their low growing degree-day requirements facilitated their spread into the high-altitude margins of western China. Following their introduction to this region, these crops rapidly replaced Chinese millets and became the staple crops that still characterize agriculture in this area today. PMID:25902511

  5. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    PubMed

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary.

  6. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change.

  7. Comparison of CRD, APU, and state models for Iowa corn and soybeans and North Dakota barley and spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, V.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.

  8. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  9. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  10. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-09-22

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability.

  11. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  12. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  13. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  14. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase detoxifies deoxynivalenol and provides high levels of resistance to Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that results in huge economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and decreas...

  15. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  16. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium head blight: 2013 Field nursery report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2013 field screening nursery consisted of 22 wheat and 15 barley entries evaluated in side by side experiments. Entries within each species experiment were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a field located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and un...

  17. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2012 Field Nursery Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 field screening nursery consisted of 42 wheat and 24 barley entries evaluated in side by side experiments. Entries within each species experiment were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a field located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries, and u...

  18. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  19. An effective increase in milk production through triticale feeding.

    PubMed

    Derbal, Nora; Benbelkacem, A; Dib, Y

    2014-01-01

    Since the first studies in Algeria in 1999, 2002 and 2005, triticale has been used in arid and semi-arid areas mainly for livestock production. Efforts have been done for the utilization of triticale as hay, silage and hole grain to feed dairy cattle and small ruminants (sheep). Studies have shown that triticale could be easily integrated in the existing crop-livestock system of northern Algeria. In spite of the good results in the yield performance and adaptation to diverse environments, decision makers are not giving the necessary attention to triticale. Dairy cattle holders that tested the crop have adopted it quickly and developed it in an informal way. Now, more than 90% of the triticale seed business is in the hands of private farmers without any help or subsidies nor a good price policy to develop strongly this crop. The utilization of triticale in Algeria is roughly as follow: human consumption 5%, forage crop (hay or silage) 60% and 30% as feed grain, the remaining 5% are kept for sowing seed. In our studies we have compared different feed sources (barley, triticale, concentrate diet and mixtures) to dairy cattle and sheep. Triticale showed highly significantly better results for meat production and gave also an amazing response for dairy and sheep milk production in Algeria. Milk production of animals fed with triticale over exceeded the other feed sources by 26% to 53%; mean weight gain exhibited the same rates.

  20. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L.; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F.; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A.; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus. PMID:28018377

  1. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  2. Human utilization of triticale: technological and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Bona, L; Acs, E; Lantos, Cs; Tomoskozi, S; Lango, B

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that triticale is not subject of the EU intervention, its acreage shows a continuously growing trend. Albeit, both parental species (sp. Triticum, sp. Secale) are used for human food, the utilization of triticale as human food is still uncertain. The main focus of this paper was to study and compare technological and nutritional values of triticale and its parental species. Triticale (cultivars and experimental lines) along with one wheat and one rye varieties were used in the tests. Most of the grain and flour technological properties (Kernel diameter, Test Weight, flour yield, gluten content, Zeleny volume) of the triticale entries positioned in between the parental wheat and rye attributes. However, thousand kernel weight (TKW) of triticale cultivar GK Szemes and grain hardness of cv. GK Idus surpassed all other entries. The study revealed that--having considerable variation--triticale grains are very rich in beneficial elements such us Ca, Mg, P, Cu and Zn. Dietary fiber (DF) content of triticales were between the rye and wheat controls (10-15%). Total arabinoxylan content (TOTAX) of triticales were much closer to rye (6%), and in some genotypes considerably expanded it (6,5-7%). Health conscious consumers trend to use increasingly novel, valuable grain sources and products in their daily based diets. The inappropriate nature of triticale per se flours for baking industry seems to hinder the human utilization. Blends exploiting favorable attributes of triticale may be a suitable way to use this valuable crop in milling products and in larger food industrial scale.

  3. Effect of field history on the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars.

    PubMed

    Al-Zyoud, Firas Ahmad

    2012-02-15

    Due to the importance of wheat and barley production in Jordan, prevention of the cereal leafminer, Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) is of vital importance. The insect is a severe pest and plays an important role in limiting the production of these crops. The use of insecticides is neither economic nor sustainable, so that there is an urgent need to initiate a viable alternative to chemical control. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of crop rotation on S. temperatella and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars. The field history experiment was conducted using five different crop rotations. For the preference experiments in the laboratory, two major experimental groups were conducted. The first was set up to measure the consumed leaf area and the second one to record the number of larval attaches. Each group consisted of four different subgroups; 6 wheat cultivars, 6 barley cultivars, two and one cultivar of each crop. The results indicated that the infestation percentage and number of larvae were significantly the lowest in the crop rotation, wheat/chickpea/wheat while the highest were recorded for barley/barley/barley. The preference results showed that wheat cultivar, Horani Nawawi is significantly the most preferred while Horani 27 is the least cultivar. In case of barley, Mutah was the most preferred cultivar and the least preference was recorded for Athroh. Also, wheat was significantly less preferred than barley. The wheat cultivars, Sham, Em-Qees and Acsad 65 had the highest number of attaches and Deer Alla the least. In contrast, the barley cultivar, Acsad 176 had the highest and Athroh and Rum 1 had the least attaches. Barley cultivars had higher attaches than wheat ones. There was a positive relation between the infestation percent and number of larvae, as well as the consumed area and number of attaches in all of the four subgroups. In conclusion, the crop rotation, wheat/chickpea/wheat

  4. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 μg/g), followed by corn (1,454 μg/g), oat (945 μg/g), wheat (705 μg/g), and rice (675 μg/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response.

  5. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  6. Crop weather models of barley and spring wheat yield for agrophysical units in North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate barley yield and spring wheat yield from weather data for Agrophysical units(APU) in North Dakota. The predictor variables are derived from monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data at meteorological stations in the cooperative network. The models are similar in form to the previous models developed for Crop Reporting Districts (CRD). The trends and derived variables were the same and the approach to select the significant predictors was similar to that used in developing the CRD models. The APU models show sight improvements in some of the statistics of the models, e.g., explained variation. These models are to be independently evaluated and compared to the previously evaluated CRD models. The comparison will indicate the preferred model area for this application, i.e., APU or CRD.

  7. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristian H; Schjoerring, Jan K; Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Husted, Søren

    2011-05-11

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and -mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences between organic and conventional crops were found in the content of essential plant nutrients when statistically analyzed individually. However, chemometric analysis of multielemental fingerprints comprising up to 14 elements allowed discrimination. The discrimination power was further enhanced by analysis of up to 25 elements derived from semiquantitative ICP-MS. It is concluded that multielemental fingerprinting with semiquantitative ICP-MS and chemometrics has the potential to enable authentication of organic crops.

  8. Protein and Quality Characterization of Triticale Translocation Lines in Bread Making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-Did locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of storage protein loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the bread making quality of triticale. One means to achieve such restoration of the gen...

  9. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  10. Metabolic and Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Flooding at Low Temperature in Winter Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, M. Keith; Andrews, Christopher J.

    1979-01-01

    Cold-hardened winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Fredrick) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Dover) were exposed to total flooding at 2 C. Dover seedlings were damaged more quickly than Fredrick, and after 3 weeks of flooding the survival of Dover was reduced to 10% and Fredrick to about 50%. Tissue moisture was slightly greater in Dover than Fredrick throughout the 4-week flooding period. Carbon dioxide and ethanol accumulated throughout the 4-week flooding period in both cultivars. Lactic acid increased rapidly during the 1st week of flooding, and remained relatively constant during the remainder of the flooding period. Oxygen consumption of seedling shoot tissue after exposure to flooding declined abruptly after only 1 day of flooding, but recovered somewhat during the subsequent 2 weeks. The effect of flooding was more pronounced on the ultrastructure of Dover than Fredrick. Although proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the early stages of flooding in both cultivars, the occurrence of distinct parallel arrays and concentric whorls of membranes was prevalent in the flooded barley. Severe ultrastructural damage to a large proportion of apical cells in both cultivars was observed after 2 to 3 weeks of flooding. Images PMID:16661023

  11. Comparison of Thinopyrum intermedium derivatives carrying barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Navarrete, L; Tourton, E; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J

    2009-06-01

    Resistance to both barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) has been demonstrated in wheat genetic stocks with Thinopyrum intermedium chromatin. A number of resistance-bearing translocations have been reported on chromosome arm 7DL from two independent Th. intermedium sources; one source is the addition line L1 and the other is the spontaneous substitution line P29. Another source of resistance in wheat cytogenetic stocks is available as a 2Ai(2D) substitution line. We used a set of 38 molecular markers and the available deletion stocks to compare the size of the 7DL translocations more comprehensively than has been done previously. We also compared the efficacy of BYDV resistance of the various genetic stocks both before and after transfer to a common genetic background. TC14 was confirmed as carrying the smallest translocation, replacing about 20% of the distal end of 7DL. TC5 and TC10 had 90% of the chromosome arm replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin; the proximal 10% corresponded to wheat chromatin. YW642 appeared to have the whole 7DL replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, as confirmed by the co-dominant marker cfd68 mapping on the bin nearest the centromere. Translocation line P961341 had bins 3, 7, and 8 replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, making this the second smallest translocation with BYDV and CYDV resistance. The translocation sizes reported here differ from some of the previous estimates. The translocated Th. intermedium segments appeared to be bigger than the replaced wheat 7DL fragments. All the resistances derived from the L1 and P29 group 7 chromosomes and the 2Ai#2 chromosome were effective in reducing the number of infected plants and the mean virus titre, regardless of the background. Some evidence is discussed suggesting the long arm of the Th. intermedium group 7 chromosome 7Ai#1 carries two resistances, the distal Bdv2 and a proximal second gene.

  12. The effect of elevated temperature on Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Narelle; Constable, Fiona E; Finlay, Kyla J; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan C; Trebicki, Piotr; Vassiliadis, Simone; Yen, Alan L; Luck, Jo E

    2014-06-24

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) is associated with yellow dwarf disease, one of the most economically important diseases of cereals worldwide. In this study, the impact of current and future predicted temperatures for the Wimmera wheat growing district in Victoria, Australia on the titre of BYDV-PAV in wheat was investigated. Ten-day old wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yitpi) seedlings were inoculated with BYDV-PAV and grown at ambient (5.0-16.1°C, night-day) or elevated (10.0-21.1°C, night-day) temperature treatments, simulating the current Wimmera average and future daily temperature cycles, respectively, during the wheat-growing season. Whole above-ground plant samples were collected from each temperature treatment at 0 (day of inoculation), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after inoculation and the titre of BYDV-PAV was measured in each sample using a specific one-step multiplex normalised reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. Physical measurements, including plant height, dry weight and tiller number, were also taken at each sampling point. The titre of BYDV-PAV was significantly greater in plants grown in the elevated temperature treatment than in plants grown in the ambient treatment on days 6, 9 and 12. Plants grown at elevated temperature were significantly bigger and symptoms associated with BYDV-PAV were visible earlier than in plants grown at ambient temperature. These results may have important implications for the epidemiology of yellow dwarf disease under future climates in Australia.

  13. The use of the ph1b mutant to induce recombination between the chromosomes of wheat and barley

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María C.; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Intensive breeding has led to a narrowing in the genetic base of our major crops. In wheat, access to the extensive gene pool residing in its many and varied relatives (some cultivated, others wild) is hampered by the block on recombination imposed by the Ph1 (Pairing homoeologous 1) gene. Here, the ph1b mutant has been exploited to induced allosyndesis between wheat chromosomes and those of both Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. chilense (a wild barley). A number of single chromosome Hordeum sp. substitution and addition lines in wheat were crossed and backcrossed to the ph1b mutant to produce plants in which pairing between the wheat and the non-wheat chromosomes was not suppressed by the presence of Ph1. Genomic in situ hybridization was applied to almost 500 BC1F2 progeny as a screen for allosyndetic recombinants. Chromosome rearrangements were detected affecting H. chilense chromosomes 4Hch, 5Hch, 6Hch, and 7Hch and H. vulgare chromosomes 4Hv, 6Hv, and 7Hv. Two of these were clearly the product of a recombination event involving chromosome 4Hch and a wheat chromosome. PMID:25852713

  14. Differing metabolic responses to salt stress in wheat-barley addition lines containing different 7H chromosomal fragments

    PubMed Central

    Gierczik, Krisztián; Hudák, Orsolya; Forgó, Péter; Pál, Magda; Türkösi, Edina; Kovács, Viktória; Dulai, Sándor; Majláth, Imre; Molnár, István; Janda, Tibor; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Salinity-induced osmotic, ionic and oxidative stress responses were investigated on Asakaze/Manas wheat/barley addition lines 7H, 7HL and 7HS, together with their barley (salt-tolerant) and wheat (relatively salt-sensitive) parents. Growth, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll degradation, proline, glycine betaine accumulation, sugar metabolism, Na+ and K+ uptake and transport processes and the role of polyamines and antioxidants were studied in young plants grown in hydroponic culture with or without salt treatment. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic activity of plants demonstrated that the salt tolerance of the addition lines 7H and 7HL was similar to that of barley parent cv. Manas, while the sensitivity of the addition line 7HS was similar to that of the wheat parent cv. Asakaze. The Na accumulation in the roots and shoots did not differ between the addition lines and wheat parent. The activation of various genes related to Na uptake and transport was not correlated with the salt tolerance of the genotypes. These results indicated that the direct regulation of Na transport processes is not the main reason for the salt tolerance of these genotypes. Salt treatment induced a complex metabolic rearrangement in both the roots and shoots of all the genotypes. Elevated proline accumulation in the roots and enhanced sugar metabolism in the shoots were found to be important for salt tolerance in the 7H and 7HL addition lines and in barley cv. Manas. In wheat cv. Asakaze and the 7HS addition line the polyamine metabolism was activated. It seems that osmotic adjustment is a more important process in the improvement of salt tolerance in 7H addition lines than the direct regulation of Na transport processes or antioxidant defence. PMID:28328973

  15. Nutritional evaluation of wheat and barley cultivars by growth rate and body composition of larvae of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R; Sosulski, F W

    1976-04-01

    Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets of 17 cultivars of wheat and 29 cultivars of barley, prepared for determination of digestible energy with mice, for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity. Values for percentage crude protein of tissues of larvae fed wheat cultivars were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy as determined with mice. These values were not correlated for larvae fed barley cultivars; however, values for per cent dry matter content of larvae were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy determined with mice. This apparent discrepancy is explained on the basis of the chemical constitution of barley and the availability of amino acids of barley to the larvae. Use of larvae of Tenebrio molitor to indicate the digestible energy of cereal grains is feasible, provided that the proper parameter is chosen. Nevertheless, use of this biological method seems more suitable for evaluation of protein quality and of amino acid availability than for a measure of digestible energy of feeds.

  16. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  17. Barley yellow dwarf virus infection and elevated CO2 alter the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione in wheat.

    PubMed

    Vandegeer, Rebecca K; Powell, Kevin S; Tausz, Michael

    2016-05-20

    Plant antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione play an important role in regulating potentially harmful reactive oxygen species produced in response to virus infection. Barley yellow dwarf virus is a widespread viral pathogen that systemically infects cereal crops including wheat, barley and oats. In addition, rising atmospheric CO2 will alter plant growth and metabolism, including many potential but not well understood effects on plant-virus interactions. In order to better understand the wheat-BYDV interaction and any potential changes under elevated CO2, the total concentration and oxidised fraction of ascorbate and glutathione was measured in leaves of a susceptible wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yitpi') infected with Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (Padi Avenae virus) and grown under elevated CO2 in controlled environment chambers. Virus infection decreased total leaf ascorbate and glutathione concentrations and increased the fraction of oxidised ascorbate (dehydroascorbate). Elevated CO2 decreased the fraction of oxidised ascorbate. In this work, we demonstrate that systemic infection by a phloem-restricted virus weakens the antioxidant pools of ascorbate and glutathione. In addition, elevated CO2 may decrease oxidative stress, for example, from virus infection, but there was no direct evidence for an interactive effect between treatments.

  18. Population subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from barley and wheat in the upper Midwestern United States at the turn of the century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part c...

  19. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  20. Effects of Red Light on the Growth of Intact Wheat and Barley Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Verna R.; Weintraub, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    The final lengths of intact dark-grown coleoptiles vary with species and cultivar. The growth distribution pattern in the apical 25-mm growing zone and the absolute amount of growth in each zone depend on the age and species of the coleoptile. A comparative study of several cultivars of wheat, Triticum vulgare, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, indicates that the growth distribution pattern in 30- to 38-mm coleoptiles varies with the species and cultivar. In barley, there are two patterns of growth distribution among the several cultivars, whereas in wheat, all cultivars exhibit a common zonal growth pattern. The total growth of coleoptiles, initially 30 to 38 mm in length, during a 24-hour dark incubation period is the same in dark-grown coleoptiles as in those irradiated with 3 minutes of red (660 nm) light prior to the incubation period. The growth distribution pattern in the growing zone of this 30- to 38-mm coleoptile is, however, altered by red light. Growth of the apical 5-mm zone is stimulated by red light and the zonal growth 5 to 10 mm below the apex is only slightly affected, whereas growth in the zones 10 to 15 to 20, and 20 to 25 mm below the apex is inhibited. This growth distribution pattern in irradiated coleoptiles changes as the coleoptile increases in length. The response of a zone following exposure to red light is dependent upon the age of the seedlings irradiated. The over-all effect of red light on growth of the intact coleoptile varies with the length of the coleoptile. In young seedling 20 to 29 mm in length, the cells of the coleoptile can compensate for the effects of red light, with the over-all growth of the dark-grown and irradiated coleoptile about the same. As the seedling grows older, the cells of the coleoptile can no longer make up for the effects of red light, and the over-all effect changes from compensation to pronounced inhibition. PMID:16659255

  1. Effect of barley chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat to feeding by a gall-inducing leafhopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumashiro, Shun; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Kawaura, Kanako; Matsumura, Masaya; Ogihara, Yasunari; Tokuda, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World and feeds on various Poaceae. The leafhopper is recognized as an important pest of maize in several countries. Adults as well as nymphs of C. bipunctata induce growth stunting and galls characterized by the severe swelling of leaf veins on many cereal crops including wheat, rice, and maize, but do not on barley. To clarify the mechanism of growth stunting and gall induction by C. bipunctata, we used six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) and investigated the effect of barley (cv. Betzes) chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat (cv. Chinese Spring) to feeding by the leafhopper. Feeding by C. bipunctata significantly stunted the growth in 2H, 3H, 4H, and 5H, but did not in 6H and 7H. The degree of gall induction was significantly weaker and severer in 3H and 5H than in Chinese Spring, respectively. These results suggest that barley genes resistant to growth stunting and gall induction exist in 6H and 7H, and 3H, respectively. 5H is considered to be useful for future assays investigating the mechanism of gall induction by this leafhopper because of the high susceptibility to the feeding by C. bipunctata. Significant correlation between the degrees of growth stunting and gall induction was not detected in the six chromosome addition lines and Chinese spring. This implies that these two symptoms are independent phenomena although both are initiated by the feeding of C. bipunctata.

  2. Comparative analysis of prolamin and glutelin fractions from wheat, rye, and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    PubMed

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2016-09-01

    The safety of gluten-free foods is essential for celiac disease (CD) patients to prevent serious complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are recommended for gluten analysis to monitor the compliance of gluten-free products to the Codex threshold of 20 mg gluten/kg. However, due to the specific features of each gluten ELISA test kit, the results often deviate systematically and largely depend on the characteristics of the antibody. This comprehensive study assessed the specificities and sensitivities of three monoclonal (R5, G12, and Skerritt) and two polyclonal antibodies to the alcohol-soluble prolamin and alcohol-insoluble glutelin fractions of gluten from wheat, rye, and barley, all of which harbor CD-active epitopes. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography served as independent reference method to quantify gluten protein concentrations and allow comparisons of different gluten fractions within one kit and between kits. Wheat prolamins were detected quite accurately by all antibodies, but high variability between antibody specificities and sensitivities was observed for rye and barley prolamins and rye glutelins, and the largest discrepancies were found for wheat and barley glutelins. The gluten content (sum of prolamins and glutelins) was either overestimated up to six times (rye) or underestimated up to seven times (barley). Overestimation of gluten contents may unnecessarily limit the availability of gluten-free products, but underestimation represents a serious health risk for CD patients. It is important to consider these differences between antibodies used in kits and consider what each kit is capable of measuring, especially with samples where the source of gluten is unknown.

  3. Variation between Ethiopian and North American barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in response to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations.

    PubMed

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-03-15

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia.

  4. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  5. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). PMID:28234993

  6. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

  7. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  8. Carotenoids of aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat differentially inhibit oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Diehl-Jones, William L; Gordon, Joseph; Chapman, Donald; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2015-03-18

    The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (P<0.001) antioxidant activity in the germ than in the aleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2'azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (P<0.001) AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation in the cell lines, suggesting antioxidant activity. Of the 84 antioxidant pathway genes included in microarray array analysis (HT-29 cells), the expressions of 28 genes were enhanced (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that carotenoids of germ, aleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.

  9. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  10. Lunasin in wheat: a chemical and molecular study on its presence or absence.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Simonetti, Emanuela; Trozzi, Caterina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Quinn, Robert; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-05-15

    Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide.

  11. The wheat resistance gene Lr34 results in the constitutive induction of multiple defense pathways in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Harsh; Boni, Rainer; Bucher, Rahel; Kuhn, Benjamin; Buchmann, Gabriele; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Bigler, Laurent; Glauser, Gaëtan; Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2015-10-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 encodes an ABCG-type transporter which provides durable resistance against multiple pathogens. Lr34 is functional as a transgene in barley, but its mode of action has remained largely unknown both in wheat and barley. Here we studied gene expression in uninfected barley lines transgenic for Lr34. Genes from multiple defense pathways contributing to basal and inducible disease resistance were constitutively active in seedlings and mature leaves. In addition, the hormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were induced to high levels, and increased levels of lignin as well as hordatines were observed. These results demonstrate a strong, constitutive re-programming of metabolism by Lr34. The resistant Lr34 allele (Lr34res) encodes a protein that differs by two amino acid polymorphisms from the susceptible Lr34sus allele. The deletion of a single phenylalanine residue in Lr34sus was sufficient to induce the characteristic Lr34-based responses. Combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus in the same plant resulted in a reduction of Lr34res expression by 8- to 20-fold when the low-expressing Lr34res line BG8 was used as a parent. Crosses with the high-expressing Lr34res line BG9 resulted in an increase of Lr34sus expression by 13- to 16-fold in progenies that inherited both alleles. These results indicate an interaction of the two Lr34 alleles on the transcriptional level. Reduction of Lr34res expression in BG8 crosses reduced the negative pleiotropic effects of Lr34res on barley growth and vigor without compromising disease resistance, suggesting that transgenic combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus can result in agronomically useful resistance.

  12. New Oligonucleotide Probes for ND-FISH Analysis to Identify Barley Chromosomes and to Investigate Polymorphisms of Wheat Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shuyao; Qiu, Ling; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shulan; Tang, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes that can be used for non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) analysis are convenient tools for identifying chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives. New oligonucleotide probes, Oligo-HvT01, Oligo-pTa71-1, Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2, Oligo-s120.3, Oligo-275.1, Oligo-275.2, Oligo-k566 and Oligo-713, were designed based on the repetitive sequences HVT01, pTa71, pTa-s120, pTa-275, pTa-k566 and pTa-713. All these probes can be used for ND-FISH analysis and some of them can be used to detect polymorphisms of wheat chromosomes. Probes Oligo-HvT01, Oligo-pTa71-1, Oligo-s120.3, Oligo-275.1, Oligo-k566 and Oligo-713 can, respectively, replace the roles of their original sequences to identify chromosomes of some barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the common wheat variety Chinese Spring. Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2 and Oligo-275.2 produced different hybridization patterns from the ones generated by their original sequences. In addition, Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2 and Oligo-s120.3, which were derived from pTa-s120, revealed different signal patterns. Likewise, Oligo-275.1 and Oligo-275.2, which were derived from pTa-275, also displayed different hybridization patterns. These results imply that differently arranged or altered structural statuses of tandem repeats might exist on different chromosome regions. These new oligonucleotide probes provide extra convenience for identifying some wheat and barley chromosomes, and they can display polymorphisms of wheat chromosomes. PMID:27929398

  13. Persistence and efficacy of three diatomaceous earth formulations against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Economou, Leonidas P; Dimizas, Constantin B; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Snezana; Milutinović, Marija

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal and residual efficacy of three diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations, Insecto, PyriSec, and SilicoSec, against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) on barley and wheat was assessed. For this purpose, 4-kg lots of barley and wheat were treated with the above-mentioned DE formulations, in three dose rates (0.75, 1, and 1.5 g/kg grain) and stored at 26 degrees C. Samples of these lots were taken at the day of storage, and every 45 d, until the completion of a 450-d period of storage. Bioassays were conducted by exposing S. oryzae adults to these samples, at 26 degrees C and 57% RH. In these bioassays, the DE efficacy was evaluated by recording adult mortality after 24 h, 48 h, 7 d, and 14 d of exposure on the treated grains. After the 14-d count, all adults were removed, and the samples were left at the same conditions for an additional 45 d, to evaluate the capacity for progeny production in the treated grains. Adult mortality after 14 d of exposure was exponentially decreased with time. During the first 270 d of storage, mortality was > 90%, and progeny production was < 1 adult per sample, whereas after 270 d a gradual decrease in adult mortality occurred, with a resulting increase in progeny production. Generally, the three DE formulations tested were equally effective against S. onyzae adults. During the first 270 d of storage, the DE formulations were equally effective on both grains tested, but from 315 d of storage and on, S. oryzae mortality was higher on barley than on wheat. At this interval, progeny production was gradually increased, especially on grains treated with the lowest DE dose rate. However, even this rate caused a satisfactory level of mortality (> 90% after 14 d of exposure) during the first 270 d of storage.

  14. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P<0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during

  15. Polycistronic artificial miRNA-mediated resistance to Wheat dwarf virus in barley is highly efficient at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Kis, András; Tholt, Gergely; Ivanics, Milán; Várallyay, Éva; Jenes, Barnabás; Havelda, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Infection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) strains on barley results in dwarf disease, imposing severe economic losses on crop production. As the natural resistance resources against this virus are limited, it is imperative to elaborate a biotechnological approach that will provide effective and safe immunity to a wide range of WDV strains. Because vector insect-mediated WDV infection occurs during cool periods in nature, it is important to identify a technology which is effective at lower temperature. In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) using a barley miRNA precursor backbone, which target different conservative sequence elements of the WDV strains. Potential amiRNA sequences were selected to minimize the off-target effects and were tested in a transient sensor system in order to select the most effective constructs at low temperature. On the basis of the data obtained, a polycistronic amiRNA precursor construct (VirusBuster171) was built expressing three amiRNAs simultaneously. The construct was transformed into barley under the control of a constitutive promoter. The transgenic lines were kept at 12-15 °C to mimic autumn and spring conditions in which major WDV infection and accumulation take place. We were able to establish a stable barley transgenic line displaying resistance to insect-mediated WDV infection. Our study demonstrates that amiRNA technology can be an efficient tool for the introduction of highly efficient resistance in barley against a DNA virus belonging to the Geminiviridae family, and this resistance is effective at low temperature where the natural insect vector mediates the infection process.

  16. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  17. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance.

  18. Coeliac disease: a diverse clinical syndrome caused by intolerance of wheat, barley and rye.

    PubMed

    McGough, Norma; Cummings, John H

    2005-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a lifelong intolerance to the gluten found in wheat, barley and rye, and some patients are also sensitive to oats. The disease is genetically determined, with 10% of the first-degree relatives affected and 75% of monozygotic twins being concordant. Of the patients with coeliac disease 95% are human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive. Characteristically, the jejunal mucosa becomes damaged by a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response that is thought to be initiated by a 33-mer peptide fragment in A2 gliadin, and patients with this disorder have raised levels of anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their blood. Coeliac disease is the major diagnosable food intolerance and, with the advent of a simple blood test for case finding, prevalence rates are thought to be approximately 1:100. Classically, the condition presented with malabsorption and failure to thrive in infancy, but this picture has now been overtaken by the much more common presentation in adults, usually with non-specific symptoms such as tiredness and anaemia, disturbance in bowel habit or following low-impact bone fractures. Small intestinal biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and shows a characteristically flat appearance with crypt hypoplasia and infiltration of the epithelium with lymphocytes. Diet is the key to management and a gluten-free diet effectively cures the condition. However, this commitment is lifelong and many aisles in the supermarket are effectively closed to individuals with coeliac disease. Compliance can be monitored by measuring antibodies in blood, which revert to negative after 6-9 months. Patients with minor symptoms, who are found incidentally to have coeliac disease, often ask whether it is necessary to adhere to the diet. Current advice is that dietary adherence is necessary to avoid the long-term complications, which are, principally, osteoporosis and small bowel lymphoma. However, risk of these complications diminishes very

  19. Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

    2015-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92 mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700 g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700 g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend.

  20. True metabolizable energy values of corn and different varieties of wheat and barley using normal and dwarf single comb White Leghorn Roosters.

    PubMed

    Boldaji, F; Roush, W B; Nakaue, H S; Arscott, G H

    1981-01-01

    An experiment with four trials was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy value of corn and different varieties of wheat and barley using normal and dwarf Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) roosters. Maxigene, Purple, Red, and Yamhill wheats and corn were assayed for TME using normal sized and dwarf roosters in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Hannchen, No. 2 Western, Lady Godiva, and Hiproly barleys were assayed using normal sized and dwarf SCWL roosters in Trials 3 and 4, respectively. The pooled results indicated that normal sized roosters gave (P less than .01) significantly higher TME values than dwarf roosters. There was no significant difference in TME found between wheat and barley cultivars, although both types of grain were significantly (P less than .01) lower in TME than the value found for corn. Average dry matter TME values for corn, wheat, and barley were 4.17, 3.70, and 3.54, respectively. A bird x grain interaction was found to be significant (P less than .05).

  1. The occurrence of friabilins in triticale and their relationship with grain hardness and baking quality.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Aldana; Pérez, Gabriela T; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2003-11-19

    Grain hardness is a quality parameter in wheat and other cereals. In wheat, a group of M(r) 15 000 proteins called friabilins have been shown to be related to grain hardness. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of friabilins on starch granules of different triticale lines and their relationship with grain texture and baking quality. The triticale lines studied have a wide range of hardness, which presented correlation with baking quality parameters such as damaged starch and solvent retention capacity. All of the triticale lines contained friabilins on the starch granules. However, the correlation between hardness and friabilin content was not observed, suggesting that these proteins would not be directly involved in grain texture determination of triticale. Consequently, friabilin content did not have any relation with cookie quality in triticale flours, but it could be related to breadmaking quality because it has a positive correlation with the sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation index.

  2. Fine mapping of barley locus Rps6 conferring resistance to wheat stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a major disease of wheat that is causing large economic losses in many wheat-growing regions of the world. Deployment of Pst resistance genes has been an effective strategy for controlling this pathogen, but many of these gen...

  3. Structural genes of wheat and barley 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases and their potential applications for human health.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shanshan; Wen, Nuan; Pang, Jinsong; Langen, Gregor; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A T; Mejias, Jaime H; Osorio, Claudia; Yang, Mingming; Gemini, Richa; Moehs, Charles P; Zemetra, Robert S; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Liu, Bao; Wang, Xingzhi; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2012-12-11

    Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide and is a national staple in many countries. Besides being a key source of plant proteins, it is also a major cause of many diet-induced health issues, especially celiac disease. The only effective treatment for this disease is a total gluten-free diet. The present report describes an effort to develop a natural dietary therapy for this disorder by transcriptional suppression of wheat DEMETER (DME) homeologs using RNA interference. DME encodes a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase responsible for transcriptional derepression of gliadins and low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMWgs) by active demethylation of their promoters in the wheat endosperm. Previous research has demonstrated these proteins to be the major source of immunogenic epitopes. In this research, barley and wheat DME genes were cloned and localized on the syntenous chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity among DME homeologs was studied and used for their virtual transcript profiling. Functional conservation of DME enzyme was confirmed by comparing the motif and domain structure within and across the plant kingdom. Presence and absence of CpG islands in prolamin gene sequences was studied as a hallmark of hypo- and hypermethylation, respectively. Finally the epigenetic influence of DME silencing on accumulation of LMWgs and gliadins was studied using 20 transformants expressing hairpin RNA in their endosperm. These transformants showed up to 85.6% suppression in DME transcript abundance and up to 76.4% reduction in the amount of immunogenic prolamins, demonstrating the possibility of developing wheat varieties compatible for the celiac patients.

  4. Structural genes of wheat and barley 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases and their potential applications for human health

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shanshan; Wen, Nuan; Pang, Jinsong; Langen, Gregor; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A. T.; Mejias, Jaime H.; Osorio, Claudia; Yang, Mingming; Gemini, Richa; Moehs, Charles P.; Zemetra, Robert S.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Liu, Bao; Wang, Xingzhi; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2012-01-01

    Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide and is a national staple in many countries. Besides being a key source of plant proteins, it is also a major cause of many diet-induced health issues, especially celiac disease. The only effective treatment for this disease is a total gluten-free diet. The present report describes an effort to develop a natural dietary therapy for this disorder by transcriptional suppression of wheat DEMETER (DME) homeologs using RNA interference. DME encodes a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase responsible for transcriptional derepression of gliadins and low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMWgs) by active demethylation of their promoters in the wheat endosperm. Previous research has demonstrated these proteins to be the major source of immunogenic epitopes. In this research, barley and wheat DME genes were cloned and localized on the syntenous chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity among DME homeologs was studied and used for their virtual transcript profiling. Functional conservation of DME enzyme was confirmed by comparing the motif and domain structure within and across the plant kingdom. Presence and absence of CpG islands in prolamin gene sequences was studied as a hallmark of hypo- and hypermethylation, respectively. Finally the epigenetic influence of DME silencing on accumulation of LMWgs and gliadins was studied using 20 transformants expressing hairpin RNA in their endosperm. These transformants showed up to 85.6% suppression in DME transcript abundance and up to 76.4% reduction in the amount of immunogenic prolamins, demonstrating the possibility of developing wheat varieties compatible for the celiac patients. PMID:23184965

  5. The discovery of the virulence gene ToxA in the wheat and barley pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Megan C; Ahren, Dag; Simpfendorfer, Steven; Milgate, Andrew; Solomon, Peter S

    2017-01-17

    Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of multiple diseases on wheat and barley and is the primary constraint to cereal production throughout South Asia. Despite its significance, the molecular basis of disease is poorly understood. To address this, the genomes of three Australian isolates of B. sorokiniana were sequenced and screened for known pathogenicity genes. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolate BRIP10943 harboured the ToxA gene, which has been associated previously with disease in the wheat pathogens Parastagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Analysis of the regions flanking ToxA within B. sorokiniana revealed that it was embedded within a 12-kb genomic element nearly identical to the corresponding regions in P. nodorum and P. tritici-repentis. A screen of 35 Australian B. sorokiniana isolates confirmed that ToxA was present in 12 isolates. Sequencing of the ToxA genes within these isolates revealed two haplotypes, which differed by a single non-synonymous nucleotide substitution. Pathogenicity assays showed that a B. sorokiniana isolate harbouring ToxA was more virulent on wheat lines that contained the sensitivity gene when compared with a non-ToxA isolate. This work demonstrates that proteins that confer host-specific virulence can be horizontally acquired across multiple species. This acquisition can dramatically increase the virulence of pathogenic strains on susceptible cultivars, which, in an agricultural setting, can have devastating economic and social impacts.

  6. Effects of Blends of Low-Protein Winter Wheat Flour and Barley Byproducts on Quality Changes in Noodles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Young

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of fresh noodles made with blends of low-protein wheat flour and barley byproduct (BBP, 250 μm) were investigated. The crude protein contents (PC) of flour from Goso and Backjoong cultivars were 7.91% and 7.67%, respectively. PC and β-glucan contents from the BBP were 14.10% and 3.11%, respectively, which were higher than those in wheat flour. The water-holding capacity (WHC) of various blends was increased as a function of BBP but not gluten contents. Goso flour had the highest starch content (78.68%), with peak and final viscosities of 3,099 and 3,563 cp, respectively. Peak and final viscosities, trough, breakdown, and setback of the blends were decreased with the addition of BBP. Noodles made with Backjoong had the highest thickness score, while the hardness of noodles made with blends of Goso or Backjoong and 20% BBP were similar to those made from wheat flour only. The WHC of the samples was strongly correlated with PC, crude fiber, and β-glucan. The PC was not correlated with final viscosity, setback, thickness, hardness, gumminess, or chewiness. PMID:28078259

  7. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  8. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  9. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGES

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; ...

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) andmore » higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  10. Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

  11. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  12. Living Gluten Free | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Avoid - Processed Foods that May Contain Wheat, Barley or Rye. Wheat and Wheat Products Foods to ... bran, wheat germ, cracked wheat, hydrolyzed wheat protein barley rye triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) ...

  13. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  14. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (MINPPs) are phytases expressed during grain filling and germination.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2007-03-01

    At present, little is known about the phytases of plant seeds in spite of the fact that this group of enzymes is the primary determinant for the utilization of the major phosphate storage compound in seeds, phytic acid. We report the cloning and characterization of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding one of the groups of enzymes with phytase activity, the multiple inositol phosphate phosphatases (MINPPs). Four wheat cDNAs (TaPhyIIa1, TaPhyIIa2, TaPhyIIb and TaPhyIIc) and three barley cDNAs (HvPhyIIa1, HvPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb) were isolated. The open reading frames ranged from 1548 to 1554 bp and the level of homology between the barley and wheat proteins ranged from 90.5% to 91.9%. All cDNAs contained an N-terminal signal peptide encoding sequence, and a KDEL-like sequence, KTEL, was present at the C-terminal, indicating that the enzyme was targeted to and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of TaPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb in Escherichia coli revealed that the MINPPs possessed a significant phytase activity with narrow substrate specificity for phytate. The pH and temperature optima for both enzymes were pH 4.5 and 65 degrees C, respectively, and the K(m) values for phytate were 246 and 334 microm for the wheat and barley recombinant enzymes, respectively. The enzymes were inhibited by several metal ions, in particular copper and zinc. The cDNAs showed significantly different temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns during seed development and germination. With the exception of TaPhyIIb, the cDNAs were present during late seed development and germination. We conclude that MINPPs constitute a significant part of the endogenous phytase potential of the developing and germinating barley and wheat seeds.

  15. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    PubMed

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined.

  16. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  17. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  18. The effect of day-neutral mutations in barley and wheat on the interaction between photoperiod and vernalization.

    PubMed

    Turner, Adrian S; Faure, Sébastien; Zhang, Yang; Laurie, David A

    2013-09-01

    Vernalization-2 (Vrn-2) is the major flowering repressor in temperate cereals. It is only expressed under long days in wild-type plants. We used two day-neutral (photoperiod insensitive) mutations that allow rapid flowering in short or long days to investigate the day length control of Vrn-2. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) early maturity8 (eam8) mutation affects the barley ELF3 gene. eam8 mutants disrupt the circadian clock resulting in elevated expression of Ppd-H1 and the floral activator HvFT1 under short or long days. When eam8 was crossed into a genetic background with a vernalization requirement Vrn-2 was expressed under all photoperiods and the early flowering phenotype was partially repressed in unvernalized (UV) plants, likely due to competition between the constitutively active photoperiod pathway and the repressing effect of Vrn-2. We also investigated the wheat (Triticum aestivum) Ppd-D1a mutation. This differs from eam8 in causing elevated levels of Ppd-1 and TaFT1 expression without affecting the circadian clock. We used genotypes that differed in "short-day vernalization". Short days were effective in promoting flowering in individuals wild type at Ppd-D1, but not in individuals that carry the Ppd-D1a mutation. The latter showed Vrn-2 expression in short days. In summary, eam8 and Ppd-D1a mimic long days in terms of photoperiod response, causing Vrn-2 to become aberrantly expressed (in short days). As Ppd-D1a does not affect the circadian clock, this also shows that clock regulation of Vrn-2 operates indirectly through one or more downstream genes, one of which may be Ppd-1.

  19. The development and evaluation of single cell suspension from wheat and barley as a model system; a first step towards functional genomics application

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The overall research objective was to develop single cell plant cultures as a model system to facilitate functional genomics of monocots, in particular wheat and barley. The essential first step towards achieving the stated objective was the development of a robust, viable single cell suspension culture from both species. Results We established growth conditions to allow routine culturing of somatic cells in 24 well microtiter plate format. Evaluation of the wheat and barley cell suspension as model cell system is a multi step process. As an initial step in the evaluation procedure we chose to study the impact of selected abiotic stress elicitors at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level. We report the results of osmotic stress imposed by NaCl and PEG. As proline is an important osmoprotectant of the cereal cells, colorimetric assay for proline detection was developed for small volumes (200 μl). We performed RT-PCR experiments to study the change in the expression of the genes encoding Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PC5R) in response to abiotic stress. Conclusions We found differences between the wheat and barley suspension cultures, barley being more tolerant to the applied osmotic stresses. We suggested a model to explain the obtained differences in stress tolerance between the two species. The suspension cell cultures have proven useful for determining changes in proline concentration and expression level of genes (P5CS, P5CR) under various treatments and we suggest that the cells can be used as a model host system to study gene expression and regulation in monocots. PMID:21054876

  20. Gene discovery and molecular pre-breeding for insect resistance in wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-breeding research has a significant role in linking between genetic resources and breeding as it shortens the time frame between genetic enhancement and the development of new, improved crop varieties. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of w...

  1. Comprehensive and Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Wheat, Barley, Oat and Rye Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Advanced Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2014-10-31

    Beyond the main bulk components of cereals such as the polysaccharides and proteins, lower concentration secondary metabolites largely contribute to the nutritional value. This paper outlines a comprehensive protocol for GC-MS metabolomic profiling of phenolics and organic acids in grains, the performance of which is demonstrated through a comparison of the metabolite profiles of the main northern European cereal crops: wheat, barley, oat and rye. Phenolics and organic acids were extracted using acidic hydrolysis, trimethylsilylated using a new method based on trimethylsilyl cyanide and analyzed by GC-MS. In order to extract pure metabolite peaks, the raw chromatographic data were processed by a multi-way decomposition method, Parallel Factor Analysis 2. This approach lead to the semi-quantitative detection of a total of 247 analytes, out of which 89 were identified based on RI and EI-MS library match. The cereal metabolome included 32 phenolics, 30 organic acids, 10 fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates and 6 sterols. The metabolome of the four cereals were compared in detail, including low concentration phenolics and organic acids. Rye and oat displayed higher total concentration of phenolic acids, but ferulic, caffeic and sinapinic acids and their esters were found to be the main phenolics in all four cereals. Compared to the previously reported methods, the outlined protocol provided an efficient and high throughput analysis of the cereal metabolome and the acidic hydrolysis improved the detection of conjugated phenolics.

  2. Post-head-emergence frost in wheat and barley: defining the problem, assessing the damage, and identifying resistance.

    PubMed

    Frederiks, T M; Christopher, J T; Sutherland, M W; Borrell, A K

    2015-06-01

    Radiant frost is a significant production constraint to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), particularly in regions where spring-habit cereals are grown through winter, maturing in spring. However, damage to winter-habit cereals in reproductive stages is also reported. Crops are particularly susceptible to frost once awns or spikes emerge from the protection of the flag leaf sheath. Post-head-emergence frost (PHEF) is a problem distinct from other cold-mediated production constraints. To date, useful increased PHEF resistance in cereals has not been identified. Given the renewed interest in reproductive frost damage in cereals, it is timely to review the problem. Here we update the extent and impacts of PHEF and document current management options to combat this challenge. We clarify terminology useful for discussing PHEF in relation to chilling and other freezing stresses. We discuss problems characterizing radiant frost, the environmental conditions leading to PHEF damage, and the effects of frost at different growth stages. PHEF resistant cultivars would be highly desirable, to both reduce the incidence of direct frost damage and to allow the timing of crop maturity to be managed to maximize yield potential. A framework of potential adaptation mechanisms is outlined. Clarification of these critical issues will sharpen research focus, improving opportunities to identify genetic sources for improved PHEF resistance.

  3. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits.

  4. Survey of Thai Commercial Food Products That Have Been Reported to Contain No Wheat, Rye, Barley, or Gluten According to Their Labels.

    PubMed

    Srikulnath, Sirinrat; Surojanametakul, Vipa; Chamnansin, Pailin; Tamura, Hirotoshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-10-19

    Celiac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders are significant health and social issues in Western countries, and CD individuals need to exclude gluten from their diets. The adverse health impacts of CD have extended to Asian countries in which CD was not a problem previously. Thai commercial food products that do not contain wheat, rye, barley, or gluten on their labels were surveyed as to whether they were suitable for CD individuals by examining the absence of gluten or the presence of gluten <20 ppm. In Thailand, ELISA tested for gluten content in 129 commercial food products that contained neither wheat, rye, barley, nor gluten on their labels. One hundred nineteen of these 129 products included <20 ppm gluten, and 10 products contained >20 ppm gluten. Surprisingly, four products showed gluten levels >1%. In these 10 products, wheat presence was confirmed by PCR analysis. Our survey suggests that CD individuals can consume most of the examined Thai food products, and the survey showed the potential of these Thai products as new diets for CD patients so as to expand the limited food choices from different food cultures, and ultimately to improve the quality of life for all CD individuals globally. The appropriate gluten management strategies need to be implemented by Thai food manufacturers to ensure accurate labeling and to protect the safety of consumers with CD.

  5. Phylogeography and virulence structure of the powdery mildew population on its 'new' host triticale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major problem in cereal production as it can reduce quality and yield. B. graminis has evolved eight distinct formae speciales (f.sp.) which display strict host specialization. In the last decade, powdery mildew has emerged on triticale, the artificial intergeneric hybrid between wheat and rye. This emergence is probably triggered by a host range expansion of the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici. To gain more precise information about the evolutionary processes that led to this host range expansion, we pursued a combined pathological and genetic approach. Results B. graminis isolates were sampled from triticale, wheat and rye from different breeding regions in Europe. Pathogenicity tests showed that isolates collected from triticale are highly pathogenic on most of the tested triticale cultivars. Moreover, these isolates were also able to infect several wheat cultivars (their previous hosts), although a lower aggressiveness was observed compared to isolates collected from wheat. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene regions identified two statistically significant clades, which to a certain extent correlated with pathogenicity. No differences in virulence profiles were found among the sampled regions, but the distribution of genetic variation demonstrated to be geography dependent. A multilocus haplotype network showed that haplotypes pathogenic on triticale are distributed at different sites in the network, but always clustered at or near the tips of the network. Conclusions This study reveals a genetic structure in B. graminis with population differentiation according to geography and host specificity. In addition, evidence is brought forward demonstrating that the host range expansion of wheat isolates to the new host triticale occurred recently and multiple times at different locations in Europe. PMID:22658131

  6. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health.

  7. Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of wheat; Neimengkeyimai-1, a naked oat cultivar, had the highest Sr concentrations. At maturity, of four naked oat cultivars, Neimengkeyimai-1 had the highest Sr content at all measured Sr levels. Leaves had the highest Sr concentrations, followed by roots and straw, and then grain with the lowest. Mean enrichment coefficients from soil to shoots ranged from 0.521 to 1.343; the percentage of stable Sr removed from the soil to the shoots at harvest time was more than 1.4% after 120 days. Neimengkeyimai-1 could be used as a model for further research to find more effective cultivars; and naked oat plants could be selected for phytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.

  8. Barley γ3-hordein: glycosylation at an atypical site, disulfide bridge analysis, and reactivity with IgE from patients allergic to wheat.

    PubMed

    Snégaroff, Jacques; Bouchez, Isabelle; Smaali, Mohamed El Amine; Pecquet, Catherine; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Jolivet, Pascale; Laurière, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Post translational modifications of a seed storage protein, barley γ3-hordein, were determined using immunochemical and mass spectrometry methods. IgE reactivity towards this protein was measured using sera from patients diagnosed with allergies to wheat. N-glycosylation was found at an atypical Asn-Leu-Cys site. The observed glycan contains xylose. This indicates that at least some γ3-hordein molecules trafficked through the Golgi apparatus. Disulfide bridges in native γ3-hordein were almost the same as those found in wheat γ46-gliadin, except the bridge involving the cysteine included in the glycosylation site. IgE reacted more strongly towards the recombinant than the natural γ3-hordein protein. IgE binding to γ3-hordein increased when the protein sample was reduced. Glycosylation and disulfide bridges therefore decrease epitope accessibility. Thus the IgE from patients sensitized to wheat cross-react with γ3-hordein due to sequence homology with wheat allergens rather than through shared carbohydrate determinants.

  9. Preparation and characterization of enzymatically hydrolyzed prolamins from wheat, rye, and barley as references for the immunochemical quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten.

    PubMed

    Gessendorfer, Benedict; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the intolerance to a group of proteins called gluten present in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats. The only therapy is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. The standard method for gluten determination in foods produced for CD patients is the R5-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as proposed by the recent Codex Alimentarius Draft Revised Standard. This test is based on the determination of prolamins, the alcohol-soluble proteins of gluten, and is available as a sandwich ELISA for intact proteins and as a competitive ELISA for gluten-derived peptides. While the suitability of the sandwich ELISA including a wheat prolamin (gliadin) reference for calibration has been shown by various studies and a ring test, the competitive ELISA still lacks a convenient reference for the quantitation of gluten peptides in fermented cereal foods (e.g., sourdough products, starch syrup, malt extracts, beer). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prepare a suitable reference for the quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten in fermented wheat, rye, and barley products. The prolamin fractions from barley (hordein) and rye (secalin) were isolated from corresponding flours by means of a modified preparative Osborne fractionation. The prolamin fraction from wheat was obtained as reference gliadin from the Prolamin Working Group. The prolamin fractions were successively digested by pepsin and trypsin or pepsin and chymotrypsin procedures, which have been used for CD-specific toxicity tests on cereal storage proteins for many years. The protein/peptide content (N x 5.7) of the prolamin fractions and digests, which was the basis for the calculation of the gluten content by means of ELISA, varied between 67.1% and 96.0%. The prolamin fractions and enzymatic digests were then tested for their response in both sandwich and competitive assays. Intact prolamins responded similarly in both ELISA showing

  10. Synthetic cis-jasmone exposure induces wheat and barley volatiles that repel the pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J; Wawrzyniak, Maria; Lemańczyk, Grzegorz; Wrzesińska, Danuta; Piesik, Dariusz

    2013-05-01

    The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance that deters herbivores and attracts natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 μl of 1, 100, and 1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)) and durations of exposure (1, 3, and 6 h). Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, adult behavioral responses were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer to cis-jasmone induced plant VOC bouquets and to two synthetic blends of VOCs (3 green leaf volatiles (GLVs); 4 terpenes + indole). In both cereals, eight VOCs [(Z)-3-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanyl acetate, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and indole] were induced 100- to 1000-fold after cis-jasmone exposure. The degree of induction in both cereals was usually positively and linearly associated with increasing exposure dose and duration. However, VOC emission rate was only ~2-fold greater from plants exposed to the highest vs. lowest cis-jasmone exposure doses (1 × 10(4) difference) or durations (6-fold difference). Male and female O. melanopus were deterred by both cereal VOC bouquets after plant exposure to the high cis-jasmone dose (1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)), while females were also deterred after plant exposure to the low dose (1 ng μl(-1)) but attracted to unexposed plant VOC bouquets. Both O. melanopus sexes were repelled by terpene/indole and GLV blends at two concentrations (25 ng · min(-1); 125 ng · min(-1)), but attracted to the lowest dose (1 ng · min(-1)) of a GLV blend. It is possible that the biologically relevant low cis-jasmone dose has ecological activity and potential for inducing field crop VOCs to deter O. melanopus.

  11. Genomic analysis of Xanthomonas translucens pathogenic on wheat and barley reveals cross-kingdom gene transfer events and diverse protein delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Donald M; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G; Dodds, Peter N; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi.

  12. Evaluation of triticale as energy crop in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cantale, Cristina; Correnti, Angelo; Farneti, Anna; Felici, Fabio; Mentuccia, Luciano; Pignatelli, Vito; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Ammar, Karim; Galeffi, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of renewable energy represents a target of the European 2020 strategy for economical growth and sustainable competitiveness. Cereals are considered a promising biomass producing crop in temperate regions of Europe to be used for both fuel alcohol and biogas production. Among cereals, triticale represents a good candidate for this kind of application, showing a number of advantages such as high grain yield even in marginal environments, tolerance to drought, tolerance to more acid soils, lower production costs and lower susceptibility to biotic stresses. The aim of this study was to compare yield and quality of eight triticale lines grown in marginal areas in a two-year experiment. Italian variety, Magistral, and a bread wheat variety (EW9) were selected for comparison. Data from fields, chemical analyses and preliminary results from fermentation are reported.

  13. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  14. Growth rate and TRI5 gene expression profiles of Fusarium equiseti strains isolated from Spanish cereals cultivated on wheat and barley media at different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Marín, Patricia; Jurado, Miguel; González-Jaén, M Teresa

    2015-02-16

    Fusarium equiseti is a toxigenic species that often contaminates cereal crops from diverse climatic regions such as Northern and Southern Europe. Previous results suggested the existence of two distinct populations within this species with differences in toxin profile which largely corresponded to North and South Europe (Spain). In this work, growth rate profiles of 4 F. equiseti strains isolated from different cereals and distinct Spanish regions were determined on wheat and barley based media at a range of temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) and water potential regimens (-0.7, -2.8, -7.0, and -9.8MPa, corresponding to 0.99, 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93 aw values). Growth was observed at all temperatures except at 40°C, and at all the solute potential values except at -9.8MPa when combined with 15°C. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30°C and -0.7/-2.8MPa. The effect of these factors on trichothecene biosynthesis was examined on a F. equiseti strain using a newly developed real time RT-PCR protocol to quantify TRI5 gene expression at 15, 25 and 35°C and -0.7, -2.8, -7.0 and -9.8MPa on wheat and barley based media. Induction of TRI5 expression was detected between 25 and 35°C and -0.7 and -2.8MPa, with maximum values at 35°C and -2.8MPa being higher in barley than in wheat medium. These results appeared to be consistent with a population well adapted to the present climatic conditions and predicted scenarios for Southern Europe and suggested some differences depending on the cereal considered. These are also discussed in relation to other Fusarium species co-occurring in cereals grown in this region and to their significance for prediction and control strategies of toxigenic risk in future scenarios of climate change for this region.

  15. [Features of crossability, haploidy and polyembryony in hybrid combinations between common barley Hordeum vulgare L. (2n = 14) and wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Saratovskaya 29/Secale cereale L., cultivar Onokhoiskaya].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Rakovtseva, T S; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2005-06-01

    The role of individual chromosomes of rye in the manifestation of crossability and seedling development in hybrid combinations between common barley Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Nepolegayushchii (2n = 14) and five wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Saratovskaya 29/Secale cereale L., cultivar Onokhoiskaya (2n = 40 wheat + 2 rye chromosomes). Crossability, which was measured by two parameters--frequency of set grains and frequency of grains with embryos--was shown to be significantly affected by each of the five rye chromosomes examined: 1R, 2R, 3R, 5R, and 6R; the development of barley haploids was affected by rye chromosomes 1 R, 3R, and 5R. We were the first to demonstrate that polyembryony could be induced by mutual effects of barley cytoplasm and rye chromosome 1R. Possible mechanisms controlling the development of haploids and twins in hybrid combinations H. vulgare x T. aestivum/S. cereale are discussed. The conclusion is drawn that hybrid combinations between common barley and wheat-rye substitution lines can serve as new models for studying incompatibility mechanisms in distant crosses and genetic control of parthenogenesis.

  16. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  17. Separation and purification of soluble polymers and cell wall fractions from wheat, rye and hull less barley endosperm flours for structure-nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Comino, Penny; Shelat, Kinnari; Collins, Helen; Lahnstein, Jelle; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-12-11

    The nutritional values associated with the cell walls of cereal endosperm flours are due to a combination of solubilized arabinoxylan and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan as well as residual nonsolubilized cell wall material. In order to investigate structure-nutrition relationships, an appropriate method for the complete functional and structural characterization of cell wall polysaccharides in various cereal endosperm flours is described. This involves the separation of soluble polymers and the residual cell wall fraction without using organic solvents, and the fractionation of soluble polymers into arabinoxylan- and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan-rich fractions for subsequent analysis. This methodology is applied to endosperm flours from wheat, hull-less barley and rye, and could be extended to include studies on the effects of food processing with respect to yield and characteristics of the three fractions in order to better understand the structural basis for nutritional functionality.

  18. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm(3) cm(-3) and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha(-l) for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was

  19. Wheat-barley-rye- or corn-fed growing pigs respond differently to dietary supplementation with a carbohydrase complex.

    PubMed

    Willamil, J; Badiola, I; Devillard, E; Geraert, P A; Torrallardona, D

    2012-03-01

    Thirty-six pigs (22 kg of BW) were used to evaluate a carbohydrase preparation, with xylanase and β-glucanase as main activities, added to either wheat-barley-rye- (WBR) or corn-based diets on performance, intestinal environment, and nutrient digestibility. Pigs were offered 1 of 4 different dietary treatments for 27 d according to a factorial arrangement of treatments (a 2 × 2) with 2 cereal types (WBR or corn) and 2 levels of supplemental carbohydrase (0 or 0.01%). Pig growth and feed intake were individually measured every week until the end of the experiment when pigs were slaughtered to obtain samples of digesta and tissues. Cereal type affected performance only during wk 1, in which WBR improved ADG (590 vs. 440 g/d; P = 0.008) and G:F (0.61 vs. 0.43; P = 0.045) compared with corn. The WBR also increased the viscosity of the digestive contents in stomach (1.95 vs. 1.23 mPa·s; P = 0.001) and ileum (6.53 vs. 2.80 mPa·s; P = 0.001) and resulted in greater cecal starch digestibility (95.7 vs. 93.9%; P = 0.012). However, trends for a reduction in digestibility were observed for glucose in the nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction in the ileum (64.4 vs. 75.8%; P = 0.074) and galactose in the NSP fraction in the cecum (1.4 vs. 1.8%; P = 0.055). The use of the enzyme preparation increased ADFI during wk 2 (1,328 vs. 1,215 g/d; P = 0.028), and increased villus height (423 vs. 390 µm; P = 0.045) and tended to reduce relative pancreas weight (0.16 vs. 0.17% BW; P = 0.079) at d 27. The enzyme also improved cecal starch digestibility (95.5 vs. 94.1%; P = 0.043) and tended to improve ileal energy digestibility (61.3 vs. 53.7%; P = 0.090) and cecal glucose digestibility in the NSP fraction (76.0 vs. 54.5%; P = 0.055). However, it reduced the cecal digestibility of mannose in the NSP fraction (27.0 vs. 50.5%; P = 0.016). Interactions (P < 0.05) between cereal type and enzyme supplementation were observed for ADG and G:F during wk 2, BW and ADG during wk 3, and BW and

  20. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  1. The homeodomain transcription factor TaHDZipI-2 from wheat regulates frost tolerance, flowering time and spike development in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Chew, William; Sornaraj, Pradeep; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Yang, Nannan; Singh, Rohan; Bazanova, Natalia; Shavrukov, Yuri; Guendel, Andre; Munz, Eberhard; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Homeodomain leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development under stresses. Functions of the TaHDZipI-2 gene isolated from the endosperm of developing wheat grain were revealed. Molecular characterization of TaHDZipI-2 protein included studies of its dimerisation, protein-DNA interactions and gene activation properties using pull-down assays, in-yeast methods and transient expression assays in wheat cells. The analysis of TaHDZipI-2 gene functions was performed using transgenic barley plants. It included comparison of developmental phenotypes, yield components, grain quality, frost tolerance and the levels of expression of potential target genes in transgenic and control plants. Transgenic TaHDZipI-2 lines showed characteristic phenotypic features that included reduced growth rates, reduced biomass, early flowering, light-coloured leaves and narrowly elongated spikes. Transgenic lines produced 25-40% more seeds per spike than control plants, but with 50-60% smaller grain size. In vivo lipid imaging exposed changes in the distribution of lipids between the embryo and endosperm in transgenic seeds. Transgenic lines were significantly more tolerant to frost than control plants. Our data suggest the role of TaHDZipI-2 in controlling several key processes underlying frost tolerance, transition to flowering and spike development.

  2. Cloning of the rice seed alpha-globulin-encoding gene: sequence similarity of the 5'-flanking region to those of the genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin and barley D hordein.

    PubMed

    Nakase, M; Hotta, H; Adachi, T; Aoki, N; Nakamura, R; Masumura, T; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, T

    1996-05-08

    A genomic clone encoding the rice endosperm major globulin (alpha-globulin) with an apparent molecular mass of 26 kDa was isolated, and its nucleotide (nt) sequence and transcription start point (tsp) were determined. The tsp was identical to that of the gene encoding the wheat high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunit. The consensus '-300 element' and an A + T-rich sequence exist upstream from the TATA box in the 5'-flanking region. A nt sequence of about 130 bp in the 5'-flanking region was found to be markedly homologous to those of the genes encoding the wheat HMW glutenin subunit and barley D hordein.

  3. Genetic architecture of fusarium head blight resistance in four winter triticale populations.

    PubMed

    Kalih, R; Maurer, H P; Miedaner, T

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes significant reductions in yield and quality in wheat, rye, and triticale. In triticale, knowledge of the genetic architecture of FHB resistance is missing but essential due to modern breeding requirements. In our study, four doubled-haploid triticale populations (N=120 to 200) were evaluated for resistance to FHB caused by artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum in four environments. DArT markers were used to genotype triticale populations. Seventeen quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance were detected across all populations; six of them were derived from rye genome and located on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R, which are here reported for the first time. The total cross-validated ratio of the explained phenotypic variance for all detected QTL in each population was 41 to 68%. In all, 17 QTL for plant height and 18 QTL for heading stage were also detected across all populations; 3 and 5 of them, respectively, were overlapping with QTL for FHB. In conclusion, FHB resistance in triticale is caused by a multitude of QTL, and pyramiding them contributes to higher resistance.

  4. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

  5. Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content, and radial water and nutrient transport in barley.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hannah M; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Postma, Johannes A; Brown, Kathleen M; Lücke, Andreas; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2017-02-06

    The functional implications of root cortical senescence (RCS) are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that RCS in barley: (1) reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue; (2) decreases radial water and nutrient transport; (3) is accompanied by increased suberization to protect the stele. Genetic variation for RCS exists between modern germplasm and landraces. Nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency increased the rate of RCS. Maximal RCS, defined as the disappearance of the entire root cortex, reduced root nitrogen content by 66%, phosphorus content by 63%, and respiration by 87% compared to root segments with no RCS. Roots with maximal RCS had 90%, 92%, and 84% less radial water, nitrate, and phosphorus transport, respectively compared to segments with no RCS. The onset of RCS coincided with 30% greater aliphatic suberin in the endodermis. These results support the hypothesis that RCS reduces root carbon and nutrient costs and may therefore have adaptive significance for soil resource acquisition. By reducing root respiration and nutrient content, RCS could permit greater root growth, soil resource acquisition, and resource allocation to other plant processes. RCS merits investigation as a trait for improving the performance of barley, wheat, triticale, and rye under edaphic stress.

  6. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D.; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed

  7. Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Esmaeilipour, O; Van Krimpen, M M

    2014-01-01

    1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 3(4) full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20°C, 38°C and 55°C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 °C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science.

  8. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Barmeier, Gero; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2016-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat with four plot designs (single-row, wide double-row, three rows, and four rows) was conducted. A GreenSeeker RT100 and a passive bi-directional spectrometer were used to assess biomass fresh and dry weight, as well as aboveground nitrogen content and uptake. Generally, spectral passive sensing and active sensing performed comparably in both crops. Spectral passive sensing was enhanced by the availability of optimized ratio vegetation indices, as well as by an optimized field of view and by reduced distance dependence. Further improvements of both sensors in detecting the performance of plants in single rows can likely be obtained by optimization of sensor positioning or orientation. The results suggest that even in early selection cycles, enhanced high-throughput phenotyping might be able to assess plant performance within plots comprising single or multiple rows. This method has significant potential for advanced breeding. PMID:27827958

  9. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Anita; Mattarozzi, Monica; Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2-18 mg kg(-1) range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs.

  10. Genetic Map of Triticale Integrating Microsatellite, DArT and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Mirosław; Tyrka, Dorota; Wędzony, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars ‘Hewo’ and ‘Magnat’. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning. PMID:26717308

  11. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  12. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  13. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Minutes of the annual formal project manager's review, including preliminary technical review reports of FY80 experiments. [wheat/barley and corn/soybean experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S./Canada wheat/barley exploratory experiment is discussed with emphasis on labeling, machine processing using P1A, and the crop calendar. Classification and the simulated aggregation test used in the U.S. corn/soybean exploratory experiment are also considered. Topics covered regarding the foreign commodity production forecasting project include: (1) the acquisition, handling, and processing of both U.S. and foreign agricultural data, as well as meteorological data. The accuracy assessment methodology, multicrop sampling and aggregation technology development, frame development, the yield project interface, and classification for area estimation are also examined.

  14. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P < 0.05) in pigs fed NF-BD and NF-BD + phytase. The decreases were 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, substantial amounts of InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated to 17% of InsP₆-P intake). The accumulation of lower inositol phosphates in gastric digesta was very small for all treatments and at all times because of a rapid and almost complete degradation. In conclusion, phytase addition to the nonfermented diet increased the degradation of gastric InsP₆. However, considerable amounts of intact InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for Ins

  15. Inhibition of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-amylases by α-amylase inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K(m) remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (V(max)) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T(50)) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase.

  16. Inhibition of Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-Amylases by α-Amylase Inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R.; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the Km remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (Vmax) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T50) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase. PMID:21062146

  17. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Gluten is poison to people who have celiac ... free diet avoid all foods that contain wheat, barley, rye, spelt, and triticale products, including many breads, ...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  3. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  4. Fine mapping and marker development for the crossability gene SKr on chromosome 5BS of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Alfares, Walid; Bouguennec, Annaig; Balfourier, François; Gay, Georges; Bergès, Hélène; Vautrin, Sonia; Sourdille, Pierre; Bernard, Michel; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Most elite wheat varieties cannot be crossed with related species thereby restricting greatly the germplasm that can be used for alien introgression in breeding programs. Inhibition to crossability is controlled genetically and a number of QTL have been identified to date, including the major gene Kr1 on 5BL and SKr, a strong QTL affecting crossability between wheat and rye on chromosome 5BS. In this study, we used a recombinant SSD population originating from a cross between the poorly crossable cultivar Courtot (Ct) and the crossable line MP98 to characterize the major dominant effect of SKr and map the gene at the distal end of the chromosome near the 5B homeologous GSP locus. Colinearity with barley and rice was used to saturate the SKr region with new markers and establish orthologous relationships with a 54-kb region on rice chromosome 12. In total, five markers were mapped within a genetic interval of 0.3 cM and 400 kb of BAC contigs were established on both sides of the gene to lay the foundation for map-based cloning of SKr. Two SSR markers completely linked to SKr were used to evaluate a collection of crossable wheat progenies originating from primary triticale breeding programs. The results confirm the major effect of SKr on crossability and the usefulness of the two markers for the efficient introgression of crossability in elite wheat varieties.

  5. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  6. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  9. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  10. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  11. Starch-branching enzymes preferentially associated with A-type starch granules in wheat endosperm.

    PubMed

    Peng, M; Gao, M; Båga, M; Hucl, P; Chibbar, R N

    2000-09-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 microm) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 microm) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 microm). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 microm). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution.

  12. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley.

  13. Nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes alter the microbial community and the fermentation patterns of barley cultivars and wheat products in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bindelle, Jérôme; Pieper, Robert; Montoya, Carlos A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Leterme, Pascal

    2011-06-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence the fermentation of dietary fiber in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products and cultivars with differing carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin in the presence or not of NSP-degrading enzymes (xylanase and β-glucanase) and the filter retentate was subsequently fermented with sow fecal bacteria. Dry matter, starch, crude protein and β-glucan digestibilities during hydrolysis were measured. Fermentation kinetics of the hydrolyzed ingredients were modelled. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and molar ratio were compared after 12, 24 and 72 h. Microbial communities were analyzed after 72 h of fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed an increase of nutrient digestibility (P<0.001), whereas fermentability and SCFA production decreased (P<0.001) with addition of the enzyme. SCFA and bacterial community profiles also indicated a shift from propionate to acetate and an increase in cellulolytic Ruminococcus- and xylanolytic Clostridium-like bacteria. This is explained by the increase in slowly fermentable insoluble carbohydrate and the lower proportion of rapidly fermentable β-glucan and starch in the retentate when grains were incubated with NSP-degrading enzymes. Shifts were also different for the four barley varieties investigated, showing that the efficiency of the enzymes depends on the structure of the carbohydrate fractions in cereal products and cultivars.

  14. Determination of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in wheat and barley using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: on-line clean-up versus conventional sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Sarikaya, Ebru; Jestoi, Marika; Godula, Michal; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2014-12-29

    In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance.

  15. An Aspergillus niger esterase (ferulic acid esterase III) and a recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa esterase (Xy1D) release a 5-5' ferulic dehydrodimer (diferulic acid) from barley and wheat cell walls.

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé, B; Faulds, C B; Kroon, P A; Waldron, K; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G; Williamson, G

    1997-01-01

    Diferulate esters strengthen and cross-link primary plant cell walls and help to defend the plant from invading microbes. Phenolics also limit the degradation of plant cell walls by saprophytic microbes and by anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen. We show that incubation of wheat and barley cell walls with ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger (FAE-III) or Pseudomonas fluorescens (Xy1D), together with either xylanase I from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride xylanase, or xylanase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (XylA), leads to release of the ferulate dimer 5-5' diFA [(E,E)-4,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-bicinnamic acid]. Direct saponification of the cell walls without enzyme treatment released the following five identifiable ferulate dimers (in order of abundance): (Z)-beta-(4-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, trans-5-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) -7-methoxy-2, 3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid, 5-5' diFA, (E,E)-4, 4'-dihydroxy-3, 5'-dimethoxy-beta, 3'-bicinnamic acid, and trans-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -6-methoxy-1, 2-dihydronaphthalene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid. Incubation of the wheat or barley cell walls with xylanase, followed by saponification of the solubilized fraction, yielded 5-5'diFA and, in some cases, certain of the above dimers, depending on the xylanase used. These experiments demonstrate that FAE-III and XYLD specifically release only esters of 5-5'diFA from either xylanase-treated or insoluble fractions of cell walls, even though other esterified dimers were solubilized by preincubation with xylanase. It is also concluded that the esterified dimer content of the xylanase-solubilized fraction depends on the source of the xylanase. PMID:8979352

  16. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  17. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oct 11,2016 Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, corn, or another cereal is a grain ... wheat, oats/oatmeal, rye, barley, corn, popcorn, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat, triticale, bulgur (cracked wheat), millet, ...

  18. Inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone tissue are stereochemically similar to the products of breakdown of InsP6 in vitro by wheat-bran phytase.

    PubMed

    Brearley, C A; Hanke, D E

    1996-08-15

    Partisphere SAX HPLC analysis of endogenous inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol-labelled barley aleurone tissue revealed a range of isomers, including D- and/or L-Ins3P, D- and/or L-Ins(1,4)P2, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2)P2, a third unidentified InsP2, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4)P4, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, InsP6 and a molecule with the chromatographic properties of an inositol pyrophosphate. The striking match between the identities of the stereoisomers, and in some cases enantiomers, detected in vivo and those stereoisomers produced in vitro by the action of wheat-bran phytase on InsP6 [Cosgrove (1980) Inositol Phosphates: Their Chemistry, Bio-chemistry and Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam] strongly suggests that most of the inositol phosphates identified are products of the breakdown of InsP4 by endogenous phytase(s) with stereospecificity similar to that of the wheat-bran enzyme(s).

  19. [Features of the formation of self-fertile euploid lines (2n = 42) by self-pollination of the 46-chromosome barley-wheat BC1 hybrid Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42)].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheeva, N V; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2006-12-01

    We studied some features of the development of self-fertile 42-chromosome lines on the base of self-pollination progeny of 46-chromosome plants obtained by backcrossing of barley--wheat hybrids Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42). The stabilization of karyotypes, resulting in 42-chromosome plants of the wheat type was generally completed by generation BC1F10. The plants of all self-pollination progenies, including BC1F10, showed some phenotypic traits characteristic of wild barley. Plants of BC1F10 with the chromosome sets 2n = 42 and 2n = 42 + t were analyzed by RAPD with a set of 115 primers. Fragments of the wild barley genome were detected in RAPD patterns with 19 primers. Cross-hybridization confirmed that these fragments belonged to the wild barley genome. We raised four phenotypically different 42-chromosome lines from grains obtained from plants of generation BC1F10, and these lines proved to be cytogenetically stable and self-fertile when grown in the field.

  20. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... committed to a crop rotation, normal for the locality, that includes harvesting the subject crop for grain... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an...

  5. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  6. Analysis of volatile compounds from various types of barley cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Anne-Chrystelle J; Mattinson, D Scott; Fellman, John K; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2005-09-21

    We identified volatile compounds of barley flour and determined the variation in volatile compound profiles among different types and varieties of barley. Volatile compounds of 12 barley and two wheat cultivars were analyzed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. Twenty-six volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and a furan were identified in barley. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-hexenal, 2-heptenal, 2-nonenal, and decanal were identified as key odorants in barley as their concentration exceeded their odor detection threshold in water. Hexanal (46-1269 microg/L) and 1-pentanol (798-1811 microg/L) were the major volatile compounds in barley cultivars. In wheat, 1-pentanol (723-748 microg/L) was a major volatile. Hulled barley had higher total volatile, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, and furan contents than hulless barley, highlighting the importance of the husk in barley grain aroma. The proanthocyanidin-free varieties generally showed higher total volatile and aldehyde contents than wild-type varieties, potentially due to decreased antioxidant activity by the absence of proanthocyanidins.

  7. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  8. Introgression of A- and B-genome of tetraploid triticale chromatin into tetraploid rye.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, H; Kwiatek, M; Kulak-Książczyk, S; Apolinarska, B

    2013-11-01

    An improvement of rye is one of the mainstream goals of current breeding. Our study is concerned with the introduction of the tetraploid triticale (ABRR) into the 4x rye (RRRR) using classical methods of distant crossing. One hundred fifty BC1F9 hybrid plants [(4x rye × 4x triticales) × 4x rye] obtained from a backcrossing program were studied. The major aim of this work was to verify the presence of an introgressed A- and B- genome chromatin of triticale in a collection of the 4x rye-tiritcale hybrids and to determine their chromosome compositions. In the present study, karyotypes of the previously reported BC1F2s and BC1F3s were compared with that of the BC1F9 generation as obtained after several subsequent open pollinations. The genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) allowed us to identify 133 introgression forms in which chromosome numbers ranged between 26 and 32. Using four DNA probes (5S rDNA, 25S rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1), the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was carried out to facilitate an exact chromosome identification in the hybrid plants. The combination of the multi-colour GISH with the repetitive DNA FISH singled out five types of translocated chromosomes: 2A.2R, 4A.4R, 5A.5R, 5B.5R and 7A.7R among the examined BC1F9s. The reported translocation lines could serve as valuable sources of wheat chromatin suitable for further improvements of rye.

  9. Pathogenicity of seed transmittedFusarium spp. to triticale seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arseniuk, E; Scharen, A L; Czembor, H J

    1991-09-01

    In the conducted studies 13 species ofFusarium were isolated into pure culture from triticale seed. Their pathogenicity was assessed under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Most of the species studied were highly pathogenic to the first leaf see-dlings of triticale 'Grado' and 'Lasko' under both sets of conditions. It was shown, that seed-transmitted Fusarium spp. considerably reduced the ability of seeds to germinate and incited seedling blight. On average, triticale 'Lasko' was more resistant toFusarium spp. than 'Grado', but in some instances a reverse reaction was observed.

  10. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., including winter wheat, spring wheat, barley and triticale. Contact: Maggie Rudick, (703) 347-0257, email address: rudick.maggie@epa.gov . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest....

  11. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  14. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  15. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  16. Assessment of photosystem II thermoluminescence as a tool to investigate the effects of dehydration and rehydration on the cyclic/chlororespiratory electron pathways in wheat and barley leaves.

    PubMed

    Bürling, Kathrin; Ducruet, Jean-Marc; Cornic, Gabriel; Hunsche, Mauricio; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2014-06-01

    Thermoluminescence emission from wheat leaves was recorded under various controlled drought stress conditions: (i) fast dehydration (few hours) of excised leaves in the dark (ii) slow dehydration (several days) obtained by withholding watering of plants under a day/night cycle (iii) overnight rehydration of the slowly dehydrated plants at a stage of severe dessication. In fast dehydrated leaves, the AG band intensity was unchanged but its position was shifted to lower temperatures, indicating an activation of cyclic and chlororespiratory pathways in darkness, without any increase of their overall electron transfer capacity. By contrast, after a slow dehydration the AG intensity was strongly increased whereas its position was almost unchanged, indicating respectively that the capacity of cyclic pathways was enhanced but that they remained inactivated in darkness. Under more severe dehydration, the AG band almost disappeared. Rewatering caused its rapid bounce significantly above the control level. No significant differences in AG emission could be found between the two drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant wheat cultivars. The afterglow thermoluminescence emission in leaves provides an additional tool to follow the increased capacity and activation of cyclic electron flow around PSI in leaves during mild, severe dehydration and after rehydration.

  17. Effects of inulin and enzyme complex, individually or in combination, on growth performance, intestinal microflora, cecal fermentation characteristics, and jejunal histomorphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolé, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Treviño, J; Velasco, S

    2010-02-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of inulin, alone or in combination with enzyme complex (primarily xylanase and beta-glucanase), on growth performance, ileal and cecal microflora, cecal short-chain fatty acids, and d-lactic acid and jejunal histomorphology of broiler chickens fed a wheat- and barley-based diet from 7 to 35 d of age. A total of 240 seven-day-old male Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 5 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3x2 factorial arrangement of the treatments with 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 10, or 20 g/kg of diet) and 2 concentrations of enzyme complex (0 or 100 mg/kg of diet). At the end of the experiment, 8 birds per treatment (one from each pen) were randomly chosen and slaughtered. Birds fed inulin-containing diets exhibited significantly (P=0.043) improved final BW gain. Dietary inulin had a positive and significant (P<0.002 to 0.009) effect on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli counts in both ileal and cecal contents and, to an extent, also altered the fermentation patterns in the ceca, increasing the concentration of n-butyric and d-lactic acids and the n-butyric acid:acetic acid ratio. Inulin inclusion had no effect on villus height and crypt depth or microvillus length, width, and density in the jejunum. Enzyme supplementation of the control diet and inulin-containing diets had no effect on many of the variables studied and only resulted in a decrease in crypt depth and an increase in villus height:crypt depth ratio in the jejunum.

  18. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of Wheat dwarf virus isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Parizipour, Mohamad Hamed Ghodoum; Schubert, Jörg; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Afsharifar, Alireza; Habekuß, Antje; Wu, Beilei

    2017-04-01

    Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) adversely affects cereal production in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. In this study, sequences of several WDV isolates from Iran which is located in the Fertile Crescent were analyzed. Analysis revealed a new geographic cluster for WDV-Wheat from Iran. Recombination analysis demonstrated the existence of several breakpoints in different regions of the viral genome. Data analysis demonstrated that WDV-Barley has an older history and lower diversity than WDV-Wheat. Sequence analysis identified a rare occasion of a co-infection of wheat with WDV-Wheat and WDV-Barley.

  20. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of crown rust resistance in common wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. hordei, primarily occurs on barley in the Great Plain regions of the United States. However, a few genotypes of common wheat were found to be susceptible to this pathogen among 750 wheat accessions evaluated. To investigate the genetics of crown ru...

  1. Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were ...

  2. Starch Synthesis in Shriveled and Plump Triticale Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Poklemba, Chris J.; Metzger, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Seven lines of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) with either shriveled or plump seed characteristics were planted in the field, and seed developmental changes in weight, starch content, the activity of starch biosynthetic and degradative enzymes, and ATP content were studied in three consecutive years in Oregon. Experimental results varied among genotypes and with growing environment, but overall indicated that: (a) amylase activity was higher in shriveled lines, but was not directly synchronized with the occurrence of shriveling at later stages of seed formation; (b) ADP-glucose starch synthase contributed to starch accumulation in triticale, but it appeared not to be associated with shriveledness as no stage-related changes were observed; and (c) ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity was 2- to 3-fold higher in plump lines than that of shriveled lines, indicating that this enzyme may play an important role in the degree of plumpness or stach accumulation of triticale seeds. PMID:16663276

  3. Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) east of the Fertile Crescent.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Peter L; Clegg, Michael T

    2007-02-27

    Cereal agriculture originated with the domestication of barley and early forms of wheat in the Fertile Crescent. There has long been speculation that barley was domesticated more than once. We use differences in haplotype frequency among geographic regions at multiple loci to infer at least two domestications of barley; one within the Fertile Crescent and a second 1,500-3,000 km farther east. The Fertile Crescent domestication contributed the majority of diversity in European and American cultivars, whereas the second domestication contributed most of the diversity in barley from Central Asia to the Far East.

  4. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  5. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  6. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  7. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of Root-Specific Barley Lectin 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, David R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1989-01-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNA library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A+) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A+) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666982

  9. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known so...

  10. Chromosome engineering, mapping, and transferring of resistance to Fusarium head blight disease from Elymus tsukushiensis into wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and wheat corn rotation agriculture have spawned massive epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on cereal crops mainly wheat and barley since the 1990’s and devastated farm economies of north central US and many of the major wheat growing regions of the world. Wheat has limited resis...

  11. Registration of 'Rasmusson' Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rasmusson’ (Reg. No. CV-345, PI 658495) is a spring, six-rowed, malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) released by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in January 2008. It was named after Donald Rasmusson, who worked as a barley breeder at the University of Minnesota from 1958 to 2000. Rasmuss...

  12. 77 FR 50686 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... ingredient: Dicamba. Product Type: Herbicide. Proposed Use: Dicamba-tolerant MON 87708 Soybeans. Contact...: Dicamba. Product Type: Herbicide. Proposed Uses: Dicamba-tolerant MON 87708 Soybeans; and conventional...), Conservation Reserve Program, small grains (barley, oats, triticale, and wheat), sorghum, soybean...

  13. Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Xu, L; Zhao, Y L; Chen, L Y; McAllister, T A

    2014-11-01

    Many feedlot finishing diets include wheat when the relative wheat prices are low. This study was conducted to examine the responses in ruminal pH and fermentation as well as site and extent of digestion from substituting soft or hard wheat for barley grain and to determine whether an elevated monensin concentration might decrease indicators of ruminal acidosis in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments included barley (10% barley silage, 86% barley, 4% supplement, with 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets where barley was substituted by either soft or hard wheat with either 28 or 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. Intake of DM was not affected by grain source, whereas increasing monensin with wheat diets reduced (P < 0.02) DMI. Mean ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.04) and durations of pH < 5.8 and pH < 5.5 greater (P < 0.03) for wheat than for barley diets. However, ruminal pH was not affected by wheat type or monensin level. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.03) for wheat than barley diets with no effect of wheat type. The molar proportion of propionate was greater (P < 0.04), whereas butyrate (P < 0.01) and ratio of acetate to propionate tended to be lower (P < 0.09), with the high as compared to low level of monensin. Replacing barley with wheat in finishing diets did not affect the duodenal flow or the digestibility of OM, likely as a result of greater (P < 0.01) NDF digestion from barley offsetting the increased (P < 0.03) supply of digested starch from wheat. Feeding soft vs. hard wheat delivered a greater (P < 0.03) duodenal supply of OM and nonammonia N with no differences in total tract nutrient digestion. The increased monensin concentration decreased the flow of OM (P < 0.01), total N (P < 0.05), and microbial protein (P < 0.05) to the small intestine due to decreased DMI. These results indicated that hard and soft wheat exhibited digestive characteristics

  14. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  15. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement.

  16. The transcriptome of Fusarium graminearum during the infection of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum causes head blight disease in wheat and barley. To help understand the infection process on wheat we studied global gene expression of F. graminearum in a time series from 24 to 196 hours after inoculation, compared to a water control. The infection is rapid and already after 48...

  17. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  18. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  19. Effect of drying conditions on triticale seed germination and weevil infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of high protein content and a soft seed coat makes triticale vulnerable to attack by weevils. Drying triticale grain to moisture contents safe for storage can prevent infestation by weevils, but if grain is being stored for seed, high drying temperatures can affect seed germination. ...

  20. AvrPm2 encodes an RNase-like avirulence effector which is conserved in the two different specialized forms of wheat and rye powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Praz, Coraline R; Bourras, Salim; Zeng, Fansong; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Menardo, Fabrizio; Xue, Minfeng; Yang, Lijun; Roffler, Stefan; Böni, Rainer; Herren, Gerard; McNally, Kaitlin E; Ben-David, Roi; Parlange, Francis; Oberhaensli, Simone; Flückiger, Simon; Schäfer, Luisa K; Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Dazhao; Keller, Beat

    2017-02-01

    There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2. The virulent AvrPm2 allele arose from a conserved 12 kb deletion, while there is no protein sequence diversity in the gene pool of avirulent B. g. tritici isolates. We found one polymorphic AvrPm2 allele in B. g. triticale and one orthologue in B. g. secalis and both are recognized by Pm2. AvrPm2 belongs to a small gene family encoding structurally conserved RNase-like effectors, including Avra13 from B. g. hordei, the cognate Avr of the barley resistance gene Mla13. These results demonstrate the conservation of functional avirulence genes in two cereal powdery mildews specialized on different hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for successful introgression of resistance genes from rye or other grass relatives to wheat.

  1. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wheat (bran, durum, germ, gluten, grass, malt, sprouts, starch) Wheat bran hydrolysate Wheat germ oil Wheat grass ... in the following: Glucose syrup Surimi Soy sauce Starch (gelatinized starch, modified starch, modified food starch, vegetable ...

  2. Estimation of optimum amino acid supplements to triticale.

    PubMed

    Heger, J

    1990-04-01

    Based on the nitrogen balance (NB) data and the efficiency of amino acid utilization, optimum supplements of limiting amino acids (AA) to triticale were calculated and their effect on true N digestibility (TD), biological value of protein (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) of a triticale-based diet was evaluated. To determine if AA balance must be considered in the calculation of the optimum supplements, the effect of a 20% or 40% excess of essential AA in lysine-, methionine-, threonine- or tryptophan-deficient diets was also studied. The AA excess had no significant effect on NB in diets deficient in lysine, methionine or threonine. However, NB in rats fed on the tryptophan-deficient diet increased as the AA excess increased. BV of the diet containing the optimized supplements of lysine, threonine, methionine and valine was comparable to that of lactalbumin or to the diet supplemented with all essential AA. The deletion of valine from the optimized supplement caused an insignificant decrease in BV. Due to the lower TD, NPU of diets containing the optimized AA supplements was lower than that of the diet containing all essential AA or of the lactalbumin-based diet.

  3. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  4. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  5. Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

  6. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  7. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  8. 7 CFR 810.1002 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., emmer, flaxseed, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, and wheat. (e) Sieves... weather-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged,...

  9. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  10. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  11. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  13. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  14. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  15. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  16. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  17. Development of 5006 Full-Length CDNAs in Barley: A Tool for Accessing Cereal Genomics Resources

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Shin-I, Tadasu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yoshida, Hideya; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Conte, Matthieu; Kohara, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    A collection of 5006 full-length (FL) cDNA sequences was developed in barley. Fifteen mRNA samples from various organs and treatments were pooled to develop a cDNA library using the CAP trapper method. More than 60% of the clones were confirmed to have complete coding sequences, based on comparison with rice amino acid and UniProt sequences. Blastn homologies (E<1E-5) to rice genes and Arabidopsis genes were 89 and 47%, respectively. Of the 5028 possible amino acid sequences derived from the 5006 FLcDNAs, 4032 (80.2%) were classified into 1678 GreenPhyl multigenic families. There were 555 cDNAs showing low homology to both rice and Arabidopsis. Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (71%) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to barley. The cDNAs showed high homology to Barley 1 GeneChip oligo probes (81%) and the wheat gene index (84%). The high homology between FLcDNAs (27%) and mapped barley expressed sequence tag enabled assigning linkage map positions to 151–233 FLcDNAs on each of the seven barley chromosomes. These comprehensive barley FLcDNAs provide strong platform to connect pre-existing genomic and genetic resources and accelerate gene identification and genome analysis in barley and related species. PMID:19150987

  18. Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.

    PubMed

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility.

  19. Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

  20. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. )

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  1. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  2. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  3. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  4. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  5. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Md S I; Bowra, S; Schmidt, D; Dionisio, G; Holm, P B; Vincze, E

    2016-02-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7% reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, the protein band were excised and the proteins identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequent SDS-PAGE separation and analysis of the prolamin fraction of the transgenic lines revealed a reduction in the amounts of C-hordeins and increases in the content of other hordein family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C-hordein level. All transgenic lines that exhibited a reduction for C-hordein showed off-target effects: the lines exhibited increased level of B/γ-hordein while D-hordein level was reduced. Furthermore, the multicopy insertions correlated negatively with silencing.

  6. Application of Brachypodium to the genetic improvement of wheat roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the potential of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon to be used to study grass roots. The aim of such research is to develop knowledge that can be used by plant breeders to create higher yielding cultivars of cereal grains like wheat and barley. It is desirable to use a mode...

  7. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha-1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m-2 s-1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m-2 s-1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  8. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    -600 mm growth period rainfall. References Harnos, Zs. 1993. Időjárás és időjárás-termés összefüggéseinek idősoros elemzése. In: Aszály 1983 (Szerk.: Baráth, Cs-né., Győrffy, B., és Harnos, Zs.). KÉE. Budapest Johnston, A. E. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. José, A. B., Estáquio, M. J., and Márton, L. 2001. Results of Crotalaria ssp. effects on soil conservation. In: Congress on Conservation Agriculture, (Eds Armando, M. V.), ECAF., Madrid, 5, pp 1-4. Márton, L. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, p. 9. Márton, L. 2001b. Climate change, N-fertilisation effect on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. In: Rural development-Ecologically farming-Agriculture, (Eds Palkovics, M.), University Veszprém, Keszthely, pp 924-929. Márton, L. 2002a. Climate-Rainfall Change (CRC) and mineral fertilisation (MF) effects on different crop production. In: Challenges of the new millennium our joint responsibility. (Eds A. Borhidi). MTA ÖBKI. Budapest. 1, pp 110-111. Márton, L. 2002b. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Production 51: 529-542. Márton, L. 2003. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of triticale. Plant Production. In press Márton, L., and Pekli, J. 2003. Plant production under sub-arctical and temperate climate conditions. SZIU. Gödöllő Acknowledgement This research was supported by Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-Budapest Adderss of the author Dr. Márton László Ph.D Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1022 H-Budapest, Herman O. u. 15. E-mail:marton@rissac.hu

  9. Lignocellulosic nanofibers from triticale straw: The influence of hemicelluloses and lignin in their production and properties.

    PubMed

    Tarrés, Quim; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Vallejos, María Evangelina; Area, Maria Cristina; Delgado-Aguilar, Marc; Mutjé, Pere

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims to determine the influence of hemicellulose and lignin content in the production of lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF) from triticale straws. Triticale straws were digested and then gradually delignified, preserving as much hemicelluloses as possible. The obtained LCNF was characterized and used as paper strength additive, observing that hemicellulose and lignin have a key role on the final properties thereof, as well as on their reinforcing potential as paper additive, obtaining LCNF with the same paper reinforcing potential than CNF obtained by TEMPO ((2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl) mediated oxidation.

  10. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  11. Relationship between climatic factors and distribution of Pratylenchus spp. in the dryland wheat production areas of Eastern Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field surveys were conducted by collecting soil samples to estimate nematode densities in soil from winter wheat, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring legumes (lentil, chickpea, and pea) fields during 2010 and 2011. Pratylenchus spp. were observed in 60 percent of sampled fields. However, nematod...

  12. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per..., 3, or 4; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones or any number of stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria...

  13. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per..., 3, or 4; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones or any number of stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria...

  14. Steam explosion pretreatment of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) straw for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Roberto A; García-Aparicio, María P; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-01-25

    Triticale, a non-food based, low-cost and well-adapted crop in marginal lands has been considered as a potential 1G and 2G feedstock for bio-ethanol production. In this work, triticale straw was evaluated as a source of fermentable sugars by combination of uncatalyzed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment conditions with severities from 3.05 to 4.12 were compared in order to identify conditions that favour the recovery of hemicellulose-derived sugars, cellulose digestibility or the combined sugars yield (CSY) from the pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis. Xylose oligosaccharide was the major sugar in hydrolysates from all pretreatment conditions. Maximum hemicellulose-sugars recovery (52% of the feedstock content) was obtained at 200 °C and 5 min. The highest cellulose digestibility (95%) was found at 200 °C - 15 min, although glucose recovery from hydrolysis was maximised at 200 °C - 10 min (digestibility >92%) due to higher mass yield of pretreated solids. The maximum CSY (nearly 77% of theoretical content) was obtained at 200 °C - 5 min. Sugar loss after pretreatment was observed to higher extent at harsher severities. However, the concentrations of sugar degradation products and acetic acid were at levels below tolerance limits of the downstream biological conversions. Steam explosion pretreatment without acid impregnation is a good technology for production of fermentable sugars from triticale straw. This work provides foundation for future autohydrolysis steam explosion optimization studies to enhanced sugars recovery and digestibility of triticale straw.

  15. Detection and prediction of Sitophilus oryzae infestations in triticale via near infrared spectral signature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this research was to detect and predict degree of triticale seed infestation with rice weevils using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Groups of seeds at 11 different levels (degrees) of infestation were tested by combining mixtures of infested and uninfested seeds at different ratios. S...

  16. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  17. Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically Isolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell.

    PubMed Central

    Holm, P. B.; Knudsen, S.; Mouritzen, P.; Negri, D.; Olsen, F. L.; Roue, C.

    1994-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from ~75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the protoplasts of the fertilized egg cells developed into embryo-like structures that gave rise to fully fertile plants. On average, 75% of cocultivated protoplasts of fertilized egg cells developed into embryo-like structures. Fully fertile plants were regenerated from ~50% of the embryo-like structures. The isolation-regeneration techniques may be largely genotype independent, because similar frequencies were obtained in two different barley varieties with very different performance in anther and microspore culture. Protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized eggs of wheat were isolated by the same procedure, and a fully fertile wheat plant was regenerated by cocultivation with barley microspores. PMID:12244247

  18. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant.

  19. Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

  20. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  1. Sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emissions from winter barley biofuel feedstock life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speers, C. M.; Gurian, P. L.; Adler, P. R.; Del Grosso, S.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Winter barley is an attractive feedstock for first generation biofuel production in the US Mid-Atlantic region that can serve East Coast transportation fuel markets. Recently designated advanced fuel standing by US EPA, the influence of barley grown as a winter crop on N2O emissions is uncertain because of high spatial and temporal variability. Our objective is to examine the sensitivity of direct and indirect N2O emissions to different management and environmental factors within a 20 year winter barley rotation in two Mid-Atlantic counties (Lenoir, North Carolina, and Queen Anne's, Maryland) using first order uncertainty methods. Specifically, we conducted simulations using the DayCent biogeochemical model, where winter barley was introduced in a two-year rotation following corn and preceding soybean, and grown in four-year cycles that alternate with winter wheat and fallow periods. We tested different model input parameters and analyzed the level of uncertainty each contributes to both direct and indirect N2O emissions with the introduction of barley into the crop rotation. The input values for pH, precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and fertilizer quantity applied were altered from base values and outputs for rotations with and without winter barley were compared by calculating partial derivatives for each parameter to estimate the relative change in N2O emitted. Fertilizer, followed by soil texture, introduces the greatest uncertainty in N2O emissions, with the remaining parameters contributing to lesser, but still significant uncertainty. Therefore, as barley is introduced onto a farm for biofuel production, it is most important to carefully control the fertilizer additions, and to monitor the soil texture class characteristics.

  2. Chromatin structure in barley nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mithieux, G; Roux, B

    1983-10-03

    In order to study the chromatin structure of a higher plant we used a high-yield method, which allows one to obtain up to 10(9) nuclei/kg fresh barley leaves. Significant amounts of low-ionic-strength-soluble chromatin can be extracted from these nuclei. Physicochemical properties were examined and discussed. Electric birefringence allowed us to observe the same transition in electro-optical properties as has been observed for animal chromatin, and suggested the existence of a symetrical structure occurring for approximately six nucleosomes. Circular dichroism showed that barley oligonucleosomes exhibit a higher molar ellipticity at 282 nm than total soluble chromatin and than their animal counterparts.

  3. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  4. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  5. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  6. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  7. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    PubMed

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation.

  8. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  9. Genome assembly of Diuraphis noxia strain: RWA2 Russian wheat aphid. Bioproject: PRJNA233413. Assembly No. ASM118638v1 (Dnoxia_1.0)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is among one of the most destructive species with origins in Central Asia west of the Tian Shan Mountains in northwestern China. It is a significant pest of wheat and barley, expanded its range throughout all cereal production areas of the world, ...

  10. A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies. PMID:22031834

  11. Interactions between Metopolophium festucae cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV)

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, S. E.; Bjur, J.; Ingwell, L.; Unger, L.; Bosque-Pérez, N. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between an invasive aphid, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium, and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV) were studied under laboratory conditions. M. festucae cerealium is an economic pest of wheat and barley that has recently been found in high population densities in wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. BYDV-PAV is the most prevalent and injurious species of BYDV worldwide and in the Pacific Northwest. Although M. festucae sensu stricto (Theobald 1917) has been reported previously as a vector of some BYDV isolates, there is no confirmed transmission of BYDV by M. festucae cerealium. Two experiments examined the ability of M. festucae cerealium to transmit BYDV-PAV. The first used single aphids caged to indicator plants of a BYDV-susceptible winter wheat cultivar and the second used multiple aphids on each test plant. M. festucae cerealium did not transmit BYDV-PAV in either experiment, whereas transmission by a known BYDV vector, Rhopalosiphum padi L., was consistently high (≥93%). A third experiment compared the intrinsic growth rate, days until first reproduction and daily reproduction by M. festucae cerealium on sham-inoculated and BYDV-PAV-infected wheat, but detected no differences. The findings are reviewed in light published data on M. festucae species, BYDV transmission, and the potential pest status of this new invading aphid. PMID:26896673

  12. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  13. Growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants fertilized with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative.

  14. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  15. Application of Molecular Genetics and Transformation to Barley Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter of the new barley monograph summarizes current applications of molecular genetics and transformation to barley improvement. The chapter describes recent applications of molecular markers including association genetics, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in barley programs, and in...

  16. Transgenic wheat, barley and oats: production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Paul A; Jones, Huw D

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the first developments in plant transformation technology using model plant species in the early 1980s, there has been a body of plant science research devoted to adapting these techniques to the transformation of crop plants. For some crop species progress was relatively rapid, but in other crop groups such as the small grain cereals, which were not readily amenable to culture in vitro and were not natural hosts to Agrobacterium, it has taken nearly two decades to develop reliable and robust transformation methods.In the following chapters of this book, transformation procedures for small grain cereals are presented, together with methods for gene and protein expression and the characterization of transgenic plants. In this introductory chapter we try to put these later chapters into context, giving an overview of the development of transformation technology for small grain cereals, discussing some of the pros and cons of the techniques and what limitations still exist.

  17. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Production and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeri, Paul A.; Jones, Huw D.

    Ever since the first developments in plant transformation technology using model plant species in the early 1980s, there has been a body of plant science research devoted to adapting these techniques to the transformation of crop plants. For some crop species progress was relatively rapid, but in other crop groups such as the small grain cereals, which were not readily amenable to culture in vitro and were not natural hosts to Agrobacterium, it has taken nearly two decades to develop reliable and robust transformation methods.

  18. Reduction of Rhizoctonia bare patch win wheat with barley rotations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major fungal root disease in no-till cropping systems. In an 8-year experiment comparing various dryland no-till cropping systems near Ritzville, Washington, Rhizoctonia bare patch first appeared in year 3 and continued through year 8. ...

  19. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation amount, distribution and nitrogen (N)-, phosphorus (P2O5)-, potassium (K2O)-, calcium (CaO)-, and magnesium (MgO) fertilization interaction effects were studied on a sandy acidic lessivated brown forest soil; WRB: Haplic Luvisol in the 44 year old Nyírlugos Field Trial (NYFT) in a Hungarian fragile agro-ecosystem in Nyírség region (N: 470 41' 60'' and E: 220 2' 80'') on triticale (X Triticosecale W.) yield from 1999 to 2006. At the trial set up in 1962, the soil had the following agrochemical properties: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, total N 34 mg kg-1, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 43 mg kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg kg-1 in the plowed (0-25 cm) layer. From 1980 to 2006, the experiment consisted of 32x4=128 plots in randomised block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertilizer rates in kg ha-1 year-1 were nitrogen 75, phosphorus 90 (P2O5), potassium 90 (K2O), calcium 437.5 (CaCO3) and magnesium 140 (MgCO3). The groundwater table has had at a depth of 2-3 m below the surface. The main results are as follows. During drought conditions the respective yield of the control areas was -25% less than for average years. The application of N alone, or of NP and NK treatments, led to yield reduction of -19.7%, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg or NPKCaMg caused an -28.3% drop during these types of years. In the wet years, the yield decreased by -22.2% on the unfertilized soils; in the case of N, NP, or NK nutrition with an -14.1%; and increased at 13.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treated plots. In the very wettest year, the yields were dropped -43.1% on control soils, -39.3% of N, NP, or NK loadings and -35.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments to those in the average year. The relationships between rainfall quantitiy during the vegetation period N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrition and yield were characterised by polynomial correlations (control: R= 0.7212***, N: R = 0.7410***, NP: R = 0

  20. A New Resource for Cereal Genomics: 22K Barley GeneChip Comes of Age1

    PubMed Central

    Close, Timothy J.; Wanamaker, Steve I.; Caldo, Rico A.; Turner, Stacy M.; Ashlock, Daniel A.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Wing, Rod A.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Kleinhofs, Andris; Wise, Roger P.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, access to complete genomic sequences, coupled with rapidly accumulating data related to RNA and protein expression patterns, has made it possible to determine comprehensively how genes contribute to complex phenotypes. However, for major crop plants, publicly available, standard platforms for parallel expression analysis have been limited. We report the conception and design of the new publicly available, 22K Barley1 GeneChip probe array, a model for plants without a fully sequenced genome. Array content was derived from worldwide contribution of 350,000 high-quality ESTs from 84 cDNA libraries, in addition to 1,145 barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database. Conserved sequences expressed in seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum), oat (Avena strigosa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and maize (Zea mays) were identified that will be valuable in the design of arrays across grasses. To enhance the usability of the data, BarleyBase, a MIAME-compliant, MySQL relational database, serves as a public repository for raw and normalized expression data from the Barley1 GeneChip probe array. Interconnecting links with PlantGDB and Gramene allow BarleyBase users to perform gene predictions using the 21,439 non-redundant Barley1 exemplar sequences or cross-species comparison at the genome level, respectively. We expect that this first generation array will accelerate hypothesis generation and gene discovery in disease defense pathways, responses to abiotic stresses, development, and evolutionary diversity in monocot plants. PMID:15020760

  1. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  2. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of barley dietary fiber by chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Park, Ka Hwa; Lee, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Chemical modification of dietary fiber (DF), extracted from whole grain barley, was carried out to obtain cross-linked (CL) DF, carboxymethyl (CM) DF, and hydroxypropyl (HP) DF. The DF components, physicochemical properties, and subsequent influence on the in vitro digestibility of wheat starch gels were comparatively investigated. The redistribution of fiber components from chemically modified DF was observed. An increase in the total DF (TDF) content of CL- and HP-DF was observed, which was mainly due to an increase of insoluble DF. Carboxymethylation led to an appreciable increase of soluble DF (1.17-6.20%) but TDF contents slightly decreased. Chemical modification of barley DF led to increases in arabinose (7.1-11.5%) and xylose (10.7-17.5%), but glucose contents decreased (67.4-79.9%). The treatments, especially carboxymethylation, effectively (P<0.05) increased hydration properties (e.g. water solubility, swelling power, and water absorption index). Substitution of 5% wheat starch with CL-, and HP-DF led to decreased in vitro digestibility in comparison to the control starch. Our results suggest that chemical modification improve the DF characteristics of barley and to exploit its potential application as a functional ingredient in fiber-rich products.

  3. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy R

    2016-02-02

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat and maize. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus evaded thorough molecular characterization for many years due to the experimental challenges of mite transmission and manipulating multisegmented negative sense RNA genomes. Recently, the complete genome sequence of a Nebraska isolate of WMoV revealed eight segments, plus a variant sequence of the nucleocapsid protein-encoding segment. Here, near-complete and partial consensus sequences of five more WMoV isolates are reported and compared to the Nebraska isolate: an Ohio maize isolate (GG1), a Kansas barley isolate (KS7), and three Ohio wheat isolates (H1, K1, W1). Results show two distinct groups of WMoV isolates: Ohio wheat isolate RNA segments had 84% or lower nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate, whereas GG1 and KS7 had 98% or higher nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate. Knowledge of the sequence variability of WMoV isolates is a step toward understanding virus biology, and potentially explaining observed biological variation.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of nivalenol in barley.

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, R; Hirai, K; Sato, M; Ikebuchi, H; Ichinoe, M; Terao, T

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies against nivalenol (NIV) tetraacetate (Tetra-Ac-NIV) were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a hemisuccinate derivative of 8-hydroxy-3,4,7,15-tetraacetyl-12, 13-epoxytrichothece-9-en conjugated to bovine serum albumin. A radioimmunoassay system with one of these sera was developed to measure NIV contamination in barley. The detection limit for Tetra-Ac-NIV was about 0.5 ng/ml. The relative cross-reactivities of the antiserum with Tetra-Ac-NIV, acetyl T-2 toxin, and scirpenol triacetate, which were determined by the competitive radioimmunoassay, were 1, 0.78, and 0.56, respectively. Other derivatives showed no cross-reactivity. For the determination of NIV in a barley sample, NIV was extracted from the sample with acetonitrile-water (7:3), defatted with hexane, and then acetylated with acetic anhydride to form Tetra-Ac-NIV. The reaction mixture was loaded onto a C18 cartridge to remove excess reagents and impurities. Tetra-Ac-NIV was eluted from the cartridge with 50% methanol in water, and the eluate was subjected to radioimmunoassay. Analysis of six naturally contaminated barley samples for NIV revealed that radioimmunoassay results agreed well with gas chromatographic analyses. PMID:2317045

  5. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  6. Screening Locally Adapted Spring Wheat Lines for Resistance to Cereal Cyst Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) has become an increasing problem in the high precipitation areas of eastern Washington and the Palouse. Since 2010, surveys have discovered serious infestations of this nematode, which infects wheat, barley and grassy weeds. It causes severe yield loss, restr...

  7. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA Nat...

  8. The wheat Sr50 gene reveals rich diversity at a cereal disease resistance locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identify the wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr50 by physical mapping, mutation and complementation as homologous to barley Mla encoding a Coiled-Coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Leucine-Rich Repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. We show that Sr50 confers a unique resistance specificity, different from Sr31 and oth...

  9. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  10. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  11. DON modification in naturally-contaminated wheat samples using microorganisms isolated from the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum produces the toxic compound deoxynivalenol (DON) that contaminates wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to mitigate DON in the United States. Microbes were isolated from different soil types, and cultured in a mineral salt media using 100 ppm DON as the...

  12. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  13. Wheat glutenin alters protein body structure in maize but not levels of endogenous storage proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal grains are an important nutritional source of amino acids for humans and livestock worldwide. They belong to three subfamilies of grasses or Poaceae. Wheat, barley, and oats belong to the subfamily Pooideae, rice to the Ehrhartoideae, and maize, millets, sugarcane, and sorghum to the Panicoid...

  14. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods.

  15. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  16. A wheat homologue of PHYTOCLOCK 1 is a candidate gene conferring the early heading phenotype to einkorn wheat.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Nasuda, Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    An X-ray mutant showing an early flowering phenotype has been identified in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), for which a major QTL for heading time was previously mapped in the telomeric region on the long arm of chromosome 3A. Recent advances in Triticeae genomics revealed that the gene order in this region is highly conserved between wheat and barley. Thus, we adopted a hypothetical gene order in barley, the so-called GenomeZipper, to develop DNA markers for fine mapping the target gene in wheat. We identified three genes tightly linked to the early heading phenotype. PCR analysis revealed that early-flowering is associated with the deletion of two genes in the mutant. Of the two deleted genes, one is an ortholog of the LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX)/PHYTOCLOCK 1 (PCL1) gene found in Arabidopsis, which regulates the circadian clock and flowering time. We found distorted expression patterns of two clock genes (TOC1 and LHY) in the einkorn pcl1 deletion mutant as was reported for the Arabidopsis lux mutant. Transcript accumulation levels of photoperiod-response related genes, a photoperiod sensitivity gene (Ppd-1) and two wheat CONSTANS-like genes (WCO1 and TaHd1), were significantly higher in the einkorn wheat mutant. In addition, transcripts of the wheat florigen gene (WFT) accumulated temporally under short-day conditions in the einkorn wheat mutant. These results suggest that deletion of WPCL1 leads to abnormally higher expression of Ppd-1, resulting in the accumulation of WFT transcripts that triggers flowering even under short-day conditions. Our observations from gene mapping, gene deletions, and expression levels of flowering related genes strongly suggest that WPCL1 is the most likely candidate gene for controlling the early flowering phenotype in the einkorn wheat mutant.

  17. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  18. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough.

  19. A barley homolog of yeast ATG6 is involved in multiple abiotic stress responses and stress resistance regulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaowei; Zeng, Zhanghui; Liu, Cuicui; Yuan, Weiyi; Hou, Ning; Bian, Hongwu; Zhu, Muyuan; Han, Ning

    2017-03-19

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation pathway among eukaryote cells, which can recycle damaged or unwanted cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. As a key component of the Class III PI3K kinase complex, ATG6/Beclin-1 is essential for autophagosome formation. In this study, we isolated a putative HvATG6 gene in barley genome. The protein encoded by HvATG6 shares high sequence identity to ATG6 orthologs in rice and wheat, and has a typical autophagy-specific domain containing segments of repeated β-sheet-α-helix. The expression of HvATG6 protein restored the appearance of autophagosomes in yeast atg6 mutant, indicating that HvATG6 complements the deficiency of yeast ATG6 protein in autophagy. Punctate florescence signals, considered as the PAS for autophagosome initiation, were observed in the cytoplasm of cells when HvATG6-GFP fusion construct was transformed into barley protoplast. Furthermore, the expression of HvATG6 was upregulated by various abiotic stresses including dark, H2O2 treatment, nitrogen deficiency, high salinity, drought, low temperature and toxic aluminum. Knockdown of HvATG6 in barley leaves through barley strip mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced gene silencing led to accelerated yellowing under dark and H2O2 treatments. Based on the above findings, we propose that barley ATG6 plays the similar role as other plant ATG6 orthologs, and might be involved in stress-induced autophagy process.

  20. Barley and oats: underutilized nutrition sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and oats are two unique ancient crops. Their grains contain beta-glucan in substantial amounts, which can lower cholesterol levels and reduce glycemic response. Yet, food uses of barley and oats are rather limited due to lack of palatability of whole grain food or functionality of milled flou...

  1. Mississippi Valley Uniform Regional Barley Nursery 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is a cooperative venture involving state agricultural experiment stations and the Agricultural Research Service. The purpose of the nursery is to evaluate advanced barley germplasm for suitability as malting barley for the upper Midwestern U.S. Eight locations contributed useable data ...

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using a Supercontinuum Laser: Application to Long Wavelength Transmission Spectra of Barley Endosperm and Oil.

    PubMed

    Ringsted, Tine; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Keiding, Søren Rud; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-07-01

    The supercontinuum laser is a new type of light source, which combines the collimation and intensity of a laser with the broad spectral region of a lamp. Using such a source therefore makes it possible to focus the light onto small sample areas without losing intensity and thus facilitate either rapid or high-intensity measurements. Single seed transmission analysis in the long wavelength (LW) near-infrared (NIR) region is one area that might benefit from a brighter light source such as the supercontinuum laser. This study is aimed at building an experimental spectrometer consisting of a supercontinuum laser source and a dispersive monochromator in order to investigate its capability to measure the barley endosperm using transmission experiments in the LW NIR region. So far, barley and wheat seeds have only been studied using NIR transmission in the short wavelength region up to 1100 nm. However, the region in the range of 2260-2380 nm has previously shown to be particularly useful in differentiating barley phenotypes using NIR spectroscopy in reflectance mode. In the present study, 350 seeds (consisting of 70 seeds from each of five barley genotypes) in 1 mm slices were measured by NIR transmission in the range of 2235-2381 nm and oils from the same five barley genotypes were measured in a cuvette with a 1 mm path length in the range of 2003-2497 nm. The spectra of the barley seeds could be classified according to genotypes by principal component analysis; and spectral covariances with reference analysis of moisture, β-glucan, starch, protein and lipid were established. The spectral variations of the barley oils were compared to the fatty acid compositions as measured using gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  3. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat.

  4. Genetic mapping of a 7R Al tolerance QTL in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Niedziela, A; Bednarek, P T; Labudda, M; Mańkowski, D R; Anioł, A

    2014-02-01

    Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is a relatively new cereal crop. In Poland, triticale is grown on 12 % of arable land ( http://www.stat.gov.pl ). There is an increasing interest in its cultivation due to lowered production costs and increased adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. However, it has an insufficient tolerance to the presence of aluminum ions (Al(3+)) in the soil. The number of genes controlling aluminum tolerance in triticale and their chromosomal location is not known. Two F2 mapping biparental populations (MP1 and MP15) segregating for aluminum (Al) tolerance were tested with AFLP, SSR, DArT, and specific PCR markers. Genetic mapping enabled the construction of linkage groups representing chromosomes 7R, 5R and 2B. Obtained linkage groups were common for both mapping populations and mostly included the same markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) allowed identification of a single QTL that mapped to the 7R chromosome and explained 25 % (MP1) and 36 % (MP15) of phenotypic variation. The B1, B26 and Xscm150 markers were 0.04 cM and 0.02 cM from the maximum of the LOD function in the MP1 and MP15, respectively and were highly associated with aluminum tolerance as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Moreover, the molecular markers B1, B26, Xrems1162 and Xscm92, previously associated with the Alt4 locus that encoded an aluminum-activated malate transporter (ScALMT1) that was involved in Al tolerance in rye (Secale cereale) also mapped within QTL. Biochemical analysis of plants represented MP1 and MP15 mapping populations confirmed that the QTL located on 7R chromosome in both mapping populations is responsible for Al tolerance.

  5. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight secalins from triticale seeds by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boleslaw P

    2010-07-01

    A rapid and reliable method for separation and characterization of the variability of high-molecular-weight secalin subunits (HMW-SS) in hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) by CZE has been developed. In this method, a mixture of two poly(ethylene oxide) polymers differing in molecular weight and a high concentration of ACN in isoelectric buffer was applied as the running electrolyte. For dynamic coating of the capillary inner wall, a low-concentration mixture of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was employed. Wide allelic variations in rye HMW-SS composition, including some novel x- and y-type HMW-SS, were detected by CZE. The CZE electropherograms of HMW-SS showed two groups of peaks in accordance with y- and x-type subunits, with migration times of 8.0-8.8 and 11.0-13.3 min, respectively. HMW-SS differed in migration times from the simultaneously resolved HMW glutenin subunits, but frequently had very similar electrophoretic mobilities during separation by SDS-PAGE. Each of the two rye subunits 2r and 6.5r detected by SDS-PAGE represents in fact two subunits (5.1r or 5.2r, and 6.4r or 6.5r, respectively). After analyzing 106 European triticale cultivars, 12 HMW-SS were identified (six x-type and six y-type). They form six allelic variants of these subunits. The simultaneous separation and identification of triticale HMW glutenin and secalin subunits by CZE is an efficient alternative to SDS-PAGE and should facilitate breeding of valuable cultivars.

  6. Immunological investigation for the presence of lunasin, a chemopreventive soybean peptide, in the seeds of diverse plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lunasin, a 43-amino acid soybean bioactive peptide, exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. All soybean varieties that have been examined contain lunasin. It has also been reported in a few other plant species including Amaranth, black nightshade, wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Int...

  7. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... treatment on alfalfa, potato, and rice; seed treatment on alfalfa, barley, dry bean and peas (crop subgroup 6C), potato, rice, soybeans, triticale, and wheat; and nursery seed and seedlings of conifers and..., lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed (canola), sesame, and...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall...

  10. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  11. Chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): review of five years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Haesaert, G; Latre, J

    2013-01-01

    During five subsequent growing seasons field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the University College Ghent (Belgium) to evaluate the selectivity and efficacy of herbicides for chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). The experiments were set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a completely randomised block design with four replicates. Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides were applied pre- and post-emergence, at different rates. The influence of the different treatments on weed diversity, weed density, growth inhibition and chlorosis of the crop and grain yield was studied. Results obtained from these field trials indicated differences between the different treatments.

  12. Chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): review of five years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Veerle, Derycke; Joos, Latré; Geert, Haesaert

    2014-01-01

    During five subsequent growing seasons field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the University College Ghent (Belgium) to evaluate the selectivity and efficacy of herbicides for chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). The experiments were set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a completely randomised block design with four replications. Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides were applied pre- and post-emergence, at different rates. The influence of the different treatments on weed diversity, weed density, growth inhibition and chlorosis of the crop and grain yield was studied. Results obtained from these field trials indicated differences between the different treatments.

  13. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  14. Biotypic diversity in Colorado Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Aubrey A; Peairs, Frank B; Randolph, Terri L; Rudolph, Jeffrey B; Haley, Scott D; Puterka, Gary J

    2008-04-01

    The biotypic diversity of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was assessed in five isolates collected in Colorado. Three isolates, RWA 1, RWA 2, and an isolate from Montezuma County, CO, designated RWA 6, were originally collected from cultivated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and obtained from established colonies at Colorado State University. The fourth isolate, designated RWA 7, was collected from Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis L., in Baca County, CO. The fifth isolate, designated RWA 8, was collected from crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., in Montezuma County, CO. The four isolates were characterized in a standard seedling assay, by using 24 plant differentials, 22 wheat lines and two barley, Hordeum vulgare L., lines. RWA 1 was the least virulent of the isolates, killing only the four susceptible entries. RWA 8 also killed only the four susceptible entries, but it expressed intermediate virulence on seven wheat lines. RWA 6, killing nine entries, and RWA 7, killing 11 entries, both expressed an intermediate level of virulence overall, but differed in their level of virulence to 'CO03797' (Dn1), 'Yumar' (Dn4), and 'CO960293-2'. RWA 2 was the most virulent isolate, killing 14 entries, including Dn4- and Dny-containing wheat. Four wheat lines, '94M370' (Dn7), 'STARS 02RWA2414-11', CO03797, and 'CI2401', were resistant to the five isolates. The results of this screening confirm the presence of five unique Russian wheat aphid biotypes in Colorado.

  15. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

    1997-11-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  16. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  17. Wheat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Raison, John K.; Chapman, Elza A.; White, P. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative activity and membrane lipid structure of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were measured as a function of temperature. The Arrhenius activation energy for the oxidation of both succinate and α-ketoglutarate was constant over the temperature range of 3 to 27 C. The activation energy for succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was also constant over the same temperature range. The concentration of mitochondria in the reaction, the degree of initial inhibition of state 3 respiration, and the time after isolation of mitochondria were each shown to be capable of causing a disproportionate decrease in the rate of oxidation at low temperatures which resulted in an apparent increase in the activation energy of oxidative activity. Using three spin-labeling techniques, wheat membrane lipids were shown to undergo phase changes at about 0 C and 30 C. It is concluded that the membrane lipids of wheat, a chillingresistant plant, undergo a phase transition similar to the transition observed in the membrane lipids of chilling-sensitive plants. For wheat, however, the transition is initiated at a lower temperature and extends over a wider temperature range. PMID:16659906

  18. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  19. The effects of seeding sterile triticale on a native plant community after wildfire in a pinyon pinemountain mahogany woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitman, B.A.; Draper, T.M.; Esque, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire seeding with grasses is a common practice for emergency rehabilitation of burned woodlands. However, most post-seeding monitoring does not address consequences to native flora. In November 2004, the US Forest Service hand-seeded triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus), a sterile wheatrye hybrid, on a small burned area in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, United States. A monitoring project using paired plots was designed to quantify the effects of seeding triticale on density and species richness of native annual and perennial plants, cover of perennial plants, and aboveground production of annual plants. We did not find any effects of triticale seeding on annual plant species or most responses of perennial plants. However, the density of woody perennial seedlings was significantly lower 2 years after triticale was added. Although we found a smaller impact from seeding with exotic grass than other studies, quantifiable costs to native vegetation were observed. We caution against the use of non-native grass for seeding in areas with naturally low perennial recruitment. ?? IAWF 2009.

  20. Triticale Bran Alkylresorcinols Enhance Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Agil, Rania; Patterson, Zachary R.; Mackay, Harry; Abizaid, Alfonso; Hosseinian, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB) added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF) and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR), 10% TB (HF-TB), or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE). Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects. PMID:28231100

  1. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought.

  2. Variability in amino acid digestibility of triticale grain from diverse genotypes as studied in cecectomized laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Maurer, H P; Möhring, J; Nautscher, N; Siegert, W; Rosenfelder, P; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-12-01

    Triticale, an anthropogenic hybrid grain, is increasing in importance as a feed grain for laying hens. However, our limited knowledge of its nutritional qualities and their impact on hen performance prevents optimization of its use. The present study investigated the digestibility of amino acids ( AA: ) in triticale grain in laying hens, and additionally examined relationships between AA digestibility and chemical and physical characteristics of the grain. Twenty genotypes of triticale were grown under standardized agronomic and environmental conditions and were characterized according to their physical properties (thousand-seed weight, test weight, falling number, extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, inositol phosphates) and gross energy concentration. Additionally, the in vitro solubility of nitrogen was determined. The animal trial comprised 4 Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed among 2 subsequent runs. Twelve cecectomized LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages and either fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg cornstarch or one of 20 triticale diets, each replacing the cornstarch with one triticale genotype, for 8 d. During the last 4 d, feed intake was recorded and excreta were collected quantitatively. Amino acid digestibility of the triticale genotypes was calculated by linear regression. The digestibility of all AA differed significantly between the 20 genotypes, including Lys (digestibility range 68 to 80%), Met (77 to 86%), Thr (68 to 78%) and Trp (74 to 83%). However, AA digestibility only correlated with characteristics of the grain in few cases, without a consistent pattern among AA. Equations to predict AA digestibility based on the grain's physical and chemical characteristics were calculated by multiple linear regression. The explanatory power (adjusted R(2);) of these prediction equations was below 0.7 for most AA and thus not sufficiently precise to be

  3. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    PubMed Central

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  4. DNA barcoding to identify all life stages of holocyclic cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat and other poaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of the mtDNA was sequenced in eight holocyclic monoecious aphids that occur on wheat, barley, oat, and sorghum in the US. The first 640 bp of the 3' end were considered as a DNA barcoding technique for species identification. DNA barcoding successfully...

  5. Expression of a truncated form of yeast ribosomal protein L3 in transgenic wheat improves resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that causes major economic losses in wheat and barley production worldwide. Contamination of food with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium is a major health concern for humans and animals because trichothecenes are potent cyt...

  6. A transient assay system for the assessment of cell-autonomous gene function in dehydration-stressed barley

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Stephan; Mihaly, Robert; Pauk, Janos; Schweizer, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Drought is a serious, worldwide problem for crop production and also affects yields of barley and wheat, together with other stressors such as frost, viral diseases, or fungal pathogens. Although a number of candidate genes have been identified by transcriptome approaches in recent years, only very few have been tested in functional assays for a beneficial effect on drought tolerance. Here, a transient assay system in microprojectile-bombarded barley leaves is described that allows the functional testing of dehydration stress-related candidate genes by RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression. Cellular stress or damage in dedydrated leaves is reported by a reduced accumulation of slowly maturing, native red-fluorescing protein DsRed that is known to be sensitive to denaturing conditions. After a dehydration-stress period of 4 d during which the relative fresh weight of leaves was kept at 60–66% of initial fresh weight, a reproducible reduction of normalized DsRed fluorescence was observed. In order to obtain proof of concept, a number of barley mRNAs homologous to drought response genes were selected and targeted by transient induced gene silencing (TIGS). TIGS of four tested genes resulted in a significantly stronger decrease of normalized DsRed fluorescence in dehydration-stressed leaves, whereas they had no effect in fully turgescent control leaves. These genes encode barley drought-responsive factor HvDRF1 (DREB2-like), dehydrin 6, late embryogenesis-abundant protein HVA1, and the vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter HvHNX1. The four targeted transcripts were also found to accumulate rapidly in dehydration-stressed barley leaf segments. The results suggest a value of the TIGS system for functional pre-screening of larger numbers of drought or dehydration stress-related candidate genes in barley. PMID:18641397

  7. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (p<0.01) was correlated with 1) temperature increases, 2) to the hotter 'African' slope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants.

  8. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  9. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  10. A novel method for increasing the frequency of somatic embryogenesis in wheat tissue culture by NaCl and KCl supplementation.

    PubMed

    Galiba, G; Yamada, Y

    1988-01-01

    The effect of NaCl, KCl and LiCl on the growth and morphogeneis of tissue cultures originating from immature embryos of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and one triticale (Triticosecale)varieties was investigated. The morphogenetic pathway to plant regeneration in Chinese Spring wheat was determined as incomplete somatic embryogenesis because the differentiation and subsequent germination of the shoot apices happened in the early phase of embryo development. Culture medium supplemented by NaCl suppressed the differentiation of shoot apices resulting in the development of more typical somatic embryoids. Forty mM concentrations of both NaCl or KCl increased the formation of somatic embryos in Chinese Spring. Arthur and GK Kincso wheat varieties while Lasko triticale regenerated well without the addition. The salts inhibited plantlet formation from somatic embryoids so the salts supplement should be omitted. Forty mM LiCl inhibited growth while 10mM LiCl had no effect on growth or embryogenesis.

  11. Surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients.

    PubMed

    Kasarda, Donald D; Dupont, Frances M; Vensel, William H; Altenbach, Susan B; Lopez, Rocio; Tanaka, Charlene K; Hurkman, William J

    2008-11-12

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries but is avoided in the United States because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye, and barley proteins and products that contain them. These proteins are capable of initiating damage to the absorptive lining of the small intestine in CD patients, apparently as a consequence of undesirable interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this study, starch surface-associated proteins were extracted from four commercial wheat starches, fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. More than 150 proteins were identified, many of which (for example, histones, purothionins, and glutenins) had not been recognized previously as starch-associated. The commercial starches were analyzed by the R-5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to estimate the amount of harmful gluten protein present. One of these starches had a low gluten content of 7 ppm and actually fell within the range proposed as a new Codex Alimentarius Standard for naturally gluten-free foods (maximum 20 ppm). This low level of gluten indicates that the starch should be especially suitable for use by celiac patients, although wheat starches with levels up to 100 ppm are deemed safe in the proposed Codex standards.

  12. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Caleigh M.; McKay, Diane L.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Dallal, Gerard; Chen, C. -Y. Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control), with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus. PMID:27983687

  13. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Caleigh M; McKay, Diane L; McKeown, Nicola M; Dallal, Gerard; Chen, C -Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2016-12-15

    While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40-70 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 27-35.9 kg/m². After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control), with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  14. Physicochemical properties of hull-less barley fibre-rich fractions varying in particle size and their potential as functional ingredients in two-layer flat bread.

    PubMed

    Izydorczyk, M S; Chornick, T L; Paulley, F G; Edwards, N M; Dexter, J E

    2008-05-15

    The performance of barley fibre-rich fractions (FRF), as high dietary fibre ingredients, in two-layer flat bread was investigated. In addition, the effects of particle size reduction by pin milling on functional properties of FRF were studied. FRF enriched in non-starch polysaccharides (β-glucans and arabinoxylans) were obtained by roller milling of hull-less barley. Pin milling (PM) of FRF significantly reduced their particle size, slightly increased the solubility of β-glucans and arabinoxylans, and increased the viscosity of water slurries containing FRF. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour significantly increased dough water absorption and weakened the dough properties, as indicated by farinograph mixing curves, but the FRF-enriched doughs exhibited good handling characteristics at the dividing and sheeting stages. The appearance, diameter, layer separation, crumb, and aroma of the FRF-enriched flat breads were comparable to that of the control. The PM of FRF did not significantly affect the dough handling or the quality characteristics of flat breads. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour flat bread provided substantial health benefits by significantly increasing the total and soluble dietary fibre contents and by decreasing starch digestibility.

  15. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  16. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  17. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  18. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  19. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  20. Exceptionally High Levels of Genetic Diversity in Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Populations from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Szydło, W; Hein, G; Denizhan, E; Skoracka, A

    2015-08-01

    Recent research on the wheat curl mite species complex has revealed extensive genetic diversity that has distinguished several genetic lineages infesting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereals worldwide. Turkey is the historical region of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) domestication and diversification. The close relationship between these grasses and the wheat curl mite provoked the question of the genetic diversity of the wheat curl mite in this region. The scope of the study was to investigate genetic differentiation within the wheat curl mite species complex on grasses in Turkey. Twenty-one wheat curl mite populations from 16 grass species from nine genera (Agropyron sp., Aegilops sp., Bromus sp., Elymus sp., Eremopyrum sp., Hordeum sp., Poa sp., Secale sp., and Triticum sp.) were sampled in eastern and southeastern Turkey for genetic analyses. Two molecular markers were amplified: the cytochrome oxidase subunit I coding region of mtDNA (COI) and the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high genetic variation of the wheat curl mite in Turkey, primarily on Bromus and Hordeum spp., and exceptionally high diversity of populations associated with bread wheat. Three wheat-infesting wheat curl mite lineages known to occur on other continents of the world, including North and South America, Australia and Europe, were found in Turkey, and at least two new genetic lineages were discovered. These regions of Turkey exhibit rich wheat curl mite diversity on native grass species. The possible implications for further studies on the wheat curl mite are discussed.

  1. Change in Biotypic Diversity of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Puterka, G J; Giles, K L; Brown, M J; Nicholson, S J; Hammon, R W; Peairs, F B; Randolph, T L; Michaels, G J; Bynum, E D; Springer, T L; Armstrong, J S; Mornhinweg, D W

    2015-04-01

    A key component of Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), management has been through planting resistant wheat cultivars. A new biotype, RWA2, appeared in 2003 which caused widespread damage to wheat cultivars containing the Dn4 gene. Biotypic diversity in Russian wheat aphid populations has not been addressed since 2005 when RWA2 dominated the biotype complex. Our objectives were to determine the biotypic diversity in the Central Great Plains and Colorado Plateau at regional (2010, 2011, 2013) and local (2012) levels and detect the presence of new Russian wheat aphid biotypes. Regional and within-field aphid collections were screened against Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat genotypes containing genes Dn3, Dn4, Dn6, Dn7, Dn9, CI2401; and resistant barley STARS 9301B. In 2010, all aphid collections from Texas were avirulent to the Dn4 resistance gene in wheat. Regional results revealed Dn4 avirulent RWA6 was widespread (55-84%) in populations infesting wheat in both regions. Biotypes RWA1, 2, and 3/7 were equally represented with percentages<20% each while RWA8 was rarely detected. Combining percentages of RWA1, 6, and 8 across regions to estimate avirulence to Dn4 gene revealed high percentages for both 2011 (64-80%) and 2013 (69-90%). In contrast, the biotype structure at the local level differed where biotype percentages varied up to ≥2-fold between fields. No new biotypes were detected; therefore, Dn7, CI2401, and STARS9301B remained resistant to all known Russian wheat aphid biotypes. This study documents a shift to Dn4 avirulent biotypes and serves as a valuable baseline for biotypic diversity in Russian wheat aphid populations prior to the deployment of new Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars.

  2. Purification and characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from triticale.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Dixit, A; Upadhyaya, K C

    1994-04-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase has been isolated from a synthetic cereal triticale and purified using a newly developed rapid procedure involving precipitation with ammonium sulphate (35-55% saturation), DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) chromatography and filtration through Sepharose CL-68. Molecular weights of the enzyme subunits are 15.5 and 52 kDa which corresponds to 540 kDa for the hexadecameric holoenzyme. Isoelectric focussing showed that the enzyme has a pI of 4.2. Various kinetic constants determined under aerobic conditions are: Km (CO2), 118 microM; Km (RuBP), 220 microM (at 20 mM NaHCO3) and Vmax, 690 nmole CO2 fixed/mg enzyme/min.

  3. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    PubMed Central

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping. PMID:23942574

  4. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping.

  5. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rowan A.C.; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain. PMID:24817784

  6. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain.

  7. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  8. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  9. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  10. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  11. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Malting barley crop insurance. 457.118 Section 457.118..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.118 Malting barley crop insurance. The malting barley crop insurance provisions for the 1996 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  12. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  13. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  14. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  15. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  16. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of barley. 810.201 Section 810.201... GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Terms Defined § 810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated...

  17. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  18. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  19. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  20. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  1. A chromosome bin map of 2148 expressed sequence tag loci of wheat homoeologous group 7.

    PubMed

    Hossain, K G; Kalavacharla, V; Lazo, G R; Hegstad, J; Wentz, M J; Kianian, P M A; Simons, K; Gehlhar, S; Rust, J L; Syamala, R R; Obeori, K; Bhamidimarri, S; Karunadharma, P; Chao, S; Anderson, O D; Qi, L L; Echalier, B; Gill, B S; Linkiewicz, A M; Ratnasiri, A; Dubcovsky, J; Akhunov, E D; Dvorák, J; Miftahudin; Ross, K; Gustafson, J P; Radhawa, H S; Dilbirligi, M; Gill, K S; Peng, J H; Lapitan, N L V; Greene, R A; Bermudez-Kandianis, C E; Sorrells, M E; Feril, O; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Conley, E J; Anderson, J A; Choi, D W; Fenton, D; Close, T J; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Kianian, S F

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a high-density chromosome bin map of homoeologous group 7 in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), to identify gene distribution in these chromosomes, and to perform comparative studies of wheat with rice and barley. We mapped 2148 loci from 919 EST clones onto group 7 chromosomes of wheat. In the majority of cases the numbers of loci were significantly lower in the centromeric regions and tended to increase in the distal regions. The level of duplicated loci in this group was 24% with most of these loci being localized toward the distal regions. One hundred nineteen EST probes that hybridized to three fragments and mapped to the three group 7 chromosomes were designated landmark probes and were used to construct a consensus homoeologous group 7 map. An additional 49 probes that mapped to 7AS, 7DS, and the ancestral translocated segment involving 7BS also were designated landmarks. Landmark probe orders and comparative maps of wheat, rice, and barley were produced on the basis of corresponding rice BAC/PAC and genetic markers that mapped on chromosomes 6 and 8 of rice. Identification of landmark ESTs and development of consensus maps may provide a framework of conserved coding regions predating the evolution of wheat genomes.

  2. Expression of the N-terminal 99 Amino Acids of Yeast Ribosomal Protein L3 in Transgenic Wheat Confers Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease for wheat or barley. The contamination of important agricultural products with the trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) or 4,15-diacetoxyscirpeno1 (DAS) produced by Fusarium species poses a major health concern for both human and ani...

  3. Barley hulls and straw constituents and emulsifying properties of their hemicelluloses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley hulls (husks) are potential by-products of barley ethanol production. Barley straw is an abundant biomass in the regions producing barley for malting, feeds, and fuel ethanol. Both barley hulls and straw contain valuable hemicelluloses (arabinoxylans) and other useful carbohydrate and non-car...

  4. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  5. Relationship among yield and plant specific traits on triticale Romanian varieties in Timisoara environment.

    PubMed

    Butnaru, Gallia; Sarac, Ioan; Ciulca, Sorin

    2014-01-01

    The paper assesses the behavior of triticale genotypes in the evolution of the environment in Timisoara area during 2001 - 2011. The triticale varieties and lines were bred in the Eastern part of Romania [RICIC Fundulea] with a different climate pattern than Timisoara. We intended to see the yield evolution during a long period of cultivation [10 years--3 varieties bred before 2000; Group 1] and the new genotypes bred after 2000; Group 2] cultivated during 6 - 2 years. Each year, new different varieties (in total 32) and new lines (in total 78) were also under observation. For 10 years, the best variety from the first Group was Titan [5643.2 ± 710.2 kg/ha; CV% = 39.8]. From the second Group, the highest yield average revealed Haiduc variety [6207.2 ± 715.0 kg/ha; CV% = 34.6. During 3 years of cultivation Nera, Matroz and Negoiu pointed out 7936 kg/ha, 7542 kg/ha and 7266 kg/ha respectively. Nedeea and Oda overpasses 8500 and 7500 kg/ha during 2010 - 2011 respectively. The 2011 agricultural year was improper for cereals. It was affected by high temperature, and small amounts of precipitations. Only 64.16% of the average amounts of precipitation were accumulated. In these conditions the best varieties were Gorun and Haiduc performing 7190 kg/ha and 7058 kg/ha respectively. 40% of the tested varieties yielded less than 4500 kg/ha. From the farmers' point of view the best varieties were Titan and Gorun. In terms of the eight plant traits studied in 2011, the phenotypic similarity [ps] between varieties was variable. According to obtained results, we advise the farmers to compose a complex of varieties that should be proper for their specific environment. The favorable combination for cultivation in a stable environmental condition are Gorun [7190 kg/ha] and Matroz [6863 kg/ha] with ps = 93.23% revealing a high similarity. In an unstable environment, the best variety combination for cultivation are: Titan [6025 kg/ha] and Haiduc [7058 kg/ha] [ps = 49.94%], Titan [6025

  6. Registration of ‘Atlantic’ winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Atlantic’ (Reg. No. CV-354, PI 665041), a six-row, hulled winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as VA06B-19 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2011. Atlantic was derived from the cross VA97B-176/VA92-44-279 using a modified bulk-breeding method. It was evalua...

  7. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  8. Registration of ‘Tetonia’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tetonia’, a spring two-rowed feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Tetonia has performed particularly well in trials at the University of Idaho experiment sta...

  9. Registration of ‘Lenetah’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lenetah’ (reg. No. , PI ) two-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in December 2007. It was released due to its superior yield and test we...

  10. Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prowashonupana, a barley variety with high ß-glucan content, was dry blended with flaxseed at 10, 20, and 50% for improving nutritional, physical, and functional qualities. Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) that is known for lowering blood cholesterol and preve...

  11. Proteomic analysis in allergy and intolerance to wheat products.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Gianfranco; Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2011-02-01

    Owing to its extensive use in the human diet, wheat is among the most common causes of food-related allergies and intolerances. Allergies to wheat are provoked by ingestion, inhalation or contact with either the soluble or the insoluble gluten proteins in wheat. Gluten proteins, and particularly the gliadin fraction, are also the main factor triggering celiac disease, a common enteropathy induced by ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related prolamins from oat, rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The role of gliadin and of its derived peptides in eliciting the adverse reactions in celiac disease are still far from being completely explained. Owing to its unique pathogenesis, celiac disease is widely investigated as a model immunogenetic disorder. The structural characterization of the injuring agents, the gluten proteins, assumes a particular significance in order to deepen the understanding of the events that trigger this and similar diseases at the molecular level. Recent developments in proteomics have provided an important contribution to the understanding of several basic aspects of wheat protein-related diseases. These include: the identification of gluten fractions and derived peptides involved in wheat allergy and intolerance, including celiac disease, and the elucidation of their mechanism of toxicity; the development and validation of sensitive and specific methods for detecting trace amounts of gluten proteins in gluten-free foods for intolerant patients; and the formulation of completely new substitute foods and ingredients to replace the gluten-based ones. In this article, the main aspects of current and prospective applications of mass spectrometry and proteomic technologies to the structural characterization of gluten proteins and derived peptides are critically presented, with a focus on issues related to their detection, identification and quantification, which are relevant to the biochemical, immunological and toxicological

  12. Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies.

  13. Effects of increasing amounts of dietary wheat on performance and ruminal fermentation of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Doepel, L; Cox, A; Hayirli, A

    2009-08-01

    Twelve second-lactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square design to examine the effects of dietary wheat on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and whole-tract nutrient digestibility. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing 0, 10, and 20% steam-rolled wheat on a dry matter basis at the expense of steam-rolled barley. Cows were fed and milked twice daily. Six of the cows were ruminally cannulated, and rumen fluid samples were obtained from these cows 18 times during the last 2 d of each period. Treatment did not affect dry matter intake (20.9 kg/d) or yields of milk (36.1 kg/d) or milk components (1.25, 1.10, and 1.67 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Fat percentage was not different among the treatments but protein content of the milk was reduced by the wheat treatments, and was lower when 10% wheat was included in the diet versus 20%. Cows fed wheat had lower ruminal pH (6.36 vs. 6.44) and greater NH(3)-N (11.49 vs. 8.10 mg/dL) and total volatile fatty acids (121 vs. 113 mM) concentrations than cows not fed wheat. The acetate:propionate ratio was lower for cows fed wheat than for those not fed wheat (3.21 vs. 3.36), but was not different between cows fed 10% versus 20% wheat. Wheat feeding did not alter whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber. Results of this study show that up to 20% steam-rolled wheat can be included in the diet of dairy cows without compromising production or causing subacute ruminal acidosis if adequate fiber is provided and the diets are properly formulated and mixed.

  14. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    PubMed

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  15. Virus-induced gene silencing of WRKY53 and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in wheat reduces aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Van Eck, Leon; Schultz, Thia; Leach, Jan E; Scofield, Steven R; Peairs, Frank B; Botha, Anna-Maria; Lapitan, Nora L V

    2010-12-01

    Although several wheat genes differentially expressed during the Russian wheat aphid resistance response have recently been identified, their requirement for and specific role in resistance remain unclear. Progress in wheat-aphid interaction research is hampered by inadequate collections of mutant germplasm and difficulty in transforming hexaploid wheat. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology is emerging as a viable reverse genetics approach in cereal crops. However, the potential of VIGS for determining aphid defence gene function in wheat has not been evaluated. We report on the use of recombinant barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) to target and silence a WRKY53 transcription factor and an inducible phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene, both predicted to contribute to aphid defence in a genetically resistant wheat line. After inoculating resistant wheat with the VIGS constructs, transcript abundance was reduced to levels similar to that observed in susceptible wheat. Notably, the level of PAL expression was also suppressed by the WKRY53 construct, suggesting that these genes operate in the same defence response network. Both knockdowns exhibited a susceptible phenotype upon aphid infestation, and aphids feeding on silenced plants exhibited a significant increase in fitness compared to aphids feeding on control plants. Altered plant phenotype and changes in aphid behaviour after silencing imply that WKRY53 and PAL play key roles in generating a successful resistance response. This study is the first report on the successful use of VIGS to investigate genes involved in wheat-insect interactions.

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction of lignin from triticale straw: optimization and microwave effects.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Huang, Guang Hai; Paquet, Louise; Deschamps, Stéphane; Beaulieu, Chantale; Hawari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Presently lignin is used as fuel but recent interests in biomaterials encourage the use of this polymer as a renewable feedstock in manufacturing. The present study was undertaken to explore the potential applicability of microwaves to isolate lignin from agricultural residues. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the processing conditions for the microwave (MW)-assisted extraction of lignin from triticale straw. Maximal lignin yield (91%) was found when using 92% EtOH, 0.64 N H(2)SO(4), and 148 °C. The yield and chemical structure of MW-extracted lignin were compared to those of lignin extracted with conventional heating. Under similar conditions, MW irradiation led to higher lignin yields, lignins of lower sugar content, and lignins of smaller molecular weights. Except for these differences the lignins resulting from both types of heating exhibited comparable chemical structures. The present findings should provide a clean source of lignin for potential testing in manufacturing of biomaterials.

  17. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weihui; Meng, Yan; Surana, Priyanka; Fuerst, Greg; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like peptides in barley, wheat, and rice, are highly induced by attack from fungal pathogens, in particular, the obligate biotrophic fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of barley powdery mildew. Previous research indicated that Blufensin1 (Bln1) functions as a negative regulator of basal defense mechanisms. In the current report, we show that BLN1 and BLN2 can both be secreted to the apoplast and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated overexpression of Bln2 increases susceptibility of barley to Bgh. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays signify that BLN1 and BLN2 can interact with each other, and with calmodulin. We then used BSMV-induced gene silencing to knock down Bln1, followed by Barley1 GeneChip transcriptome analysis, to identify additional host genes influenced by Bln1. Analysis of differential expression revealed a gene set enriched for those encoding proteins annotated to nuclear import and the secretory pathway, particularly Importin α1-b and Sec61 γ subunits. Further functional analysis of these two affected genes showed that when silenced, they also reduced susceptibility to Bgh. Taken together, we postulate that Bln1 is co-opted by Bgh to facilitate transport of disease-related host proteins or effectors, influencing the establishment of Bgh compatibility on its barley host. PMID:26089830

  18. Differential regulation of 3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase and gramine in barley by both biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Kristina A E; Saheed, Sefiu A; Gradin, Therese; Delp, Gabriele; Karpinska, Barbara; Botha, Christiaan E J; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

    2011-01-01

    The expression of NMT (3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.), involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid gramine, was investigated in aphid-infested barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). NMT is induced by methyl jasmonate and it was hypothesized that the gene would be more strongly upregulated in aphid-resistant barley. We examined the effects of feeding by three aphid species; Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko), rose-grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walker) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley genotypes with varying resistance characteristics. The barley genotypes selected included the cultivar Libra, known to upregulate gramine after feeding by Schizaphis graminum. Infestation by R. padi and M. dirhodum resulted in higher NMT expression in the doubled haploid line 5172-28:4 (DH28:4), which has moderate resistance against R. padi, but not in other aphid-barley combinations. None of the aphid-plant combinations had however increased gramine, suggesting that aphid-induction of gramine is specific to S. graminum. The increased abundance of NMT transcript in aphid-infested DH28:4 did not lead to higher amounts of NMT protein or NMT enzyme activity, neither did 200 times upregulation of NMT transcript in cotyledons incubated with methyl jasmonate, illustrating that even large differences measured at transcript level may have no metabolic consequences. Drought stress or treatments with abscisic acid did lead to higher gramine concentrations in several barley cultivars, but without any concomitant increase of NMT transcripts. Thus, the regulation of the biosynthetic pathway to gramine at transcript and metabolite level diverges during two different stress conditions.

  19. Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) lines show different abilities to form masked mycotoxins under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2013-12-24

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  20. Specificity of a wheat gluten aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed

    Bleukx, W; Brijs, K; Torrekens, S; Van Leuven, F; Delcour, J A

    1998-09-08

    The substrate and peptide bond specificities of a purified wheat gluten aspartic proteinase (GlAP) are studied. GlAP shows maximum gluten hydrolysing activity at pH 3.0. At this pH, especially the wheat high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and to a lesser extent the low molecular weight glutenin subunits and gliadins are hydrolysed. GlAP has no obvious effect on albumins and globulins. In its action on oxidised insulin B-chain, GlAP forms eight peptides and has high specificity for peptide bonds located between amino acid residues with large hydrophobic side chains (Leu, Phe, Tyr) but the peptide bond Glu13-Ala14 is also hydrolysed. Although structurally quite similar to a barley aspartic proteinase, the peptide bond specificity of GlAP towards oxidised insulin B-chain resembles slightly more that of a cardoon aspartic proteinase, cardosin B. HMW-GS 7, purified from cultivar Galahad-77, is rapidly hydrolysed by GlAP. N-Terminal amino acid sequence data show that GlAP cleaves at least one Met-Ile peptide bond at the end of the N-terminal domain and two Val-Leu peptide bonds in the repetitive domain of HMW-GS 7.

  1. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew. PMID:26813794

  2. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew.

  3. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M. L.; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R.; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVRa gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVRa genes and identified AVRa1 and AVRa13, encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVRa1 and AVRa13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVRA1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVRA1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVRA1. Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation. PMID:27702901

  4. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVRa gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVRa genes and identified AVRa1 and AVRa13, encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVRa1 and AVRa13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVRA1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVRA1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVRA1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  5. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  6. Allocation of the S-genome chromosomes of Aegilops variabilis Eig. carrying powdery mildew resistance in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, M; Belter, J; Majka, M; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that the powdery mildew adult plant resistance (APR) controlled by the Pm13 gene in Aegilops longissima Schweinf. & Muschl. (S(l)S(l)) has been evolutionary transferred to Aegilops variabilis Eig. (UUSS). The molecular marker analysis and the visual evaluation of powdery mildew symptoms in Ae. variabilis and the Ae. variabilis × Secale cereale amphiploid forms (2n = 6x = 42, UUSSRR) showed the presence of product that corresponded to Pm13 marker and the lower infection level compared to susceptible model, respectively. This study also describes the transfer of Ae. variabilis Eig. (2n = 4x = 28, U(v)U(v)S(v)S(v)) chromosomes, carrying powdery mildew resistance, into triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) using Ae. variabilis × S. cereale amphiploid forms. The individual chromosomes of Ae. variabilis, triticale 'Lamberto' and hybrids were characterized by genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH/FISH). The chromosome configurations of obtained hybrid forms were studied at first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) using GISH. The statistical analysis showed that the way of S-genome chromosome pairing and transmission to subsequent hybrid generations was diploid-like and had no influence on chromosome pairing of triticale chromosomes. The cytogenetic study of hybrid forms were supported by the marker-assisted selection using Pm13 marker and visual evaluation of natural infection by Blumeria graminis, that allowed to select the addition or substitution lines of hybrids carrying chromosome 3S(v) which were tolerant to the powdery mildew infection.

  7. Adaptation of aphid stylectomy for analyses of proteins and mRNAs in barley phloem sap.

    PubMed

    Gaupels, Frank; Buhtz, Anja; Knauer, Torsten; Deshmukh, Sachin; Waller, Frank; van Bel, Aart J E; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Kehr, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Sieve tubes are transport conduits not only for photoassimilates but also for macromolecules and other compounds that are involved in sieve tube maintenance and systemic signalling. In order to gain sufficient amounts of pure phloem exudates from barley plants for analyses of the protein and mRNA composition, a previously described stylectomy set-up was optimized. Aphids were placed in sealed cages, which, immediately after microcauterization of the stylets, were flooded with water-saturated silicon oil. The exuding phloem sap was collected with a capillary connected to a pump. Using up to 30 plants and 600 aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi) in parallel, an average of 10 mul of phloem sap could be obtained within 6 h of sampling. In first analyses of the macromolecular content, eight so far unknown phloem mRNAs were identified by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism. Transcripts in barley phloem exudates are related to metabolism, signalling, and pathogen defence, for example coding for a protein kinase and a pathogen- and insect-responsive WIR1A (wheat-induced resistance 1A)-like protein. Further, one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent partial sequencing by mass spectrometry led to the identification of seven major proteins with putative functions in stress responses and transport of mRNAs, proteins, and sugars. Two of the discovered proteins probably represent isoforms of a new phloem-mobile sucrose transporter. Notably, two-dimensional electrophoresis confirmed that there are >250 phloem proteins awaiting identification in future studies.

  8. Separation and characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hordeins by free zone capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lookhart, G L; Bean, S R; Jones, B L

    1999-06-01

    Extraction conditions, separation conditions, and capillary rinsing protocols were optimized for the separation of barley hordeins by free zone capillary electrophoresis. Stable hordein extracts were obtained with a single 5 min extraction after the albumins and globulins were removed. Hordeins had to be reduced for optimal resolution. Optimum separation conditions for hordein separations were 100 mM phosphate-glycine buffer containing 20% acetonitrile and 0.05% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. The addition of zwitterionic sulfobetaine detergents containing hydrocarbon tails of eight and ten carbons slightly improved the resolution of the separations, but not enough to warrant their use on a routine basis. The migration positions of the hordein subclasses were determined by two- dimensional reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography x free zone capillary electrophoresis mapping. The hordein subclasses formed clusters similar to those of wheat gliadins. Separation-to-separation repeatability was good, with migration time relative standard deviations < 1% for a 15-run period. For routine discrimination of cultivars, a 2 min post-separation rinse with 500 mM acetic acid was necessary to prevent protein build-up on the capillary walls. An example of successfully differentiating barley cultivars using this technique is shown.

  9. Characteristics of cloned repeated DNA sequences in the barley genome

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, E.V.; Bochkanov, S.S.; Ryzhik, M.V.; Sonina, N.V.; Chernyshev, A.I.; Shchipkova, N.I.; Yakovleva, E.Yu.

    1986-12-01

    A partial clone library of barley DNA fragments based on plasmid pBR325 was created. The cloned EcoRI-fragments of chromosomal DNA are from 2 to 14 kbp in length. More than 95% of the barley DNA inserts comprise repeated sequences of different complexity and copy number. Certain of these DNA sequences are from families comprising at least 1% of the barley genome. A significant proportion of the clones hybridize with numerous sets of restriction fragments of genome DNA and they are dispersed throughout the barley chromosomes.

  10. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

  11. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ .

  12. Enhancing the aluminium tolerance of barley by expressing the citrate transporter genes SbMATE and FRD3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Ryan, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Malate and citrate efflux from root apices is a mechanism of Al3+ tolerance in many plant species. Citrate efflux is facilitated by members of the MATE (multidrug and toxic compound exudation) family localized to the plasma membrane of root cells. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is among the most Al3+-sensitive cereal species but the small genotypic variation in tolerance that is present is correlated with citrate efflux via a MATE transporter named HvAACT1. This study used a biotechnological approach to increase the Al3+ tolerance of barley by transforming it with two MATE genes that encode citrate transporters: SbMATE is the major Al3+-tolerance gene from sorghum whereas FRD3 is involved with Fe nutrition in Arabidopsis. Independent transgenic and null T3 lines were generated for both transgenes. Lines expressing SbMATE showed Al3+-activated citrate efflux from root apices and greater tolerance to Al3+ toxicity than nulls in hydroponic and short-term soil trials. Transgenic lines expressing FRD3 exhibited similar phenotypes except citrate release from roots occurred constitutively. The Al3+ tolerance of these lines was compared with previously generated transgenic barley lines overexpressing the endogenous HvAACT1 gene and the TaALMT1 gene from wheat. Barley lines expressing TaALMT1 showed significantly greater Al3+ tolerance than all lines expressing MATE genes. This study highlights the relative efficacy of different organic anion transport proteins for increasing the Al3+ tolerance of an important crop species. PMID:24692647

  13. Effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley) on blood glucose levels of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Hakim-Elahi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the world's fourth most important cereal crop after wheat, rice and maize. It is readily available with reasonable cost, and has the highest amount of dietary fiber among the cereals which may be beneficial for metabolic syndrome. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of barley seeds and a protein enriched fraction on blood glucose of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (STZ, 55 mg/kg, i.p) were investigated. Normal and diabetic male Wistar rats were treated daily with normal saline (1 ml), barley hydroalcoholic extract (BHE) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 g/kg), protein enriched fraction (PEF) (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 g/kg) and glibenclamide (1 and 3 mg/kg), separately and the treatment was continued for 11 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 9 h in the first day and the days 5 (120 h) and 11 (264 h) for measuring the blood glucose levels (BGL). Our results indicated that none of the BHE and PEF, were effective to reduce BGL in normal or diabetic rats in acute phase of treatment (1st day). Nevertheless, BHE at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, were only effective in detracting BGL of diabetic rats after 11 days of continued daily therapy. Moreover, BHE restored body weight of diabetic rats at the end of treatment. Glibenclamide had also hypoglycemic action in normal and diabetic rats after both acute and extended treatments. These findings suggest that barley seeds hydroalcoholic extract, has a role in diabetic control in long term consumption, and this effect might be at least due to its high fiber content. More detailed studies are warranted to demonstrate its mechanism of action and identify active components. PMID:25657786

  14. Investigations of spectral separability of small grains, early season wheat detection, and multicrop inventory planning. [North Dakota and Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Malila, W. A.; Gleason, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT data from seven 5 by 6 segments having crop type information were analyzed to determine the potential for spectral separation of spring wheat from other small grains as an alternative to the primary LACIE procedure for estimating spring wheat acreage. Within segment field-center, classification accuracies for spring wheat vs. barley tended to be best in mid-July when crop color changes were in progress. When correlations were made for differences in atmospheric haze, data from several segments could be aggregated, and results that approached within segment accuracies were obtained for selected dates. LACIE field measurement spectral reflectance data provided information on both wheat development patterns and the importance of various agronomic factors on wheat reflectance, the most important being availability of soil moisture. To investigate early season detection for winter wheat, reflectance of developing wheat patterns was simulated through reflectance modeling and was analyzed along with field measured reflectance from a Kansas site. The green component development of the wheat field was analyzed as a function of data throughout the season. A selected threshold was not crossed by all fields until mid-April. These reflectance data were shown to be consistent actual LANDSAT data.

  15. Short communication: Responses to supplemental Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product and triticale grain in dairy cows grazing high-quality pasture in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Irvine, L D; Freeman, M J; Donaghy, D J; Yoon, I; Lee, G; Roche, J R

    2011-06-01

    Supplementing cows grazing highly digestible pasture with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was hypothesized to increase dry matter (DM) intake and milk production. Sixty multiparous dairy cows were fed 3 kg of crushed triticale DM/cow per day for 23 ± 4.4 d before calving. Half of the cows received SCFP (60 g/d; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V Mills, Inc., Cedar Rapids, IA). Cows in both treatment groups were randomly allocated at calving to 1 of 2 amounts (3 or 6 kg of DM/d) of triticale feeding with or without 60 g of SCFP/day (n=15/treatment) until 84 days in milk. The amount of pasture harvested (kg of DM/cow per day) and milk yield (kg/cow per day) were not affected by SCFP. Milk protein content and yield were greater in cows receiving 6 kg of crushed triticale DM/d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not affected by SCFP supplementation, but were lower in cows fed 6 kg of crushed triticale DM/d than those fed 3 kg of DM/d. Supplementation with SCFP increased milk lactose content without affecting milk production under the conditions investigated.

  16. Replacing fallow with forage triticale in dryland crop rotations increases profitability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common dryland rotational cropping system in the semi-arid central Great Plains of the U.S. is wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.)-fallow (WCF). However, the 12-month fallow period following corn production has been shown to be relatively inefficient in storing precipitation during the...

  17. Tissue culture-induced genetic and epigenetic variation in triticale (× Triticosecale spp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) regenerants.

    PubMed

    Machczyńska, Joanna; Zimny, Janusz; Bednarek, Piotr Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Plant regeneration via in vitro culture can induce genetic and epigenetic variation; however, the extent of such changes in triticale is not yet understood. In the present study, metAFLP, a variation of methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, was used to investigate tissue culture-induced variation in triticale regenerants derived from four distinct genotypes using androgenesis and somatic embryogenesis. The metAFLP technique enabled identification of both sequence and DNA methylation pattern changes in a single experiment. Moreover, it was possible to quantify subtle effects such as sequence variation, demethylation, and de novo methylation, which affected 19, 5.5, 4.5% of sites, respectively. Comparison of variation in different genotypes and with different in vitro regeneration approaches demonstrated that both the culture technique and genetic background of donor plants affected tissue culture-induced variation. The results showed that the metAFLP approach could be used for quantification of tissue culture-induced variation and provided direct evidence that in vitro plant regeneration could cause genetic and epigenetic variation.

  18. Physiological and biochemical parameters for identification of QTLs controlling the winter triticale drought tolerance at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Hura, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Stanisław

    2009-03-01

    The genetic map of the triticale is created on the basis of double-haploid (DH) lines, derived from F1 hybrids of a cross between the parental line Saka3006 and Modus. In order to localise drought resistance genes, it is necessary to find a phenotype feature which clearly differentiates between parental lines under drought stress conditions. With the future in mind, the aim of the presented studies was to analyse differences in the response to drought stress, between Saka3006 and Modus. Analyses of the water status of leaves, and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and protective mechanisms relating to the accumulation of phenolic compounds, were carried out. The studies were completed during the tillering phase. Statistically significant changes, between genotypes experiencing the drought period, were noticed for the osmotic potential, leaf water content, some parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence, and for phenolics and the ferulic acid content. On the basis of the studies, the Saka genotype can be considered drought resistant due to higher leaf water content caused, probably, by smaller hydraulic resistance relative to Modus. The activity of its photosynthetic apparatus during drought was higher than that for the Modus genotype. The high level of phenolic compounds, which can act as photoprotectors and free radical scavengers, was also maintained. All the mentioned parameters can represent the potential phenotype features, which allow the identification of resistance genes on the genetic map of the triticale, which is currently being created.

  19. Characterisation of the wheat (triticum aestivum L.) transcriptome by de novo assembly for the discovery of phosphate starvation-responsive genes: gene expression in Pi-stressed wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. To modulate their P homeostasis, plants must balance P uptake, mobilisation, and partitioning to various organs. Despite the worldwide importance of wheat as a cultivated food crop, molecular mechanisms associated with phosphate (Pi) starvation in wheat remain unclear. To elucidate these mechanisms, we used RNA-Seq methods to generate transcriptome profiles of the wheat variety ‘Chinese Spring’ responding to 10 days of Pi starvation. Results We carried out de novo assembly on 73.8 million high-quality reads generated from RNA-Seq libraries. We then constructed a transcript dataset containing 29,617 non-redundant wheat transcripts, comprising 15,047 contigs and 14,570 non-redundant full-length cDNAs from the TriFLDB database. When compared with barley full-length cDNAs, 10,656 of the 15,047 contigs were unalignable, suggesting that many might be distinct from barley transcripts. The average expression level of the contigs was lower than that of the known cDNAs, implying that these contigs included transcripts that were rarely represented in the full-length cDNA library. Within the non-redundant transcript set, we identified 892–2,833 responsive transcripts in roots and shoots, corresponding on average to 23.4% of the contigs not covered by cDNAs in TriFLDB under Pi starvation. The relative expression level of the wheat IPS1 (Induced by Phosphate Starvation 1) homologue, TaIPS1, was 341-fold higher in roots and 13-fold higher in shoots; this finding was further confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. A comparative analysis of the wheat- and rice-responsive transcripts for orthologous genes under Pi-starvation revealed commonly upregulated transcripts, most of which appeared to be involved in a general response to Pi starvation, namely, an IPS1-mediated signalling cascade and its downstream functions such as Pi remobilisation, Pi uptake, and changes in Pi metabolism. Conclusions Our

  20. Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

  1. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., is a serious pest of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., world-wide. It is the most efficient vector of barley yellow dwarf virus, the most important viral disease of small grains in the world. Not all bird cherry-oat aphids acquire the virus while feeding on ...

  2. Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

  3. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  4. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  5. A novel high-amylose barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) lowers plasma cholesterol and alters indices of large-bowel fermentation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bird, Anthony R; Jackson, Michelle; King, Roger A; Davies, Debra A; Usher, Sylvia; Topping, David L

    2004-10-01

    Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292 is a new barley cultivar with altered starch synthesis and less total starch but more amylose, resistant starch (RS) and total and soluble NSP including beta-glucan. To determine its nutritional potential, young pigs were fed diets containing stabilised wholegrain flours from either Himalaya 292, Namoi (a commercial barley), wheat bran or oat bran at equivalent dietary NSP concentrations for 21 d. Serum total cholesterol was significantly lowered by the Himalaya 292 diet relative to wheat bran, indicating that Himalaya 292 retained its hypocholesterolaemic potential. In all groups SCFA concentrations were highest in the proximal colon and decreased towards the rectum. Digesta pH was lowest in the proximal colon and highest in the distal colon. Large-bowel and faecal pH were significantly lower in the pigs fed the barley and oat diets, indicating greater bacterial fermentation. Caecal and proximal colonic pH was lowest and SCFA pools highest in the pigs fed Himalaya 292. Total and individual SCFA were lowest in the mid- and distal colon of the pigs fed Himalaya 292 or oat bran. These data suggest the presence of more RS in Himalaya 292 and suggest that its fermentation was rapid relative to transit. Differences in faecal and large-bowel anaerobic, aerobic, coliform and lactic acid bacteria were relatively small, indicating a lack of a specific prebiotic action. These data support the potential of this novel barley cultivar to improve health through plasma cholesterol reduction and increased large-bowel SCFA production.

  6. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    PubMed

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  7. Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

  8. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  9. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  10. Registration of 'Byrd' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Byrd' (PI 664257) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released August, 2011, through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State University (CSU), USDA-ARS ...

  11. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  12. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407.10... protection insurance for barley. The barley crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for... Crop Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Barley Crop Insurance Provisions...

  13. Transposable element junctions in marker development and genomic characterization of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley is a model plant in genomic studies of Triticeae species. A complete barley genome sequence will facilitate not only barley breeding programs, but also those for related species. However, the large genome size and high repetitive sequence content complicate the barley genome assembly. The ma...

  14. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Piyum A; Berger, Greg; Wilson, Jhanel; Brooks, Wynse S; McMaster, Nicole; Griffey, Carl A; Hicks, Kevin B; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Schmale, David G

    2014-05-07

    Winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production, may be contaminated with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States and may become concentrated during the production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a coproduct of fuel ethanol production and is increasingly being used as feed for domestic animals. Therefore, new strategies to reduce the threat of DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented for grain destined for fuel ethanol production. It is known that large concentrations of DON accumulate in the hulls of wheat and barley. Consequently, improved methods are needed to carefully remove the hull from the grain and preserve the starchy endosperm. Whole kernels from five Virginia winter barley genotypes were used to evaluate the abilities of two different milling strategies (roller milling and precision milling (FitzMill)) for their ability to remove the hull-enriched tissue from the kernel while maintaining starch levels and reducing DON levels in the endosperm-enriched tissue. After whole kernels were milled, DON and starch levels were quantified in the hull-enriched fractions and endosperm-enriched fractions. Initial milling experiments demonstrated that the precision mill system (6 min run time) is able to reduce more DON than the roller mill but with higher starch losses. The average percent DON removed from the kernel with the roller mill was 36.7% ± 5.5 and the average percent DON removed from the dehulled kernel with the precision mill was 85.1% ± 9.0. Endosperm-enriched fractions collected from the roller mill and precision mill contained starch levels ranging from 49.0% ± 12.1 to 59.1% ± 0.5 and 58.5% ± 1.6 to 65.3% ± 3.9, respectively. On average, the precision mill removed a mass of 23.1% ± 6.8 and resulted in starch losses of 9.6% ± 6.3, but produced an endosperm-enriched fraction with relatively very little

  15. Characterization of shrunken endosperm mutants in barley.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Long; Wang, Ji-Rui; Chen, Guo-Yue; Liu, Ya-Xi; Li, Wei; Wei, Yu-Ming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, You-Liang

    2014-04-10

    Despite numerous studies on shrunken endosperm mutants caused by either maternal tissues (seg) or kernel per se (sex) in barley, the molecular mechanism for all of the eight seg mutants (seg1-seg8) and some sex mutants is yet to be uncovered. In this study, we determined the amylose content, characterized granule-binding proteins, analyzed the expression of key genes involved in starch synthesis, and examined starch granule structure of both normal (Bowman and Morex) and shrunken endosperm (seg1, seg3, seg4a, seg4b, seg5, seg6, seg7, and sex1) barley accessions. Our results showed that amylose contents of shrunken endosperm mutants ranged from 8.9% (seg4a) to 25.8% (seg1). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that 87 kDa proteins corresponding to the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) and starch synthase II (SSII) were not present in seg1, seg3, seg6, and seg7 mutants. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis indicated that waxy expression levels of seg1, seg3, seg6, and seg7 mutants decreased in varying degrees to lower levels until 27 days after anthesis (DAA) after reaching the peak at 15-21 DAA, which differed from the pattern of normal barley accessions. Further characterization of waxy alleles revealed 7 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequences and 16 SNPs and 8 indels in the promoter sequences of the mutants. Results from starch granule by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that, in comparison with normal barley accessions, seg4a, seg4b, and sex1 had fewer starch granules per grain; seg3 and seg6 had less small B-type granules; some large A-type granules in seg7 had a hollow surface. These results improve our understanding about effects of seg and sex mutants on starch biosynthesis and granule structure during endosperm development and provide information for identification of key genes responsible for these shrunken endosperm mutants.

  16. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  17. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B G

    2000-01-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides). PMID:10861243

  18. Cloning and characterization of SOC1 homologs in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and their expression during seed development and in response to vernalization.

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Kapazoglou, Aliki; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2012-09-01

    A number of genes are involved in the vernalization pathway, such as VRN1, VRN2 and VRN3/FT1, whose function has been studied in barley and wheat. However, the function of the flowering and vernalization integrator SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) has not been well studied in Triticeae, and particularly in barley. Herein, we cloned and characterized two barley SOC1-like homologs, HvSOC1-like1 and HvSOC1-like2. Primary sequence analysis of the predicted HvSOC1-like1 and HvSOC1-like2 proteins showed that they are members of the type II MADS-box protein family. Phylogenetic analysis placed the predicted proteins with other SOC1 and SOC1-like proteins from different species neighboring those from other cereal plant species. Primary and secondary structures of the predicted proteins are conserved to each other and more distant to the recently identified barley ODDSOC1 proteins. Genomic organization of HvSOC1-like1 is very similar to the Arabidopsis and Brachypodium SOC1 genes and localized in highly syntenic chromosomal regions. Regulatory cis-acting elements detected in the HvSOC1-like1 promoter include the CArG-box, implicated in the regulation of SOC1 expression in Arabidopsis. Both HvSOC1-like1 and HvSOCI-like2 are expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues and at different stages of seed development. Both are upregulated in a particular seed developmental stage suggesting their possible implication in seed development. Furthermore, HvSOC1-like1 was induced in two winter barley cultivars after vernalization treatment pointing to its probable involvement in the vernalization process. The study of the SOC1 genes reported here opens the way for a better understanding of both the vernalization process and seed development and germination in this important cereal crop.

  19. The influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Molette, C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of choice feeding and cereal type (corn or triticale) during the finishing period on performance of ducks. In total, 624 one-day-old male mule ducks (Cairina moschata × Anas platyrhynchos) were divided into 3 groups differing in the diet they received between 56 and 84 d of age: a commercial complete pelleted diet (control group; AMEn 12.1 MJ/kg, CP 15%), or corn whole seeds (AMEn 14.4 MJ/kg, CP 7.3%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 9.9 MJ/kg, CP 22.7%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with corn (CFC) group]; or triticale whole seeds (AMEn 13.0 MJ/kg, CP 10.5%) and protein-rich pellets (AMEn 11.2 MJ/kg, CP 19.5%) in 2 separated feeders [choice feeding with triticale (CFT) group]. From 85 to 96 d, 96 birds/group were overfed with corn. Feed intake (complete pellets or cereal and protein-rich pellets) per pen was measured at 60, 62, 65, 69, 78, and 84 d of age. Body weight and body traits were measured at 56 to 84 d of age. Over the entire period, from 56 to 84 d, the feed intake of the CFC group was 7% lower than the control group, and 5% lower than that in the CFT group (P = 0.002). Whatever the diet tested, at 56 and 84 d of age, the BW (4,099 and 4,779 g, P = 0.42 and P = 0.35, respectively) and the carcass traits (P > 0.05) of ducks were similar in the 3 groups. During and after overfeeding, the performances of the ducks were also similar (P > 0.05). The present results suggest that CFC during the finishing period is a solution to reduce the cost of diet destined to ducks. Indeed, using locally grown grains could reduce the economic and environmental impacts of duck feeding, reducing the transportation and crushing processes.

  20. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Deoxynivalenol and Wheat Quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Shao, Huili; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Ren; Li, Yongfu; Li, Yanan; Luo, Yingpeng; Chen, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, which is found in a wide range of agricultural products, especially in wheat, barley, oat and corn. In this study, the distribution of DON in the wheat kernel and the effect of exposure time to ozone on DON detoxification were investigated. A high concentration of toxin was found in the outer part of the kernel, and DON was injected from the outside to the inside. The degradation rates of DON were 26.40%, 39.16%, and 53.48% after the samples were exposed to 75 mg/L ozone for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively. The effect of ozonation on wheat flour quality and nutrition was also evaluated. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in protein content, fatty acid value, amino acid content, starch content, carbonyl and carboxyl content, and swelling power of ozone-treated samples. Moreover, the ozone-treated samples exhibited higher tenacity and whiteness, as well as lower extensibility and yellowness. This finding indicated that ozone treatment can simultaneously reduce DON levels and improve flour quality.

  1. Effect of Ozone Treatment on Deoxynivalenol and Wheat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Shao, Huili; Luo, Xiaohu; Wang, Ren; Li, Yongfu; Li, Yanan; Luo, Yingpeng; Chen, Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, which is found in a wide range of agricultural products, especially in wheat, barley, oat and corn. In this study, the distribution of DON in the wheat kernel and the effect of exposure time to ozone on DON detoxification were investigated. A high concentration of toxin was found in the outer part of the kernel, and DON was injected from the outside to the inside. The degradation rates of DON were 26.40%, 39.16%, and 53.48% after the samples were exposed to 75 mg/L ozone for 30, 60, and 90 min, respectively. The effect of ozonation on wheat flour quality and nutrition was also evaluated. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in protein content, fatty acid value, amino acid content, starch content, carbonyl and carboxyl content, and swelling power of ozone-treated samples. Moreover, the ozone-treated samples exhibited higher tenacity and whiteness, as well as lower extensibility and yellowness. This finding indicated that ozone treatment can simultaneously reduce DON levels and improve flour quality. PMID:26812055

  2. SIRE1 RETROTRANSPOSONS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N

    2015-07-01

    Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

  3. Wheat gliadin fractions and other cereal antigens reactive with antibodies in the sera of coeliac patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kieffer, M; Frazier, P J; Daniels, N W; Coombs, R R

    1982-01-01

    The mixed reverse solid phase passive antiglobulin haemadsorption test (MRSPAH) and the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) were found equally sensitive and fitted for the measurement of serum IgG antibodies against alcohol soluble gliadins. Using the ELISA method, three coeliac sera with elevated antibody titres against gliadins and two control sera with low titres were tested for IgG antibodies against the main groups of wheat proteins (acetic acid soluble glutenins, salt soluble albumins and globulins and alcohol soluble gliadins), eight fractions of gliadin and the alcohol soluble proteins of barley, rye, oat, maize and rice. As rice contained little alcohol soluble protein, a test against acid soluble rice proteins was included. In all three patient sera, titres higher than or equal to that for crude gliadin were found for wheat glutenin and for gliadin fractions seven and eight, both containing alpha gliadins. Similar high titres were found when these coeliac sera were tested against rye, barley and oat prolamines. Maize prolamines gave only low titres and no antibodies could be detected against rice proteins, in line with the tolerance of these latter two cereals by patients with coeliac disease. It would appear that sera from coeliac patients react with more than one antigenic fraction of protein in wheat and other cereals. Also sera from two normal persons appeared to have the same spectrum of reactivity against these cereal proteins as did the three sera from coeliac patients. The titres in normal sera were however much lower. PMID:7166001

  4. Studies on rye (Secale cereale L.) lines exhibiting a range of extract viscosities. 2. Rheological and baking characteristics of rye and rye/wheat blends and feeding value for chicks of wholemeals and breads.

    PubMed

    Ragaee, S M; Campbell, G L; Scoles, G J; McLeod, J G; Tyler, R T

    2001-05-01

    Five rye lines exhibiting a wide range of extract viscosities were evaluated for the rheological and baking properties of their flours, individually and in blends with hard red spring wheat flour. Commercial cultivars of rye and triticale were included in the study as controls. Extract viscosities of rye flours were higher than those of corresponding wholemeals, indicating shifting of water-extractable arabinoxylan into flour during roller milling. Falling numbers of the rye flours correlated positively with their extract viscosities in the presence (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) or absence (r = 0.65, p < 0.05) of an enzyme inhibitor. Farinograms revealed the weakness of rye and triticale flours compared to wheat flour. Extract viscosities of rye flours were negatively correlated (r = -0.65, p < 0.05) with mixing tolerance index and positively correlated (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) with dough stability, suggesting a positive impact of extract viscosity on dough strength. Extract viscosity was negatively correlated (r = -0.74, p < 0.05) with loaf volume and specific volume (r = -0.73, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.73, p < 0.05) with loaf weight of rye/wheat bread. Overall, the results indicated that 30% of flour from high or low extract viscosity rye could be incorporated into rye/wheat breads without seriously compromising bread quality. Inclusion of rye, particularly high extract viscosity rye, in chick diets seriously impeded growth performance and feed efficiency. Part of the arabinoxylan survived bread-making and exerted an effect on chicks, although substantially lower digesta viscosities were observed in chicks fed rye bread diets than in those fed rye wholemeals.

  5. Wheat seeds harbour bacterial endophytes with potential as plant growth promoters and biocontrol agents of Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Díaz Herrera, Silvana; Grossi, Cecilia; Zawoznik, Myriam; Groppa, María Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The role of endophytic communities of seeds is still poorly characterised. The purpose of this work was to survey the presence of bacterial endophytes in the seeds of a commercial wheat cultivar widely sown in Argentina and to look for plant growth promotion features and biocontrol abilities against Fusarium graminearum among them. Six isolates were obtained from wheat seeds following a culture-dependent protocol. Four isolates were assignated to Paenibacillus genus according to their 16S rRNA sequencing. The only gammaproteobacteria isolated, presumably an Enterobactereaceae of Pantoea genus, was particularly active as IAA and siderophore producer, and also solubilised phosphate and was the only one that grew on N-free medium. Several of these isolates demonstrated ability to restrain F. graminearum growth on dual culture and in a bioassay using barley and wheat kernels. An outstanding ability to form biofilm on an inert surface was corroborated for those Paenibacillus which displayed greater biocontrol of F. graminearum, and the inoculation with one of these isolates in combination with the Pantoea isolate resulted in greater chlorophyll content in barley seedlings. Our results show a significant ecological potential of some components of the wheat seed endophytic community.

  6. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  7. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Defects 3 (percent) U.S. No. 1 48.0 0.2 2.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 U.S. No. 2 45.0 0.2 4.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 U.S... excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds... than wheat or rye. 3 Defects include damaged kernels (total), foreign material (total) and shrunken...

  8. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Defects 3 (percent) U.S. No. 1 48.0 0.2 2.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 U.S. No. 2 45.0 0.2 4.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 U.S... excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds... than wheat or rye. 3 Defects include damaged kernels (total), foreign material (total) and shrunken...

  9. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Defects 3 (percent) U.S. No. 1 48.0 0.2 2.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 5.0 U.S. No. 2 45.0 0.2 4.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 8.0 U.S... excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds... than wheat or rye. 3 Defects include damaged kernels (total), foreign material (total) and shrunken...

  10. D hordeins of Hordeum chilense: a novel source of variation for improvement of wheat.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Fernando; Shewry, Peter R; Barro, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    The high molecular weight subunits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) glutenin (HMW-GS) are important in determining the bread-making quality of flour and dough. There is therefore interest in transferring orthologous HMW-GS present in other grass species into wheat by wide crossing in order to extend the range of end use properties. In this work, we have isolated and characterized two genes encoding D hordeins from Hordeum chilense (Roem. et Schult.) lines H1 and H7, representing two ecotypes. The fragments were 4,305 bp for line H1 and 4,227 for line H7 and contained the promoter, coding and terminator regions. Both sequences differ in the presence of single base changes (SNPs) and insertions/deletions in the open reading frame (ORF). The encoded proteins comprise 870 and 896 amino acids for lines H1 and H7, respectively. The primary structure is similar to those of D hordeins of cultivated barley (H. vulgare L.) and HMW-GS from wheat. However, the D hordeins from H. chilense are significantly larger than those from cultivated barley due to the presence of longer repetitive regions. The H. chilense D hordeins also differ from those of cultivated barley in the distribution of the cysteine residues: whereas the D hordeins of cultivated barley contain ten cysteines with four in the repetitive domain, only nine are present in the H. chilense proteins with two in the repetitive domain. As in the HMW-GS, the central part of the D hordein proteins comprises repeated sequences based on short peptide motifs. The repetitive domain is divided in three regions named as R1 (N-terminal repeats), R2 (central degenerate repeats) and R3 (C-terminal repeats). Hexapeptide motifs are present throughout the repetitive domains of D hordeins with a consensus motif of PFQGQQ in R1 and R2 and PHQGQQ in R3. In addition, the tetrapeptide motif TTVS, which is characteristic of D hordeins of cultivated barley is present in the repetitive domain close to the protein C-terminus.

  11. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and....1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour...

  13. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  14. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  15. Rapid cultivar identification of barley seeds through disjoint principal component modeling.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Iain; Munoz, Alicia; Becker, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Classification of barley varieties is a crucial part of the control and assessment of barley seeds especially for the malting and brewing industry. The correct classification of barley is essential in that a majority of decisions made regarding process specifications, economic considerations, and the type of product produced with the cereal are made based on the barley variety itself. This fact combined with the need to promptly assess the cereal as it is delivered to a malt house or production facility creates the need for a technique to quickly identify a barley variety based on a sample. This work explores the feasibility of differentiating between barley varieties based on the protein spectrum of barley seeds. In order to produce a rapid analysis of the protein composition of the barley seeds, lab-on-a-chip micro fluid technology is used to analyze the protein composition. Classification of the barley variety is then made using disjoint principle component models. This work included 19 different barley varieties. The varieties consisted of both winter and summer barley types. In this work, it is demonstrated that this system can identify the most likely barley variety with an accuracy of 95.9% based on cross validation and can screen summer barley with an accuracy of 95.2% and a false positive rate of 0.0% based on cross validation. This demonstrates the feasibility of the method to provide a rapid and relatively inexpensive method to verify the heritage of barley seeds.

  16. Barley stripe mosaic virus: Structure and relationship to the tobamoviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; Williams, Dewight; Bian, Wen; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2013-09-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is the type member of the genus Hordeivirus, rigid, rod-shaped viruses in the family Virgaviridae. We have used fiber diffraction and cryo-electron microscopy to determine the helical symmetry of BSMV to be 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix, and to obtain a low-resolution model of the virus by helical reconstruction methods. Features in the model support a structural relationship between the coat proteins of the hordeiviruses and the tobamoviruses. - Highlights: • We report a low-resolution structure of barley stripe mosaic virus. • Barley stripe mosaic virus has 23.2 subunits per turn of the viral helix. • We compare barley stripe mosaic virus with tobacco mosaic virus.

  17. Development and discrimination of 12 double ditelosomics in tetraploid wheat cultivar DR147.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Wang, Changyou; Fu, Shulan; Guo, Xiang; Yang, Baoju; Chen, Chunhuan; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yajuan; Liu, Xinlun; Han, Fangpu; Ji, Wanquan

    2014-02-01

    As an important group in Triticum, tetraploid wheat plays a significant role in the research of wheat evolution. Several complete aneuploid sets of common wheat have provided valuable tools for genetic and breeding studies, while similar aneuploids of tetraploid wheat are still not well developed. Here, 12 double ditelosomics developed in Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cultivar DR147 (excluding dDT2B and dDT3A) were reported. Hybrids between DR147 and the original double-ditelosomic dDT2B of Langdon lost vigor and died prematurely after the three-leaf stage; therefore, the dDT2B line was not obtained. The cytogenetic behaviors and phenotypic characteristics of each line were detailedly described. To distinguish the entire chromosome complement of tetraploid wheat, the DR147 karyotype was established by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using the Aegilops tauschii clone pAsl and the barley clone pHvG38 as probes. FISH using a cereal-specific centromere repeat (6C6) probe suggested that all the lines possessed four telosomes, except for 4AS of double-ditelosomic dDT4A, which carried a small segment of the long arm. On the basis of the idiogram of DR147, these lines were successfully discriminated by FISH using the probes pAsl and pHvG38 and were then accurately designated.

  18. Adaptation of aphid stylectomy for analyses of proteins and mRNAs in barley phloem sap

    PubMed Central

    Gaupels, Frank; Buhtz, Anja; Knauer, Torsten; Deshmukh, Sachin; Waller, Frank; van Bel, Aart J. E.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Kehr, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Sieve tubes are transport conduits not only for photoassimilates but also for macromolecules and other compounds that are involved in sieve tube maintenance and systemic signalling. In order to gain sufficient amounts of pure phloem exudates from barley plants for analyses of the protein and mRNA composition, a previously described stylectomy set-up was optimized. Aphids were placed in sealed cages, which, immediately after microcauterization of the stylets, were flooded with water-saturated silicon oil. The exuding phloem sap was collected with a capillary connected to a pump. Using up to 30 plants and 600 aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi) in parallel, an average of 10 μl of phloem sap could be obtained within 6 h of sampling. In first analyses of the macromolecular content, eight so far unknown phloem mRNAs were identified by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism. Transcripts in barley phloem exudates are related to metabolism, signalling, and pathogen defence, for example coding for a protein kinase and a pathogen- and insect-responsive WIR1A (wheat-induced resistance 1A)-like protein. Further, one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent partial sequencing by mass spectrometry led to the identification of seven major proteins with putative functions in stress responses and transport of mRNAs, proteins, and sugars. Two of the discovered proteins probably represent isoforms of a new phloem-mobile sucrose transporter. Notably, two-dimensional electrophoresis confirmed that there are >250 phloem proteins awaiting identification in future studies. PMID:18632729

  19. Improved production of doubled haploids of winter and spring triticale hybrids via combination of colchicine treatments on anthers and regenerated plants.

    PubMed

    Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Aurelia; Pudelska, Hanna; Woźna, Jolanta; Pniewski, Tomasz

    2017-01-06

    Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling. Colchicine treatment during anther culture affected neither ELS nor GP development, but significantly increased the number of DH plants in comparison to spontaneous chromosome doubling. The highest efficiency was recorded when colchicine was applied in the induction medium (55%) versus the regeneration medium (44.5%) or no colchicine treatment (30%). The effectiveness of chromosome duplication in haploid plants ranged from 32 to 64.5% and it was the highest for the treatment on the medium followed by cooling. Individual hybrids differed regarding their capability of regeneration and chromosome doubling, which were consistent only to a low or moderate extent. However, taken together, winter and spring hybrids did not differ significantly. Combined colchicine application resulted in a high yield of DH production, 82.6% for all triticale hybrids, and can provide a considerable number of fertile DH lines for triticale breeding programmes.

  20. Detection of wheat gliadin contamination of gluten-free foods by a monoclonal antibody dot immunobinding assay.

    PubMed

    Freedman, A R; Galfre, G; Gal, E; Ellis, H J; Ciclitira, P J

    1987-07-15

    Unfractionated wheat gliadin was used to produce murine monoclonal antibodies to gliadin. A dot immunobinding assay, using these antibodies, was developed to detect possible gliadin contamination of nominally gluten-free flour, using dilute ethanol extracts spotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. The sensitivity of the assay was less than 10 micrograms/ml of unfractionated gliadin which permitted the detection of trace amounts of gliadin present in certain wheat starch based 'gluten-free' products. The assay detected not only wheat gliadin, but also prolamine extracts of rye, barley and oats; maize, soya and potato extracts as well as the control proteins casein and ovalbumin, gave negative results. The assay is of value as a simple and rapid method of screening foods for their suitability for consumption by patients with coeliac disease.

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested.

  2. Wheat streak mosaic virus resistance in eight wheat germplasm lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) disease is an important disease in wheat. Use of resistant cultivars is the most effective approach to reduce the yield losses caused by the disease. To identify new sources of resistance to WSMV, eight resistant wheat lines that were selected based on the results fr...

  3. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  4. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2014 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2014 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spr...

  5. Differential rRNA genes expression in bread wheat and its inheritance.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana; Polanco, Carlos; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Lima-Brito, José

    2013-09-01

    The expression of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from rye, located within the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), is repressed by cytosine methylation in wheat x rye hybrids and in triticale, as consequence of nucleolar dominance. Our previous study revealed that bread wheat cultivars with a maximum number of four Ag-NORs presented high level of rDNA cytosine methylation when compared to others with a maximum of six Ag-NORs. In order to evaluate the inheritance of the Ag-NORs number and NOR methylation patterns, we produced F1 hybrids between bread wheat cultivars with four Ag-NORs and bread wheat cultivars with six Ag-NORs (in the direct and reciprocal senses). The F2 progenies of these F1 hybrids were also evaluated for the NOR number and methylation patterns. Parent bread wheat cultivars with a maximum of four Ag-NORs after treated with 5-azacytidine evidenced a maximum of six Ag-NORs per metaphase cell and a maximum of six nucleoli per interphase nucleus, confirming that the expression of the rRNA genes in bread wheat is related to cytosine methylation. Most of the F1 hybrids showed a maximum number of four or six Ag-NORs, similarly to that of the female parent suggesting a non-mendelian inheritance, while other hybrids presented four or six Ag-NORs in both senses of the cross. The F1 NOR methylation patterns showed some fragments common to their parents but also novel fragments suggesting genomic and/or chromosome rearrangements after hybridization. Despite the different NOR patterns among the parents, an invariable NOR pattern was found among the F1 plants suggesting a tendency to stability, which was also transmitted to the F2. The F2 progenies showed plants with a maximum of four, five and/or six Ag-NORs. The ratio of plants with four, five and/or six Ag-NORs per F2 progeny was variable and did not follow any specific mendelian proportion. These results allowed us to suggest that the inheritance of the number of Ag-NORs by the F1 and F2 plants did not

  6. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties.

  7. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  8. Alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cereals and whole-grain cereal products.

    PubMed

    Kulawinek, Mariola; Jaromin, Anna; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Zarnowski, Robert

    2008-08-27

    The alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products were determined in this study. Cereal grains and whole-grain cereal products were extracted with acetone, whereas bread types were extracted with hot 1-propanol. The average alkylresorcinol content in tested rye (approximately 1100 mg/kg DM) and wheat (approximately 800 mg/kg DM) grains harvested in Poland was within the range previously reported in Swedish and Finnish samples. The total alkylresorcinol content in tested cereal products available on the Polish market varied from very low levels in barley grain-based foods up to 3000 mg/kg DM in wheat bran. The total alkylresorcinol content in 14 bread samples extracted with hot 1-propanol varied from approximately 100 mg/kg DM in whole bread made with honey up to approximately 650 mg/kg DM in whole-rye bread. Calculated ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 homologues, a useful parameter previously used to distinguish between rye and wheat cereals and their derived products, was about 1.2-1.4 in rye products, about 0.2 in wheat products, and varied between 0.2 and 0.6 in cereal-derived products containing a mixture of whole rye and/or wheat. The data set obtained were subsequently compared using cluster and principal component analysis, which allowed the tested cereal products to be classified into two major groups consisting of whole-rye or whole-wheat products, respectively. On the basis of that approach, mixed cereal products containing rye and wheat bran or whole rye and wheat flour were grouped between those two well-defined clusters. Our work not only provides a detailed examination of alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products, but also demonstrates that this type of analysis accompanied by the use of proper statistical algorithms offers an objective way to evaluate the quality of whole-grain rye and/or wheat and their derived

  9. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  10. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  11. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Toni; Holme, Inger; Dockter, Christoph; Preuß, Aileen; Thomas, William; Waugh, Robbie; Braumann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield. PMID:28005988

  12. Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Juscelino; Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2014-02-01

    The usefulness of dietary strategies against cardiometabolic risk is increasingly being acknowledged. Legumes and whole grains can modulate risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but their possible additive/synergistic actions are unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a diet including specific whole-grain barley products and legumes with prior favourable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters in semi-acute studies. A total of forty-six overweight women (50-72 years, BMI 25-33 kg/m² and normal fasting glycaemia) participated in a randomised cross-over intervention comparing a diet rich in kernel-based barley products, brown beans and chickpeas (D1, diet 1 (functional diet)) with a control diet (D2, diet 2 (control diet)) of similar macronutrient composition but lacking legumes and barley. D1 included 86 g (as eaten)/d brown beans, 82 g/d chickpeas, 58 g/d whole-grain barley kernels and 216 g/d barley kernel bread. Both diets followed the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, providing similar amounts of dietary fibre (D1: 46·9 g/d; D2: 43·5 g/d), with wheat-based products as the main fibre supplier in D2. Each diet was consumed for 4 weeks under weight-maintenance conditions. Both diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but D1 had a greater effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (P< 0·001 and P< 0·05, respectively). D1 also reduced apoB (P< 0·001) and γ-glutamyl transferase (P< 0·05) levels, diastolic blood pressure (P< 0·05) and the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate (P< 0·05). D1 increased colonic fermentative activity, as judged from the higher (P< 0·001) breath hydrogen levels recorded. In conclusion, a specific barley/legume diet improves cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers in a healthy cohort, showing potential preventive value beyond that of a nutritionally well-designed regimen.

  13. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  14. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  15. Transcript Differences Associated With Non-Acclimated Freezing Tolerance in Two Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley periodically suffers from late spring freezes in area throughout the world, with significant losses to yield. To better understand the response of barley to spring freezes, we examined the response of Dicktoo and Keunal barley varieties in their jointing stage to non-acclimated freezing (NAF...

  16. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards....S.) Standards for Barley under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). To ensure that... whether the current barley standards and grading practices need to be changed. DATES: Comments must...

  17. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  18. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley price and quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Malting barley price and quality endorsement. 457.118... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.118 Malting barley price and quality endorsement. The malting barley price and quality endorsement provisions for the...

  19. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  20. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  1. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley price and quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Malting barley price and quality endorsement. 457.118... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.118 Malting barley price and quality endorsement. The malting barley price and quality endorsement provisions for the...

  2. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  3. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley price and quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Malting barley price and quality endorsement. 457.118... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.118 Malting barley price and quality endorsement. The malting barley price and quality endorsement provisions for the...

  4. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  5. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley price and quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Malting barley price and quality endorsement. 457.118... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.118 Malting barley price and quality endorsement. The malting barley price and quality endorsement provisions for the...

  6. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  7. Molecular evidence of RNA polymerase II gene reveals the origin of worldwide cultivated barley

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Ren, Xifeng; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2016-01-01

    The origin and domestication of cultivated barley have long been under debate. A population-based resequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the single copy of RPB2 gene was used to address barley domestication, to explore genetic differentiation of barley populations on the worldwide scale, and to understand gene-pool exchanges during the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation. Our results revealed significant genetic differentiation among three geographically distinct wild barley populations. Differences in haplotype composition among populations from different geographical regions revealed that modern cultivated barley originated from two major wild barley populations: one from the Near East Fertile Crescent and the other from the Tibetan Plateau, supporting polyphyletic origin of cultivated barley. The results of haplotype frequencies supported multiple domestications coupled with widespread introgression events that generated genetic admixture between divergent barley gene pools. Our results not only provide important insight into the domestication and evolution of cultivated barley, but also enhance our understanding of introgression and distinct selection pressures in different environments on shaping the genetic diversity of worldwide barley populations, thus further facilitating the effective use of the wild barley germplasm. PMID:27786300

  8. Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved gronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley ...

  9. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries.

  10. Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity in Brazilian barley using SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jéssica Rosset; Pereira, Jorge Fernando; Turchetto, Caroline; Minella, Euclydes; Consoli, Luciano; Delatorre, Carla Andréa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Barley is a major cereal grown widely and used in several food products, beverage production and animal fodder. Genetic diversity is a key component in breeding programs. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of barley accessions using microsatellite markers. The accessions were composed of wild and domesticated barley representing genotypes from six countries and three breeding programs in Brazil. A total of 280 alleles were detected, 36 unique to Brazilian barley. The marker Bmag120 showed the greatest polymorphism information content (PIC), with the highest mean value found on chromosome three, and the lowest on chromosomes four and six. The wild accessions presented the highest diversity followed by the foreign genotypes. Genetic analysis was performed using Principal Coordinates Analysis, UPGMA clustering, and Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in Structure. All results obtained by the different methods were similar. Loss of genetic diversity has occurred in Brazilian genotypes. The number of alleles detected in genotypes released in 1980s was higher, whereas most of the cultivars released thereafter showed lower PIC and clustered in separate subgroups from the older cultivars. The use of a more diverse panel of genotypes should be considered in order to exploit novel alleles in Brazilian barley breeding programs. PMID:27007902

  12. Rapid quantitative assessment of Rhizoctonia tolerance in roots of wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG8, causal agent of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch in dryland cereal production systems of the Pacific Northwest, USA and Australia, reduces yields in a wide range of crops. Disease is not consistently controlled by available management practices, and genetic resistance is d...

  13. US/Canada wheat and barley crop calender exploratory experiment implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A plan is detailed for a supplemental experiment to evaluate several crop growth stage models and crop starter models. The objective of this experiment is to provide timely information to aid in understanding crop calendars and to provide data that will allow a selection between current crop calendar models.

  14. Registration of seven spring two-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    STARS 0637B (Reg. No. _________, PI 642923), 0638B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642924), 0639B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642925), 0640B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642926), 0641B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642927), 0642B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642928), and STARS 0643B (Reg. No. __________, PI 642929), are s...

  15. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    PubMed Central

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  16. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  20. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting... such wheat, other than moisture, remain unaltered. Cracked wheat contains not more than 15 percent...