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Sample records for barley wheat triticale

  1. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, B.A.; Almgren, A.; Kivistoe, B.C.; Cederblad, A.

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with /sup 65/Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  2. Fractionation of triticale, wheat, barley, oats, canola, and mustard straws for the production of carbohydrates and lignins.

    PubMed

    Pronyk, C; Mazza, G

    2012-02-01

    Five cereal (triticale, durum wheat, CPS wheat, feed barley, oats) and two oilseed (canola, mustard) straws were fractionated with pressurized low polarity water in a flow-through reactor at 165°C with a flow rate of 115mL/min and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 60mL/g. The conversion and extraction of the major carbohydrates and lignin from the reactor system during hydrothermal treatment was largely completed within the first 20-30min. Glucan content of all straws were enriched by the process. More than 90% of the xylan and nearly 50% of the lignin were extracted and there was no effect on yield due to crop species. However, there were differences in solid residue and liquid extract composition. Cereal crops yielded a residue richer in glucan and lower in lignin. Oilseed crop residues contained very low levels of ash. Xylo-oligosaccharides from oilseed crops contain more acetyl and uronic acid substituents. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Level of contamination with mycobiota and contents of mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in grain of wheat , oats, barley, rye and triticale harvested in Poland in 2006- 2008.

    PubMed

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2017-03-01

    The risk of cereal exposure to microbial contamination is high and possible at any time, starting from the period of plant vegetation, through harvest, up to the processing, storage and transport of the final product. Contents of mycotoxins in grain are inseparably connected with the presence of fungal biomass, the presence of which may indicate the occurrence of a fungus, and indirectly also products of its metabolism. Analyses were conducted on 378 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley, rye and oats collected from grain silos located at grain purchase stations and at mills in Poland in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The concentrations of ERG and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes, as well as CFU numbers were analysed. The tested cereals were characterised by similarly low concentrations of both the investigated fungal metabolites and the level of microscopic fungi. However, conducted statistical analyses showed significant variation between tested treatments. Oat and rye grain contained the highest amounts of ERG, total toxins and CFU. In turn, the lowest values of investigated parameters were found in grain of wheat and triticale. Chemometric analyses, based on the results of chemical and microbiological tests, showed slight differences between contents of analysed metabolites between the years of the study, and do not confirm the observations on the significance of the effect of weather conditions on the development of mycobiota and production of mycotoxins; however, it does pertain to treatments showing no significant infestation. Highly significant correlations between contents of trichothecenes and ERG concentration (higher than in the case of the correlation of the total toxin concentrations/log cfu/g), indicate that the level of this metabolite is inseparably connected with mycotoxin contents in grain.

  4. Triticale powdery mildew: population characterization and wheat gene efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bouguennec, Annaig; Trottet, Maxime; du Cheyron, Philippe; Lonnet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew has emerged on triticale in the early 2000s in many locations, probably due to a host range expansion of the wheat formae speciales, Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Many triticale cultivars are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, mainly in seedling stage, revealing a probably narrow genetic basis for powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm). Moreover, as Blumeria graminis is an obligate biotrophic fungus, it is very time consuming and difficult to maintain powdery mildew isolates for a non-specialized laboratory and populations can evolve. In order to identify wheat Pm genes efficient against natural populations of powdery mildew, wheat differential hosts and triticale seedlings were inoculated below susceptible triticale crop naturally contaminated by mildew, in several locations and several years. Symptoms on seedlings were measured after approximately two weeks of incubation in favorable fungus growth conditions. According to these data, we classified the Pm genes presents in our wheat differential hosts set in 3 classes: Pm already overcame by triticale powdery mildew, Pm having variable effects and Pm still efficient against triticale mildew. Data on triticale seedlings allowed us to identify some few triticale cultivars resistant to Blumeria graminis in seedling stage. We will try to identify Pm genes present in those cultivars next year by testing them with the characterized isolates of powdery mildew from Gent University. Nevertheless, interspecific crossing of wheat, resistant to powdery mildew in seedling stage, and rye have been initiated to introduce potentially interesting genes for resistance in triticale.

  5. [Development of Triticale and soft wheat forms with substituted wheat and rye chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Suvorova, E Iu; Cherednichenko, V N; Semenov, V I

    2000-01-01

    During hybridization between winter forms of hexaploid (6x) triticale and soft wheat varieties the intergenomic substitution of alian chromosomes occurs. As a result of these crosses the forms of 6x-triticale with D(R)-substitution of chromosomes in R-rye genome by wheat ones of D-genome and wheat revertants with rye chromosomes replacing the wheat ones are originated. This is the simplest and the most effective technique for developing of selected lines of triticale and soft wheat with alien substituted chromosomes and valuable genes transfer.

  6. Preprocessed barley, rye, and triticale as a feedstock for an integrated fuel ethanol-feedlot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sosulski, K.; Wang, Sunmin; Ingledew, W.M.

    1997-12-31

    Rye, triticale, and barley were evaluated as starch feedstock to replace wheat for ethanol production. Preprocessing of grain by abrasion on a Satake mill reduced fiber and increased starch concentrations in feed-stock for fermentations. Higher concentrations of starch in flours from preprocessed cereal grains would increase plant throughput by 8-23% since more starch is processed in the same weight of feedstock. Increased concentrations of starch for fermentation resulted in higher concentrations of ethanol in beer. Energy requirements to produce one L of ethanol from preprocessed grains were reduced, the natural gas by 3.5-11.4%, whereas power consumption was reduced by 5.2-15.6%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan and β-glucan in triticale, barley and tritordeum grains.

    PubMed

    Rakha, A; Saulnier, L; Aman, P; Andersson, R

    2012-10-15

    Enzymatic fingerprinting of arabinoxylan (AX) and β-glucan using endo-xylanase and lichenase, respectively, helps determine the structural heterogeneity between different cereals and within genotypes of the same cereal. This study characterised the structural features of AX and β-glucan in whole grains of eight triticale cultivars grown at two locations, 20 barley cultivars/lines with wide variation in composition and morphology and five tritordeum breeding lines. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in clear clustering of these cereals. In general, barley and tritordeum had a higher relative proportion of highly branched arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) than triticale. Subsequent analysis of triticale revealed two clusters based on growing region along principal component (PC) 1, while PC2 explained the genetic variability and was based on mono-substitution and di-substitution in AX fragments. PCA of β-glucan features separated the three cereals based on β-glucan content. The molar ratio of trisaccharide to tetrasaccharide was 2.5-3.4 in triticale, 2.3-3.3 in barley and 2.8-3.4 in tritordeum. Barley showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.86) between β-glucan content and relative proportion of trisaccharide. The results show that structural features of AX and β-glucan vary between and within triticale, barley and tritordeum grains which might be important determinants of end-use quality of grains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical and dough-handling characteristics of Indian wheat and triticale cultivars.

    PubMed

    Naik, H R; Sekhon, K S; Wani, A Abbas

    2010-10-01

    Four bread wheat (PBW-138, PBW-299, PBW-343 and PBW-373), two durum wheat (PDW-215 and PDW-233) and two triticale cultivars (TL-419 and TL-1210) were investigated for physicochemical, milling and dough-handling properties for predicting end-use quality. Physical properties of durum wheat (PDW-215) and bread wheat (PBW-138, PBW-299 and PBW-343) cultivars were better than other wheat, durum and triticale cultivars. The compositional analysis revealed nonsignificant differences between the different cultivars; however, starch observed significant variation for different varieties. Particle size distribution indicated that triticale flours showed lower particle size than wheat and durum wheat. Dough-handling studies revealed triticale flours to be the weakest, while bread wheat flours were observed to be intermediate between durum and triticale. Among all the varieties, the bread wheat (PBW-138) variety was observed to be best, followed by PDW-215 durum wheat variety. Strong correlations were observed between physicochemical and dough-handling parameters, which can be used as quality parameter for suitable end-use.

  9. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) enables the fast and accurate prediction of essential amino acid contents. 2. Results for wheat, barley, corn, triticale, wheat bran/middlings, rice bran, and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Johannes; Schirmer, Barbara; Hörr, Jutta

    2002-07-03

    Further NIRS calibrations were developed for the accurate and fast prediction of the total contents of methionine, cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and other essential amino acids, protein, and moisture in the most important cereals and brans or middlings for animal feed production. More than 1100 samples of global origin collected over five years were analyzed for amino acids following the Official Methods of the United States and European Union. Detailed data and graphics are given to characterize the obtained calibration equations. NIRS was validated with 98 independent samples for wheat and 78 samples for corn and compared to amino acid predictions using linear crude protein regression equations. With a few exceptions, validation showed that 70-98% of the amino acid variance in the samples could be explained using NIRS. Especially for lysine and methionine, the most limiting amino acids for farm animals, NIRS can predict contents in cereals much better than crude protein regressions. Through low cost and high speed of analysis NIRS enables the amino acid analysis of many samples in order to improve the accuracy of feed formulation and obtain better quality and lower production costs.

  10. Evaluation of triticale accessions for resistance to wheat bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bacterium Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa (Xtu) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on wheat and other small grains. Several triticale accessions were reported to possess high levels of resistance to wheat Xtu strains. In this study, we evaluated a worldwide collection of 502 triticale acces...

  11. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  12. Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and

  13. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat – Rye –Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat—rye—Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement. PMID:27182983

  14. Cefotaxime prevents microbial contamination and improves microspore embryogenesis in wheat and triticale.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Eudes, François; Randhawa, Harpinder; Amundsen, Eric; Yanke, Jay; Spaner, Dean

    2013-10-01

    Cefotaxime (100 mg/l) mitigate occasional gram negative bacterial contamination in wheat and triticale microspore culture and most importantly it increases cell growth and green plant production. Isolated microspore culture is a promising option to rapidly fix the product of meiotic recombination of F1 hybrids, in the process of varietal development. Clean culture and high embryogenesis rate are essential to commercial triticale and wheat microspore cultures. So, this study investigated (1) contaminants from isolated microspores cultures, (2) two antibiotics to control bacterial growth, and (3) the contribution of antibiotics to increased microspore-derived embryo-like structures (ELS), green and albino plants. Five species of bacteria were identified in contaminated cultures (Erwinia aphidicola, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus epidermis and Staphylococcus warneri) using fatty acid analysis and 16S ribosomal RNA sequences analysis, and yeast. Antibacterial susceptibility test using Cefotaxime and Vancomycin resulted in strong inhibition of 24 bacterial isolates, using Cefotaxime at 100 mg/l, but not Pseudomonas sp. Other antibiotic treatments inhibited bacterial growth at least partially. Microspore induction medium supplemented with the same antibiotics treatments resulted in successful microspore embryogenesis and green plant production. Antibiotic treatments were first tested in triticale and then validated in wheat cultivars AC Carberry and AC Andrew. Induction medium supplemented with Cefotaxime at 50 and 100 mg/l substantially increased the formation of ELS and green plants in triticale and wheat, respectively. Incidentally, it also affected the occurrence of albinism in all genotypes. Our results demonstrated dual purpose of Cefotaxime for isolated microspore culture, most importantly it increases cell growth and success of microspore cultures in triticale and wheat genotypes, but would also prevent accidental loss of cultures with

  15. Identification and sequence analysis of grain softness protein in selected wheat, rye and triticale.

    PubMed

    Kharrazi, M A S; Bobojonov, V

    2012-08-16

    Grain softness protein (GSP) is an important protein for overcoming milling and grain defenses in the innate immunity systems of cereals. The objective of this study was to evaluate and understand GSP sequences in selected wheat, rye and triticale. Using sequences for this gene from a sequence database, we performed clustering analysis to compare the sequences obtained from 3 germplasms with other studied sequences for GSP. The maximum difference between the Hirmand GSP genotype in wheat and the database sequences was 23% in EF109396 and EF109399. Most amino acid variation between the GSP sequences involved the same amino acids. The Nikita rye GSP gene showed 64% identity with DQ269918 and AY667063. The isoelectric point in the GSP of wheat and Lasko triticale was significantly higher than that of rye GSP. In addition, parameters such as optical density, grand average of hydrophobicity, percentage of hydrophobicity and hydrophilic amino acids, and number of alpha helices and beta sheets in GSP were similar in wheat and triticale but not in wheat and rye.

  16. Whole wheat and triticale flours with differing viscosities stimulate cecal fermentations and lower plasma and hepatic lipids in rats.

    PubMed

    Adam, A; Levrat-Verny, M A; Lopez, H W; Leuillet, M; Demigné, C; Rémésy, C

    2001-06-01

    Whole flours from oat, rye or barley effectively modify digestive fermentation and lipid metabolism, whereas the effectiveness of whole wheat flour has not been established. To address this question, cecal digestion, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and cholesterol metabolism were investigated in four groups of rats fed the following semipurified diets differing in their carbohydrate source: a control diet (purified wheat starch) and three whole cereal flour diets [Valoris wheat (Wv), Soissons wheat (Ws), or Carnac triticale (Tc)]. Wv is particularly viscous and rich in arabinoxylans, and Tc is richer in hemicellulose than wheat. Compared with controls, rats fed the whole-flour diets had enlarged ceca and a moderate acidification of the bulk pH ( approximately 6.4). In these rats, the cecal SCFA pool size was enhanced (P < 0.05), and the SCFA molar ratio reflected propionic/butyric acid-rich fermentations, especially in those fed TC: The portal SCFA concentrations reflected the rise of the acetic and propionic acid pools in the cecum, whereas portal butyric acid remained relatively low, probably reflecting extensive metabolism by the cecal wall. The fecal excretion of total steroids (bile acids + sterols) was markedly enhanced by all of the whole-flour diets, with Wv (+78%) > Tc (+64%) > Ws (+47%). In parallel, there was a significant plasma cholesterol-lowering effect for rats fed Wv (-27%) and Tc (-32%) and a plasma triglyceride-lowering effect (approximately -40%) in all rats fed whole-flour diets (P < 0.05). This effect was observed mainly for triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-cholesterol, whereas HDL cholesterol was unaffected. These results indicate that whole wheat flours can strikingly affect cecal SCFA, especially butyrate, and are effective plasma cholesterol-lowering agents.

  17. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  18. Biotype differences for resistance to Russian wheat aphid in barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a worldwide insect pest of barley, causing crop losses each year. Previously identified resistant barley lines do not show variable reactions to the eight USA RWA biotypes identified by wheat reactions. However, additional RWA isolates have been identified outside the ...

  19. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  20. Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

  1. VARIATION OF SEED AGING RATES AMONG LINES OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE IN RESPONSE TO STORAGE HUMIDITY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed deterioration was measured in 50 lines of wheat, rye and triticale that were stored at 35C and a range of relative humidities for over 6 years. Decrease in percent germination and radicle growth with storage time were fit to Avrami kinetics, and longevity of individual lines is expressed as ti...

  2. Wheat and rye genome confer specific phytohormone profile features and interplay under water stress in two phenotypes of triticale.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga; Gadzinowska, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine phytohormone profile of triticale and quality-based relationships between the analyzed groups of phytohormones. The study involved two triticale phenotypes, a long-stemmed one and a semi-dwarf one with Dw1 gene, differing in mechanisms of acclimation to drought and controlled by wheat or rye genome. Water deficit in the leaves triggered a specific phytohormone response in both winter triticale phenotypes attributable to the dominance of wheat (semi-dwarf cultivar) or rye (long-stemmed cultivar) genome. Rye genome in long-stemmed triticale was responsible for specific increase (tillering: gibberellic acid; heading: N6-isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin-9-riboside, cis-zeatin-9-riboside; flowering: N6-isopentenyladenine, indolebutyric acid, salicylic acid) or decrease (heading: trans-zeatin) in the content of some phytohormones. Wheat genome in semi-dwarf triticale controlled a specific increase in trans-zeatin content at heading and anthesis in gibberellin A1 during anthesis. The greatest number of changes in the phytohormone levels was observed in the generative phase. In both triticale types, the pool of investigated phytohormones was dominated by abscisic acid and gibberellins. The semi-dwarf cultivar with Dw1 gene was less sensitive to gibberellins and its mechanisms of acclimation to water stress were mainly ABA-dependent. An increase in ABA and gibberellins during drought and predominance of these hormones in the total pool of analyzed phytohormones indicated their equal share in drought acclimation mechanisms in long-stemmed cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  4. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  5. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  6. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  7. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  8. Incidence of deoxynivalenol in Serbian wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Jajić, Igor; Krstović, Saša; Kos, Jovana; Abramović, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    One hundred thirty-nine small-grain cereal (wheat and barley) samples collected during the 2010 harvest in Serbia were tested for deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination. Samples were classified into four different groups and then analyzed by analytical methods based on cleanup by solid-phase extraction and detection by liquid chromatography after the validation. Limits of detection of DON were 18 and 22 μg/kg for wheat and barley, respectively, and limits of quantification were 60 and 73 μg/kg for wheat and barley, respectively. Obtained recovery values for wheat and barley samples ranged from 93.7 to 105.8% and from 84.7 to 89.2%, respectively. Analysis of 128 wheat samples showed that 100 (78.1%) of them were contaminated with DON at the levels ranging from 64 to 4,808 μg/kg. The contamination level of even 16 (12.5%) samples was above the established maximum tolerable limits adopted by the European Commission (EC) and Serbian regulation. In the 11 examined barley samples, DON was found in 3 (27.3%), with the levels ranging from 118 to 355 μg/kg, although none of the samples were contaminated above the limit for this cereal. The results obtained were analyzed as a function of climatic conditions and compared with the previous data on the presence of DON in Serbia.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

  10. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  11. Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Distelfeld, Assaf; Avni, Raz; Fischer, Andreas M

    2014-07-01

    Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between senescence timing, grain nutrient content, nutrient-use efficiency, and yield needs to be considered to (further) improve cereal varieties for a given environment and end use. The recent characterization of the Gpc-1 (NAM-1) genes in wheat and barley demonstrates the interdependence of these traits. Lines or varieties with functional Gpc-1 genes demonstrate earlier senescence and enhanced grain protein and micronutrient content but, depending on the environment, somewhat reduced yields. A major effort is needed to dissect regulatory networks centred on additional wheat and barley transcription factors and signalling pathways influencing the senescence process. Similarly, while important molecular details of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) remobilization from senescing organs to developing grains have been identified, important knowledge gaps remain. The genes coding for the major proteases involved in senescence-associated plastidial protein degradation are largely unknown. Membrane transport proteins involved in the different transport steps occurring between senescing organ (such as leaf mesophyll) cells and protein bodies in the endosperm of developing grains remain to be identified or further characterized. Existing data suggest that an improved understanding of all these steps will reveal additional, important targets for continued cereal improvement.

  12. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  13. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  14. Response of Russian wheat aphid resistance in wheat and barley to four Diuraphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) species.

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Scott, J Nicholson; Brown, Michael J; Hammon, R W

    2013-04-01

    Three Diuraphis species, Diuraphis frequens (Walker), Diuraphis mexicana (McVicar Baker), and Diuraphis tritici (Gillette), were known to exist in the United States before the 1986 appearance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov. The Russian wheat aphid soon became a significant pest of wheat although other endemic Diuraphis species were known to infest wheat. Wheat and barley entries resistant and susceptible to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 were evaluated against all four Diuraphis species to determine their host interrelationships. Leaf chlorosis, leaf roll, leaf number, plant height, and infestation levels were assessed 21 d after the plants were infested by aphids in a no-choice caged environment. D. mexicana was unable to survive on wheat by 21 d after infestation and effects on the plant damage variables were negligible. D. frequens survived at low levels on resistant and susceptible plant entries and had a low impact on plant damage and growth. Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 and D. tritici were damaged most wheat and barley lines except the Russian wheat aphid biotype 2-resistant wheat lines containing genes from Dn7, STARS 2414-11, and CI2401; and resistant barley containing genes from STARS 9577B and 9301B. Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 and D. tritici reduced the growth of resistant plants by 25-50% and susceptible entries by 65-75%. Reductions at this level are typical under no-choice studies but resistant cultivars do not have these reductions under field conditions. The Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 resistant wheat lines would be effective in managing both wheat pest species.

  15. Characterization of ω-secalin genes from rye, triticale, and a wheat 1BL/1RS translocation line.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q-T; Wei, Y-M; Andre, L; Lu, Z-X; Pu, Z-E; Peng, Y-Y; Zheng, Y-L

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-two DNA sequences for the coding regions of omega-secalin (ω-secalin) genes have been characterized from rye (Secale cereale L.), hexaploid and octoploid triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1BL/1RS translocation line. Only 19 out of the 62 ω-secalin gene sequences were full-length open reading frames (ORFs), which can be expressed into functional proteins. The other 43 DNA sequences were pseudogenes, as their ORFs were interrupted by one or a few stop codons or frameshift mutations. The 19 ω-secalin genes have a typical primary structure, which is different from wheat gliadins. There was no cysteine residue in ω-secalin proteins, and the potential celiac disease (CD) toxic epitope (PQQP) was identified to appear frequently in the repetitive domains. The ω-secalin genes from various cereal species shared high homology in their gene sequences. The ω-secalin gene family has involved fewer variations after the integration of the rye R chromosome or whole genome into the wheat or triticale genome. The higher Ka/Ks ratio (i.e. non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions per site) in ω-secalin pseudogenes than in ω-secalin ORFs indicate that the pseudogenes may be subject to a reduced selection pressure. Based on the conserved sequences of ω-secalin genes, it will be possible to manipulate the expression of this gene family in rye, triticale, or wheat 1BL/1RS translocation lines, to reduce its negative effects on grain quality.

  16. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  17. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  18. Effect of germination on chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat, brown rice and triticale: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sibian, Mandeep S; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2017-10-01

    Germination is accompanied by various metabolic reactions in the seed, which lead to alteration of its chemical composition as compared to raw seed. Among the micromolecules, amino acids play an important role in various growth and metabolic activities in seeds. Results indicated that germination altered seeds' chemical composition, which improved/changed the functional properties investigated such as bulk density, foaming capacity, water holding capacity, oil binding capacity and emulsification properties. Essential amino acids were increased during germination, which contributed in enhancing the nutritional quality of protein in seeds. Germination also improved protein-based quality parameters such as essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index in seeds of brown rice, wheat and triticale. Among the grains, the essential amino acid index of brown rice was reported to be highest after germination. Indispensable/essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine and valine showed a significant increase during germination. As a result, amino acid scoring based on the reference pattern of an FAO Expert Consultation Report (2013) for infants and adults was appreciably improved after germination along with an increase in the essential amino acid indices for brown rice (78.78), wheat (76.55) and triticale (73.99). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Sina and Sinb genes in triticale do not determine grain hardness contrary to their orthologs Pina and Pinb in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Secaloindoline a (Sina) and secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) are orthologs of puroindoline a (Pina) and puroindoline b (Pinb) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of Pina and Pinb genes significantly decreased the puroindoline a and puroindoline b proteins in wheat and essentially increased grain hardness (J Exp Bot 62:4025-4036, 2011). The function of Sina and Sinb in triticale was tested by means of RNAi silencing and compared to wheat. Results Novel Sina and Sinb alleles in wild-type plants of cv. Wanad were identified and their expression profiles characterized. Alignment with wheat Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles showed 95% and 93.3% homology with Sina and Sinb coding sequences. Twenty transgenic lines transformed with two hpRNA silencing cassettes directed to silence Sina or Sinb were obtained by the Agrobacterium-mediated method. A significant decrease of expression of both Sin genes in segregating progeny of tested T1 lines was observed independent of the silencing cassette used. The silencing was transmitted to the T4 kernel generation. The relative transcript level was reduced by up to 99% in T3 progeny with the mean for the sublines being around 90%. Silencing of the Sin genes resulted in a substantial decrease of secaloindoline a and secaloindoline b content. The identity of SIN peptides was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The hardness index, measured by the SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) method, ranged from 22 to 56 in silent lines and from 37 to 49 in the control, and the mean values were insignificantly lower in the silent ones, proving increased softness. Additionally, the mean total seed protein content of silenced lines was about 6% lower compared with control lines. Correlation coefficients between hardness and transcript level were weakly positive. Conclusions We documented that RNAi-based silencing

  20. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

  1. Triticale adaption and competence assessment result in the high lands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Legesse, Wasihun

    2014-01-01

    Triticale is a crop that resulted from the addition of chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and rye cereals (Secale cereale). The crop came on the market as bread cereal in the 1980s. Different varieties were released. Triticale is a high yielding crop when compared with tef, wheat and barley, particularly on locations with soil nutrient deficiency. The study was initiated with the question to which extent the growing of triticale crop (Triticosecale Wittmack) improves food security, and which factors can play a major role for its successful adoption, particularly in major food insecure areas of Ethiopia. The study has three main objectives: (1) to investigate the adaptability of triticale to the Ethiopian agro-ecological conditions, particularly in areas with low soil fertility, hence this is a crop considered to provide considerably a higher harvest under low agricultural inputs, such as fertilizer, insects and pests sprays; (2) to analyze the injera--and bread-baking quality of the crop in comparison with tef (a staple cereal limited to Ethiopia) and wheat cereals, and examine the acceptance by consumers of these products made from this grain. The study was conducted in the two major triticale producing districts (wereda), Farta and Estie of the South Gondar Administrative Zone in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The production of crops and the adoption of triticale as a new technology by smallholder farmers are influenced by several factors such as family size, age, gender and education of the household head, availability of agricultural extension services and farm credits, and labour. Despite the high yield and widespread adoption of triticale crop in the study areas and the Amhara Region at large, it faced some amount of resistance from a few farmers and some agriculturalists. This is because of the possibility of soil nutrients exploitation by the triticale plant, with a consequent drop of nutrition for the succeeding crops. This is however, a hardly valid

  2. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B). However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space. PMID:21167071

  3. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources.

    PubMed

    Rustenholz, Camille; Hedley, Pete E; Morris, Jenny; Choulet, Frédéric; Feuillet, Catherine; Waugh, Robbie; Paux, Etienne

    2010-12-19

    Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B). However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  4. High-throughput genotyping of wheat-barley amphiploids utilising diversity array technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Castillo, Almudena; Ramírez, María C; Martín, Azahara C; Kilian, Andrzej; Martín, Antonio; Atienza, Sergio G

    2013-06-03

    Hordeum chilense, a native South American diploid wild barley, is one of the species of the genus Hordeum with a high potential for cereal breeding purposes, given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae tribe. Hexaploid tritordeum (×Tritordeum Ascherson et Graebner, 2n=6×=42, AABBH(ch)H(ch)) is the fertile amphiploid obtained after chromosome doubling of hybrids between Hordeum chilense and durum wheat. Approaches used in the improvement of this crop have included crosses with hexaploid wheat to promote D/H(ch) chromosome substitutions. While this approach has been successful as was the case with triticale, it has also complicated the genetic composition of the breeding materials. Until now tritordeum lines were analyzed based on molecular cytogenetic techniques and screening with a small set of DNA markers. However, the recent development of DArT markers in H. chilense offers new possibilities to screen large number of accessions more efficiently. Here, we have applied DArT markers to genotype composition in forty-six accessions of hexaploid tritordeum originating from different stages of tritordeum breeding program and to H. chilense-wheat chromosome addition lines to allow their physical mapping. Diversity analyses were conducted including dendrogram construction, principal component analysis and structure inference. Euploid and substituted tritordeums were clearly discriminated independently of the method used. However, dendrogram and Structure analyses allowed the clearest discrimination among substituted tritordeums. The physically mapped markers allowed identifying these groups as substituted tritordeums carrying the following disomic substitutions (DS): DS1D (1H(ch)), DS2D (2H(ch)), DS5D (5H(ch)), DS6D (6H(ch)) and the double substitution DS2D (2H(ch)), DS5D (5H(ch)). These results were validated using chromosome specific EST and SSR markers and GISH analysis. In conclusion, DArT markers have proved to be very useful to detect

  5. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  6. The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): role of the binary vector system and selection cassettes.

    PubMed

    Bińka, Agnieszka; Orczyk, Wacław; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2012-02-01

    The influence of two binary vector systems, pGreen and pCAMBIA, on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation ability of wheat and triticale was studied. Both vectors carried selection cassettes with bar or nptII driven by different promoters. Two cultivars of wheat, Kontesa and Torka, and one cultivar of triticale, Wanad, were tested. The transformation rates for the wheat cultivars ranged from 0.00 to 3.58% and from 0.00 to 6.79% for triticale. The best values for wheat were 3.58% for Kontesa and 3.14% for Torka, and these were obtained after transformation with the pGreen vector carrying the nptII selection gene under the control of 35S promoter. In the case of the bar selection system, the best transformation rates were, respectively, 1.46 and 1.79%. Such rates were obtained when the 35S::bar cassette was carried by the pCAMBIA vector; they were significantly lower with the pGreen vector. The triticale cultivar Wanad had its highest transformation rate after transformation with nptII driven by 35S in pCAMBIA. The bar selection system for the same triticale cultivar was better when the gene was driven by nos and the selection cassette was carried by pGreen. The integration of the transgenes was confirmed with at least three pairs of specific starters amplifying the fragments of nptII, bar, or gus. The expression of selection genes, measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in relation to the actin gene, was low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.63 for nptII and from 0.00 to 0.33 for bar. The highest relative transcript accumulation was observed for nptII driven by 35S and expressed in Kontesa that had been transformed with pGreen.

  7. Identification and phenotypic description of new wheat: six-rowed winter barley disomic additions.

    PubMed

    Molnár-Láng, Márta; Kruppa, Klaudia; Cseh, András; Bucsi, Julianna; Linc, Gabriella

    2012-04-01

    To increase the allelic variation in wheat-barley introgressions, new wheat-barley disomic addition lines were developed containing the 2H, 3H, 4H, 6H, and 7H chromosomes of the six-rowed Ukrainian winter barley 'Manas'. This cultivar is agronomically much better adapted to Central European environmental conditions than the two-rowed spring barley 'Betzes' previously used. A single 'Asakaze' × 'Manas' wheat × barley hybrid plant was multiplied in vitro and one backcross plant was obtained after pollinating 354 regenerant hybrids with wheat. The addition lines were selected from the self-fertilized seeds of the 16 BC(2) plants using genomic in situ hybridization. The addition lines were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using repetitive DNA probes (HvT01, GAA, pTa71, and Afa family), followed by confirmation with barley SSR markers. The addition lines were grown in the phytotron and in the field, and morphological parameters (plant height, fertility, tillering, and spike characteristics) were measured. The production of the disomic additions will make it possible to incorporate the DNA of six-rowed winter barley into the wheat genome. Addition lines are useful for genetic studies on the traits of six-rowed winter barley and for producing new barley dissection lines.

  8. Application of genomics to molecular breeding of wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Langridge, Peter; Graner, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    In wheat and barley, several generations of selectable molecular markers have been included in the genetic maps; and a large number of qualitative and quantitative traits were located in the genomes, some of which are being routinely selected in marker-assisted breeding programs. In recent years, a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been generated for wheat and barley that have been used for development of functional molecular markers, preparation of transcript maps, and construction of cDNA arrays. These functional genomic resources combined together with new approaches such as expression genetics, association mapping, allele mining, and informatics (bioinformatic tools) possess potential to identify genes responsible for a trait and their deployment in practical plant breeding. High costs currently limit the implementation of functional genomics in breeding programs. The potential applications together with some examples as well as challenges for applying genomics research in breeding activities are discussed. Genomics research will continue to enhance the efficiency and precision for crop improvement but will not replace conventional breeding and evaluation methods.

  9. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    PubMed Central

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  10. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    PubMed

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  11. Brightening triticale's future

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, J.P. ); Francois, L.E. ); Webster, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    Triticales, hybrids of wheat and rye, were first developed a century ago to take advantage of the natural disease resistances found in each parent. Yields of up to 30 percent more than wheat have been obtained on marginal lands. The hybrids have been grown mainly for animal feed with some used to make flour for human consumption. Growth under adverse conditions has been found in soils that are sandy, cold, infertile, dry, and mineral deficient as well as in soils of high acidity and alkalinity and of high boron and aluminum content. The NRC predicts that triticales will be grown increasingly on marginal land due to climate changes caused by the greenhouse effect.

  12. Rapid gene isolation in barley and wheat by mutant chromosome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ghosh, Sreya; Herren, Gerhard; Hurni, Severine; Adamski, Nikolai; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Krattinger, Simon G; Wicker, Thomas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, Beat; Wulff, Brande B H

    2016-10-31

    Identification of causal mutations in barley and wheat is hampered by their large genomes and suppressed recombination. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed MutChromSeq, a complexity reduction approach based on flow sorting and sequencing of mutant chromosomes, to identify induced mutations by comparison to parental chromosomes. We apply MutChromSeq to six mutants each of the barley Eceriferum-q gene and the wheat Pm2 genes. This approach unambiguously identified single candidate genes that were verified by Sanger sequencing of additional mutants. MutChromSeq enables reference-free forward genetics in barley and wheat, thus opening up their pan-genomes to functional genomics.

  13. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2009 Field Nursery Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2009 field screening nursery, with 128 wheat and 208 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and untransformed controls were submitted by the University of Minnesota (19+1 wheat), the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (4+2 wheat) and USDA (48+1 barley). Lines wit...

  14. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  15. Evolution and Intensity of Hail in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaldo de Quirós, I.; Saa Requejo, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Burgaz, F.

    2009-04-01

    The cereals have represented a very important place in the agriculture along the history. The current expansion and growth of the energetic markets are changing the role of the agriculture. The cereals, with other crops, are becoming more significant as suppliers of raw material for the production of biofuels. The purpose of the present project is to carry out a study about the hail in cereals. The survey is focus in wheat and barley as they both represent the highest cereal production of Spain. Four provinces have been chosen (those with the values of production are higher): Burgos and Zaragoza for the wheat and Cuenca and Valladolid for the barley. The materials and methods that we had available for the study of the evolution and intensity of the damages for hail include an analysis of the correlation between the ratios of agricultural insurances provided by ENESA and the number of days of annual hail (from 1981 to 2007). At the same time, one weather station per province was selected by the longest more complete data recorded (from 1963 to 2007) to perform an analysis of monthly time series of the number of hail days (HD). The results of the study show us that there is no relation between the ratio of the agricultural insurances and the number of hail days. This can be due to the large area of which the ratio refers to and the low density of meteorological stations to cover the hail that is registered in every of the four provinces. On the other hand, it is observed that monthly HD time series don't show a change in pattern except in one of the stations studied. Therefore with the information available we cannot state that there are clear changes in the evolution of the hail registered for each province.

  16. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    PubMed Central

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  17. Genome-Wide Comparative Analysis of Flowering-Related Genes in Arabidopsis, Wheat, and Barley

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Fred Y.; Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2015-01-01

    Early flowering is an important trait influencing grain yield and quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in short-season cropping regions. However, due to large and complex genomes of these species, direct identification of flowering genes and their molecular characterization remain challenging. Here, we used a bioinformatic approach to predict flowering-related genes in wheat and barley from 190 known Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.) flowering genes. We identified 900 and 275 putative orthologs in wheat and barley, respectively. The annotated flowering-related genes were clustered into 144 orthologous groups with one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many orthology relationships. Our approach was further validated by domain and phylogenetic analyses of flowering-related proteins and comparative analysis of publicly available microarray data sets for in silico expression profiling of flowering-related genes in 13 different developmental stages of wheat and barley. These further analyses showed that orthologous gene pairs in three critical flowering gene families (PEBP, MADS, and BBX) exhibited similar expression patterns among 13 developmental stages in wheat and barley, suggesting similar functions among the orthologous genes with sequence and expression similarities. The predicted candidate flowering genes can be confirmed and incorporated into molecular breeding for early flowering wheat and barley in short-season cropping regions. PMID:26435710

  18. Evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calender models for the 1979 crop year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazare, C. V.; Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    During the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment, spring wheat planting date and crop development stage estimates based on historical normals were improved by the use of the Feyerherm planting date and Robertson spring wheat crop calendar models. The Supporting Research Crop Calendar Project element modified the Robertson model to reduce bias at cardinal growth stages within the growing season. These models were tested in 1980 along with a state-of-the-art barley model (Williams) against a ground-truth data set from 49 calendar year 1979 segments in the U.S. Great Plains spring wheat and barley region.

  19. Should wheat, barley, rye and/or gluten be avoided in a six food elimination diet?

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Kara L.; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Aceves, Seema S.; Bonis, Peter A.; Dellon, Evan S.; Falk, Gary W.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K.; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of six foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and may also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested barley and rye may also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this opinion paper, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten), assess common practices at EoE treatment centers, and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE. PMID:26725190

  20. Should wheat, barley, rye, and/or gluten be avoided in a 6-food elimination diet?

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Kara L; Venter, Carina; Cassin, Alison M; Abonia, J Pablo; Aceves, Seema S; Bonis, Peter A; Dellon, Evan S; Falk, Gary W; Furuta, Glenn T; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Hirano, Ikuo; Kagalwalla, Amir; Leung, John; Mukkada, Vincent A; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a food antigen-mediated disease, is effectively treated with the dietary elimination of 6 foods commonly associated with food allergies (milk, wheat, egg, soy, tree nuts/peanuts, and fish/shellfish). Because wheat shares homologous proteins (including gluten) with barley and rye and can also be processed with these grains, some clinicians have suggested that barley and rye might also trigger EoE as a result of cross-reaction and/or cross-contamination with wheat. In this article, we discuss the theoretical risks of cross-reactivity and cross-contamination among wheat, barley, and rye proteins (including gluten); assess common practices at EoE treatment centers; and provide recommendations for dietary treatment and future studies of EoE. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  2. Intake and digestion of whole-crop barley and wheat silages by dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E

    2011-12-01

    The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P < 0.001, r = 0.46) and negatively correlated to NDF content (P < 0.001, r = -0.42). Organic matter digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages of maturity in all crops (P < 0.001), did not differ between the milk and the dough stages in the 2 barley crops, but increased in the wheat silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.

  3. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains.

  5. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat and barley straw.

    PubMed

    Rosgaard, Lisa; Pedersen, Sven; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-12-01

    In biomass-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass is a critical requirement for enhancing the accessibility of the cellulose substrate to enzymatic attack. This report evaluates the efficacy on barley and wheat straw of three different pretreatment procedures: acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion versus hot water extraction. The pretreatments were compared after enzyme treatment using a cellulase enzyme system, Celluclast 1.5 L from Trichoderma reesei, and a beta-glucosidase, Novozyme 188 from Aspergillus niger. Barley straw generally produced higher glucose concentrations after enzymatic hydrolysis than wheat straw. Acid or water impregnation followed by steam explosion of barley straw was the best pretreatment in terms of resulting glucose concentration in the liquid hydrolysate after enzymatic hydrolysis. When the glucose concentrations obtained after enzymatic hydrolyses were related to the potential glucose present in the pretreated residues, the highest yield, approximately 48% (g g-1), was obtained with hot water extraction pretreatment of barley straw; this pretreatment also produced highest yields for wheat straw, producing a glucose yield of approximately 39% (g g-1). Addition of extra enzyme (Celluclast 1.5 L+Novozyme 188) during enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the highest total glucose concentrations from barley straw, 32-39 g L-1, but the relative increases in glucose yields were higher on wheat straw than on barley straw. Maldi-TOF MS analyses of supernatants of pretreated barley and wheat straw samples subjected to acid and water impregnation, respectively, and steam explosion, revealed that the water impregnated + steam-exploded samples gave a wider range of pentose oligomers than the corresponding acid-impregnated samples.

  6. Improved plant regeneration from wheat anther and barley microspore culture using phenylacetic acid (PAA).

    PubMed

    Ziauddin, A; Marsolais, A; Simion, E; Kasha, K J

    1992-09-01

    The effect of the auxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) on wheat anther and on barley anther/microspore culture was investigated. With PAA the induction response was not usually significantly different from controls but a significantly higher number of green plants were produced in wheat anther and barley microspore culture. For wheat anther culture 100 mg/L PAA was beneficial. For barley microspore culture the optimum levels were from 1 to 100 mg/L, depending on genotype. In barley anther culture there were no improvements using PAA. In wheat anther culture, 145 green plants/100 anthers were obtained with cultivar Veery'S', while the average response from twelve F1 hybrids in the breeding program was 332 green plants/100 anthers. At least 1000 green plants were obtained using isolated microspores from 100 anthers in barley cv. Igri. With cv. Bruce, regeneration occurred only when 100 mg/L PAA was used. The influence of PAA appears at the embryogenic phase of the culture system. The possible mechanisms by which PAA may improve regeneration are discussed.

  7. Survey of Rhizoctonia spp. from wheat soils in the U.S. and determination of pathogenicity on wheat and barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch are chronic diseases of wheat and barley in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), but little is known about Rhizoctonia spp. in other cereal growing areas of the U.S. A survey was conducted in the fall of 2009 and 2010 to identify Rhizoctonia spp. from soils collected thro...

  8. Opportunities for manipulating the seed protein composition of wheat and barley in order to improve quality.

    PubMed

    Shewry, P R; Tatham, A S; Halford, N G; Barker, J H; Hannappel, U; Gallois, P; Thomas, M; Kreis, M

    1994-01-01

    Wheat and barley are the major temperate cereals, being used for food, feed and industrial raw material. However, in all cases the quality may be limited by the amount, composition and properties of the grain storage proteins. We describe how a combination of biochemical and molecular studies has led to an understanding of the molecular basis for breadmaking quality in wheat and feed quality in barley, and also provided genes encoding key proteins that determine quality. The control of expression of these genes has been studied in transgenic tobacco plants and by transient expression in cereal protoplasts, providing the basis for the production of transgenic cereals with improved quality characteristics.

  9. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Advances and remaining challenges in the transformation of barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Wendy A

    2012-03-01

    Highly efficient and cost-effective transformation technologies are essential for studying gene function in the major cereal crops, wheat and barley. Demand for efficient transformation systems to allow over-expression, or RNAi-mediated silencing of target genes, is greatly increasing. This is due to technology advances, such as rapid genome sequencing, enhancing the rate of gene discovery and thus leading to a large number of genes requiring functional analysis through transformation pipelines. Barley can be transformed at very high efficiency but the methods are genotype-dependent. Wheat is more difficult to transform, however, recent advances are also allowing the development of high-throughput transformation systems in wheat. For many gene function studies, barley can be used as a model for wheat due to its highly efficient transformation rates and smaller, less complex genome. An ideal transformation system needs to be extremely efficient, simple to perform, inexpensive, genotype-independent, and give the required expression of the transgene. Considerable progress has been made in enhancing transformation efficiencies, controlling transgene expression and in understanding and manipulating transgene insertion. However, a number of challenges still remain, one of the key ones being the development of genotype-independent transformation systems for wheat and barley.

  11. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley.

  12. Yield and Production Gaps in Rainfed Wheat, Barley, and Canola in Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Tejendra; Good, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Improving crop yields are essential to meet the increasing pressure of global food demands. The loss of high quality land, the slowing in annual yield increases of major cereals, increasing fertilizer use, and the effect of this on the environment all indicate that we need to develop new strategies to increase grain yields with less impact on the environment. One strategy that could help address this concern is by narrowing the yield gaps of major crops using improved genetics and management. The objective of this study was to determine wheat (Triticum spp. L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and canola (Brassica napus L.) yields and production gaps in Alberta. We used 10 years of data (2005–2014) to understand yield variability and input efficiency at a farmers’ specified level of management, and the yield potential under optimal management to suggest appropriate pathways for closing yield gaps. Significant management gaps were observed between attainable and actual yields of rainfed wheat (24%), barley (25%), and canola (30%). In addition, genetic gaps (i.e., gaps due to genetic selection) in wheat, barley, and canola were 18, 12, and 5%, respectively. Genetic selection with optimal crop management could increase yields of wheat, barley, and canola significantly, with estimated yield gains of 3.42, 1.92, and 1.65 million tons, respectively, each year under rainfed conditions in Alberta. This paper identifies yield gaps and offers suggestions to improve efficiency in crop production. PMID:26635824

  13. Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

  14. Registration of 'Stoneham' spring feed barley resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Stoneham' (REG. No.; PI 641940) a Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov)-resistant, spring, two-rowed, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare) tested as 97BX 27-132, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK and Aberdeen, ID; Colorado State University; and the University of Neb...

  15. Registration of 'Mesa' Russian wheat aphid-resistant winter feed barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Mesa' (Reg. No., PI 659768), Russian wheat aphid [RWA, Diruaphis noxia (Kurdjumov)]-resistant six-rowed winter feed barley Hordeum vulgare L.) tested as 97BX 43-99A and STARS 1401B, was developed and released by USDA-ARS, Stillwater, OK. Although all crossing, selection, and evaluation was done by...

  16. Modeling light and temperature effects on leaf emergence in wheat and barley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, T.; Bugbee, B.

    1991-01-01

    Phenological development affects canopy structure, radiation interception, and dry matter production; most crop simulation models therefore incorporate leaf emergence rate as a basic parameter. A recent study examined leaf emergence rate as a function of temperature and daylength among wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. Leaf emergence rate and phyllochron were modeled as functions of temperature alone, daylength alone, and the interaction between temperature and daylength. The resulting equations contained an unwieldy number of constants. Here we simplify by reducing the constants by > 70%, and show leaf emergence rate as a single response surface with temperature and daylength. In addition, we incorporate the effect of photosynthetic photon flux into the model. Generic fits for wheat and barley show cultivar differences less than +/- 5% for wheat and less than +/- 10% for barley. Barley is more sensitive to daylength changes than wheat for common environmental values of daylength, which may be related to the difference in sensitivity to daylength between spring and winter cultivars. Differences in leaf emergence rate between cultivars can be incorporated into the model by means of a single, nondimensional factor for each cultivar.

  17. Barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

  18. Triticale development in Algeria: genetic gains through decades.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Benbelkacem; Fatiha, Sadli

    2014-01-01

    Algeria started working on triticale since the late seventies, it was first as a scientific curiosity (1974-1980), the production of this crop began in the early eighties and expanded well for a decade (10.000ha) then decreased for another decade due to lack of subsidies and serious interest from decision makers putting all their effort in wheat production which is the predominant crop in the country. Since the 1990s up to date, it is developing again mainly based on feed market requirements (20.500ha in 2001) and a better consideration by stakeholders. Triticale is now developed by the informal seed system. Triticale is grown in Algeria under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions, including dryland and marginal soils. Under high input and rainfall environments, the best triticale cultivars have comparable grain yield with wheat but slightly lower to barley. This advantage is larger under dry conditions. Our study was dealing with an evaluation of the progress made in time since their introduction and selection of triticale varieties. The study was conducted on twenty five varieties and advanced lines, selected in the different phases of triticale development, during the three last seasons (2009 - 2012) in two contrasting regions (semi arid and high input environment) showed very interesting results and a linear improvement in grain yield and its components, and also in the feeding quality traits. The improvement was apparent in both sites; although result data was higher in number in the high input environment, the increase rate was larger in the semi arid area of study. In the favorable area, grain yield increased from 2.94t/ha for the varieties developed in the early phase (late 1970s), to 3.98t/ha for the varieties released in the second phase (1990s) up to 5.45t/ha for the latest varieties developed in the 2000s. Grain yield increased in the dry area from 2.42t/ha to 4.92t/ha. The trend is almost the same for all yield components and even for forage

  19. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  20. Protein and quality characterization of triticale translocation lines in breadmaking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-D1d locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of high molecular weight glutenin loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the breadmaking quality of triticale. One means of achieving such restor...

  1. Mycotoxins in cereal grain. Part II. The fate of ochratoxin A after processing of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Chelkowski, J; Goliński, P; Szebiotko, K

    1981-01-01

    Ochratoxin A was to be evenly distributed in kernels of different lots of wheat and barley grain. Dry cleaning and wet cleaning did not eliminate ochratoxin from grain. After milling the level of ochratoxin in flour was similar to its concentration in bran. In pearl barley concentration of ochratoxin A stated only 10-30% of initial concentration in barley grain. Detoxification is necessary for the whole kernel, because processing did not remove ochratoxin A effectively.

  2. Triticale biotic stresses--an overview.

    PubMed

    Arseniuk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Triticale has been considered as resistant to diseases over a long time. Although, many authors perpetuate this opinion, it is no longer true. However, in comparison to wheat and rye triticale still may look as a healthy crop, but its healthiness has been steadily declining. It could be explained by steady expansion of the growing area and longer exposure to pathogens. On the other hand, triticale is a crop on which meet pathogens of wheat and rye, but there is evidence that on triticale embedded more so called "wheat pathogens", than rye ones. For such an notable example may serve races of Puccinia recondita. In the latter respect triticale also appears to be a bridge facilitating a direct contact between the pathogens, e.g. between physiological forms of the most important cereal rusts. Such contacts stimulate somatic hybridization on bridging triticale plant and may finally result in new hybrid pathotypes carrying virulence genes (factors) to all three hosts, i.e. triticale, wheat and rye. In addition to all triticale commercial and agronomical values, triticale still is and it will continue to be bridging transfers of resistance genes to various pathogens and pests mainly from rye to wheat. The paper will describe main diseases affecting triticale worldwide. The first disease which occurred on this cereal in epidemic proportions was stem rust (Pucinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Australia. Leaf and stripe rusts (P. recondita f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis) are also have gained in importance everywhere triticale is grown. In recent years, at least in Poland, powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis occurred in epidemic proportions in quite a number of winter triticale cultivars. Similar phenomenon has been observed with quite a number of other diseases caused by facultative pathogens, such as the most damaging to triticale the Stagonospora spp. leaf and glume blotch disease complex and other pathogens like Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium culmorum, and F

  3. [Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum)-triticum aestivum].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Belova, L I; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Kravtsova, L A

    2009-10-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1Hmr((IB), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7Hma(7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BCIF8- and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (=H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x T. aestivum L.) (2n = 42) (Pyrotrix 28), respectively. Moreover, the alloplasmic wheat-barley ditelosomic addition line 7HLma' isolated among plants from the BC1F6 progeny of a barley-wheat amphiploid was studied, which in this work corresponds to BC2F10 and BC2F11 progeny. It was ascertained that when grown in the field, these alloplasmic lines manifest stable self-fertility. Plants of the given lines are characterized by low height, shortened ears, the fewer number of stems and ears, and of spikelets in the ear, by decreased grain productivity and weight of 1000 grains, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28. The inhibition of trait expression in alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines may be connected not only with the influence of wild barley chromosomes functioning in the genotypic environment of common wheat, but also with the effect of the barley cytoplasm. The alloplasmic line with substitution of chromosomes 1Hmar(1B), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D) or the alloplasmic line 7HLmar with ditelosomic addition have, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28, an increased grain protein content, which is explained by the effect of wild barley H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromosomes.

  4. Anti-staling effects of β-glucan and barley flour in wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Paras; Gujral, Hardeep Singh

    2014-02-15

    Chapatti making behaviour of wheat flour containing barley flour (28%, 56% and 84%) or β-glucan (1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%) and their effect on staling of chapatti was studied. The dough water absorption increased significantly up to 76.7% and 78.3% upon incorporation of barley flour and β-glucan, respectively. Bake loss significantly increased (up to 20%) upon incorporation of barley flour but was not significantly affected by β-glucan. The peak (PV) and final viscosity (FV) significantly increased upon incorporation of barley flour (up to 105% and 65%), whereas incorporating β-glucan decreased the PV and FV by 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. The stored chapatties exhibited higher pasting viscosities compared to the fresh chapatties. Incorporation of barley flour exhibited a gradual increase in the enthalpy of gelatinisation (ΔHgel), similarly β-glucan at 1.5% increased the ΔHgel. Retrogradation was lowered by 23.7%, 41.5% and 63.5% by barley flour and by 19.9%, 27.4% and 44.8% by β-glucan.

  5. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-08-11

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  6. [Effect of rye chromosomes on features of androgenesis in wheat-rye substituted lines of Triticum aestivum L. sort Saratovskaya 29/Secale cerale L. sort Onokhoiskaia and Triticale].

    PubMed

    Dobrovolskaia, O B; Pershina, L A; Kravtsova, L A; Silkova, O G; Shchapova, A I

    2001-05-01

    The characteristic features of androgenesis in six wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Saratovskaya 29)/Secale cereale L. (cv. Onokhoiskaya) and triticale (2n = 56) using anther culture at different concentrations of 2,4-D in the growth medium were studied. Under variable cultivation conditions, the significant effect of genotypic diversity on the variability of such androgenesis parameters as the frequency of productive anthers, the frequency of embryoid formation, and the frequency of total regenerated plantlets, was shown. It was demonstrated that chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7R stimulated the formation of androgenous embryoids, while chromosome 5R produced an opposite effect. In triticale and substitution lines, the regeneration ability of androgenous embryoids induced by elevated 2,4-D concentrations was inhibited. Chromosome 1R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar was suggested to contain genes suppressing regeneration of green plantlets, while chromosome 3R, conversely, stimulated their formation. Chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 7R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar did not inhibit the spontaneous formation of androgenous hexaploids in the substitution lines.

  7. Genetic basis of triticale breeding (x triticale). IV. Embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales

    SciTech Connect

    Gordei, I.A.; Khodortsova, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    Results are reported on enhancing the efficiency of embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales (AABBRR, 2n = 42). The antioxidant tomatoside has a positive effect on the reduction of progamous incompatibility of wheat with rye and increases the output of wheat-rye amphihaploids. It has been established that irradiation of embryos, cultured on nutrient medium, with helium-neon laser, increases significantly (P < 0.01) the regeneration frequency of the wheat-rye hybrid embryos. The highest frequency (40%) of amphidiploids was obtained by treating the plants with 0.15% colchicine through roots during the tillering phase. Hexaploid triticales from 11 cross combinations between tetraploid wheats (AABB, 2n = 28) and diploid rye (RR, 2n = 14) formed the initial material for breeding.

  8. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    PubMed

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods.

  9. Host-preferential Fusarium graminearum gene expression during infection of wheat, barley, and maize.

    PubMed

    Harris, Linda J; Balcerzak, Margaret; Johnston, Anne; Schneiderman, Danielle; Ouellet, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a broad host pathogen threatening cereal crops in temperate regions around the world. To better understand how F. graminearum adapts to different hosts, we have performed a comparison of the transcriptome of a single strain of F. graminearum during early infection (up to 4 d post-inoculation) of barley, maize, and wheat using custom oligomer microarrays. Our results showed high similarity between F. graminearum transcriptomes in infected wheat and barley spike tissues. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the gene expression profiles of 24 genes. Host-specific expression of genes was observed in each of the three hosts. This included expression of distinct sets of genes associated with transport and secondary metabolism in each of the three crops, as well as host-specific patterns for particular gene categories such as sugar transporters, integral membrane protein PTH11-like proteins, and chitinases. This study identified 69 F. graminearum genes as preferentially expressed in developing maize kernels relative to wheat and barley spikes. These host-specific differences showcase the genomic flexibility of F. graminearum to adapt to a range of hosts. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of individual barley chromosomes based on repetitive sequences: conservative distribution of Afa-family repetitive sequences on the chromosomes of barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, H; Mukai, Y; Akagawa, K; Nagaki, K; Fujigaki, J; Yamamoto, M; Sasakuma, T

    1997-10-01

    The Afa-family repetitive sequences were isolated from barley (Hordeum vulgare, 2n = 14) and cloned as pHvA14. This sequence distinguished each barely chromosome by in situ hybridization. Double color fluorescence in situ hybridization using pHvA14 and 5S rDNA or HvRT-family sequence (subtelomeric sequence of barley) allocated individual barley chromosomes showing a specific pattern of pHvA14 to chromosome 1H to 7H. As the case of the D genome chromosomes of Aegilops squarrosa and common wheat (Triticum aestivum) hybridized by its Afa-family sequences, the signals of pHvA14 in barley chromosomes tended to appear in the distal regions that do not carry many chromosome band markers. In the telomeric regions these signals always placed in more proximal portions than those of HvRT-family. Based on the distribution patterns of Afa-family sequences in the chromosomes of barley and D genome chromosomes of wheat, we discuss a possible mechanism of amplification of the repetitive sequences during the evolution of Triticeae. In addition, we show here that HvRT-family also could be used to distinguish individual barley chromosomes from the patterns of in situ hybridization.

  11. Proteins in Intercellular Washing Fluid from Noninoculated and Rust-Affected Leaves of Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Holden, David W.; Rohringer, Roland

    1985-01-01

    Proteins in intercellular washing fluid (IWF) from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves were separated by two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or silver. Intracellular protein from the cut ends of leaves accounted for only a small proportion of total protein in IWF from wheat leaves. When these were heavily infected with the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and grown at 19°C, four infection-related CBB-stainable proteins were detected in IWF. To compare IWF proteins from wheat and barley leaves infected with the same pathogen, conditions were established that permitted luxuriant growth of stem rust of wheat in barley (exposure to chloroform before inoculation and maintenance at 25°C thereafter). Under these conditions, at least 10 infection-related silver-stainable proteins were detected in IWF from infected wheat in addition to the more than 50 that were of host origin. The electrophoretic properties of 8 of the infection-related proteins were the same as those of 8 infection-related proteins in IWF from barley. IWF from wheat and barley grown under these conditions was analyzed for Concanavalin A-binding glycoproteins immobilized on nitrocellulose membrane replicas made from gels. Of the many infection-related glycoproteins that were detected in IWF from stem rust-affected wheat, approximately 20 occupied the same positions as those from stem rust-affected barley. The glycoprotein pattern of IWF prepared from wheat leaves grown at 19°C and infected with the leaf rust fungus (P. recondita f. sp. tritici) was markedly different to that of IWF from the same host infected with the stem rust fungus. We conclude that IWF from rust-affected cereal leaves may be a useful source of surface or extracellular proteins from the parasitic mycelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16664314

  12. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias; Fischer, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers.

  13. Investigation of the Germination of Barley and Wheat Grains with a Design of Experiments for the Production of Hydrolases

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Bertolt; Koch, Milena; Schapfl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrolases from cereals has been examined in order to investigate food-derived enzymes as an alternative source to microbial enzymes for the use in food processes. For that, the influence of temperature on the pretreatment, imbibition and germination of barley and wheat grains was determined by measuring the β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and lipase activities using a design of experiments. The evaluation of the statistical model showed an increase of the β-glucosidase activity with low imbibition and low germination temperature for barley grains and low imbibition and high germination temperature for wheat grains. The maximum β-glucosidase activity in wheat extracts was (585±151) nkat per g of dry mass (dm), while in barley extracts it was (109±15) nkat per g of dm. The maximum β-galactosidase activities in barley and wheat extracts were (34±12) and (63±23) nkat per g of dm, respectively. The maximum lipase activities of (6.7±0.1) and (4.6±4.4) nkat per g of dm in barley and wheat extracts, respectively, were rather low compared to the glycosidase activities. The extracts were also tested for other hydrolase activities (e.g. peptidase and α-amylase activities). The insights obtained enable the basis for the potential use of cereal hydrolases in food processing, which might be attractive to consumers. PMID:27904341

  14. Structural organization of the barley D-hordein locus in comparison with its orthologous regions of wheat genomes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yong Qiang; Anderson, Olin D; Londeorë, Cynthia F; Kong, Xiuying; Chibbar, Ravindra N; Lazo, Gerard R

    2003-12-01

    D hordein, a prolamin storage protein of barley endosperms, is highly homologous to the high molecular weight (HWM) glutenin subunits, which are the major determinants of bread-making quality in wheat flour. In hexaploid wheat (AABBDD), each genome contains two paralogous copies of HMW-glutenin genes that encode the x- and y-type HMW-glutenin subunits. Previously, we reported the sequence analysis of a 102-kb genomic region that contains the HMW-glutenin locus of the D genome from Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat. Here, we present the sequence analysis of a 120-kb D-hordein region of the barley genome, a more distantly related member of the Triticeae grass tribe. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that gene content and order are generally conserved. Genes included in both of these orthologous regions are arranged in the following order: a Xa21-like receptor kinase, an endosperm globulin, an HMW prolamin, and a serine (threonine) protein kinase. However, in the wheat D genome, a region containing both the globulin and HMW-glutenin gene was duplicated, indicating that this duplication event occurred after the separation of the wheat and barley genomes. The intergenic regions are divergent with regard to the sequence and structural organization. It was found that different types of retroelements are responsible for the intergenic structure divergence in the wheat and barley genomes. In the barley region, we identified 16 long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in three distinct nested clusters. These retroelements account for 63% of the contig sequence. In addition, barley D hordein was compared with wheat HMW glutenins in terms of cysteine residue conservation and repeat domain organization.

  15. Analysis of recombination and gene distribution in the 2L1.0 region of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Erayman, Mustafa; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2005-07-01

    Both wheat and barley belong to tribe Triticeae and are closely related. High-density detailed comparison of physical and genetic linkage maps revealed that wheat genes are present in physically small gene-rich regions (GRRs). One of the largest GRRs is located around fraction length 1.0 of the long arm of wheat homoeologous group 2 chromosomes termed the "2L1.0 region." The main objective of this study was to analyze the structural and functional organization of the 2L1.0 region in barley in comparison to wheat. Using the 29 physically mapped RFLP markers for the region, wheat and barley consensus genetic linkage maps of the 2L1.0 region were generated by combining information from 18 wheat and 7 barley genetic linkage maps. Comparative analysis using these consensus maps and other available wheat and barley mapping resources identified 227 DNA markers and ESTs for the region. The region accounted for 58% of the genes and 68% of the arm's recombination in wheat. However, the corresponding region in barley accounted for about 42% of the genes and 81% of the recombination. The kb/cM ratio for the region was 122 in barley compared to 244 in wheat. Distribution of genes and recombination varied between the two species even though the gene order and density were similar.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize, and Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K.; Holm, Preben B.; Welinder, Karen G.; Jørgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains. PMID:21220762

  17. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P < 0.01) and intake of starch was less (P < 0.01) for the 25DDGS compared with the CON diet. The digestibilities of CP, NDF, ADF, and EE in the total digestive tract were greater (P < 0.05) for 25DDGS vs. CON. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.05) intakes of DM and other nutrients without altering (P=0.40) CP intake. In contrast, digestibilities of DM and other nutrients in the total digestive tract linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing wheat DDGS except for that of EE. Additionally, with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS, mean ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH <5.5 and <5.2, and greater (P=0.01) curve area under pH <5.8 and <5.5 without altering (P > 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively

  18. Early evidence for the use of wheat and barley as staple crops on the margins of the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade A.; Lu, Hongliang; Hein, Anke M.; Schmidt, Amanda H.

    2015-01-01

    We report directly dated evidence from circa 1400 calibrated years (cal) B.C. for the early use of wheat, barley, and flax as staple crops on the borders of the Tibetan Plateau. During recent years, an increasing amount of data from the Tibetan Plateau and its margins shows that a transition from millets to wheat and barley agriculture took place during the second millennium B.C. Using thermal niche modeling, we refute previous assertions that the ecological characteristics of wheat and barley delayed their spread into East Asia. Rather, we demonstrate that the ability of these crops to tolerate frost and their low growing degree-day requirements facilitated their spread into the high-altitude margins of western China. Following their introduction to this region, these crops rapidly replaced Chinese millets and became the staple crops that still characterize agriculture in this area today. PMID:25902511

  19. Folate distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum Desf.) pearled fractions.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Debora; Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

    2016-03-30

    Wholegrain cereals are an important source of folates. In this study, total folate was analysed in pearled fractions of barley and wheat cultivars employing AOAC Official Method 2004.05. In particular, the distribution of folate in the kernels was evaluated in three barley cultivars (two hulled types and a hulless one as well as two- and six-row types) and in a common and a durum wheat cultivar. A noticeable variation in the folate content was observed between the barley [653-1033 ng g(-1) dry matter (DM)] and wheat cultivars (1024-1119 ng g(-1) DM). The highest folate content was detected in the hulless barley cultivar (1033 ng g(-1) DM). A significant reduction in total folate, from 63% to 86%, was observed in all cultivars from the outermost to the innermost pearled fractions. Results proved that folates are mainly present in the germ and in the outer layers of the kernel. This is the first study reporting the folate distribution in kernels of both common and durum wheat and in a hulless barley cultivar. Results suggest that the pearling process could be useful for the selection of intermediate fractions that could be used in order to develop folate-enhanced ingredients and products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, R M; Assis, R; Brammer, S P; Nascimento Junior, A; Da-Silva, P R

    2015-09-22

    Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages. To assess whether backcrossing has the same effect in triticale, indices of meiotic abnormalities, meiotic index, and pollen viability were determined in genotypes from multiple generations of triticale (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1a, and BC1b). All analyzed genotypes exhibited instability during meiosis, and their meiotic index values were all lower than normal. However, the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b showed the lowest mean meiotic abnormalities and the highest meiotic indices, demonstrating higher stability. All genotypes showed a high rate of pollen viability, with the backcrosses BC1a and BC1b again exhibiting the best values. Statistical analyses confirmed that backcrossing positively affects the meiotic stability of triticale. Our results show that backcrossing should be considered by breeders aiming to obtain triticale lines with improved genomic stability.

  1. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    PubMed

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary.

  2. High night temperatures during grain number determination reduce wheat and barley grain yield: a field study.

    PubMed

    García, Guillermo A; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Miralles, Daniel J; Serrago, Román A

    2015-11-01

    Warm nights are a widespread predicted feature of climate change. This study investigated the impact of high night temperatures during the critical period for grain yield determination in wheat and barley crops under field conditions, assessing the effects on development, growth and partitioning crop-level processes driving grain number per unit area (GN). Experiments combined: (i) two contrasting radiation and temperature environments: late sowing in 2011 and early sowing in 2013, (ii) two well-adapted crops with similar phenology: bread wheat and two-row malting barley and (iii) two temperature regimes: ambient and high night temperatures. The night temperature increase (ca. 3.9 °C in both crops and growing seasons) was achieved using purpose-built heating chambers placed on the crop at 19:000 hours and removed at 7:00 hours every day from the third detectable stem node to 10 days post-flowering. Across growing seasons and crops, the average minimum temperature during the critical period ranged from 11.2 to 17.2 °C. Wheat and barley grain yield were similarly reduced under warm nights (ca. 7% °C(-1) ), due to GN reductions (ca. 6% °C(-1) ) linked to a lower number of spikes per m(2) . An accelerated development under high night temperatures led to a shorter critical period duration, reducing solar radiation capture with negative consequences for biomass production, GN and therefore, grain yield. The information generated could be used as a starting point to design management and/or breeding strategies to improve crop adaptation facing climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) Induced MicroRNA Silencing in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian; Wang, Yichun; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in growth, development, and response to environmental changes in plants. Based on the whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy, more and more wheat miRNAs have been annotated. Now, there is a need for an effective technology to analyse endogenous miRNAs function in wheat. We report here that the modified barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced miRNAs silencing system can be utilized to silence miRNAs in wheat. BSMV-based miRNA silencing system is performed through BSMV-based expression of miRNA target mimics to suppress miR159a and miR3134a. The relative expression levels of mature miR159a and miR3134a decrease with increasing transcript levels of their target genes in wheat plants. In summary, the developed approach is effective in silencing endogenous miRNAs, thereby providing a powerful tool for biological function analyses of miRNA molecules in common wheat. PMID:25955840

  4. Comparison of CRD, APU, and state models for Iowa corn and soybeans and North Dakota barley and spring wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, V.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.

  5. Weather analysis and interpretation procedures developed for the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trenchard, M. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques for providing analyses of meteorological conditions at segments during the growing season were developed for the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment. The main product and analysis tool is the segment-level climagraph which depicts temporally meteorological variables for the current year compared with climatological normals. The variable values for the segment are estimates derived through objective analysis of values obtained at first-order station in the region. The procedures and products documented represent a baseline for future Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting experiments.

  6. An effective increase in milk production through triticale feeding.

    PubMed

    Derbal, Nora; Benbelkacem, A; Dib, Y

    2014-01-01

    Since the first studies in Algeria in 1999, 2002 and 2005, triticale has been used in arid and semi-arid areas mainly for livestock production. Efforts have been done for the utilization of triticale as hay, silage and hole grain to feed dairy cattle and small ruminants (sheep). Studies have shown that triticale could be easily integrated in the existing crop-livestock system of northern Algeria. In spite of the good results in the yield performance and adaptation to diverse environments, decision makers are not giving the necessary attention to triticale. Dairy cattle holders that tested the crop have adopted it quickly and developed it in an informal way. Now, more than 90% of the triticale seed business is in the hands of private farmers without any help or subsidies nor a good price policy to develop strongly this crop. The utilization of triticale in Algeria is roughly as follow: human consumption 5%, forage crop (hay or silage) 60% and 30% as feed grain, the remaining 5% are kept for sowing seed. In our studies we have compared different feed sources (barley, triticale, concentrate diet and mixtures) to dairy cattle and sheep. Triticale showed highly significantly better results for meat production and gave also an amazing response for dairy and sheep milk production in Algeria. Milk production of animals fed with triticale over exceeded the other feed sources by 26% to 53%; mean weight gain exhibited the same rates.

  7. Association studies for agro-physiological and quality traits of triticale x bread wheat derivatives in relation to drought and cold stress.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dorin; Mittal, R K; Kant, Anil; Singh, Mohar

    2007-04-01

    Correlation coefficient analysis conducted on 22 triticale x bread wheat derivatives along with six checks to select true- breeding derivative(s) for future hybridization programme with tolerance to drought and cold stress conditions as well as better quality traits revealed significant correlation of grain yield with spikelets per spike, biological yield, harvest index, leaf area index. Interestingly, the grain yield and drought susceptibility index showed no association. However, with cold tolerance it showed significant positive correlation indicating the desirability of certain plant traits under cold stress. The grain yield exhibited no association with quality traits which might assist in the predictability of high yielding varieties with high protein, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars. Path coefficient analysis revealed that biological yield had the highest positive direct effect on grain yield followed by harvest index, specific leaf weight, stomatal number, 1000 grain weight, stomatal size, spikelets per spike and days to heading. Therefore, indirect selection for these plant traits in order should be exercised in selecting drought tolerant genotypes. Two genotypes (RL-124-2P2 and RL 111P2) were found to be drought and cold tolerant with high grain yield, spikes per plant, spikelets per spike and leaf area index.

  8. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  9. Human utilization of triticale: technological and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Bona, L; Acs, E; Lantos, Cs; Tomoskozi, S; Lango, B

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that triticale is not subject of the EU intervention, its acreage shows a continuously growing trend. Albeit, both parental species (sp. Triticum, sp. Secale) are used for human food, the utilization of triticale as human food is still uncertain. The main focus of this paper was to study and compare technological and nutritional values of triticale and its parental species. Triticale (cultivars and experimental lines) along with one wheat and one rye varieties were used in the tests. Most of the grain and flour technological properties (Kernel diameter, Test Weight, flour yield, gluten content, Zeleny volume) of the triticale entries positioned in between the parental wheat and rye attributes. However, thousand kernel weight (TKW) of triticale cultivar GK Szemes and grain hardness of cv. GK Idus surpassed all other entries. The study revealed that--having considerable variation--triticale grains are very rich in beneficial elements such us Ca, Mg, P, Cu and Zn. Dietary fiber (DF) content of triticales were between the rye and wheat controls (10-15%). Total arabinoxylan content (TOTAX) of triticales were much closer to rye (6%), and in some genotypes considerably expanded it (6,5-7%). Health conscious consumers trend to use increasingly novel, valuable grain sources and products in their daily based diets. The inappropriate nature of triticale per se flours for baking industry seems to hinder the human utilization. Blends exploiting favorable attributes of triticale may be a suitable way to use this valuable crop in milling products and in larger food industrial scale.

  10. High-throughput analysis pipeline for achieving simple low-copy wheat and barley transgenics.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic (or genetically modified-GM) plant breeding is increasingly being used as a supplementary tool to many classical plant-breeding programs. Currently the range of transgenic traits accepted for commercial use is largely restricted to herbicide and pest resistance. Given the fact that transgenics can offer an alternative and novel source of genetic variation, pre-breeding research is now increasingly exploiting this technology to tackle a greater spectrum of traits. These traits range from abiotic stress tolerance to improved product quality and nutritional characteristics. Likewise there is an increasing demand for high-throughput methodologies for transgenic plant generation, characterization and phenotyping. Selecting simple low-copy number transgenic events that are both heritable and stably expressed "in planta" is considered a prerequisite to systematic phenotyping for traits of interest. Furthermore, this assessment relies heavily on comparisons to appropriate control plants, in the case of wheat and barley transgenics this is both wild-type and null siblings. This chapter presents a general scheme on which to base selection of transgenics and respective null siblings using wheat and barley as an example. This scheme can be adapted to other similar crop species. Overall this strategy reduces the total number of plants to be genotyped and phenotyped at each generational step, and therefore resulting in significant savings in time, effort, and resources.

  11. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  12. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  13. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase detoxifies deoxynivalenol and provides high levels of resistance to Fusarium graminearum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that results in huge economic losses worldwide. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), that increase fungal virulence and decreas...

  14. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium head blight: 2013 Field nursery report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2013 field screening nursery consisted of 22 wheat and 15 barley entries evaluated in side by side experiments. Entries within each species experiment were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a field located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries and un...

  15. Testing transgenic spring wheat and barley lines for reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2012 Field Nursery Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2012 field screening nursery consisted of 42 wheat and 24 barley entries evaluated in side by side experiments. Entries within each species experiment were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a field located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries, and u...

  16. Analysis of alkylresorcinols in wheat germ oil and barley germ oil via HPLC and flourescence detection: Cochromatography with tocols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkylresorcinols are long chain phenolic compounds that have been reported to be localized in the outer layers of the kernels of wheat, rye, barley and other grains. A sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection was recently reported for the quantitative analysis of alkylresorcinols in cereal...

  17. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  18. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  19. Evaluating the ability of the barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing system to simultaneously silence two wheat genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for rapid assessment of gene function in plants. The ability of the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) VIGS system to simultaneously silence two genes was assessed by comparing the extent of down-regulation of the wheat PDS and SGT1 genes afte...

  20. Evaluating the Ability of the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus-Induced Gene Silencing System to Simultaneously Silence Two Wheat Genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for rapid assessment of gene function in plants. The ability of the Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) VIGS system to simultaneously silence two genes was assessed by comparing the extent of down-regulation of the wheat PDS and SGT1 genes afte...

  1. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L.; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F.; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A.; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus. PMID:28018377

  2. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    PubMed

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  3. Protein and Quality Characterization of Triticale Translocation Lines in Bread Making

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) from the Glu-Did locus of wheat into triticale restores the genetic constitution of storage protein loci to that of wheat and subsequently improves the bread making quality of triticale. One means to achieve such restoration of the gen...

  4. Effect of field history on the cereal leafminer Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars.

    PubMed

    Al-Zyoud, Firas Ahmad

    2012-02-15

    Due to the importance of wheat and barley production in Jordan, prevention of the cereal leafminer, Syringopais temperatella Led. (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) is of vital importance. The insect is a severe pest and plays an important role in limiting the production of these crops. The use of insecticides is neither economic nor sustainable, so that there is an urgent need to initiate a viable alternative to chemical control. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of crop rotation on S. temperatella and its preference to different wheat and barley cultivars. The field history experiment was conducted using five different crop rotations. For the preference experiments in the laboratory, two major experimental groups were conducted. The first was set up to measure the consumed leaf area and the second one to record the number of larval attaches. Each group consisted of four different subgroups; 6 wheat cultivars, 6 barley cultivars, two and one cultivar of each crop. The results indicated that the infestation percentage and number of larvae were significantly the lowest in the crop rotation, wheat/chickpea/wheat while the highest were recorded for barley/barley/barley. The preference results showed that wheat cultivar, Horani Nawawi is significantly the most preferred while Horani 27 is the least cultivar. In case of barley, Mutah was the most preferred cultivar and the least preference was recorded for Athroh. Also, wheat was significantly less preferred than barley. The wheat cultivars, Sham, Em-Qees and Acsad 65 had the highest number of attaches and Deer Alla the least. In contrast, the barley cultivar, Acsad 176 had the highest and Athroh and Rum 1 had the least attaches. Barley cultivars had higher attaches than wheat ones. There was a positive relation between the infestation percent and number of larvae, as well as the consumed area and number of attaches in all of the four subgroups. In conclusion, the crop rotation, wheat/chickpea/wheat

  5. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 μg/g), followed by corn (1,454 μg/g), oat (945 μg/g), wheat (705 μg/g), and rice (675 μg/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response.

  6. The barley MATE gene, HvAACT1, increases citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance when expressed in wheat and barley

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Ryan, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Aluminium is toxic in acid soils because the soluble Al3+ inhibits root growth. A mechanism of Al3+ tolerance discovered in many plant species involves the release of organic anions from root apices. The Al3+-activated release of citrate from the root apices of Al3+-tolerant genotypes of barley is controlled by a MATE gene named HvAACT1 that encodes a citrate transport protein located on the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expressing HvAACT1 with a constitutive promoter in barley and wheat can increase citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance of these important cereal species. Methods HvAACT1 was over-expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Root apices of transgenic and control lines were analysed for HvAACT1 expression and organic acid efflux. The Al3+ tolerance of transgenic and control lines was assessed in both hydroponic solution and acid soil. Key Results and Conclusions Increased HvAACT1 expression in both cereal species was associated with increased citrate efflux from root apices and enhanced Al3+ tolerance, thus demonstrating that biotechnology can complement traditional breeding practices to increase the Al3+ tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:23798600

  7. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  8. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Kristian H; Schjoerring, Jan K; Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Husted, Søren

    2011-05-11

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and -mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences between organic and conventional crops were found in the content of essential plant nutrients when statistically analyzed individually. However, chemometric analysis of multielemental fingerprints comprising up to 14 elements allowed discrimination. The discrimination power was further enhanced by analysis of up to 25 elements derived from semiquantitative ICP-MS. It is concluded that multielemental fingerprinting with semiquantitative ICP-MS and chemometrics has the potential to enable authentication of organic crops.

  9. Crop weather models of barley and spring wheat yield for agrophysical units in North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate barley yield and spring wheat yield from weather data for Agrophysical units(APU) in North Dakota. The predictor variables are derived from monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data at meteorological stations in the cooperative network. The models are similar in form to the previous models developed for Crop Reporting Districts (CRD). The trends and derived variables were the same and the approach to select the significant predictors was similar to that used in developing the CRD models. The APU models show sight improvements in some of the statistics of the models, e.g., explained variation. These models are to be independently evaluated and compared to the previously evaluated CRD models. The comparison will indicate the preferred model area for this application, i.e., APU or CRD.

  10. Metabolic and Ultrastructural Changes Associated with Flooding at Low Temperature in Winter Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, M. Keith; Andrews, Christopher J.

    1979-01-01

    Cold-hardened winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Fredrick) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Dover) were exposed to total flooding at 2 C. Dover seedlings were damaged more quickly than Fredrick, and after 3 weeks of flooding the survival of Dover was reduced to 10% and Fredrick to about 50%. Tissue moisture was slightly greater in Dover than Fredrick throughout the 4-week flooding period. Carbon dioxide and ethanol accumulated throughout the 4-week flooding period in both cultivars. Lactic acid increased rapidly during the 1st week of flooding, and remained relatively constant during the remainder of the flooding period. Oxygen consumption of seedling shoot tissue after exposure to flooding declined abruptly after only 1 day of flooding, but recovered somewhat during the subsequent 2 weeks. The effect of flooding was more pronounced on the ultrastructure of Dover than Fredrick. Although proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the early stages of flooding in both cultivars, the occurrence of distinct parallel arrays and concentric whorls of membranes was prevalent in the flooded barley. Severe ultrastructural damage to a large proportion of apical cells in both cultivars was observed after 2 to 3 weeks of flooding. Images PMID:16661023

  11. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  12. The effect of elevated temperature on Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Narelle; Constable, Fiona E; Finlay, Kyla J; Freeman, Angela J; Rodoni, Brendan C; Trebicki, Piotr; Vassiliadis, Simone; Yen, Alan L; Luck, Jo E

    2014-06-24

    Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) is associated with yellow dwarf disease, one of the most economically important diseases of cereals worldwide. In this study, the impact of current and future predicted temperatures for the Wimmera wheat growing district in Victoria, Australia on the titre of BYDV-PAV in wheat was investigated. Ten-day old wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. Yitpi) seedlings were inoculated with BYDV-PAV and grown at ambient (5.0-16.1°C, night-day) or elevated (10.0-21.1°C, night-day) temperature treatments, simulating the current Wimmera average and future daily temperature cycles, respectively, during the wheat-growing season. Whole above-ground plant samples were collected from each temperature treatment at 0 (day of inoculation), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after inoculation and the titre of BYDV-PAV was measured in each sample using a specific one-step multiplex normalised reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. Physical measurements, including plant height, dry weight and tiller number, were also taken at each sampling point. The titre of BYDV-PAV was significantly greater in plants grown in the elevated temperature treatment than in plants grown in the ambient treatment on days 6, 9 and 12. Plants grown at elevated temperature were significantly bigger and symptoms associated with BYDV-PAV were visible earlier than in plants grown at ambient temperature. These results may have important implications for the epidemiology of yellow dwarf disease under future climates in Australia.

  13. Comparison of Thinopyrum intermedium derivatives carrying barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Navarrete, L; Tourton, E; Mechanicos, A A; Larkin, P J

    2009-06-01

    Resistance to both barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV) has been demonstrated in wheat genetic stocks with Thinopyrum intermedium chromatin. A number of resistance-bearing translocations have been reported on chromosome arm 7DL from two independent Th. intermedium sources; one source is the addition line L1 and the other is the spontaneous substitution line P29. Another source of resistance in wheat cytogenetic stocks is available as a 2Ai(2D) substitution line. We used a set of 38 molecular markers and the available deletion stocks to compare the size of the 7DL translocations more comprehensively than has been done previously. We also compared the efficacy of BYDV resistance of the various genetic stocks both before and after transfer to a common genetic background. TC14 was confirmed as carrying the smallest translocation, replacing about 20% of the distal end of 7DL. TC5 and TC10 had 90% of the chromosome arm replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin; the proximal 10% corresponded to wheat chromatin. YW642 appeared to have the whole 7DL replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, as confirmed by the co-dominant marker cfd68 mapping on the bin nearest the centromere. Translocation line P961341 had bins 3, 7, and 8 replaced by Th. intermedium chromatin, making this the second smallest translocation with BYDV and CYDV resistance. The translocation sizes reported here differ from some of the previous estimates. The translocated Th. intermedium segments appeared to be bigger than the replaced wheat 7DL fragments. All the resistances derived from the L1 and P29 group 7 chromosomes and the 2Ai#2 chromosome were effective in reducing the number of infected plants and the mean virus titre, regardless of the background. Some evidence is discussed suggesting the long arm of the Th. intermedium group 7 chromosome 7Ai#1 carries two resistances, the distal Bdv2 and a proximal second gene.

  14. The use of the ph1b mutant to induce recombination between the chromosomes of wheat and barley

    PubMed Central

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María C.; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Intensive breeding has led to a narrowing in the genetic base of our major crops. In wheat, access to the extensive gene pool residing in its many and varied relatives (some cultivated, others wild) is hampered by the block on recombination imposed by the Ph1 (Pairing homoeologous 1) gene. Here, the ph1b mutant has been exploited to induced allosyndesis between wheat chromosomes and those of both Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. chilense (a wild barley). A number of single chromosome Hordeum sp. substitution and addition lines in wheat were crossed and backcrossed to the ph1b mutant to produce plants in which pairing between the wheat and the non-wheat chromosomes was not suppressed by the presence of Ph1. Genomic in situ hybridization was applied to almost 500 BC1F2 progeny as a screen for allosyndetic recombinants. Chromosome rearrangements were detected affecting H. chilense chromosomes 4Hch, 5Hch, 6Hch, and 7Hch and H. vulgare chromosomes 4Hv, 6Hv, and 7Hv. Two of these were clearly the product of a recombination event involving chromosome 4Hch and a wheat chromosome. PMID:25852713

  15. Differing metabolic responses to salt stress in wheat-barley addition lines containing different 7H chromosomal fragments

    PubMed Central

    Gierczik, Krisztián; Hudák, Orsolya; Forgó, Péter; Pál, Magda; Türkösi, Edina; Kovács, Viktória; Dulai, Sándor; Majláth, Imre; Molnár, István; Janda, Tibor; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Salinity-induced osmotic, ionic and oxidative stress responses were investigated on Asakaze/Manas wheat/barley addition lines 7H, 7HL and 7HS, together with their barley (salt-tolerant) and wheat (relatively salt-sensitive) parents. Growth, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll degradation, proline, glycine betaine accumulation, sugar metabolism, Na+ and K+ uptake and transport processes and the role of polyamines and antioxidants were studied in young plants grown in hydroponic culture with or without salt treatment. Changes in plant growth and photosynthetic activity of plants demonstrated that the salt tolerance of the addition lines 7H and 7HL was similar to that of barley parent cv. Manas, while the sensitivity of the addition line 7HS was similar to that of the wheat parent cv. Asakaze. The Na accumulation in the roots and shoots did not differ between the addition lines and wheat parent. The activation of various genes related to Na uptake and transport was not correlated with the salt tolerance of the genotypes. These results indicated that the direct regulation of Na transport processes is not the main reason for the salt tolerance of these genotypes. Salt treatment induced a complex metabolic rearrangement in both the roots and shoots of all the genotypes. Elevated proline accumulation in the roots and enhanced sugar metabolism in the shoots were found to be important for salt tolerance in the 7H and 7HL addition lines and in barley cv. Manas. In wheat cv. Asakaze and the 7HS addition line the polyamine metabolism was activated. It seems that osmotic adjustment is a more important process in the improvement of salt tolerance in 7H addition lines than the direct regulation of Na transport processes or antioxidant defence. PMID:28328973

  16. Nutritional evaluation of wheat and barley cultivars by growth rate and body composition of larvae of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R; Sosulski, F W

    1976-04-01

    Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets of 17 cultivars of wheat and 29 cultivars of barley, prepared for determination of digestible energy with mice, for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity. Values for percentage crude protein of tissues of larvae fed wheat cultivars were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy as determined with mice. These values were not correlated for larvae fed barley cultivars; however, values for per cent dry matter content of larvae were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy determined with mice. This apparent discrepancy is explained on the basis of the chemical constitution of barley and the availability of amino acids of barley to the larvae. Use of larvae of Tenebrio molitor to indicate the digestible energy of cereal grains is feasible, provided that the proper parameter is chosen. Nevertheless, use of this biological method seems more suitable for evaluation of protein quality and of amino acid availability than for a measure of digestible energy of feeds.

  17. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  18. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  19. Population subdivision of Fusarium graminearum from barley and wheat in the upper Midwestern United States at the turn of the century

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley, is one of the most economically destructive pathogens of these grains worldwide. Recent population genetic studies of the pathogen obtained from wheat in North America supported population subdivision in part c...

  20. Barley yellow dwarf virus infection and elevated CO2 alter the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione in wheat.

    PubMed

    Vandegeer, Rebecca K; Powell, Kevin S; Tausz, Michael

    2016-05-20

    Plant antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione play an important role in regulating potentially harmful reactive oxygen species produced in response to virus infection. Barley yellow dwarf virus is a widespread viral pathogen that systemically infects cereal crops including wheat, barley and oats. In addition, rising atmospheric CO2 will alter plant growth and metabolism, including many potential but not well understood effects on plant-virus interactions. In order to better understand the wheat-BYDV interaction and any potential changes under elevated CO2, the total concentration and oxidised fraction of ascorbate and glutathione was measured in leaves of a susceptible wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yitpi') infected with Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (Padi Avenae virus) and grown under elevated CO2 in controlled environment chambers. Virus infection decreased total leaf ascorbate and glutathione concentrations and increased the fraction of oxidised ascorbate (dehydroascorbate). Elevated CO2 decreased the fraction of oxidised ascorbate. In this work, we demonstrate that systemic infection by a phloem-restricted virus weakens the antioxidant pools of ascorbate and glutathione. In addition, elevated CO2 may decrease oxidative stress, for example, from virus infection, but there was no direct evidence for an interactive effect between treatments.

  1. Synergistic Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Wheat and Barley Thionins by Radish and Oilseed Rape 2S Albumins and by Barley Trypsin Inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Terras, FRG.; Schoofs, HME.; Thevissen, K.; Osborn, R. W.; Vanderleyden, J.; Cammue, BPA.; Broekaert, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    Although thionins and 2S albumins are generally considered as storage proteins, both classes of seed proteins are known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. We have now found that the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) thionin concentration required for 50% inhibition of fungal growth is lowered 2- to 73-fold when combined with 2S albumins (at sub- or noninhibitory concentrations) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Furthermore, the thionin antifungal activity is synergistically enhanced (2- to 33-fold) by either the small subunit or the large subunit of the radish 2S albumins. Three other 2S albumin-like proteins, the barley trypsin inhibitor and two barley Bowman-Birk-type trypsin inhibitor isoforms, also act synergistically with the thionins (2- to 55-fold). The synergistic activity of thionins combined with 2S albumins is restricted to filamentous fungi and to some Gram-positive bacteria, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, cultured human cells, and erythrocytes do not show an increased sensitivity to thionin/albumin combinations (relative to the sensitivity to the thionins alone). Scanning electron microscopy and measurement of K+ leakage from fungal hyphae revealed that 2S albumins have the same mode of action as thionins, namely the permeabilization of the hyphal plasmalemma. Moreover, 2S albumins and thionins act synergistically in their ability to permeabilize fungal membranes. PMID:12232024

  2. Glycemic potency of muffins made with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours: a comparative study between in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Quek, Rina Yu Chin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2015-12-01

    Muffins made with wheat flour are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. This study aimed to examine the content of amylose, glycemic response (GR) and glycemic index (GI) of muffins baked with refined wheat and rice flours, as well as wholegrain corn, oat and barley flours. This study adopted a randomized, controlled, crossover, non-blind design. Twelve healthy participants consumed wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley muffins once and the reference glucose solution three times in a random order on non-consecutive day. Capillary blood samples were taken every 15 min in the first 60 min and every 30 min for the remaining 60 min for blood glucose analysis. The Megazyme amylose/amylopectin assay procedure was employed to measure amylose content. The GR elicited from the consumption of wheat, rice and corn muffins was comparable between these samples but significantly greater when compared with oat and barley muffins. Consumption of wholegrain muffins, apart from corn muffin, blunted postprandial GR when compared with muffins baked with refined cereal flours. Muffins baked with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours gave rise to GI values of 74, 79, 74, 53 and 55, respectively. The content of amylose was significantly higher in corn, oat and barley muffins than wheat and rice muffins. The greater content of amylose and fibre may play a part in the reduced glycemic potency of oat and barley muffins. Wheat flour can be substituted with oat and barley flours for healthier muffins and other bakery products.

  3. Effects of Red Light on the Growth of Intact Wheat and Barley Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Verna R.; Weintraub, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    The final lengths of intact dark-grown coleoptiles vary with species and cultivar. The growth distribution pattern in the apical 25-mm growing zone and the absolute amount of growth in each zone depend on the age and species of the coleoptile. A comparative study of several cultivars of wheat, Triticum vulgare, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, indicates that the growth distribution pattern in 30- to 38-mm coleoptiles varies with the species and cultivar. In barley, there are two patterns of growth distribution among the several cultivars, whereas in wheat, all cultivars exhibit a common zonal growth pattern. The total growth of coleoptiles, initially 30 to 38 mm in length, during a 24-hour dark incubation period is the same in dark-grown coleoptiles as in those irradiated with 3 minutes of red (660 nm) light prior to the incubation period. The growth distribution pattern in the growing zone of this 30- to 38-mm coleoptile is, however, altered by red light. Growth of the apical 5-mm zone is stimulated by red light and the zonal growth 5 to 10 mm below the apex is only slightly affected, whereas growth in the zones 10 to 15 to 20, and 20 to 25 mm below the apex is inhibited. This growth distribution pattern in irradiated coleoptiles changes as the coleoptile increases in length. The response of a zone following exposure to red light is dependent upon the age of the seedlings irradiated. The over-all effect of red light on growth of the intact coleoptile varies with the length of the coleoptile. In young seedling 20 to 29 mm in length, the cells of the coleoptile can compensate for the effects of red light, with the over-all growth of the dark-grown and irradiated coleoptile about the same. As the seedling grows older, the cells of the coleoptile can no longer make up for the effects of red light, and the over-all effect changes from compensation to pronounced inhibition. PMID:16659255

  4. Effects of Planting Date and Barley Variety on Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, P A; Hein, G L; Peairs, F B; Smith, C M

    2014-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest in the western Great Plains of the United States, where it causes hundreds of millions of dollars of losses to barley and wheat production through reduced yields. Experiments to evaluate the effect of early planting and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on D. noxia were conducted at Fort Collins, CO; Tribune, KS; and Sidney, NE, in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Treatments included two planting dates and four cultivars, the D. noxia-resistant barley cultivars 'Stoneham' (Otis*4/STARS 9577B) and 'Sidney' (Otis*4/STARS 9301B), the susceptible cultivar 'Otis', and Otis treated with thiamethoxam. In tiller samples collected from May through early July, consistently lower D. noxia populations were found in plots planted ≍30 d earlier than normal at Fort Collins in all three years, and at Tribune in 2007. With one location-year exception, lower D. noxia populations occurred on plants of resistant varieties or the susceptible variety Otis treated with thiamethoxam than on untreated Otis plants. There were no significant differences in D. noxia populations produced on plants of either resistant variety and susceptible Otis plants treated with thiamethoxam. Interactions between resistant varieties and early planting resulted in reduced D. noxia populations at Fort Collins in 2007 and 2009, and at Tribune and Sidney in 2007. Planting D. noxia-resistant barley varieties, planting varieties earlier than normal, and the synergistic effect of resistant variety and early planting can significantly reduce D. noxia infestations on barley in the western High Plains. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Comparative analysis of prolamin and glutelin fractions from wheat, rye, and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    PubMed

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2016-09-01

    The safety of gluten-free foods is essential for celiac disease (CD) patients to prevent serious complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are recommended for gluten analysis to monitor the compliance of gluten-free products to the Codex threshold of 20 mg gluten/kg. However, due to the specific features of each gluten ELISA test kit, the results often deviate systematically and largely depend on the characteristics of the antibody. This comprehensive study assessed the specificities and sensitivities of three monoclonal (R5, G12, and Skerritt) and two polyclonal antibodies to the alcohol-soluble prolamin and alcohol-insoluble glutelin fractions of gluten from wheat, rye, and barley, all of which harbor CD-active epitopes. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography served as independent reference method to quantify gluten protein concentrations and allow comparisons of different gluten fractions within one kit and between kits. Wheat prolamins were detected quite accurately by all antibodies, but high variability between antibody specificities and sensitivities was observed for rye and barley prolamins and rye glutelins, and the largest discrepancies were found for wheat and barley glutelins. The gluten content (sum of prolamins and glutelins) was either overestimated up to six times (rye) or underestimated up to seven times (barley). Overestimation of gluten contents may unnecessarily limit the availability of gluten-free products, but underestimation represents a serious health risk for CD patients. It is important to consider these differences between antibodies used in kits and consider what each kit is capable of measuring, especially with samples where the source of gluten is unknown.

  6. Effect of barley chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat to feeding by a gall-inducing leafhopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumashiro, Shun; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Kawaura, Kanako; Matsumura, Masaya; Ogihara, Yasunari; Tokuda, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World and feeds on various Poaceae. The leafhopper is recognized as an important pest of maize in several countries. Adults as well as nymphs of C. bipunctata induce growth stunting and galls characterized by the severe swelling of leaf veins on many cereal crops including wheat, rice, and maize, but do not on barley. To clarify the mechanism of growth stunting and gall induction by C. bipunctata, we used six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) and investigated the effect of barley (cv. Betzes) chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat (cv. Chinese Spring) to feeding by the leafhopper. Feeding by C. bipunctata significantly stunted the growth in 2H, 3H, 4H, and 5H, but did not in 6H and 7H. The degree of gall induction was significantly weaker and severer in 3H and 5H than in Chinese Spring, respectively. These results suggest that barley genes resistant to growth stunting and gall induction exist in 6H and 7H, and 3H, respectively. 5H is considered to be useful for future assays investigating the mechanism of gall induction by this leafhopper because of the high susceptibility to the feeding by C. bipunctata. Significant correlation between the degrees of growth stunting and gall induction was not detected in the six chromosome addition lines and Chinese spring. This implies that these two symptoms are independent phenomena although both are initiated by the feeding of C. bipunctata.

  7. Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Natalia; Gallaher, Daniel D; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len

    2009-12-01

    This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch using plate waste. Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, amount of food consumed, and thirst were assessed using a modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, snack and lunch. Energy intake at lunch did not differ among products. There were no differences in the area under the time curve in modified VAS scores among products for any parameter. However, subjects reported significantly less hunger before lunch compared to their hunger before breakfast when consuming the barley, but there was no significant reduction in hunger before lunch after consumption of wheat or rice. In conclusion, intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake acutely, but consumption of whole grain high-fiber barley foods significantly decreased hunger whereas whole wheat and refined rice foods did not.

  8. Variation between Ethiopian and North American barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in response to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations.

    PubMed

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-03-15

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia.

  9. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

  10. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). PMID:28234993

  11. Grinding energy and physical properties of chopped and hammer-milled barley, wheat, oat, and canola straws

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tumuluru; L.G. Tabil; Y. Song; K.L. Iroba; V. Meda

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, specific energy for grinding and physical properties of wheat, canola, oat and barley straw grinds were investigated. The initial moisture content of the straw was about 0.13–0.15 (fraction total mass basis). Particle size reduction experiments were conducted in two stages: (1) a chopper without a screen, and (2) a hammer mill using three screen sizes (19.05, 25.4, and 31.75 mm). The lowest grinding energy (1.96 and 2.91 kWh t-1) was recorded for canola straw using a chopper and hammer mill with 19.05-mm screen size, whereas the highest (3.15 and 8.05 kWh t-1) was recorded for barley and oat straws. The physical properties (geometric mean particle diameter, bulk, tapped and particle density, and porosity) of the chopped and hammer-milled wheat, barley, canola, and oat straw grinds measured were in the range of 0.98–4.22 mm, 36–80 kg m-3, 49–119 kg m-3, 600–1220 kg m-3, and 0.9–0.96, respectively. The average mean particle diameter was highest for the chopped wheat straw (4.22-mm) and lowest for the canola grind (0.98-mm). The canola grinds produced using the hammer mill (19.05-mm screen size) had the highest bulk and tapped density of about 80 and 119 kg m-3; whereas, the wheat and oat grinds had the lowest of about 58 and 88–90 kg m-3. The results indicate that the bulk and tapped densities are inversely proportional to the particle size of the grinds. The flow properties of the grinds calculated are better for chopped straws compared to hammer milled using smaller screen size (19.05 mm).

  12. Carotenoids of aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat differentially inhibit oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Diehl-Jones, William L; Gordon, Joseph; Chapman, Donald; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2015-03-18

    The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 μg/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (P<0.001) antioxidant activity in the germ than in the aleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2'azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (P<0.001) AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation in the cell lines, suggesting antioxidant activity. Of the 84 antioxidant pathway genes included in microarray array analysis (HT-29 cells), the expressions of 28 genes were enhanced (P<0.05). Our findings suggest that carotenoids of germ, aleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress.

  13. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  14. Aluminum tolerance association mapping in triticale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Crop production practices and industrialization processes result in increasing acidification of arable soils. At lower pH levels (below 5.0), aluminum (Al) remains in a cationic form that is toxic to plants, reducing growth and yield. The effect of aluminum on agronomic performance is particularly important in cereals like wheat, which has promoted the development of programs directed towards selection of tolerant forms. Even in intermediately tolerant cereals (i.e., triticale), the decrease in yield may be significant. In triticale, Al tolerance seems to be influenced by both wheat and rye genomes. However, little is known about the precise chromosomal location of tolerance-related genes, and whether wheat or rye genomes are crucial for the expression of that trait in the hybrid. Results A mapping population consisting of 232 advanced breeding triticale forms was developed and phenotyped for Al tolerance using physiological tests. AFLP, SSR and DArT marker platforms were applied to obtain a sufficiently large set of molecular markers (over 3000). Associations between the markers and the trait were tested using General (GLM) and Multiple (MLM) Linear Models, as well as the Statistical Machine Learning (SML) approach. The chromosomal locations of candidate markers were verified based on known assignments of SSRs and DArTs or by using genetic maps of rye and triticale. Two candidate markers on chromosome 3R and 9, 15 and 11 on chromosomes 4R, 6R and 7R, respectively, were identified. The r2 values were between 0.066 and 0.220 in most cases, indicating a good fit of the data, with better results obtained with the GML than the MLM approach. Several QTLs on rye chromosomes appeared to be involved in the phenotypic expression of the trait, suggesting that rye genome factors are predominantly responsible for Al tolerance in triticale. Conclusions The Diversity Arrays Technology was applied successfully to association mapping studies performed on triticale

  15. Lunasin in wheat: a chemical and molecular study on its presence or absence.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Simonetti, Emanuela; Trozzi, Caterina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Quinn, Robert; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-05-15

    Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide.

  16. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2014-05-01

    Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich

  17. The wheat resistance gene Lr34 results in the constitutive induction of multiple defense pathways in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Harsh; Boni, Rainer; Bucher, Rahel; Kuhn, Benjamin; Buchmann, Gabriele; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Bigler, Laurent; Glauser, Gaëtan; Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2015-10-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 encodes an ABCG-type transporter which provides durable resistance against multiple pathogens. Lr34 is functional as a transgene in barley, but its mode of action has remained largely unknown both in wheat and barley. Here we studied gene expression in uninfected barley lines transgenic for Lr34. Genes from multiple defense pathways contributing to basal and inducible disease resistance were constitutively active in seedlings and mature leaves. In addition, the hormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were induced to high levels, and increased levels of lignin as well as hordatines were observed. These results demonstrate a strong, constitutive re-programming of metabolism by Lr34. The resistant Lr34 allele (Lr34res) encodes a protein that differs by two amino acid polymorphisms from the susceptible Lr34sus allele. The deletion of a single phenylalanine residue in Lr34sus was sufficient to induce the characteristic Lr34-based responses. Combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus in the same plant resulted in a reduction of Lr34res expression by 8- to 20-fold when the low-expressing Lr34res line BG8 was used as a parent. Crosses with the high-expressing Lr34res line BG9 resulted in an increase of Lr34sus expression by 13- to 16-fold in progenies that inherited both alleles. These results indicate an interaction of the two Lr34 alleles on the transcriptional level. Reduction of Lr34res expression in BG8 crosses reduced the negative pleiotropic effects of Lr34res on barley growth and vigor without compromising disease resistance, suggesting that transgenic combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus can result in agronomically useful resistance.

  18. New Oligonucleotide Probes for ND-FISH Analysis to Identify Barley Chromosomes and to Investigate Polymorphisms of Wheat Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shuyao; Qiu, Ling; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shulan; Tang, Zongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes that can be used for non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) analysis are convenient tools for identifying chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives. New oligonucleotide probes, Oligo-HvT01, Oligo-pTa71-1, Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2, Oligo-s120.3, Oligo-275.1, Oligo-275.2, Oligo-k566 and Oligo-713, were designed based on the repetitive sequences HVT01, pTa71, pTa-s120, pTa-275, pTa-k566 and pTa-713. All these probes can be used for ND-FISH analysis and some of them can be used to detect polymorphisms of wheat chromosomes. Probes Oligo-HvT01, Oligo-pTa71-1, Oligo-s120.3, Oligo-275.1, Oligo-k566 and Oligo-713 can, respectively, replace the roles of their original sequences to identify chromosomes of some barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the common wheat variety Chinese Spring. Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2 and Oligo-275.2 produced different hybridization patterns from the ones generated by their original sequences. In addition, Oligo-s120.1, Oligo-s120.2 and Oligo-s120.3, which were derived from pTa-s120, revealed different signal patterns. Likewise, Oligo-275.1 and Oligo-275.2, which were derived from pTa-275, also displayed different hybridization patterns. These results imply that differently arranged or altered structural statuses of tandem repeats might exist on different chromosome regions. These new oligonucleotide probes provide extra convenience for identifying some wheat and barley chromosomes, and they can display polymorphisms of wheat chromosomes. PMID:27929398

  19. Persistence and efficacy of three diatomaceous earth formulations against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Economou, Leonidas P; Dimizas, Constantin B; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanović, Snezana; Milutinović, Marija

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal and residual efficacy of three diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations, Insecto, PyriSec, and SilicoSec, against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) on barley and wheat was assessed. For this purpose, 4-kg lots of barley and wheat were treated with the above-mentioned DE formulations, in three dose rates (0.75, 1, and 1.5 g/kg grain) and stored at 26 degrees C. Samples of these lots were taken at the day of storage, and every 45 d, until the completion of a 450-d period of storage. Bioassays were conducted by exposing S. oryzae adults to these samples, at 26 degrees C and 57% RH. In these bioassays, the DE efficacy was evaluated by recording adult mortality after 24 h, 48 h, 7 d, and 14 d of exposure on the treated grains. After the 14-d count, all adults were removed, and the samples were left at the same conditions for an additional 45 d, to evaluate the capacity for progeny production in the treated grains. Adult mortality after 14 d of exposure was exponentially decreased with time. During the first 270 d of storage, mortality was > 90%, and progeny production was < 1 adult per sample, whereas after 270 d a gradual decrease in adult mortality occurred, with a resulting increase in progeny production. Generally, the three DE formulations tested were equally effective against S. onyzae adults. During the first 270 d of storage, the DE formulations were equally effective on both grains tested, but from 315 d of storage and on, S. oryzae mortality was higher on barley than on wheat. At this interval, progeny production was gradually increased, especially on grains treated with the lowest DE dose rate. However, even this rate caused a satisfactory level of mortality (> 90% after 14 d of exposure) during the first 270 d of storage.

  20. Wheat- and barley-based diets with or without additives influence broiler chicken performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Rebolé, Almudena; Velasco, Susana; Ortiz, Luis T; Treviño, Jesús; Alzueta, Carmen

    2012-01-15

    To our knowledge, there is scant literature on comparative broiler response to cereal diets high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides without or with enzyme, prebiotic, probiotic or synbiotic supplementation. In the present study, the effects of a wheat- and barley-based diet with or without supplemental xylanase plus β-glucanase, inulin, Enterococcus faecium or inulin plus Enterococcus faecium, on bird performance, digesta viscosity, nutrient digestibility and intestinal microflora were compared to a maize-based diet. In comparison to a maize-based diet, the wheat- and barley-based diet reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain and feed intake, but did not affect to the feed-to-gain ratio. Apparent digestibility of crude fat and various fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.05) as well as apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention content. There was an increase (P < 0.05) in the viscosity of jejunal digesta and in the caecal numbers of Escherichia coli and lactobacilli, and a decrease in the ileal numbers of E. coli and lactobacilli. Performance parameters and nutrient digestibility were not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary inclusion of the additives used, with the exception that exogenous enzyme improved (P < 0.05) the apparent digestibility of crude fat and decreased the viscosity of jejunal digesta. Enzyme and Enterococcus faecium supplementation increased intestinal lactic acid bacteria, whereas inulin addition reduced the number of E. coli (P < 0.05). Addition of inulin-Enterococcus faecium decreased E. coli and increased bifidobacteria numbers in the caeca. Enzyme supplementation to a wheat- and barley-based diet significantly improved the apparent digestibility of dietary fat. All four additives had a beneficial effect on the intestinal microflora of broilers. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P<0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during

  2. Polycistronic artificial miRNA-mediated resistance to Wheat dwarf virus in barley is highly efficient at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Kis, András; Tholt, Gergely; Ivanics, Milán; Várallyay, Éva; Jenes, Barnabás; Havelda, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    Infection of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) strains on barley results in dwarf disease, imposing severe economic losses on crop production. As the natural resistance resources against this virus are limited, it is imperative to elaborate a biotechnological approach that will provide effective and safe immunity to a wide range of WDV strains. Because vector insect-mediated WDV infection occurs during cool periods in nature, it is important to identify a technology which is effective at lower temperature. In this study, we designed artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) using a barley miRNA precursor backbone, which target different conservative sequence elements of the WDV strains. Potential amiRNA sequences were selected to minimize the off-target effects and were tested in a transient sensor system in order to select the most effective constructs at low temperature. On the basis of the data obtained, a polycistronic amiRNA precursor construct (VirusBuster171) was built expressing three amiRNAs simultaneously. The construct was transformed into barley under the control of a constitutive promoter. The transgenic lines were kept at 12-15 °C to mimic autumn and spring conditions in which major WDV infection and accumulation take place. We were able to establish a stable barley transgenic line displaying resistance to insect-mediated WDV infection. Our study demonstrates that amiRNA technology can be an efficient tool for the introduction of highly efficient resistance in barley against a DNA virus belonging to the Geminiviridae family, and this resistance is effective at low temperature where the natural insect vector mediates the infection process.

  3. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  4. Coeliac disease: a diverse clinical syndrome caused by intolerance of wheat, barley and rye.

    PubMed

    McGough, Norma; Cummings, John H

    2005-11-01

    Coeliac disease is a lifelong intolerance to the gluten found in wheat, barley and rye, and some patients are also sensitive to oats. The disease is genetically determined, with 10% of the first-degree relatives affected and 75% of monozygotic twins being concordant. Of the patients with coeliac disease 95% are human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive. Characteristically, the jejunal mucosa becomes damaged by a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response that is thought to be initiated by a 33-mer peptide fragment in A2 gliadin, and patients with this disorder have raised levels of anti-endomysium and tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their blood. Coeliac disease is the major diagnosable food intolerance and, with the advent of a simple blood test for case finding, prevalence rates are thought to be approximately 1:100. Classically, the condition presented with malabsorption and failure to thrive in infancy, but this picture has now been overtaken by the much more common presentation in adults, usually with non-specific symptoms such as tiredness and anaemia, disturbance in bowel habit or following low-impact bone fractures. Small intestinal biopsy is necessary for diagnosis and shows a characteristically flat appearance with crypt hypoplasia and infiltration of the epithelium with lymphocytes. Diet is the key to management and a gluten-free diet effectively cures the condition. However, this commitment is lifelong and many aisles in the supermarket are effectively closed to individuals with coeliac disease. Compliance can be monitored by measuring antibodies in blood, which revert to negative after 6-9 months. Patients with minor symptoms, who are found incidentally to have coeliac disease, often ask whether it is necessary to adhere to the diet. Current advice is that dietary adherence is necessary to avoid the long-term complications, which are, principally, osteoporosis and small bowel lymphoma. However, risk of these complications diminishes very

  5. Anti-biofilm and sporicidal activity of peptides based on wheat puroindoline and barley hordoindoline proteins.

    PubMed

    Shagaghi, Nadin; Alfred, Rebecca L; Clayton, Andrew H A; Palombo, Enzo A; Bhave, Mrinal

    2016-07-01

    The broad-spectrum activity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and low probability of development of host resistance make them excellent candidates as novel bio-control agents. A number of AMPs are found to be cationic, and a small proportion of these are tryptophan-rich. The puroindolines (PIN) are small, basic proteins found in wheat grains with proposed roles in biotic defence of seeds and seedlings. Synthetic peptides based on their unique tryptophan-rich domain (TRD) display antimicrobial properties. Bacterial endospores and biofilms are highly resistant cells, with significant implications in both medical and food industries. In this study, the cationic PIN TRD-based peptides PuroA (FPVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and Pina-M (FSVTWRWWKWWKG-NH2 ) and the related barley hordoindoline (HIN) based Hina (FPVTWRWWTWWKG-NH2 ) were tested for effects on planktonic cells and biofilms of the common human pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and the non-pathogenic Listeria innocua. All peptides showed significant bactericidal activity. Further, PuroA and Pina-M at 2 × MIC prevented initial biomass attachment by 85-90% and inhibited >90% of 6-h preformed biofilms of all three organisms. However Hina, with a substitution of Lys-9 with uncharged Thr, particularly inhibited Listeria biofilms. The PIN based peptides were also tested against vegetative cells and endospores of Bacillus subtilis. The results provided evidence that these tryptophan-rich peptides could kill B. subtilis even in sporulated state, reducing the number of viable spores by 4 log units. The treated spores appeared withered under scanning electron microscopy. The results establish the potential of these tryptophan-rich peptides in controlling persistent pathogens of relevance to food industries and human health. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance.

  7. The occurrence of friabilins in triticale and their relationship with grain hardness and baking quality.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Aldana; Pérez, Gabriela T; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2003-11-19

    Grain hardness is a quality parameter in wheat and other cereals. In wheat, a group of M(r) 15 000 proteins called friabilins have been shown to be related to grain hardness. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of friabilins on starch granules of different triticale lines and their relationship with grain texture and baking quality. The triticale lines studied have a wide range of hardness, which presented correlation with baking quality parameters such as damaged starch and solvent retention capacity. All of the triticale lines contained friabilins on the starch granules. However, the correlation between hardness and friabilin content was not observed, suggesting that these proteins would not be directly involved in grain texture determination of triticale. Consequently, friabilin content did not have any relation with cookie quality in triticale flours, but it could be related to breadmaking quality because it has a positive correlation with the sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation index.

  8. Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.

    PubMed

    Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

    2015-10-01

    Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92 mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700 g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700 g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. True metabolizable energy values of corn and different varieties of wheat and barley using normal and dwarf single comb White Leghorn Roosters.

    PubMed

    Boldaji, F; Roush, W B; Nakaue, H S; Arscott, G H

    1981-01-01

    An experiment with four trials was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy value of corn and different varieties of wheat and barley using normal and dwarf Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) roosters. Maxigene, Purple, Red, and Yamhill wheats and corn were assayed for TME using normal sized and dwarf roosters in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. Hannchen, No. 2 Western, Lady Godiva, and Hiproly barleys were assayed using normal sized and dwarf SCWL roosters in Trials 3 and 4, respectively. The pooled results indicated that normal sized roosters gave (P less than .01) significantly higher TME values than dwarf roosters. There was no significant difference in TME found between wheat and barley cultivars, although both types of grain were significantly (P less than .01) lower in TME than the value found for corn. Average dry matter TME values for corn, wheat, and barley were 4.17, 3.70, and 3.54, respectively. A bird x grain interaction was found to be significant (P less than .05).

  10. Fine mapping of barley locus Rps6 conferring resistance to wheat stripe rust

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a major disease of wheat that is causing large economic losses in many wheat-growing regions of the world. Deployment of Pst resistance genes has been an effective strategy for controlling this pathogen, but many of these gen...

  11. Structural genes of wheat and barley 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases and their potential applications for human health

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shanshan; Wen, Nuan; Pang, Jinsong; Langen, Gregor; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A. T.; Mejias, Jaime H.; Osorio, Claudia; Yang, Mingming; Gemini, Richa; Moehs, Charles P.; Zemetra, Robert S.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Liu, Bao; Wang, Xingzhi; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2012-01-01

    Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide and is a national staple in many countries. Besides being a key source of plant proteins, it is also a major cause of many diet-induced health issues, especially celiac disease. The only effective treatment for this disease is a total gluten-free diet. The present report describes an effort to develop a natural dietary therapy for this disorder by transcriptional suppression of wheat DEMETER (DME) homeologs using RNA interference. DME encodes a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase responsible for transcriptional derepression of gliadins and low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMWgs) by active demethylation of their promoters in the wheat endosperm. Previous research has demonstrated these proteins to be the major source of immunogenic epitopes. In this research, barley and wheat DME genes were cloned and localized on the syntenous chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity among DME homeologs was studied and used for their virtual transcript profiling. Functional conservation of DME enzyme was confirmed by comparing the motif and domain structure within and across the plant kingdom. Presence and absence of CpG islands in prolamin gene sequences was studied as a hallmark of hypo- and hypermethylation, respectively. Finally the epigenetic influence of DME silencing on accumulation of LMWgs and gliadins was studied using 20 transformants expressing hairpin RNA in their endosperm. These transformants showed up to 85.6% suppression in DME transcript abundance and up to 76.4% reduction in the amount of immunogenic prolamins, demonstrating the possibility of developing wheat varieties compatible for the celiac patients. PMID:23184965

  12. Structural genes of wheat and barley 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases and their potential applications for human health.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shanshan; Wen, Nuan; Pang, Jinsong; Langen, Gregor; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A T; Mejias, Jaime H; Osorio, Claudia; Yang, Mingming; Gemini, Richa; Moehs, Charles P; Zemetra, Robert S; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Liu, Bao; Wang, Xingzhi; von Wettstein, Diter; Rustgi, Sachin

    2012-12-11

    Wheat supplies about 20% of the total food calories consumed worldwide and is a national staple in many countries. Besides being a key source of plant proteins, it is also a major cause of many diet-induced health issues, especially celiac disease. The only effective treatment for this disease is a total gluten-free diet. The present report describes an effort to develop a natural dietary therapy for this disorder by transcriptional suppression of wheat DEMETER (DME) homeologs using RNA interference. DME encodes a 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase responsible for transcriptional derepression of gliadins and low-molecular-weight glutenins (LMWgs) by active demethylation of their promoters in the wheat endosperm. Previous research has demonstrated these proteins to be the major source of immunogenic epitopes. In this research, barley and wheat DME genes were cloned and localized on the syntenous chromosomes. Nucleotide diversity among DME homeologs was studied and used for their virtual transcript profiling. Functional conservation of DME enzyme was confirmed by comparing the motif and domain structure within and across the plant kingdom. Presence and absence of CpG islands in prolamin gene sequences was studied as a hallmark of hypo- and hypermethylation, respectively. Finally the epigenetic influence of DME silencing on accumulation of LMWgs and gliadins was studied using 20 transformants expressing hairpin RNA in their endosperm. These transformants showed up to 85.6% suppression in DME transcript abundance and up to 76.4% reduction in the amount of immunogenic prolamins, demonstrating the possibility of developing wheat varieties compatible for the celiac patients.

  13. Effects of Blends of Low-Protein Winter Wheat Flour and Barley Byproducts on Quality Changes in Noodles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Young

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of fresh noodles made with blends of low-protein wheat flour and barley byproduct (BBP, 250 μm) were investigated. The crude protein contents (PC) of flour from Goso and Backjoong cultivars were 7.91% and 7.67%, respectively. PC and β-glucan contents from the BBP were 14.10% and 3.11%, respectively, which were higher than those in wheat flour. The water-holding capacity (WHC) of various blends was increased as a function of BBP but not gluten contents. Goso flour had the highest starch content (78.68%), with peak and final viscosities of 3,099 and 3,563 cp, respectively. Peak and final viscosities, trough, breakdown, and setback of the blends were decreased with the addition of BBP. Noodles made with Backjoong had the highest thickness score, while the hardness of noodles made with blends of Goso or Backjoong and 20% BBP were similar to those made from wheat flour only. The WHC of the samples was strongly correlated with PC, crude fiber, and β-glucan. The PC was not correlated with final viscosity, setback, thickness, hardness, gumminess, or chewiness. PMID:28078259

  14. The discovery of the virulence gene ToxA in the wheat and barley pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Megan C; Ahren, Dag; Simpfendorfer, Steven; Milgate, Andrew; Solomon, Peter S

    2017-01-17

    Bipolaris sorokiniana is the causal agent of multiple diseases on wheat and barley and is the primary constraint to cereal production throughout South Asia. Despite its significance, the molecular basis of disease is poorly understood. To address this, the genomes of three Australian isolates of B. sorokiniana were sequenced and screened for known pathogenicity genes. Sequence analysis revealed that the isolate BRIP10943 harboured the ToxA gene, which has been associated previously with disease in the wheat pathogens Parastagonospora nodorum and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Analysis of the regions flanking ToxA within B. sorokiniana revealed that it was embedded within a 12-kb genomic element nearly identical to the corresponding regions in P. nodorum and P. tritici-repentis. A screen of 35 Australian B. sorokiniana isolates confirmed that ToxA was present in 12 isolates. Sequencing of the ToxA genes within these isolates revealed two haplotypes, which differed by a single non-synonymous nucleotide substitution. Pathogenicity assays showed that a B. sorokiniana isolate harbouring ToxA was more virulent on wheat lines that contained the sensitivity gene when compared with a non-ToxA isolate. This work demonstrates that proteins that confer host-specific virulence can be horizontally acquired across multiple species. This acquisition can dramatically increase the virulence of pathogenic strains on susceptible cultivars, which, in an agricultural setting, can have devastating economic and social impacts.

  15. Characterization of a new 4BS.7HL wheat-barley translocation line using GISH, FISH, and SSR markers and its effect on the β-glucan content of wheat.

    PubMed

    Cseh, A; Kruppa, K; Molnár, I; Rakszegi, M; Doležel, J; Molnár-Láng, M

    2011-10-01

    A spontaneous interspecific Robertsonian translocation was revealed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) in the progenies of a monosomic 7H addition line originating from a new wheat 'Asakaze komugi' × barley 'Manas' hybrid. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with repetitive DNA sequences (Afa family, pSc119.2, and pTa71) allowed identification of all wheat chromosomes, including wheat chromosome arm 4BS involved in the translocation. FISH using barley telomere- and centromere-specific repetitive DNA probes (HvT01 and (AGGGAG)(n)) confirmed that one of the arms of barley chromosome 7H was involved in the translocation. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers specific to the long (L) and short (S) arms of barley chromosome 7H identified the translocated chromosome segment as 7HL. Further analysis of the translocation chromosome clarified the physical position of genetically mapped SSRs within 7H, with a special focus on its centromeric region. The presence of the HvCslF6 gene, responsible for (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan production, was revealed in the centromeric region of 7HL. An increased (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan level was also detected in the translocation line, demonstrating that the HvCslF6 gene is of potential relevance for the manipulation of wheat (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucan levels.

  16. Testing an Energy Balance Model for Estimating Actual Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Data. [Hannover, West Germany barley and wheat fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Camillo, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An energy-balance model is used to estimate daily evapotranspiration for 3 days for a barley field and a wheat field near Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany. The model was calibrated using once-daily estimates of surface temperatures, which may be remotely sensed. The evaporation estimates were within the 95% error bounds of independent eddy correlation estimates for the daytime periods for all three days for both sites, but the energy-balance estimates are generally higher; it is unclear which estimate is biassed. Soil moisture in the top 2 cm of soil, which may be remotely sensed, may be used to improve these evaporation estimates under partial ground cover. Sensitivity studies indicate the amount of ground data required is not excessive.

  17. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  18. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE PAGES

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; ...

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) andmore » higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a new leaf rolling triticale.

    PubMed

    Yang, E N; Yang, Z J; Zhang, J F; Zou, Y C; Ren, Z L

    2011-11-29

    Leaf rolling occurs in some cereal genotypes in response to drought. We identified and made a phenotypic, cytological and physiological analysis of a leaf-rolling genotype (CMH83) of hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) that exhibited reduced plant height, rolled and narrow leaves. Gliadin electrophoresis of seed protein showed that CMH83 was genetically stable. Sequential Giemsa-C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization showed that CMH83 contains 12 rye chromosomes; two pairs of these chromosomes have reduced telomeric heterochromatin bands. Tests of relative water content and water loss rate of leaves of CMH83 compared with those of wheat cultivars indicated that rapid water loss after drought stress in CMH83 is associated with the leaf rolling phenotypes. Leaf rolling in CMH83 was a dominant trait in our inheritance studies. Triticale line CMH83 could be used to study drought resistance mechanisms in triticale.

  20. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  1. Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

  2. Living Gluten Free | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Avoid - Processed Foods that May Contain Wheat, Barley or Rye. Wheat and Wheat Products Foods to ... bran, wheat germ, cracked wheat, hydrolyzed wheat protein barley rye triticale (a cross between wheat and rye) ...

  3. Proteinaceous toxins of Stagonospora nodorum, the causal agent of triticale leaf and glume blotch.

    PubMed

    Walczewski, Jakub; Arseniuk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    S. nodorum is an economically important necrotrophic pathogen of cereals and grasses worldwide. In past several years appeared in literature quite a number of reports on existence of proteinaceous effectors produced by the fungus which induce necrosis in cereal host tissue. These host specific toxins induce necrosis by interacting with specific, dominant host genes. Up to the present research on S. nodorum toxin resistance was conducted only with wheat. Because wheat chromosomes are present in triticale genome, it is highly likely that mechanism used by S. nodorum for necrosis induction in triticale is the same as in wheat. Simple pilot experiment conducted in our laboratory, confirms that mechanism of necrosis induction via proteinaceous toxins is similar for both, wheat and triticale.

  4. Occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin, in wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Koji; Taniguchi, Masaru; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Kai, Shigemi; Ogiso, Motoki; Sato, Takashi; Akiyama, Yu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-11-01

    A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 μg/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Job's tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 μg/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 μg/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 μg/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Job's tears product (1,093 μg/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Job's tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Job's tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 μg/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected.

  5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (MINPPs) are phytases expressed during grain filling and germination.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2007-03-01

    At present, little is known about the phytases of plant seeds in spite of the fact that this group of enzymes is the primary determinant for the utilization of the major phosphate storage compound in seeds, phytic acid. We report the cloning and characterization of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding one of the groups of enzymes with phytase activity, the multiple inositol phosphate phosphatases (MINPPs). Four wheat cDNAs (TaPhyIIa1, TaPhyIIa2, TaPhyIIb and TaPhyIIc) and three barley cDNAs (HvPhyIIa1, HvPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb) were isolated. The open reading frames ranged from 1548 to 1554 bp and the level of homology between the barley and wheat proteins ranged from 90.5% to 91.9%. All cDNAs contained an N-terminal signal peptide encoding sequence, and a KDEL-like sequence, KTEL, was present at the C-terminal, indicating that the enzyme was targeted to and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of TaPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb in Escherichia coli revealed that the MINPPs possessed a significant phytase activity with narrow substrate specificity for phytate. The pH and temperature optima for both enzymes were pH 4.5 and 65 degrees C, respectively, and the K(m) values for phytate were 246 and 334 microm for the wheat and barley recombinant enzymes, respectively. The enzymes were inhibited by several metal ions, in particular copper and zinc. The cDNAs showed significantly different temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns during seed development and germination. With the exception of TaPhyIIb, the cDNAs were present during late seed development and germination. We conclude that MINPPs constitute a significant part of the endogenous phytase potential of the developing and germinating barley and wheat seeds.

  6. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains.

  7. Using acid insoluble ash marker ratios (diet:digesta) to predict digestibility of wheat and barley metabolizable energy and nitrogen retention in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Scott, T A; Hall, J W

    1998-05-01

    Routine bioassay measurements of AME or N retention of broiler diets require measurements of gross energy (GE) or N and an acid insoluble ash marker in diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. These measurements of GE and N are time-consuming and expensive in comparison to measurements of added or natural occurring levels of acid insoluble ash. Data from bioassay measurements of AME and N retention of 138 wheat and 97 barley samples (with or without enzyme) were used to develop prediction equations relying on measurements of one that uses acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta or ileal digesta and GE and N of diet only; and a second equation using only acid insoluble ash of diet, excreta, or ileal digesta. The prediction equations demonstrate that part of or all of routine bomb calorimetry measurements for GE used to determine AME of wheat- or barley-based diets could be eliminated if a prediction error of 80 kcal/kg ME or less were acceptable. The prediction of N retention as compared to AME, based in part or totally on acid insoluble ash measurements, was less accurate; the prediction errors were equal to 2.3 and 6.5% for wheat- and barley-based diets, respectively. Ongoing research to improve the determination (speed, ease, and accuracy) of acid insoluble ash could provide a useful method to assess feeding value of ingredients and commercial poultry diets.

  8. Wheat and barley dehydrins under cold, drought, and salinity - what can LEA-II proteins tell us about plant stress response?

    PubMed

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Prášil, Ilja T

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrins as a group of late embryogenesis abundant II proteins represent important dehydration-inducible proteins whose accumulation is induced by developmental processes (embryo maturation) as well as by several abiotic stress factors (low temperatures, drought, salinity). In the review, an overview of studies aimed at investigation of dehydrin accumulation patterns at transcript and protein levels as well as their possible functions in common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants exposed to various abiotic stress factors (cold, frost, drought, salinity) is provided. Possible roles of dehydrin proteins in an acquisition and maintenance of an enhanced frost tolerance are analyzed in the context of plant developmental processes (vernalization). Quantitative and qualitative differences as well as post-translational modifications in accumulated dehydrin proteins between barley cultivars revealing differential tolerance to drought and salinity are also discussed. Current knowledge on dehydrin role in wheat and barley response to major dehydrative stresses is summarized and the major challenges in dehydrin research are outlined.

  9. Mass Spectrometric Imaging of Wheat (Triticum spp.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars: Distribution of Major Cell Wall Polysaccharides According to Their Main Structural Features.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Dušan; Saulnier, Luc; Lhomme, Margot; Damond, Aurélie; Guillon, Fabienne; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-08-17

    Arabinoxylans (AX) and (1→3),(1→4)-β-glucans (BG) are the main components of cereal cell walls and influence many aspects of their end uses. Important variations in the composition and structure of these polysaccharides have been reported among cereals and cultivars of a given species. In this work, the spatial distribution of AX and BG in the endosperm of mature grains was established for nine wheat varieties and eight barley varieties using enzymatically assisted mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Important structural features of the AX and BG polymers that were previously shown to influence their physicochemical properties were assessed. Differences in the distribution of AX and BG structures were observed, both within the endosperm of a given cultivar and between wheat and barley cultivars. This study provides a unique picture of the structural heterogeneity of AX and BG polysaccharides at the scale of the whole endosperm in a series of wheat and barley cultivars. Thus, it can participate meaningfully in a strategy aiming at understanding the structure-function relationships of these two polymers.

  10. The effect of day-neutral mutations in barley and wheat on the interaction between photoperiod and vernalization.

    PubMed

    Turner, Adrian S; Faure, Sébastien; Zhang, Yang; Laurie, David A

    2013-09-01

    Vernalization-2 (Vrn-2) is the major flowering repressor in temperate cereals. It is only expressed under long days in wild-type plants. We used two day-neutral (photoperiod insensitive) mutations that allow rapid flowering in short or long days to investigate the day length control of Vrn-2. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) early maturity8 (eam8) mutation affects the barley ELF3 gene. eam8 mutants disrupt the circadian clock resulting in elevated expression of Ppd-H1 and the floral activator HvFT1 under short or long days. When eam8 was crossed into a genetic background with a vernalization requirement Vrn-2 was expressed under all photoperiods and the early flowering phenotype was partially repressed in unvernalized (UV) plants, likely due to competition between the constitutively active photoperiod pathway and the repressing effect of Vrn-2. We also investigated the wheat (Triticum aestivum) Ppd-D1a mutation. This differs from eam8 in causing elevated levels of Ppd-1 and TaFT1 expression without affecting the circadian clock. We used genotypes that differed in "short-day vernalization". Short days were effective in promoting flowering in individuals wild type at Ppd-D1, but not in individuals that carry the Ppd-D1a mutation. The latter showed Vrn-2 expression in short days. In summary, eam8 and Ppd-D1a mimic long days in terms of photoperiod response, causing Vrn-2 to become aberrantly expressed (in short days). As Ppd-D1a does not affect the circadian clock, this also shows that clock regulation of Vrn-2 operates indirectly through one or more downstream genes, one of which may be Ppd-1.

  11. The heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd+) toxic compounds influence on triticale plants growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoczki, V. M.; Filip, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The presence of the heavy metals toxic compounds (CuSO4 · 5H2O, ZnSO4 · 7H2O and 3CdSO4·8H2O) in water and soil can be observed by their negative effects on the germination and growth process for different vegetable (barley, oat, maize) who are used for human and animal consumption. This paper it aims the determination of germination and growth inhibition negative effects for triticale plants in the heavy metals ions presence by ecotoxicological laboratory tests. The triticale plants was chosen for their different characteristics to the other grasses respectively: a very good resistance for a wide range of diseases, an accelerated growth and a very good tolerance for aluminum ions presents in acid soils. The determinations were conducted step by step, first, we put the triticale grains in contact with the heavy metal solutions with different concentration then for 3 days we noticed the triticale germination inhibition effects and finally we noticed the growth inhibition process for triticale plants respectively in 7th and 9th day from the start of the experiment. At the end of the tests we can conclude that the triticale roots have a very great sensibility to a CuSO4 solutions compared to the effects for their stalks. A positive effect for triticale stalks we can see for low CuSO4 solution concentrations thus for 5 mg Cu/l the growth is 19,44%. A positive effect for triticale roots it can see for low ZnSO4 solution concentrations so for 5 - 15 mg Zn/l the growth is 24,4%. In the presence of the CdSO4 solution all the processes are inhibited (germination and growth for triticale plants) even for a low concentrations for this toxic.

  12. The development and evaluation of single cell suspension from wheat and barley as a model system; a first step towards functional genomics application.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Bowra, Steve; Vincze, Eva

    2010-11-05

    The overall research objective was to develop single cell plant cultures as a model system to facilitate functional genomics of monocots, in particular wheat and barley. The essential first step towards achieving the stated objective was the development of a robust, viable single cell suspension culture from both species. We established growth conditions to allow routine culturing of somatic cells in 24 well microtiter plate format. Evaluation of the wheat and barley cell suspension as model cell system is a multi step process. As an initial step in the evaluation procedure we chose to study the impact of selected abiotic stress elicitors at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level. We report the results of osmotic stress imposed by NaCl and PEG. As proline is an important osmoprotectant of the cereal cells, colorimetric assay for proline detection was developed for small volumes (200 μl). We performed RT-PCR experiments to study the change in the expression of the genes encoding Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PC5R) in response to abiotic stress. We found differences between the wheat and barley suspension cultures, barley being more tolerant to the applied osmotic stresses. We suggested a model to explain the obtained differences in stress tolerance between the two species. The suspension cell cultures have proven useful for determining changes in proline concentration and expression level of genes (P5CS, P5CR) under various treatments and we suggest that the cells can be used as a model host system to study gene expression and regulation in monocots.

  13. The development and evaluation of single cell suspension from wheat and barley as a model system; a first step towards functional genomics application

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The overall research objective was to develop single cell plant cultures as a model system to facilitate functional genomics of monocots, in particular wheat and barley. The essential first step towards achieving the stated objective was the development of a robust, viable single cell suspension culture from both species. Results We established growth conditions to allow routine culturing of somatic cells in 24 well microtiter plate format. Evaluation of the wheat and barley cell suspension as model cell system is a multi step process. As an initial step in the evaluation procedure we chose to study the impact of selected abiotic stress elicitors at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level. We report the results of osmotic stress imposed by NaCl and PEG. As proline is an important osmoprotectant of the cereal cells, colorimetric assay for proline detection was developed for small volumes (200 μl). We performed RT-PCR experiments to study the change in the expression of the genes encoding Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (PC5R) in response to abiotic stress. Conclusions We found differences between the wheat and barley suspension cultures, barley being more tolerant to the applied osmotic stresses. We suggested a model to explain the obtained differences in stress tolerance between the two species. The suspension cell cultures have proven useful for determining changes in proline concentration and expression level of genes (P5CS, P5CR) under various treatments and we suggest that the cells can be used as a model host system to study gene expression and regulation in monocots. PMID:21054876

  14. Gene discovery and molecular pre-breeding for insect resistance in wheat and barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pre-breeding research has a significant role in linking between genetic resources and breeding as it shortens the time frame between genetic enhancement and the development of new, improved crop varieties. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of w...

  15. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes.

    PubMed

    Buhrow, Leann M; Clark, Shawn M; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which is more tolerable to the host plant especially upon secondary infection of highly aggressive, necrotrophic pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum. BSMV-induced VIGS in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) cv. 'Fielder' was assessed for the study of wheat genes putatively related to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), the necrotrophism of wheat and other cereals by F. graminearum. Due to the lack of 'Fielder' spike viability and increased accumulation of Fusarium-derived deoxynivalenol contamination upon co-infection of BSMV and FHB, an attenuated BSMV construct was generated by the addition of a glycine-rich, C-terminal peptide to the BSMV γ b protein. This attenuated BSMV effectively silenced target wheat genes while limiting disease severity, deoxynivalenol contamination, and yield loss upon Fusarium co-infection compared to the original BSMV construct. The attenuated BSMV-infected tissue exhibited reduced abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acid defense phytohormone accumulation upon secondary Fusarium infection. Finally, the attenuated BSMV was used to investigate the role of the salicylic acid-responsive pathogenesis-related 1 in response to FHB. The use of an attenuated BSMV may be advantageous in characterizing wheat genes involved in phytopathogenesis, including Fusarium necrotrophism, where minimal viral background effects on defense are required. Additionally, the attenuated BSMV elicits reduced defense hormone accumulation, suggesting that this genotype may have applications for the

  16. Fundamental study on reactivities of gluten protein types from wheat, rye and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    PubMed

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-12-15

    Monitoring the compliance of gluten-free foods to the regulatory threshold of 20mg/kg of gluten is essential for celiac disease patients. The different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for gluten detection each have specific characteristics, but there are only a few systematic comparisons. This fundamental study compared the specificities and sensitivities of the R5, G12 and Skerritt monoclonal and two polyclonal antibodies to well-defined gluten protein types (GPT) isolated from wheat, rye and barley flours. Quantitation of protein concentrations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography provided independent reference values. The ELISA responses showed high variability depending on the type of cereal, the GPT and the antibody used. Overall, ω1,2-gliadins and γ-75k-secalins were most reactive, whereas ω5-gliadins and γ-, B- and D-hordeins were detected with the lowest sensitivities. These results revealed which GPT each antibody is most sensitive to and provided novel insights that will be helpful for appropriate calibration of ELISAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-head-emergence frost in wheat and barley: defining the problem, assessing the damage, and identifying resistance.

    PubMed

    Frederiks, T M; Christopher, J T; Sutherland, M W; Borrell, A K

    2015-06-01

    Radiant frost is a significant production constraint to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), particularly in regions where spring-habit cereals are grown through winter, maturing in spring. However, damage to winter-habit cereals in reproductive stages is also reported. Crops are particularly susceptible to frost once awns or spikes emerge from the protection of the flag leaf sheath. Post-head-emergence frost (PHEF) is a problem distinct from other cold-mediated production constraints. To date, useful increased PHEF resistance in cereals has not been identified. Given the renewed interest in reproductive frost damage in cereals, it is timely to review the problem. Here we update the extent and impacts of PHEF and document current management options to combat this challenge. We clarify terminology useful for discussing PHEF in relation to chilling and other freezing stresses. We discuss problems characterizing radiant frost, the environmental conditions leading to PHEF damage, and the effects of frost at different growth stages. PHEF resistant cultivars would be highly desirable, to both reduce the incidence of direct frost damage and to allow the timing of crop maturity to be managed to maximize yield potential. A framework of potential adaptation mechanisms is outlined. Clarification of these critical issues will sharpen research focus, improving opportunities to identify genetic sources for improved PHEF resistance.

  18. Comprehensive and Comparative Metabolomic Profiling of Wheat, Barley, Oat and Rye Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Advanced Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2014-10-31

    Beyond the main bulk components of cereals such as the polysaccharides and proteins, lower concentration secondary metabolites largely contribute to the nutritional value. This paper outlines a comprehensive protocol for GC-MS metabolomic profiling of phenolics and organic acids in grains, the performance of which is demonstrated through a comparison of the metabolite profiles of the main northern European cereal crops: wheat, barley, oat and rye. Phenolics and organic acids were extracted using acidic hydrolysis, trimethylsilylated using a new method based on trimethylsilyl cyanide and analyzed by GC-MS. In order to extract pure metabolite peaks, the raw chromatographic data were processed by a multi-way decomposition method, Parallel Factor Analysis 2. This approach lead to the semi-quantitative detection of a total of 247 analytes, out of which 89 were identified based on RI and EI-MS library match. The cereal metabolome included 32 phenolics, 30 organic acids, 10 fatty acids, 11 carbohydrates and 6 sterols. The metabolome of the four cereals were compared in detail, including low concentration phenolics and organic acids. Rye and oat displayed higher total concentration of phenolic acids, but ferulic, caffeic and sinapinic acids and their esters were found to be the main phenolics in all four cereals. Compared to the previously reported methods, the outlined protocol provided an efficient and high throughput analysis of the cereal metabolome and the acidic hydrolysis improved the detection of conjugated phenolics.

  19. Phylogeography and virulence structure of the powdery mildew population on its 'new' host triticale

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major problem in cereal production as it can reduce quality and yield. B. graminis has evolved eight distinct formae speciales (f.sp.) which display strict host specialization. In the last decade, powdery mildew has emerged on triticale, the artificial intergeneric hybrid between wheat and rye. This emergence is probably triggered by a host range expansion of the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici. To gain more precise information about the evolutionary processes that led to this host range expansion, we pursued a combined pathological and genetic approach. Results B. graminis isolates were sampled from triticale, wheat and rye from different breeding regions in Europe. Pathogenicity tests showed that isolates collected from triticale are highly pathogenic on most of the tested triticale cultivars. Moreover, these isolates were also able to infect several wheat cultivars (their previous hosts), although a lower aggressiveness was observed compared to isolates collected from wheat. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear gene regions identified two statistically significant clades, which to a certain extent correlated with pathogenicity. No differences in virulence profiles were found among the sampled regions, but the distribution of genetic variation demonstrated to be geography dependent. A multilocus haplotype network showed that haplotypes pathogenic on triticale are distributed at different sites in the network, but always clustered at or near the tips of the network. Conclusions This study reveals a genetic structure in B. graminis with population differentiation according to geography and host specificity. In addition, evidence is brought forward demonstrating that the host range expansion of wheat isolates to the new host triticale occurred recently and multiple times at different locations in Europe. PMID:22658131

  20. Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

    2015-03-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits.

  1. Survey of Thai Commercial Food Products That Have Been Reported to Contain No Wheat, Rye, Barley, or Gluten According to Their Labels.

    PubMed

    Srikulnath, Sirinrat; Surojanametakul, Vipa; Chamnansin, Pailin; Tamura, Hirotoshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-10-19

    Celiac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders are significant health and social issues in Western countries, and CD individuals need to exclude gluten from their diets. The adverse health impacts of CD have extended to Asian countries in which CD was not a problem previously. Thai commercial food products that do not contain wheat, rye, barley, or gluten on their labels were surveyed as to whether they were suitable for CD individuals by examining the absence of gluten or the presence of gluten <20 ppm. In Thailand, ELISA tested for gluten content in 129 commercial food products that contained neither wheat, rye, barley, nor gluten on their labels. One hundred nineteen of these 129 products included <20 ppm gluten, and 10 products contained >20 ppm gluten. Surprisingly, four products showed gluten levels >1%. In these 10 products, wheat presence was confirmed by PCR analysis. Our survey suggests that CD individuals can consume most of the examined Thai food products, and the survey showed the potential of these Thai products as new diets for CD patients so as to expand the limited food choices from different food cultures, and ultimately to improve the quality of life for all CD individuals globally. The appropriate gluten management strategies need to be implemented by Thai food manufacturers to ensure accurate labeling and to protect the safety of consumers with CD.

  2. Comparison of corn and barley with and without ruminal buffer in supplements fed in wheat straw-based diets to beef steers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W K; Hunt, C W; Moen, T; Loesche, J A

    1993-05-01

    Ruminal fiber digestion is often decreased by supplementation of readily fermentable carbohydrates. Five ruminally cannulated beef steers were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of grain type (corn vs barley) and ruminal buffer (Na sesquicarbonate; 0 vs 1.2% of dietary DM) on ruminal digestion and fermentation in wheat straw-based diets. Grain supplements were 30% of the dietary DM. The 2 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments included a control supplement that consisted primarily of soybean meal. Diets were fed once daily and were formulated to be 10% CP (DM basis). In situ DM (ISDMD) and NDF (ISNDFD) disappearance of wheat straw was measured at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 96 h incubation. To examine the effects of time after supplementation, 8-h incubations were performed at 0 to 8, 4 to 12, 8 to 16, 12 to 20, and 16 to 24 h after supplementation. Corn diets resulted in lower (P < .05) ISDMD for the 12- to 20- and 16- to 24-h periods than did barley diets. Averaged across 8-h intervals, the control treatment had greater ISDMD (P < .01) and ISNDFD (P < .05) than the grain treatments. Treatment differences were not observed for ISDMD and ISNDFD after 8 h of incubation. Ruminal fluid pH for barley diets was greater at 0, 16, and 20 h and less at 4 h after feeding than for corn diets (treatment x hour; P < .01). Propionate concentration was greater (P < .05) for corn than for barley diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health.

  4. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an eligible...) Producers who elect to graze 2008 through 2012 crop wheat, barley, oats, or triticale will not be...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an eligible...) Producers who elect to graze 2008 through 2012 crop wheat, barley, oats, or triticale will not be...

  6. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an eligible...) Producers who elect to graze 2008 through 2012 crop wheat, barley, oats, or triticale will not be...

  7. 78 FR 21015 - Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... wheat, barley, oats, or triticale acreage used for grazing and regarding the eligibility of tropical... the 2008 Farm Bill provision that specifies that grazed-out wheat, barley, oats, or triticale crop... section will not apply. (e) Wheat, barley, oats, or triticale crop acreage subject to an application...

  8. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an eligible...) Producers who elect to graze 2008 through 2012 crop wheat, barley, oats, or triticale will not be...

  9. 7 CFR 1421.302 - Eligible producer and eligible land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.302 Eligible producer and... producer of wheat, barley, oats, or triticale in the 2008 through 2012 crop years. Also, to be an eligible...) Producers who elect to graze 2008 through 2012 crop wheat, barley, oats, or triticale will not be...

  10. Testing Transgenic Spring Wheat and Barley Lines for Reaction to Fusarium Head Blight: 2010 Field Nursery Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

  11. Evaluation of triticale as energy crop in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cantale, Cristina; Correnti, Angelo; Farneti, Anna; Felici, Fabio; Mentuccia, Luciano; Pignatelli, Vito; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Ammar, Karim; Galeffi, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of renewable energy represents a target of the European 2020 strategy for economical growth and sustainable competitiveness. Cereals are considered a promising biomass producing crop in temperate regions of Europe to be used for both fuel alcohol and biogas production. Among cereals, triticale represents a good candidate for this kind of application, showing a number of advantages such as high grain yield even in marginal environments, tolerance to drought, tolerance to more acid soils, lower production costs and lower susceptibility to biotic stresses. The aim of this study was to compare yield and quality of eight triticale lines grown in marginal areas in a two-year experiment. Italian variety, Magistral, and a bread wheat variety (EW9) were selected for comparison. Data from fields, chemical analyses and preliminary results from fermentation are reported.

  12. Barley γ3-hordein: glycosylation at an atypical site, disulfide bridge analysis, and reactivity with IgE from patients allergic to wheat.

    PubMed

    Snégaroff, Jacques; Bouchez, Isabelle; Smaali, Mohamed El Amine; Pecquet, Catherine; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Jolivet, Pascale; Laurière, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Post translational modifications of a seed storage protein, barley γ3-hordein, were determined using immunochemical and mass spectrometry methods. IgE reactivity towards this protein was measured using sera from patients diagnosed with allergies to wheat. N-glycosylation was found at an atypical Asn-Leu-Cys site. The observed glycan contains xylose. This indicates that at least some γ3-hordein molecules trafficked through the Golgi apparatus. Disulfide bridges in native γ3-hordein were almost the same as those found in wheat γ46-gliadin, except the bridge involving the cysteine included in the glycosylation site. IgE reacted more strongly towards the recombinant than the natural γ3-hordein protein. IgE binding to γ3-hordein increased when the protein sample was reduced. Glycosylation and disulfide bridges therefore decrease epitope accessibility. Thus the IgE from patients sensitized to wheat cross-react with γ3-hordein due to sequence homology with wheat allergens rather than through shared carbohydrate determinants.

  13. Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of wheat; Neimengkeyimai-1, a naked oat cultivar, had the highest Sr concentrations. At maturity, of four naked oat cultivars, Neimengkeyimai-1 had the highest Sr content at all measured Sr levels. Leaves had the highest Sr concentrations, followed by roots and straw, and then grain with the lowest. Mean enrichment coefficients from soil to shoots ranged from 0.521 to 1.343; the percentage of stable Sr removed from the soil to the shoots at harvest time was more than 1.4% after 120 days. Neimengkeyimai-1 could be used as a model for further research to find more effective cultivars; and naked oat plants could be selected for phytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.

  14. Preparation and characterization of enzymatically hydrolyzed prolamins from wheat, rye, and barley as references for the immunochemical quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten.

    PubMed

    Gessendorfer, Benedict; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert

    2009-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent gastrointestinal disorder characterized by the intolerance to a group of proteins called gluten present in wheat, rye, barley, and possibly oats. The only therapy is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. The standard method for gluten determination in foods produced for CD patients is the R5-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as proposed by the recent Codex Alimentarius Draft Revised Standard. This test is based on the determination of prolamins, the alcohol-soluble proteins of gluten, and is available as a sandwich ELISA for intact proteins and as a competitive ELISA for gluten-derived peptides. While the suitability of the sandwich ELISA including a wheat prolamin (gliadin) reference for calibration has been shown by various studies and a ring test, the competitive ELISA still lacks a convenient reference for the quantitation of gluten peptides in fermented cereal foods (e.g., sourdough products, starch syrup, malt extracts, beer). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prepare a suitable reference for the quantitation of partially hydrolyzed gluten in fermented wheat, rye, and barley products. The prolamin fractions from barley (hordein) and rye (secalin) were isolated from corresponding flours by means of a modified preparative Osborne fractionation. The prolamin fraction from wheat was obtained as reference gliadin from the Prolamin Working Group. The prolamin fractions were successively digested by pepsin and trypsin or pepsin and chymotrypsin procedures, which have been used for CD-specific toxicity tests on cereal storage proteins for many years. The protein/peptide content (N x 5.7) of the prolamin fractions and digests, which was the basis for the calculation of the gluten content by means of ELISA, varied between 67.1% and 96.0%. The prolamin fractions and enzymatic digests were then tested for their response in both sandwich and competitive assays. Intact prolamins responded similarly in both ELISA showing

  15. Synthetic cis-jasmone exposure induces wheat and barley volatiles that repel the pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J; Wawrzyniak, Maria; Lemańczyk, Grzegorz; Wrzesińska, Danuta; Piesik, Dariusz

    2013-05-01

    The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance that deters herbivores and attracts natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 μl of 1, 100, and 1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)) and durations of exposure (1, 3, and 6 h). Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, adult behavioral responses were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer to cis-jasmone induced plant VOC bouquets and to two synthetic blends of VOCs (3 green leaf volatiles (GLVs); 4 terpenes + indole). In both cereals, eight VOCs [(Z)-3-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanyl acetate, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and indole] were induced 100- to 1000-fold after cis-jasmone exposure. The degree of induction in both cereals was usually positively and linearly associated with increasing exposure dose and duration. However, VOC emission rate was only ~2-fold greater from plants exposed to the highest vs. lowest cis-jasmone exposure doses (1 × 10(4) difference) or durations (6-fold difference). Male and female O. melanopus were deterred by both cereal VOC bouquets after plant exposure to the high cis-jasmone dose (1 × 10(4) ng μl(-1)), while females were also deterred after plant exposure to the low dose (1 ng μl(-1)) but attracted to unexposed plant VOC bouquets. Both O. melanopus sexes were repelled by terpene/indole and GLV blends at two concentrations (25 ng · min(-1); 125 ng · min(-1)), but attracted to the lowest dose (1 ng · min(-1)) of a GLV blend. It is possible that the biologically relevant low cis-jasmone dose has ecological activity and potential for inducing field crop VOCs to deter O. melanopus.

  16. Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi. PMID:24416331

  17. Rapid Up-Regulation of HKT1, a High-Affinity Potassium Transporter Gene, in Roots of Barley and Wheat following Withdrawal of Potassium1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tie-Bang; Gassmann, Walter; Rubio, Francisco; Schroeder, Julian I.; Glass, Anthony D.M.

    1998-01-01

    High-affinity K+ uptake in plant roots is rapidly up-regulated when K+ is withheld and down-regulated when K+ is resupplied. These processes make important contributions to plant K+ homeostasis. A cDNA coding for a high-affinity K+ transporter, HKT1, was earlier cloned from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots and functionally characterized. We demonstrate here that in both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat roots, a rapid and large up-regulation of HKT1 mRNA levels resulted when K+ was withdrawn from growth media. This effect was specific for K+; withholding N caused a modest reduction of HKT1 mRNA levels. Up-regulation of HKT1 transcript levels in barley roots occurred within 4 h of removing K+, which corresponds to the documented increase of high-affinity K+ uptake in roots following removal of K+. Increased expression of HKT1 mRNA was evident before a decline in total root K+ concentration could be detected. Resupply of 1 mm K+ was sufficient to strongly reduce HKT1 transcript levels. In wheat root cortical cells, both membrane depolarizations in response to 100 μm K+, Cs+, and Rb+, and high-affinity K+ uptake were enhanced by K+ deprivation. Thus, in both plant systems the observed physiological changes associated with manipulating external K+ supply were correlated with levels of HKT1 mRNA expression. Implications of these findings for K+ sensing and regulation of the HKT1 mRNA levels in plant roots are discussed. PMID:9765551

  18. Genomic analysis of Xanthomonas translucens pathogenic on wheat and barley reveals cross-kingdom gene transfer events and diverse protein delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Donald M; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G; Dodds, Peter N; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

    2014-01-01

    In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi.

  19. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary starch content, altered by partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), on the interval from calving to first ovulation, concentrations of hormones and metabolites in plasma and follicular fluid, and granulosa cell gene expression in preovulatory follicles. Sixty lactating dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 diets from calving until 84d postpartum. Diets were formulated to contain either 17.3% rolled barley grain (29.2% starch) or 17.2% wheat DDGS (19.1% starch), with 43.0% barley silage and 21.6% rolled corn grain as the other major ingredients (dry matter basis). Transrectal ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to monitor ovarian dynamics from 7 ± 2d postpartum until ovulation or until 56d in milk, whichever occurred earlier. Plasma concentrations of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined in all 60 cows, and that of glucose, fatty acids, and urea in a subset of 24 cows, representing those in which the first ovulation occurred spontaneously within 5 wk postpartum. Estradiol (proestrus) and progesterone (12d postovulation) in plasma were also measured. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, glucose, fatty acids, and urea were determined in follicular fluid (wk 9), and the expression of LH receptor, estrogen receptor β, cytochrome P450 aromatase, and plasma type glutathione peroxidase genes measured in granulosa cells obtained from the preovulatory follicles at wk 9 postpartum in the subset of 24 cows. Diets did not alter the interval from calving to first ovulation (32.3 ± 2.5d), but a significantly lower proportion of cows on the DDGS diet (20%) ovulated multiple (≥ 2) follicles at the first ovulation than those on the barley grain diet (40%). The incidence of multiple ovulations tended to be lower at first insemination (10 vs. 21% for cows fed DDGS and barley grain diets, respectively). Mean plasma concentration of insulin was

  20. Extraction and demulsification of oil from wheat germ, barley germ, and rice bran using an aqueous enzymatic method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An aqueous enzymatic method was developed to extract oil from wheat germ. The parameters that influence oil yield were investigated, including wheat germ pretreatment, comparison of various industrial enzymes, pH, ratio of wheat germ to water, reaction time and demulsification. Pretreatment at 180ºC...

  1. Growth rate and TRI5 gene expression profiles of Fusarium equiseti strains isolated from Spanish cereals cultivated on wheat and barley media at different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Marín, Patricia; Jurado, Miguel; González-Jaén, M Teresa

    2015-02-16

    Fusarium equiseti is a toxigenic species that often contaminates cereal crops from diverse climatic regions such as Northern and Southern Europe. Previous results suggested the existence of two distinct populations within this species with differences in toxin profile which largely corresponded to North and South Europe (Spain). In this work, growth rate profiles of 4 F. equiseti strains isolated from different cereals and distinct Spanish regions were determined on wheat and barley based media at a range of temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C) and water potential regimens (-0.7, -2.8, -7.0, and -9.8MPa, corresponding to 0.99, 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93 aw values). Growth was observed at all temperatures except at 40°C, and at all the solute potential values except at -9.8MPa when combined with 15°C. Optimal growth was observed at 20-30°C and -0.7/-2.8MPa. The effect of these factors on trichothecene biosynthesis was examined on a F. equiseti strain using a newly developed real time RT-PCR protocol to quantify TRI5 gene expression at 15, 25 and 35°C and -0.7, -2.8, -7.0 and -9.8MPa on wheat and barley based media. Induction of TRI5 expression was detected between 25 and 35°C and -0.7 and -2.8MPa, with maximum values at 35°C and -2.8MPa being higher in barley than in wheat medium. These results appeared to be consistent with a population well adapted to the present climatic conditions and predicted scenarios for Southern Europe and suggested some differences depending on the cereal considered. These are also discussed in relation to other Fusarium species co-occurring in cereals grown in this region and to their significance for prediction and control strategies of toxigenic risk in future scenarios of climate change for this region.

  2. [Features of crossability, haploidy and polyembryony in hybrid combinations between common barley Hordeum vulgare L. (2n = 14) and wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Saratovskaya 29/Secale cereale L., cultivar Onokhoiskaya].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Rakovtseva, T S; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2005-06-01

    The role of individual chromosomes of rye in the manifestation of crossability and seedling development in hybrid combinations between common barley Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Nepolegayushchii (2n = 14) and five wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Saratovskaya 29/Secale cereale L., cultivar Onokhoiskaya (2n = 40 wheat + 2 rye chromosomes). Crossability, which was measured by two parameters--frequency of set grains and frequency of grains with embryos--was shown to be significantly affected by each of the five rye chromosomes examined: 1R, 2R, 3R, 5R, and 6R; the development of barley haploids was affected by rye chromosomes 1 R, 3R, and 5R. We were the first to demonstrate that polyembryony could be induced by mutual effects of barley cytoplasm and rye chromosome 1R. Possible mechanisms controlling the development of haploids and twins in hybrid combinations H. vulgare x T. aestivum/S. cereale are discussed. The conclusion is drawn that hybrid combinations between common barley and wheat-rye substitution lines can serve as new models for studying incompatibility mechanisms in distant crosses and genetic control of parthenogenesis.

  3. Separation and purification of soluble polymers and cell wall fractions from wheat, rye and hull less barley endosperm flours for structure-nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Comino, Penny; Shelat, Kinnari; Collins, Helen; Lahnstein, Jelle; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-12-11

    The nutritional values associated with the cell walls of cereal endosperm flours are due to a combination of solubilized arabinoxylan and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan as well as residual nonsolubilized cell wall material. In order to investigate structure-nutrition relationships, an appropriate method for the complete functional and structural characterization of cell wall polysaccharides in various cereal endosperm flours is described. This involves the separation of soluble polymers and the residual cell wall fraction without using organic solvents, and the fractionation of soluble polymers into arabinoxylan- and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan-rich fractions for subsequent analysis. This methodology is applied to endosperm flours from wheat, hull-less barley and rye, and could be extended to include studies on the effects of food processing with respect to yield and characteristics of the three fractions in order to better understand the structural basis for nutritional functionality.

  4. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  5. Bioavailability of two organic forms of zinc in comparison to zinc sulphate for weaning pigs fed a diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Paulicks, Brigitte R; Ingenkamp, Hanna; Eder, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the bioavailability of two organic zinc compounds, a zinc glycinate complex and a zinc amino acid chelate with that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a basal diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal. The experiment included 96 pigs with an average body weight of 8 kg, allotted to ten groups of nine to ten pigs each. The first group received the basal diet, containing 42 mg of native zinc per kg, without zinc supplementation over a period of five weeks. The other nine groups received the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30 or 50 mg of zinc/kg as zinc sulphate, zinc glycinate or the zinc amino acid chelate. Pigs fed the unsupplemented diet had a lower growth performance (body weight gain, feed conversion ratio) than the other nine groups. Supplementation of 15 mg zinc/kg diet (irrespective of zinc form) was sufficient to yield optimum growth performance. Plasma zinc concentration and activity of alkaline phosphatase were rising with increasing zinc supplementation levels up to a maximum reached at a supplementary level of 30 or 50 mg/kg diet for activity of alkaline phosphatase and plasma zinc concentration, respectively. The response of those parameters to zinc supplementation did, however, not differ between the three zinc compounds considered. The apparent digestibility of zinc from the diet was also not different for the three zinc compounds. In conclusion, these findings show that the bioavailability of the two organic zinc compounds did not differ from that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a diet with wheat, barley and soybean meal as major components.

  6. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm(3) cm(-3) and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha(-l) for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was

  7. Effect of biotin supplementation of a barley-wheat diet on restoration of healthy feet, legs and skin of biotin deficient sows.

    PubMed

    Misir, R; Blair, R

    1986-03-01

    Sixteen sows with induced biotin deficiency were divided into groups of four and fed an egg-white-free barley-wheat based diet without added biotin (control) or supplemented with one of three levels of synthetic d-biotin (100, 200 or 400 micrograms kg-1) for two parities in order to determine the optimal level required to reverse symptoms of the deficiency and to evaluate the relationship among dietary biotin levels, stage of recovery and serum biotin concentrations. Biotin supplementation significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) the incidence of lesions (on the foot pads, above the dew claws and on the skin) and also dry skin, but had no effect (P greater than 0.05) on hoof cracks, hair score or hair density. Time after supplementation had significant effects on reversal of most biotin deficiency symptoms. Interactions between biotin supplementation and time after supplementation suggested that these symptoms were reversed more quickly when higher levels of biotin were fed. Serum biotin concentrations of biotin-supplemented sows were increased with time and exceeded 600 ng litre-1 after 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 months following biotin supplementation of the basal diet with 400, 200 and 100 micrograms kg-1. In contrast, serum biotin concentrations of the control sows remained low and peaked at 411 ng litre-1 after 2.5 months. The data suggested that supplementation of a barley-wheat diet to provide 147 to 217 micrograms available biotin kg-1 might be adequate to restore healthy feet, legs and skin and concurrently maintain high serum biotin concentrations.

  8. Monitoring and Predicting the Long Distance Transport of Fusarium graminearum, Causal Agent of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat and Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prussin, Aaron Justin, II

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum , is a serious disease of wheat and barley that has caused several billion dollars in crop losses over the last decade in the United States. Spores of F. graminearum are released from corn and small grain residues left-over from the previous growing season and are transported long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. Current risk assessment tools consider environmental conditions favorable for disease development, but do not include spore transport. Long distance transport models have been proposed for a number of plant pathogens, but many of these models have not been experimentally validated. In order to predict the atmospheric transport of F. graminearum, the potential source strength ( Qpot) of inoculum must be known. We conducted a series of laboratory and field experiments to estimate Qpot from a field-scale source of inoculum of F. graminearum. Perithecia were generated on artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates. Artificial substrate (carrot agar) produced 15+/-0.4 perithecia cm-2, and natural substrate (corn stalk) produced 44+/-2 perithecia cm-2. Individual perithecia were excised from both substrate types and allowed to release ascospores every 24 hours. Perithecia generated from artificial (carrot agar) and natural (corn stalk) substrates released a mean of 104+/-5 and 276+/-16 ascospores, respectively. A volumetric spore trap was placed inside a 3,716 m2 clonal source of inoculum in 2011 and 2012. Results indicated that ascospores were released under field conditions predominantly (>90%) during the night (1900 to 0700 hours). Estimates of Qpot for our field-scale sources of inoculum were approximately 4 billion ascospores per 3,716 m 2. Release-recapture studies were conducted from a clonal field-scale source of F. graminearum in 2011 and 2012. Microsatellites were used to identify the released clone of F. graminearum at distances up to 1 km from the source

  9. Wheat-barley-rye- or corn-fed growing pigs respond differently to dietary supplementation with a carbohydrase complex.

    PubMed

    Willamil, J; Badiola, I; Devillard, E; Geraert, P A; Torrallardona, D

    2012-03-01

    Thirty-six pigs (22 kg of BW) were used to evaluate a carbohydrase preparation, with xylanase and β-glucanase as main activities, added to either wheat-barley-rye- (WBR) or corn-based diets on performance, intestinal environment, and nutrient digestibility. Pigs were offered 1 of 4 different dietary treatments for 27 d according to a factorial arrangement of treatments (a 2 × 2) with 2 cereal types (WBR or corn) and 2 levels of supplemental carbohydrase (0 or 0.01%). Pig growth and feed intake were individually measured every week until the end of the experiment when pigs were slaughtered to obtain samples of digesta and tissues. Cereal type affected performance only during wk 1, in which WBR improved ADG (590 vs. 440 g/d; P = 0.008) and G:F (0.61 vs. 0.43; P = 0.045) compared with corn. The WBR also increased the viscosity of the digestive contents in stomach (1.95 vs. 1.23 mPa·s; P = 0.001) and ileum (6.53 vs. 2.80 mPa·s; P = 0.001) and resulted in greater cecal starch digestibility (95.7 vs. 93.9%; P = 0.012). However, trends for a reduction in digestibility were observed for glucose in the nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction in the ileum (64.4 vs. 75.8%; P = 0.074) and galactose in the NSP fraction in the cecum (1.4 vs. 1.8%; P = 0.055). The use of the enzyme preparation increased ADFI during wk 2 (1,328 vs. 1,215 g/d; P = 0.028), and increased villus height (423 vs. 390 µm; P = 0.045) and tended to reduce relative pancreas weight (0.16 vs. 0.17% BW; P = 0.079) at d 27. The enzyme also improved cecal starch digestibility (95.5 vs. 94.1%; P = 0.043) and tended to improve ileal energy digestibility (61.3 vs. 53.7%; P = 0.090) and cecal glucose digestibility in the NSP fraction (76.0 vs. 54.5%; P = 0.055). However, it reduced the cecal digestibility of mannose in the NSP fraction (27.0 vs. 50.5%; P = 0.016). Interactions (P < 0.05) between cereal type and enzyme supplementation were observed for ADG and G:F during wk 2, BW and ADG during wk 3, and BW and

  10. Genetic architecture of fusarium head blight resistance in four winter triticale populations.

    PubMed

    Kalih, R; Maurer, H P; Miedaner, T

    2015-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes significant reductions in yield and quality in wheat, rye, and triticale. In triticale, knowledge of the genetic architecture of FHB resistance is missing but essential due to modern breeding requirements. In our study, four doubled-haploid triticale populations (N=120 to 200) were evaluated for resistance to FHB caused by artificial inoculation with Fusarium culmorum in four environments. DArT markers were used to genotype triticale populations. Seventeen quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance were detected across all populations; six of them were derived from rye genome and located on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R, which are here reported for the first time. The total cross-validated ratio of the explained phenotypic variance for all detected QTL in each population was 41 to 68%. In all, 17 QTL for plant height and 18 QTL for heading stage were also detected across all populations; 3 and 5 of them, respectively, were overlapping with QTL for FHB. In conclusion, FHB resistance in triticale is caused by a multitude of QTL, and pyramiding them contributes to higher resistance.

  11. The homeodomain transcription factor TaHDZipI-2 from wheat regulates frost tolerance, flowering time and spike development in transgenic barley.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Chew, William; Sornaraj, Pradeep; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Yang, Nannan; Singh, Rohan; Bazanova, Natalia; Shavrukov, Yuri; Guendel, Andre; Munz, Eberhard; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2016-07-01

    Homeodomain leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development under stresses. Functions of the TaHDZipI-2 gene isolated from the endosperm of developing wheat grain were revealed. Molecular characterization of TaHDZipI-2 protein included studies of its dimerisation, protein-DNA interactions and gene activation properties using pull-down assays, in-yeast methods and transient expression assays in wheat cells. The analysis of TaHDZipI-2 gene functions was performed using transgenic barley plants. It included comparison of developmental phenotypes, yield components, grain quality, frost tolerance and the levels of expression of potential target genes in transgenic and control plants. Transgenic TaHDZipI-2 lines showed characteristic phenotypic features that included reduced growth rates, reduced biomass, early flowering, light-coloured leaves and narrowly elongated spikes. Transgenic lines produced 25-40% more seeds per spike than control plants, but with 50-60% smaller grain size. In vivo lipid imaging exposed changes in the distribution of lipids between the embryo and endosperm in transgenic seeds. Transgenic lines were significantly more tolerant to frost than control plants. Our data suggest the role of TaHDZipI-2 in controlling several key processes underlying frost tolerance, transition to flowering and spike development.

  12. Cloning of the rice seed alpha-globulin-encoding gene: sequence similarity of the 5'-flanking region to those of the genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin and barley D hordein.

    PubMed

    Nakase, M; Hotta, H; Adachi, T; Aoki, N; Nakamura, R; Masumura, T; Tanaka, K; Matsuda, T

    1996-05-08

    A genomic clone encoding the rice endosperm major globulin (alpha-globulin) with an apparent molecular mass of 26 kDa was isolated, and its nucleotide (nt) sequence and transcription start point (tsp) were determined. The tsp was identical to that of the gene encoding the wheat high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunit. The consensus '-300 element' and an A + T-rich sequence exist upstream from the TATA box in the 5'-flanking region. A nt sequence of about 130 bp in the 5'-flanking region was found to be markedly homologous to those of the genes encoding the wheat HMW glutenin subunit and barley D hordein.

  13. Host-induced gene silencing of wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina pathogenicity genes mediated by the Barley stripe mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Vinay; McCallum, Brent; Bakkeren, Guus

    2013-04-01

    Rust fungi are devastating plant pathogens and several Puccinia species have a large economic impact on wheat production worldwide. Disease protection, mostly offered by introgressed host-resistance genes, is often race-specific and rapidly overcome by newly-emerging virulent strains. Extensive new genomic resources have identified vital pathogenicity genes but their study is hampered because of the biotrophic life styles of rust fungi. In cereals, Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced RNAi has emerged as a useful tool to study loss-of-function phenotypes of candidate genes. Expression of pathogen-derived gene fragments in this system can be used to obtain in planta-generated silencing of corresponding genes inside biotrophic pathogens, a technique termed host-induced gene silencing (HIGS). Here we test the effectiveness of BSMV-mediated HIGS in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) by targeting three predicted pathogenicity genes, a MAPK, a cyclophilin, and a calcineurin regulatory subunit. Inoculation of BSMV RNAi constructs generated fungal gene-specific siRNA molecules in systemic leaves of wheat plant. Subsequent Pt inoculation resulted in a suppressed disease phenotype and a reduction in endogenous transcript levels of the targeted fungal genes indicating translocation of siRNA molecules from host to fungal cells. Efficiency of this host-generated trans-specific RNAi was enhanced by using BSMV silencing vectors defective in coat protein coupled with introducing fungal gene sequences simultaneously in sense and antisense orientation. The disease suppression indicated the likely involvement of these fungal genes in pathogenicity. This study demonstrates that BSMV-mediated in planta-generated RNAi is an effective strategy for functional genomics in rust fungi.

  14. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

  15. Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content, and radial water and nutrient transport in barley.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hannah M; Wojciechowski, Tobias; Postma, Johannes A; Brown, Kathleen M; Lücke, Andreas; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2017-02-06

    The functional implications of root cortical senescence (RCS) are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that RCS in barley: (1) reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue; (2) decreases radial water and nutrient transport; (3) is accompanied by increased suberization to protect the stele. Genetic variation for RCS exists between modern germplasm and landraces. Nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency increased the rate of RCS. Maximal RCS, defined as the disappearance of the entire root cortex, reduced root nitrogen content by 66%, phosphorus content by 63%, and respiration by 87% compared to root segments with no RCS. Roots with maximal RCS had 90%, 92%, and 84% less radial water, nitrate, and phosphorus transport, respectively compared to segments with no RCS. The onset of RCS coincided with 30% greater aliphatic suberin in the endodermis. These results support the hypothesis that RCS reduces root carbon and nutrient costs and may therefore have adaptive significance for soil resource acquisition. By reducing root respiration and nutrient content, RCS could permit greater root growth, soil resource acquisition, and resource allocation to other plant processes. RCS merits investigation as a trait for improving the performance of barley, wheat, triticale, and rye under edaphic stress.

  16. Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Esmaeilipour, O; Van Krimpen, M M

    2014-01-01

    1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 3(4) full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20°C, 38°C and 55°C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 °C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science.

  17. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D.; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed

  18. Forecasting wheat and barley crop production in arid and semi-arid regions using remotely sensed primary productivity and crop phenology: A case study in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Qader, Sarchil Hama; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M

    2017-09-12

    Crop production and yield estimation using remotely sensed data have been studied widely, but such information is generally scarce in arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, inter-annual variation in climatic factors (such as rainfall) combined with anthropogenic factors (such as civil war) pose major risks to food security. Thus, an operational crop production estimation and forecasting system is required to help decision-makers to make early estimates of potential food availability. Data from NASA's MODIS with official crop statistics were combined to develop an empirical regression-based model to forecast winter wheat and barley production in Iraq. The study explores remotely sensed indices representing crop productivity over the crop growing season to find the optimal correlation with crop production. The potential of three different remotely sensed indices, and information related to the phenology of crops, for forecasting crop production at the governorate level was tested and their results were validated using the leave-one-year-out approach. Despite testing several methodological approaches, and extensive spatio-temporal analysis, this paper depicts the difficulty in estimating crop yield on an annual base using current satellite low-resolution data. However, more precise estimates of crop production were possible. The result of the current research implies that the date of the maximum vegetation index (VI) offered the most accurate forecast of crop production with an average R(2)=0.70 compared to the date of MODIS EVI (Avg R(2)=0.68) and a NPP (Avg R(2)=0.66). When winter wheat and barley production were forecasted using NDVI, EVI and NPP and compared to official statistics, the relative error ranged from -20 to 20%, -45 to 28% and -48 to 22%, respectively. The research indicated that remotely sensed indices could characterize and forecast crop production more accurately than simple cropping area, which was treated as a null model against which to

  19. Genetic Map of Triticale Integrating Microsatellite, DArT and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Mirosław; Tyrka, Dorota; Wędzony, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm) is an economically important crop for fodder and biomass production. To facilitate the identification of markers for agronomically important traits and for genetic and genomic characteristics of this species, a new high-density genetic linkage map of triticale was constructed using doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between cultivars ‘Hewo’ and ‘Magnat’. The map consists of 1615 bin markers, that represent 50 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 842 diversity array technology (DArT), and 16888 DArTseq markers mapped onto 20 linkage groups assigned to the A, B, and R genomes of triticale. No markers specific to chromosome 7R were found, instead mosaic linkage group composed of 1880 highly distorted markers (116 bins) from 10 wheat chromosomes was identified. The genetic map covers 4907 cM with a mean distance between two bins of 3.0 cM. Comparative analysis in respect to published maps of wheat, rye and triticale revealed possible deletions in chromosomes 4B, 5A, and 6A, as well as inversion in chromosome 7B. The number of bin markers in each chromosome varied from 24 in chromosome 3R to 147 in chromosome 6R. The length of individual chromosomes ranged between 50.7 cM for chromosome 2R and 386.2 cM for chromosome 7B. A total of 512 (31.7%) bin markers showed significant (P < 0.05) segregation distortion across all chromosomes. The number of 8 the segregation distorted regions (SDRs) were identified on 1A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 7B (2 SDRs), 5R and 6R chromosomes. The high-density genetic map of triticale will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative trait loci, the identification of candidate genes and map-based cloning. PMID:26717308

  20. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a host-specific long-distance transport determinant in oats.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana

    2017-08-29

    Viral determinants involved in systemic infection of hosts by monocot-infecting plant viruses are poorly understood. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) exclusively infects monocotyledonous crops such as wheat, oat, barley, maize, triticale, and rye. Previously, we reported that WSMV CP amino acids 36 to 84 are expendable for systemic infection of wheat, maize, barley and rye. In this study, the role of coat protein (CP) in systemic infection of oat by WSMV was examined by using a series of viable deletion mutants. WSMV bearing deletions within or encompassing all of amino acids 36 to 57 efficiently infected oat, indicating that these amino acids are dispensable for systemic infection of oat. However, WSMV mutants lacking CP amino acids 58 to 84 or 85 to 100 failed to systemically infect oat. Furthermore, green fluorescent protein-tagged WSMV mutants lacking CP amino acids 58 to 100 elicited local foci in oat but failed to enter the vasculature. These data suggest that CP amino acids 58 to 100 are required for systemic infection of oat by WSMV by specifically facilitating virus long-distance transport in oat. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Anita; Mattarozzi, Monica; Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2-18 mg kg(-1) range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs.

  2. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Barmeier, Gero; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2016-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat with four plot designs (single-row, wide double-row, three rows, and four rows) was conducted. A GreenSeeker RT100 and a passive bi-directional spectrometer were used to assess biomass fresh and dry weight, as well as aboveground nitrogen content and uptake. Generally, spectral passive sensing and active sensing performed comparably in both crops. Spectral passive sensing was enhanced by the availability of optimized ratio vegetation indices, as well as by an optimized field of view and by reduced distance dependence. Further improvements of both sensors in detecting the performance of plants in single rows can likely be obtained by optimization of sensor positioning or orientation. The results suggest that even in early selection cycles, enhanced high-throughput phenotyping might be able to assess plant performance within plots comprising single or multiple rows. This method has significant potential for advanced breeding. PMID:27827958

  3. Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum) (Gramineae).

    PubMed

    Ball, T B; Gardner, J S; Anderson, N

    1999-11-01

    Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeobotanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Triticum monoccocum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum, and two species of barley, Hordeum vulgare, and H. spontaneum, were analyzed using computer-assisted image and statistical analysis with the intent to develop taxonomic tools to distinguish among the taxa. A classification key based on significant differences among the mean morphometries of the inflorescence phytoliths produced by each species was created and tested. Discriminant analysis of the morphometries of several morphotypes of phytoliths was also conducted to determine whether this computer-assisted statistical procedure could be used as another method to classify the taxa and to determine which morphotypes have measurements that can best be used in discriminant functions. Test results indicated that, at the genus level, both the classification key and discriminant analysis of certain morphotypes of phytoliths were relatively reliable tools for distinguishing among phytoliths produced in the inflorescence bracts of the taxa considered. For distinguishing among the taxa at the species level, the classification key was most reliable. Of the discriminant analyses tested, that based on all the phytolith morphotypes combined was more reliable than those based on only one morphotype.

  4. Infestation of Transgenic Powdery Mildew-Resistant Wheat by Naturally Occurring Insect Herbivores under Different Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; von Burg, Simone; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM) crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L.) and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low. PMID:21829479

  5. Inhibition of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-amylases by α-amylase inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale.

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K(m) remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (V(max)) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T(50)) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase.

  6. Inhibition of Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, α-Amylases by α-Amylase Inhibitors (T-αAI) from Triticale

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali R.; Saadati, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    The effect of triticale α-amylases inhibitors on starch hydrolysis catalyzed by the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale (a hybrid of wheat and rye) had inhibitiory effects on E. integriceps α-amylases. The effects of the triticale α-amylase inhibitor (T-αAI) on α-amylase of E. integriceps showed a dose dependent manner of inhibition, e.g. less inhibition of enzyme activity (around 10%) with a lower dose (0.25 mg protein) and high inhibition of enzyme activity (around 80%) when a high dose of inhibitor was used (1.5 mg protein). The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the Km remained constant (0.58%) but the maximum velocity (Vmax) decreased in the presence of a crude extract of Triticale inhibitors, indicating mixed inhibition. The temperature giving 50% inactivation of enzyme (T50) during a 30-min incubation at pH 7.0 was 73° C. The maximum inhibitory activity was achieved at 35° C and pH 5.0. Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. integriceps α-amylases by various concentrations of Triticale inhibitors. Based on the data presented in this study, it could be said that the T-αAI has good inhibitory activity on E. integriceps gut α-amylase. PMID:21062146

  7. Barley Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  8. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  9. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Minutes of the annual formal project manager's review, including preliminary technical review reports of FY80 experiments. [wheat/barley and corn/soybean experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S./Canada wheat/barley exploratory experiment is discussed with emphasis on labeling, machine processing using P1A, and the crop calendar. Classification and the simulated aggregation test used in the U.S. corn/soybean exploratory experiment are also considered. Topics covered regarding the foreign commodity production forecasting project include: (1) the acquisition, handling, and processing of both U.S. and foreign agricultural data, as well as meteorological data. The accuracy assessment methodology, multicrop sampling and aggregation technology development, frame development, the yield project interface, and classification for area estimation are also examined.

  10. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P < 0.05) in pigs fed NF-BD and NF-BD + phytase. The decreases were 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, substantial amounts of InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated to 17% of InsP₆-P intake). The accumulation of lower inositol phosphates in gastric digesta was very small for all treatments and at all times because of a rapid and almost complete degradation. In conclusion, phytase addition to the nonfermented diet increased the degradation of gastric InsP₆. However, considerable amounts of intact InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for Ins

  11. A barley RFLP map: alignment of three barley maps and comparisons to Gramineae species.

    PubMed

    Sherman, J D; Fenwick, A L; Namuth, D M; Lapitan, N L

    1995-09-01

    Several gene linkage maps have been produced for cultivated barley. We have produced a new linkage map for barley, based on a cross between Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare (Hvs x Hvv), having a higher level of polymorphism than most of the previous barley crosses used for RFLP mapping. Of 133 markers mapped in the Hvs x Hvv F2 population, 69 were previously mapped on other barley maps, and 26 were mapped in rice, maize, or wheat. Two known gene clones were mapped as well as two morphological markers. The distributions of previously mapped markers were compared with their respective barley maps to align the different maps into one consensus map. The distributions of common markers among barley, wheat, rice and maize were also compared, indicating colinear linkage groups among these species.

  12. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  13. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  14. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  15. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  16. 7 CFR 810.2001 - Definition of triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of triticale. 810.2001 Section 810.2001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Terms Defined § 810.2001 Definition of triticale. Grain...

  17. Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Heavy Metal Upptake as a Possibility of Food Chain Pollution in a Long-Term Field Experiment in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Some trace elements are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate in food chain. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time, compared to the chemical's concentration in they environment. Compounds accumulate in living things any time they are taken up and stored faster han they are broken down (metabolize) or extreted. Triticale is the stabilized man-made hybrid of wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Wheat-rye hybrids date back to 1875, it was only in 1953 that the first North American triticale breeding programme was initiated at the University Manitoba. Globally, triticale is used primary for livestock feed today. NPKCaMg fertilization effects were estimated on trace element bioavailability by Triticale in a long-term field experiment on a Haplic Luvisol (acidic sandy brown forest soil) at Nyírlugos in East-Hungary in 1998. Soil geochemical parameters were as follow: humus 0.6%, pH (H2O) 5.8, pH (KCl) 4.6, total N 32.8 mg . kg-1, AL (ammonium lactate soluble)- P2O5 43 mg . kg-1, AL-K2O 52 mg . kg-1. The experiments involved 32 NPKCaMg treatments and their combinations in 4 replications giving a total of 128 plots from 1980. N levels were 0, 50, 100, 150 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, P2O5 and K2O 0, 60, 120, 180 kg . ha-1 . yr-1, CaCO3 0, 250, 500, 1000 kg . ha-1 . yr-1 and MgCO3 doses were 0, 140, 280 kg . ha-1 . yr-1. Plot brutto size was 50 m2. The main results were as follows. Main soil chemical parameters depend on NPKCaMg treatments. Soil pH (H2O) and pH (KCl) values ranged from 4.6 to 6.3 and from 3.5 to 5.8 indicating wide range from extremely acidic to slightly acidic. Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Al element concentrations shown a large variability too in interaction with fertilization doses and pH values (Ca 36-594 mg . kg-1, Fe 61-90 mg . kg-1, Mg 5-42 mg . kg-1, Mn 16-36 mg . kg-1, Al 79-118 mg . kg-1). The better soil pH (H2O), pH (KCl) and Ca parameters resulted by NPKCaMg combinations

  18. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  19. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  20. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.300 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.300 Applicability. (a) The regulations in this subpart are applicable to the 2008 through 2012 crops of eligible acreage planted to wheat, barley,...

  3. Fine mapping and marker development for the crossability gene SKr on chromosome 5BS of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Alfares, Walid; Bouguennec, Annaig; Balfourier, François; Gay, Georges; Bergès, Hélène; Vautrin, Sonia; Sourdille, Pierre; Bernard, Michel; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Most elite wheat varieties cannot be crossed with related species thereby restricting greatly the germplasm that can be used for alien introgression in breeding programs. Inhibition to crossability is controlled genetically and a number of QTL have been identified to date, including the major gene Kr1 on 5BL and SKr, a strong QTL affecting crossability between wheat and rye on chromosome 5BS. In this study, we used a recombinant SSD population originating from a cross between the poorly crossable cultivar Courtot (Ct) and the crossable line MP98 to characterize the major dominant effect of SKr and map the gene at the distal end of the chromosome near the 5B homeologous GSP locus. Colinearity with barley and rice was used to saturate the SKr region with new markers and establish orthologous relationships with a 54-kb region on rice chromosome 12. In total, five markers were mapped within a genetic interval of 0.3 cM and 400 kb of BAC contigs were established on both sides of the gene to lay the foundation for map-based cloning of SKr. Two SSR markers completely linked to SKr were used to evaluate a collection of crossable wheat progenies originating from primary triticale breeding programs. The results confirm the major effect of SKr on crossability and the usefulness of the two markers for the efficient introgression of crossability in elite wheat varieties.

  4. Fine Mapping and Marker Development for the Crossability Gene SKr on Chromosome 5BS of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Alfares, Walid; Bouguennec, Annaig; Balfourier, François; Gay, Georges; Bergès, Hélène; Vautrin, Sonia; Sourdille, Pierre; Bernard, Michel; Feuillet, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Most elite wheat varieties cannot be crossed with related species thereby restricting greatly the germplasm that can be used for alien introgression in breeding programs. Inhibition to crossability is controlled genetically and a number of QTL have been identified to date, including the major gene Kr1 on 5BL and SKr, a strong QTL affecting crossability between wheat and rye on chromosome 5BS. In this study, we used a recombinant SSD population originating from a cross between the poorly crossable cultivar Courtot (Ct) and the crossable line MP98 to characterize the major dominant effect of SKr and map the gene at the distal end of the chromosome near the 5B homeologous GSP locus. Colinearity with barley and rice was used to saturate the SKr region with new markers and establish orthologous relationships with a 54-kb region on rice chromosome 12. In total, five markers were mapped within a genetic interval of 0.3 cM and 400 kb of BAC contigs were established on both sides of the gene to lay the foundation for map-based cloning of SKr. Two SSR markers completely linked to SKr were used to evaluate a collection of crossable wheat progenies originating from primary triticale breeding programs. The results confirm the major effect of SKr on crossability and the usefulness of the two markers for the efficient introgression of crossability in elite wheat varieties. PMID:19652174

  5. Starch-branching enzymes preferentially associated with A-type starch granules in wheat endosperm.

    PubMed

    Peng, M; Gao, M; Båga, M; Hucl, P; Chibbar, R N

    2000-09-01

    Two starch granule-bound proteins (SGP), SGP-140 and SGP-145, were preferentially associated with A-type starch granules (>10 microm) in developing and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels. Immunoblotting and N-terminal sequencing suggested that the two proteins were different variants of SBEIc, a 152-kD isoform of wheat starch-branching enzyme. Both SGP-140 and SGP-145 were localized to the endosperm starch granules but were not found in the endosperm soluble fraction or pericarp starch granules younger than 15 d post anthesis (DPA). Small-size starch granules (<10 microm) initiated before 15 DPA incorporated SGP-140 and SGP-145 throughout endosperm development and grew into full-size A-type starch granules (>10 microm). In contrast, small-size starch granules harvested after 15 DPA contained only low amounts of SGP-140 and SGP-145 and developed mainly into B-type starch granules (<10 microm). Polypeptides of similar mass and immunologically related to SGP-140 and/or SGP-145 were also preferentially incorporated into A-type starch granules of barley (Hordeum vulgare), rye (Secale cereale), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) endosperm, which like wheat endosperm have a bimodal starch granule size distribution.

  6. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  7. Which cereal is a suitable substitute for wheat in children with wheat allergy?

    PubMed

    Pourpak, Zahra; Mesdaghi, Mehrnaz; Mansouri, Mahboubeh; Kazemnejad, Anoushiravan; Toosi, Shahram Beiraghi; Farhoudi, Abolhasan

    2005-05-01

    Wheat is one of the main food allergens. It is among widely used cereals and there is an extensive cross-reaction between cereals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which cereals cross-react and to find the best substitute for wheat. Eighteen patients with definite diagnosis of type I hypersensitivity reactions to wheat enrolled in this study. Measurement of serum-specific IgE and skin prick test (SPT) for cereals flour (wheat, barley, oat, rye, rice and corn) and wheat bran was carried out. Also, open food challenge tests with available and conventional cereals in Iranian food culture (wheat, corn, rice and barley) were carried out. The SPTs were positive in 44.4% of patients for barley, 94.5% for wheat and 44-77% for other cereals. Positive serum-specific IgE was remarkable for wheat and barley and there was correlation between wheat and barley-specific IgE concentrations (r = 0.773 and p < 0.01). Corn serum-specific IgE was measured in 10 patients, which were positive in six of them. Of the patients, 55.5% had positive barley challenge tests, but all corn and rice challenge tests were negative. The best substitutes for wheat in wheat allergic patients are rice and corn. Regarding the correlation of wheat and barley serum-specific IgEs, there might be a high antigenic cross-reaction, therefore barley is not a good substitute for wheat and consuming barley needs a careful challenge test. Considering concordance of positive SPT to wheat flour and wheat bran, avoiding both of them is necessary in patients with wheat allergy. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard

  8. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... complete program application to CCC. For triticale, the grazing rate will be equal to the loan deficiency... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three (3...

  9. The rpg4-mediated resistance to wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) requires Rpg5, a second NBS-LRR gene, and an actin depolymerization factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Richards, J; Gross, T; Druka, A; Kleinhofs, A; Steffenson, B; Acevedo, M; Brueggeman, R

    2013-04-01

    The rpg4 gene confers recessive resistance to several races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Rpg5 provides dominant resistance against isolates of the rye stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. secalis) in barley. The rpg4 and Rpg5 genes are tightly linked on chromosome 5H, and positional cloning using high-resolution populations clearly separated the genes, unambiguously identifying Rpg5; however, the identity of rpg4 remained unclear. High-resolution genotyping of critical recombinants at the rpg4/Rpg5 locus, designated here as rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL) delimited two distinct yet tightly linked loci required for resistance, designated as RMRL1 and RMRL2. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing, each gene at RMRL1, i.e., HvRga1 (a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat [NBS-LRR] domain gene), Rpg5 (an NBS-LRR-protein kinase domain gene), and HvAdf3 (an actin depolymerizing factor-like gene), was individually silenced followed by inoculation with P. graminis f. sp. tritici race QCCJ. Silencing each gene changed the reaction type from incompatible to compatible, indicating that all three genes are required for rpg4-mediated resistance. This stem rust resistance mechanism in barley follows the emerging theme of unrelated pairs of genetically linked NBS-LRR genes required for specific pathogen recognition and resistance. It also appears that actin cytoskeleton dynamics may play an important role in determining resistance against several races of stem rust in barley.

  10. Nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes alter the microbial community and the fermentation patterns of barley cultivars and wheat products in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bindelle, Jérôme; Pieper, Robert; Montoya, Carlos A; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Leterme, Pascal

    2011-06-01

    An in vitro experiment was carried out to assess how nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes influence the fermentation of dietary fiber in the pig large intestine. Seven wheat and barley products and cultivars with differing carbohydrate fractions were hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin in the presence or not of NSP-degrading enzymes (xylanase and β-glucanase) and the filter retentate was subsequently fermented with sow fecal bacteria. Dry matter, starch, crude protein and β-glucan digestibilities during hydrolysis were measured. Fermentation kinetics of the hydrolyzed ingredients were modelled. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and molar ratio were compared after 12, 24 and 72 h. Microbial communities were analyzed after 72 h of fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed an increase of nutrient digestibility (P<0.001), whereas fermentability and SCFA production decreased (P<0.001) with addition of the enzyme. SCFA and bacterial community profiles also indicated a shift from propionate to acetate and an increase in cellulolytic Ruminococcus- and xylanolytic Clostridium-like bacteria. This is explained by the increase in slowly fermentable insoluble carbohydrate and the lower proportion of rapidly fermentable β-glucan and starch in the retentate when grains were incubated with NSP-degrading enzymes. Shifts were also different for the four barley varieties investigated, showing that the efficiency of the enzymes depends on the structure of the carbohydrate fractions in cereal products and cultivars.

  11. Determination of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in wheat and barley using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: on-line clean-up versus conventional sample preparation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nathanail, Alexis V; Sarikaya, Ebru; Jestoi, Marika; Godula, Michal; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2014-12-29

    In this study, we compared the performance of conventional sample preparation techniques used in mycotoxin analyses against automated on-line sample clean-up for the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its conjugated derivative, deoxynivalenol-3-β-d-glucoside (D3G), in cereal grains. Blank wheat and barley samples were spiked with DON and D3G, extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile:water (84:16, v/v) and processed by one of the following: extract and shoot, MycoSep(®) 227 clean-up columns, MycoSep 227 with an additional acetonitrile elution step and centrifugal filtration, followed by analysis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Based on method performance characteristics and poor recoveries (<30%) obtained for the polar D3G with some techniques, the extract and shoot approach was chosen for the inter-laboratory method comparison study. Thus, the same spiked samples were analysed in parallel by another laboratory with an in-house validated on-line sample clean-up method, utilising TurboFlow™ chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. Method validation was performed by determination of specificity, linearity, recovery, intra-day precision and the limits of detection and quantification. Matrix-matched linearity (R(2)>0.985) was established in the range of 100-1600 and 20-320μg/kg for DON and D3G, respectively. Average recoveries (%RSD) were acceptable with both methods for wheat and barley, ranging between 73% and 102% (3-12%) for DON and 72% and 98% (1-10%) for D3G. The benefit of using automated sample clean-up in comparison to extract and shoot is the ability to inject directly pure extracts into the mass spectrometer, offering faster analyses and improved sensitivity with minimum system maintenance.

  12. An Aspergillus niger esterase (ferulic acid esterase III) and a recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa esterase (Xy1D) release a 5-5' ferulic dehydrodimer (diferulic acid) from barley and wheat cell walls.

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé, B; Faulds, C B; Kroon, P A; Waldron, K; Gilbert, H J; Hazlewood, G; Williamson, G

    1997-01-01

    Diferulate esters strengthen and cross-link primary plant cell walls and help to defend the plant from invading microbes. Phenolics also limit the degradation of plant cell walls by saprophytic microbes and by anaerobic microorganisms in the rumen. We show that incubation of wheat and barley cell walls with ferulic acid esterase from Aspergillus niger (FAE-III) or Pseudomonas fluorescens (Xy1D), together with either xylanase I from Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride xylanase, or xylanase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (XylA), leads to release of the ferulate dimer 5-5' diFA [(E,E)-4,4'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-bicinnamic acid]. Direct saponification of the cell walls without enzyme treatment released the following five identifiable ferulate dimers (in order of abundance): (Z)-beta-(4-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-methoxyphenoxy)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, trans-5-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl) -7-methoxy-2, 3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid, 5-5' diFA, (E,E)-4, 4'-dihydroxy-3, 5'-dimethoxy-beta, 3'-bicinnamic acid, and trans-7-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -6-methoxy-1, 2-dihydronaphthalene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid. Incubation of the wheat or barley cell walls with xylanase, followed by saponification of the solubilized fraction, yielded 5-5'diFA and, in some cases, certain of the above dimers, depending on the xylanase used. These experiments demonstrate that FAE-III and XYLD specifically release only esters of 5-5'diFA from either xylanase-treated or insoluble fractions of cell walls, even though other esterified dimers were solubilized by preincubation with xylanase. It is also concluded that the esterified dimer content of the xylanase-solubilized fraction depends on the source of the xylanase. PMID:8979352

  13. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  14. Inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone tissue are stereochemically similar to the products of breakdown of InsP6 in vitro by wheat-bran phytase.

    PubMed

    Brearley, C A; Hanke, D E

    1996-08-15

    Partisphere SAX HPLC analysis of endogenous inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol-labelled barley aleurone tissue revealed a range of isomers, including D- and/or L-Ins3P, D- and/or L-Ins(1,4)P2, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2)P2, a third unidentified InsP2, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4)P4, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, InsP6 and a molecule with the chromatographic properties of an inositol pyrophosphate. The striking match between the identities of the stereoisomers, and in some cases enantiomers, detected in vivo and those stereoisomers produced in vitro by the action of wheat-bran phytase on InsP6 [Cosgrove (1980) Inositol Phosphates: Their Chemistry, Bio-chemistry and Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam] strongly suggests that most of the inositol phosphates identified are products of the breakdown of InsP4 by endogenous phytase(s) with stereospecificity similar to that of the wheat-bran enzyme(s).

  15. [Features of the formation of self-fertile euploid lines (2n = 42) by self-pollination of the 46-chromosome barley-wheat BC1 hybrid Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42)].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheeva, N V; Rakovtseva, T S; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2006-12-01

    We studied some features of the development of self-fertile 42-chromosome lines on the base of self-pollination progeny of 46-chromosome plants obtained by backcrossing of barley--wheat hybrids Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (= H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 42). The stabilization of karyotypes, resulting in 42-chromosome plants of the wheat type was generally completed by generation BC1F10. The plants of all self-pollination progenies, including BC1F10, showed some phenotypic traits characteristic of wild barley. Plants of BC1F10 with the chromosome sets 2n = 42 and 2n = 42 + t were analyzed by RAPD with a set of 115 primers. Fragments of the wild barley genome were detected in RAPD patterns with 19 primers. Cross-hybridization confirmed that these fragments belonged to the wild barley genome. We raised four phenotypically different 42-chromosome lines from grains obtained from plants of generation BC1F10, and these lines proved to be cytogenetically stable and self-fertile when grown in the field.

  16. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  17. Current and potential barley grain food products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley has been an important food source from the beginning of human civilization, and remains an important staple food crop in a few countries, although its consumption has decreased sharply with the ample availability of more palatable and versatile food crops such as rice and wheat. In many Weste...

  18. Analysis of volatile compounds from various types of barley cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Anne-Chrystelle J; Mattinson, D Scott; Fellman, John K; Baik, Byung-Kee

    2005-09-21

    We identified volatile compounds of barley flour and determined the variation in volatile compound profiles among different types and varieties of barley. Volatile compounds of 12 barley and two wheat cultivars were analyzed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography. Twenty-six volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and a furan were identified in barley. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-hexenal, 2-heptenal, 2-nonenal, and decanal were identified as key odorants in barley as their concentration exceeded their odor detection threshold in water. Hexanal (46-1269 microg/L) and 1-pentanol (798-1811 microg/L) were the major volatile compounds in barley cultivars. In wheat, 1-pentanol (723-748 microg/L) was a major volatile. Hulled barley had higher total volatile, aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, and furan contents than hulless barley, highlighting the importance of the husk in barley grain aroma. The proanthocyanidin-free varieties generally showed higher total volatile and aldehyde contents than wild-type varieties, potentially due to decreased antioxidant activity by the absence of proanthocyanidins.

  19. Introgression of A- and B-genome of tetraploid triticale chromatin into tetraploid rye.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, H; Kwiatek, M; Kulak-Książczyk, S; Apolinarska, B

    2013-11-01

    An improvement of rye is one of the mainstream goals of current breeding. Our study is concerned with the introduction of the tetraploid triticale (ABRR) into the 4x rye (RRRR) using classical methods of distant crossing. One hundred fifty BC1F9 hybrid plants [(4x rye × 4x triticales) × 4x rye] obtained from a backcrossing program were studied. The major aim of this work was to verify the presence of an introgressed A- and B- genome chromatin of triticale in a collection of the 4x rye-tiritcale hybrids and to determine their chromosome compositions. In the present study, karyotypes of the previously reported BC1F2s and BC1F3s were compared with that of the BC1F9 generation as obtained after several subsequent open pollinations. The genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) allowed us to identify 133 introgression forms in which chromosome numbers ranged between 26 and 32. Using four DNA probes (5S rDNA, 25S rDNA, pSc119.2 and pAs1), the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was carried out to facilitate an exact chromosome identification in the hybrid plants. The combination of the multi-colour GISH with the repetitive DNA FISH singled out five types of translocated chromosomes: 2A.2R, 4A.4R, 5A.5R, 5B.5R and 7A.7R among the examined BC1F9s. The reported translocation lines could serve as valuable sources of wheat chromatin suitable for further improvements of rye.

  20. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  1. Pathogenicity of seed transmittedFusarium spp. to triticale seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arseniuk, E; Scharen, A L; Czembor, H J

    1991-09-01

    In the conducted studies 13 species ofFusarium were isolated into pure culture from triticale seed. Their pathogenicity was assessed under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Most of the species studied were highly pathogenic to the first leaf see-dlings of triticale 'Grado' and 'Lasko' under both sets of conditions. It was shown, that seed-transmitted Fusarium spp. considerably reduced the ability of seeds to germinate and incited seedling blight. On average, triticale 'Lasko' was more resistant toFusarium spp. than 'Grado', but in some instances a reverse reaction was observed.

  2. Spatially discriminating Russian wheat aphid induced plant stress from other wheat stressing factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) is a major pest of winter wheat and barley in the United States. RWA induces stress to the wheat crop by damaging plant foliage, lowering the greenness of plants, and affecting productivity. Multispectral remote sensing is effective at dete...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three (3...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three (3...

  6. 78 FR 10167 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., including winter wheat, spring wheat, barley and triticale. Contact: Maggie Rudick, (703) 347-0257, email address: rudick.maggie@epa.gov . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest....

  7. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, corn, or another cereal is a grain product. Bread, ... Examples include whole wheat, oats/oatmeal, rye, barley, corn, popcorn, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat, triticale, bulgur ( ...

  8. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  9. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  10. Assessment of photosystem II thermoluminescence as a tool to investigate the effects of dehydration and rehydration on the cyclic/chlororespiratory electron pathways in wheat and barley leaves.

    PubMed

    Bürling, Kathrin; Ducruet, Jean-Marc; Cornic, Gabriel; Hunsche, Mauricio; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2014-06-01

    Thermoluminescence emission from wheat leaves was recorded under various controlled drought stress conditions: (i) fast dehydration (few hours) of excised leaves in the dark (ii) slow dehydration (several days) obtained by withholding watering of plants under a day/night cycle (iii) overnight rehydration of the slowly dehydrated plants at a stage of severe dessication. In fast dehydrated leaves, the AG band intensity was unchanged but its position was shifted to lower temperatures, indicating an activation of cyclic and chlororespiratory pathways in darkness, without any increase of their overall electron transfer capacity. By contrast, after a slow dehydration the AG intensity was strongly increased whereas its position was almost unchanged, indicating respectively that the capacity of cyclic pathways was enhanced but that they remained inactivated in darkness. Under more severe dehydration, the AG band almost disappeared. Rewatering caused its rapid bounce significantly above the control level. No significant differences in AG emission could be found between the two drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant wheat cultivars. The afterglow thermoluminescence emission in leaves provides an additional tool to follow the increased capacity and activation of cyclic electron flow around PSI in leaves during mild, severe dehydration and after rehydration.

  11. Factors affecting usefulness of triticale grain for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Wiktor; Banaszak, Zofia; Makowska, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Miłosz

    2010-11-01

    Triticale grain could be a useful material for bioethanol production. The aim of this study was to examine how grain cultivar, nitrogen fertilisation level, location and year affect the starch content in triticale grain and which method of starch determination, polarimetric, enzymatic or near-infrared transmission (NIT), gives the best prediction of real bioethanol productivity from triticale grain. It was found that the starch content in triticale grain was correlated positively with test weight and 1000-kernel weight but negatively with falling number and protein content. All factors, i.e. cultivar, nitrogen fertilisation level, location and year, as well as the intrinsic interaction between these factors, had a significant effect on the starch level in triticale grain. The NIT procedure of starch determination gave the best results in predicting the real yield of ethanol obtained on the basis of classic fermentation (95% match), while the enzymatic and polarimetric methods corresponded with the real results at levels of 89-90 and 78-82% respectively. Grain growth conditions related to location and nitrogen fertilisation level had the most noticeable effect on grain starch content, while grain yield per hectare had the most significant effect on ethanol productivity. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  12. Effects of inulin and enzyme complex, individually or in combination, on growth performance, intestinal microflora, cecal fermentation characteristics, and jejunal histomorphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Rebolé, A; Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Treviño, J; Velasco, S

    2010-02-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of inulin, alone or in combination with enzyme complex (primarily xylanase and beta-glucanase), on growth performance, ileal and cecal microflora, cecal short-chain fatty acids, and d-lactic acid and jejunal histomorphology of broiler chickens fed a wheat- and barley-based diet from 7 to 35 d of age. A total of 240 seven-day-old male Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 5 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3x2 factorial arrangement of the treatments with 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 10, or 20 g/kg of diet) and 2 concentrations of enzyme complex (0 or 100 mg/kg of diet). At the end of the experiment, 8 birds per treatment (one from each pen) were randomly chosen and slaughtered. Birds fed inulin-containing diets exhibited significantly (P=0.043) improved final BW gain. Dietary inulin had a positive and significant (P<0.002 to 0.009) effect on bifidobacteria and lactobacilli counts in both ileal and cecal contents and, to an extent, also altered the fermentation patterns in the ceca, increasing the concentration of n-butyric and d-lactic acids and the n-butyric acid:acetic acid ratio. Inulin inclusion had no effect on villus height and crypt depth or microvillus length, width, and density in the jejunum. Enzyme supplementation of the control diet and inulin-containing diets had no effect on many of the variables studied and only resulted in a decrease in crypt depth and an increase in villus height:crypt depth ratio in the jejunum.

  13. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Wheat dwarf virus isolates from Iran.

    PubMed

    Parizipour, Mohamad Hamed Ghodoum; Schubert, Jörg; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Afsharifar, Alireza; Habekuß, Antje; Wu, Beilei

    2017-04-01

    Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) adversely affects cereal production in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. In this study, sequences of several WDV isolates from Iran which is located in the Fertile Crescent were analyzed. Analysis revealed a new geographic cluster for WDV-Wheat from Iran. Recombination analysis demonstrated the existence of several breakpoints in different regions of the viral genome. Data analysis demonstrated that WDV-Barley has an older history and lower diversity than WDV-Wheat. Sequence analysis identified a rare occasion of a co-infection of wheat with WDV-Wheat and WDV-Barley.

  15. [Genetic control of dwarfism in hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.)].

    PubMed

    Kurkiev, K U; Kurkiev, U K; Al'derov, A A

    2006-03-01

    The genetic control of plant height has been studied in hexaploid forms of triticale (2n = 42) with genomic structure AABBRR. Thirty-four specimens from the world collection of triticale at the Vavilov All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Breeding with plant heights from 70 to 180 cm have been used in the study. The hybrid analysis of the first, second, and third generations, as well as backcross offsprings, has demonstrated that the given trait is characterized by different modes of inheritance: dominance of dwarfism, dominance of tallness, and intermediate inheritance. It has been found that triticale cultivars of middle and large height differ from short ones in alleles of one or two major genes.

  16. Starch Synthesis in Shriveled and Plump Triticale Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Poklemba, Chris J.; Metzger, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Seven lines of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) with either shriveled or plump seed characteristics were planted in the field, and seed developmental changes in weight, starch content, the activity of starch biosynthetic and degradative enzymes, and ATP content were studied in three consecutive years in Oregon. Experimental results varied among genotypes and with growing environment, but overall indicated that: (a) amylase activity was higher in shriveled lines, but was not directly synchronized with the occurrence of shriveling at later stages of seed formation; (b) ADP-glucose starch synthase contributed to starch accumulation in triticale, but it appeared not to be associated with shriveledness as no stage-related changes were observed; and (c) ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity was 2- to 3-fold higher in plump lines than that of shriveled lines, indicating that this enzyme may play an important role in the degree of plumpness or stach accumulation of triticale seeds. PMID:16663276

  17. Diversity in Puccinia triticina detected on wheat from 2008 to 2010 and the impact of new races on South African wheat germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Samples of wheat and triticale infected with leaf rust were collected from 2008 to 2010 in South Africa to identify Puccinia triticina races. Races were identified based on their virulence profile on standard differential lines. Eight races were identified from 362 isolates. The dominant races were ...

  18. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of crown rust resistance in common wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. hordei, primarily occurs on barley in the Great Plain regions of the United States. However, a few genotypes of common wheat were found to be susceptible to this pathogen among 750 wheat accessions evaluated. To investigate the genetics of crown ru...

  19. N response of no-till dryland winter triticale forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Triticale’s forage-yield response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) is impressive on soils testing low in available N. Our objective is to quantify the forage yield response of dryland winter triticale to applied N and to residual NO3-N. A second objective is to fit the yield data to a regression equation ...

  20. Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) east of the Fertile Crescent.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Peter L; Clegg, Michael T

    2007-02-27

    Cereal agriculture originated with the domestication of barley and early forms of wheat in the Fertile Crescent. There has long been speculation that barley was domesticated more than once. We use differences in haplotype frequency among geographic regions at multiple loci to infer at least two domestications of barley; one within the Fertile Crescent and a second 1,500-3,000 km farther east. The Fertile Crescent domestication contributed the majority of diversity in European and American cultivars, whereas the second domestication contributed most of the diversity in barley from Central Asia to the Far East.

  1. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  2. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

  3. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  4. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Root-Specific Barley Lectin 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, David R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    1989-01-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNA library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A+) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A+) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666982

  6. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known so...

  7. Chromosome engineering, mapping, and transferring of resistance to Fusarium head blight disease from Elymus tsukushiensis into wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change and wheat corn rotation agriculture have spawned massive epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on cereal crops mainly wheat and barley since the 1990’s and devastated farm economies of north central US and many of the major wheat growing regions of the world. Wheat has limited resis...

  8. Novel, non-destructive cereal quality analysis: potential for triticale.

    PubMed

    Manley, Marena

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, NIR hyperspectral imaging and X-ray computed technology (XCT) can each in its own way contribute to the effective analysis of whole grain triticale. With NIR spectroscopy only giving an average result, NIR hyperspectral imaging gives spatial as well as spectral information of a sample. Chemical information as well as the localisation of the chemical compounds is thus obtained. XCT advanced on these two techniques in that it allows three dimensional (3D) visualisation of the internal structure of a sample. The availability of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) instruments and now also nanoCT instruments allow high resolution images of the microstructure of samples to be obtained. These techniques, reviewed in this paper, can be used in association, each with their own advantages and disadvantages, to most effectively analyse whole grain triticale.

  9. Genetic dynamics underlying phenotypic development of biomass yield in triticale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen C; Hahn, Volker; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Weissmann, Elmar A; Maurer, Hans Peter; Würschum, Tobias

    2014-06-10

    The nature of dynamic traits with their phenotypic plasticity suggests that they are under the control of a dynamic genetic regulation. We employed a precision phenotyping platform to non-invasively assess biomass yield in a large mapping population of triticale at three developmental stages. Using multiple-line cross QTL mapping we identified QTL for each of these developmental stages which explained a considerable proportion of the genotypic variance. Some QTL were identified at each developmental stage and thus contribute to biomass yield throughout the studied developmental phases. Interestingly, we also observed QTL that were only identified for one or two of the developmental stages illustrating a temporal contribution of these QTL to the trait. In addition, epistatic QTL were detected and the epistatic interaction landscape was shown to dynamically change with developmental progression. In summary, our results reveal the temporal dynamics of the genetic architecture underlying biomass accumulation in triticale and emphasize the need for a temporal assessment of dynamic traits.

  10. Registration of 'Rasmusson' Barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rasmusson’ (Reg. No. CV-345, PI 658495) is a spring, six-rowed, malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) released by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in January 2008. It was named after Donald Rasmusson, who worked as a barley breeder at the University of Minnesota from 1958 to 2000. Rasmuss...

  11. Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Xu, L; Zhao, Y L; Chen, L Y; McAllister, T A

    2014-11-01

    Many feedlot finishing diets include wheat when the relative wheat prices are low. This study was conducted to examine the responses in ruminal pH and fermentation as well as site and extent of digestion from substituting soft or hard wheat for barley grain and to determine whether an elevated monensin concentration might decrease indicators of ruminal acidosis in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments included barley (10% barley silage, 86% barley, 4% supplement, with 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets where barley was substituted by either soft or hard wheat with either 28 or 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. Intake of DM was not affected by grain source, whereas increasing monensin with wheat diets reduced (P < 0.02) DMI. Mean ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.04) and durations of pH < 5.8 and pH < 5.5 greater (P < 0.03) for wheat than for barley diets. However, ruminal pH was not affected by wheat type or monensin level. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P < 0.03) for wheat than barley diets with no effect of wheat type. The molar proportion of propionate was greater (P < 0.04), whereas butyrate (P < 0.01) and ratio of acetate to propionate tended to be lower (P < 0.09), with the high as compared to low level of monensin. Replacing barley with wheat in finishing diets did not affect the duodenal flow or the digestibility of OM, likely as a result of greater (P < 0.01) NDF digestion from barley offsetting the increased (P < 0.03) supply of digested starch from wheat. Feeding soft vs. hard wheat delivered a greater (P < 0.03) duodenal supply of OM and nonammonia N with no differences in total tract nutrient digestion. The increased monensin concentration decreased the flow of OM (P < 0.01), total N (P < 0.05), and microbial protein (P < 0.05) to the small intestine due to decreased DMI. These results indicated that hard and soft wheat exhibited digestive characteristics

  12. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Triticale Starch Films Using Photothermal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Solorzano-Ojeda, S. C.; Tramón-Pregnan, C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, several commercially biodegradable materials have been developed with mechanical properties similar to those of conventional petrochemical-based polymers. These materials are made from renewable sources such as starch, cellulose, corn, and molasses, being very attractive for numerous applications in the plastics, food, and paper industries, among others. Starches from maize, rice, wheat, and potato are used in the food industry. However, other types of starches are not used due to their low protein content, such as triticale. In this study, starch films, processed using a single screw extruder with different compositions, were thermally and structurally characterized. The thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity, and thermal conductivity of the biodegradable films were determined using photothermal techniques. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the open photoacoustic cell technique, and the thermal effusivity was obtained by the photopyroelectric technique in an inverse configuration. The results showed differences in thermal properties for the films. Also, the films microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the crystalline structure determined by X-ray diffraction.

  13. Determination of degree of infestation of triticale seed using NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect infestation of seeds of the triticale hybrid, Triticosecale, causes extraordinary storage losses as a consequence of vulnerability of triticale seed to insect infestation and its soft coat. Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), is a common insect that causes infestation in Florida, which was t...

  14. Effect of drying conditions on triticale seed germination and weevil infestation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The combination of high protein content and a soft seed coat makes triticale vulnerable to attack by weevils. Drying triticale grain to moisture contents safe for storage can prevent infestation by weevils, but if grain is being stored for seed, high drying temperatures can affect seed germination. ...

  15. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  16. The transcriptome of Fusarium graminearum during the infection of wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium graminearum causes head blight disease in wheat and barley. To help understand the infection process on wheat we studied global gene expression of F. graminearum in a time series from 24 to 196 hours after inoculation, compared to a water control. The infection is rapid and already after 48...

  17. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement.

  18. AvrPm2 encodes an RNase-like avirulence effector which is conserved in the two different specialized forms of wheat and rye powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Praz, Coraline R; Bourras, Salim; Zeng, Fansong; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Menardo, Fabrizio; Xue, Minfeng; Yang, Lijun; Roffler, Stefan; Böni, Rainer; Herren, Gerard; McNally, Kaitlin E; Ben-David, Roi; Parlange, Francis; Oberhaensli, Simone; Flückiger, Simon; Schäfer, Luisa K; Wicker, Thomas; Yu, Dazhao; Keller, Beat

    2017-02-01

    There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2. The virulent AvrPm2 allele arose from a conserved 12 kb deletion, while there is no protein sequence diversity in the gene pool of avirulent B. g. tritici isolates. We found one polymorphic AvrPm2 allele in B. g. triticale and one orthologue in B. g. secalis and both are recognized by Pm2. AvrPm2 belongs to a small gene family encoding structurally conserved RNase-like effectors, including Avra13 from B. g. hordei, the cognate Avr of the barley resistance gene Mla13. These results demonstrate the conservation of functional avirulence genes in two cereal powdery mildews specialized on different hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for successful introgression of resistance genes from rye or other grass relatives to wheat.

  19. Resistance to Stem Rust Pathotype TTKSK Maps to the Rgp4/Rpg5 Complex of Chromosome 5H of Barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) pathotype TTKSK (original isolate synonym Ug99) is a serious threat to both wheat and barley production worldwide because of its wide virulence on many cultivars and rapid spread from eastern Africa. Line Q21861 is one of the most resistant bar...

  20. Effects of barley β-glucan-enriched flour fractions on the glycaemic index of bread.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Franca; Ferrari, Barbara; Gianinetti, Alberto; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Caramanico, Rosita; Salati, Claudia; Shirvanian, Vigen; Stanca, Antonio Michele

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate β-glucan-enriched flours, obtained from barleys with either normal or waxy starch, for their effects on the glycaemic index (GI) and the quality of bread. Rheological results confirmed that when barley flour was included in the dough the overall quality of bread slightly worsened. However, positive consequences on glycaemia were obtained with the normal starch barley: the GI of all-wheat bread (82.8 ± 7.2) was significantly reduced (57.2 ± 7.9) when 40% of wheat flour was substituted with β-glucan-enriched barley flour (6.0% ± 0.1 β-glucan in the final flour blend). In contrast, this positive effect was significantly reduced (GI: 70.1 ± 9.1) when 40% of wheat flour was substituted with the β-glucan-enriched flour of a waxy barley (CDC Alamo; 6.6 ± 0.2 β-glucan in the final flour blend), suggesting that the ability of β-glucans to lower the GI was affected by the barley starch-type.

  1. Estimation of optimum amino acid supplements to triticale.

    PubMed

    Heger, J

    1990-04-01

    Based on the nitrogen balance (NB) data and the efficiency of amino acid utilization, optimum supplements of limiting amino acids (AA) to triticale were calculated and their effect on true N digestibility (TD), biological value of protein (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) of a triticale-based diet was evaluated. To determine if AA balance must be considered in the calculation of the optimum supplements, the effect of a 20% or 40% excess of essential AA in lysine-, methionine-, threonine- or tryptophan-deficient diets was also studied. The AA excess had no significant effect on NB in diets deficient in lysine, methionine or threonine. However, NB in rats fed on the tryptophan-deficient diet increased as the AA excess increased. BV of the diet containing the optimized supplements of lysine, threonine, methionine and valine was comparable to that of lactalbumin or to the diet supplemented with all essential AA. The deletion of valine from the optimized supplement caused an insignificant decrease in BV. Due to the lower TD, NPU of diets containing the optimized AA supplements was lower than that of the diet containing all essential AA or of the lactalbumin-based diet.

  2. Porcine intestinal microbiota is shaped by diet composition based on rye or triticale.

    PubMed

    Burbach, Katharina; Strang, Elisa J P; Mosenthin, Rainer; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia; Seifert, Jana

    2017-09-27

    The present study aimed to compare the microbiota composition from pigs fed different cereal grain types, either rye or triticale, as sole energy source. Ileal digesta and faeces were sampled from eight pigs of each experiment. Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyse the microbiota. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids and ammonia were determined from faecal samples. The grain type revealed significant alterations in the overall microbiota structure. The rye-based diet was associated with an increased abundance of Lactobacillus in ileal digesta and Streptococcus in faeces and significantly higher concentrations of faecal short-chain fatty acids and ammonia compared to triticale. Whereas triticale significantly promoted the abundance of Streptococcus in ileal digesta and Clostridium sensu stricto in faeces. Diets based on rye or triticale affect varying intestinal microbiota, both of taxonomical and metabolic structure, with rye indicating an enhanced saccharolytic potential and triticale a more cellulolytic potential. Nutrient composition of rye and triticale are attractive for porcine nutrition. Both cereal grains show varying stimuli on the microbiota composition and microbial products of the ileum and feces. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  4. Post-prandial responses to cereal products enriched with barley beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Garsetti, Marcella; Testolin, Giulio; Brighenti, Furio

    2006-08-01

    High amounts of soluble beta-glucan in barley products may exert beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and blood lipids. To investigate the acute postprandial response on plasma glucose, insulin and lipids after consumption of two experimental products made from barley flour enriched with beta-glucan in comparison with similar products made from whole-wheat flour. A group of 10 healthy volunteers (5 males, age 25.4 +/- 0.5 y, BMI 22.6 +/- 0.7 Kg/m(2)) received at breakfast, in random order and in different days, portions (40g of available carbohydrate) of different cereal products or white bread consumed together with a load of 90000 UI retinol. Products were crackers and cookies made either from barley or whole-wheat flour in a 2 x 2 design, where the two factors were the cereal source of dietary fiber (DF), and the food processing. Barley products supplied 12 g DF, 50% soluble, with 3.5 g of beta-glucan per portion. Whole-wheat products supplied about 14 g of dietary fiber, mainly in the insoluble form, with negligible amount of beta-glucan. Fasting and post-prandial glucose and insulin were evaluated for 180 min after the meals; retinyl-palmitate (RP) and triacylglycerol (TAG) were evaluated hourly over 8 hours. Glycemic (GI) and Insulinemic (II) indexes of products were also assessed, using white bread as reference. Glucose curves were significantly different between types of food processing (p < 0.01) but not between cereal sources of DF (p = 0.07). On the contrary, the effect of fiber but not of processing was evident when glucose response was expressed as Glycemic Index (effect of DF p < 0.01, effect of processing p = 0.69). Individual GI values were 78, 81, 49 and 34 for whole-wheat crackers (WWCr), whole-wheat cookies (WWc), barley crackers (BCr) and barley cookies (Bc) respectively. Insulin curves were significantly different both between type of processing and fiber source (p < 0.001 for both effects). Again, insulin indices were different between

  5. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  6. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  7. 7 CFR 810.1002 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., emmer, flaxseed, guar, hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, and wheat. (e) Sieves... weather-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged,...

  8. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  9. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  10. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  12. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  13. 7 CFR 810.602 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged...-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, rye, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats....

  14. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1202 - Definition of other terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-damaged, diseased, frost-damaged, germ-damaged, heat-damaged, insect-bored, mold-damaged, sprout-damaged..., hull-less barley, nongrain sorghum, oats, Polish wheat, popcorn, poulard wheat, rice, safflower, sorghum, soybeans, spelt, sunflower seed, sweet corn, triticale, wheat, and wild oats. (f) Sieve—0.064 ×...

  16. Metabolic profiling of early F. graminearum infection in barley seed spike tissues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies have utilized microarray analysis to characterize gene expression occurring during infection of barley and wheat by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (F.g.). We have analyzed this plant-microbe interaction from the other extreme - the changes in the metabolome arising from th...

  17. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  18. Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

  19. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

  20. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing level of DDGS in diets. There was a main effect ( < 0.001) of phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  1. Carbohydrate profiling in seeds and seedlings of transgenic triticale modified in the expression of sucrose:sucrose-1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT).

    PubMed

    Diedhiou, Calliste; Gaudet, Denis; Liang, Yehong; Sun, Jinyue; Lu, Zhen-Xing; Eudes, François; Laroche, André

    2012-10-01

    Constructs with sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) from rye and or sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) from wheat were placed under the control of wheat aleurone-specific promoter and expressed in triticale using biolistic and microspore transformation. Transgenic lines expressing one or both the 1-SST and the 6-SFT accumulated 50% less starch and 10-20 times more fructan, particularly 6-kestose, in the dry seed compared to the untransformed wild-type (WT) triticale; other fructans ranged in size from DP 4 to DP 15. During germination from 1 to 4 days after imbibition (dai), fructans were rapidly metabolized and only in transgenic lines expressing both 1-SST and 6-SFT were fructan contents significantly higher than in the untransformed controls after 4 days. In situ hybridization confirmed expression of 6-SFT in the aleurone layer in imbibed seeds of transformed plants. When transgenic lines were subjected to a cold stress of 4°C for 2 days, synthesis of fructan increased compared to untransformed controls during low-temperature germination. The increase of fructan in dry seed and germinating seedling was generally associated with transcript expression levels in transformed plants but total gene expression was not necessarily correlated with the time course accumulation of fructan during germination. This is the first report of transgenic modification of cereals to achieve production of fructans in cereal seeds and during seed germination. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. bex-db: Bioinformatics workbench for comprehensive analysis of barley-expressed genes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Nakamura, Shingo; Itoh, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wu, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the world’s most important cereal crops. Although its large and complex genome has held back barley genomics for quite a while, the whole genome sequence was released in 2012 by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC). Moreover, more than 30,000 barley full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs) are now available in the public domain. Here we present the Barley Gene Expression Database (bex-db: http://barleyflc.dna.affrc.go.jp/bexdb/index.html) as a repository of transcriptome data including the sequences and the expression profiles of barley genes resulting from microarray analysis. In addition to FLcDNA sequences, bex-db also contains partial sequences of more than 309,000 novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Users can browse the data via keyword, sequence homology and expression profile search options. A genome browser was also developed to display the chromosomal locations of barley FLcDNAs and wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcripts as well as Aegilops tauschii gene models on the IBSC genome sequence for future comparative analysis of orthologs among Triticeae species. The bex-db should provide a useful resource for further genomics studies and development of genome-based tools to enhance the progress of the genetic improvement of cereal crops. PMID:24399916

  3. Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

  4. Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.

    PubMed

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility.

  5. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  6. Genetic diversity for Russian wheat aphid resistance as determined by genome-wide association mapping and inheritance in progeny

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is an increasing problem on barley throughout the world. Genetic resistance has been identified and used to create barley germplasm and cultivars adapted to the US. Several mapping studies have been conducted to identify loci associated with resistance, but questions remain...

  7. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. )

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  8. Computing the biomass potentials for maize and two alternative energy crops, triticale and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), with the crop model BioSTAR in the region of Hannover (Germany).

    PubMed

    Bauböck, Roland; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Kappas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lower Saxony (Germany) has the highest installed electric capacity from biogas in Germany. Most of this electricity is generated with maize. Reasons for this are the high yields and the economic incentive. In parts of Lower Saxony, an expansion of maize cultivation has led to ecological problems and a negative image of bioenergy as such. Winter triticale and cup plant have both shown their suitability as alternative energy crops for biogas production and could help to reduce maize cultivation. The model Biomass Simulation Tool for Agricultural Resources (BioSTAR) has been validated with observed yield data from the region of Hannover for the cultures maize and winter wheat. Predicted yields for the cultures show satisfactory error values of 9.36% (maize) and 11.5% (winter wheat). Correlations with observed data are significant (P < 0.01) with R = 0.75 for maize and 0.6 for winter wheat. Biomass potential calculations for triticale and cup plant have shown both crops to be high yielding and a promising alternative to maize in the region of Hanover and other places in Lower Saxony. The model BioSTAR simulated yields for maize and winter wheat in the region of Hannover at a good overall level of accuracy (combined error 10.4%). Due to input data aggregation, individual years show high errors though (up to 30%). Nevertheless, the BioSTAR crop model has proven to be a functioning tool for the prediction of agricultural biomass potentials under varying environmental and crop management frame conditions.

  9. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  10. Virulence of Gibberella zeae on Wheat following Independent Disruptions of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The plant-fungal interaction that occurs when Fusarium graminearum invades small grains such as wheat and barley is complicated and involves many interactions between the invading fungus and the plant host. Although trichothecene toxins are not required for the initial infection of wheat, they are ...

  11. VRS2 regulates hormone-mediated inflorescence patterning in barley.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Helmy M; Eggert, Kai; Koppolu, Ravi; Alqudah, Ahmad M; Poursarebani, Naser; Fazeli, Arash; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Rutten, Twan; Govind, Geetha; Lundqvist, Udda; Graner, Andreas; Komatsuda, Takao; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Plant architecture has clear agronomic and economic implications for crops such as wheat and barley, as it is a critical factor for determining grain yield. Despite this, only limited molecular information is available about how grain-bearing inflorescences, called spikes, are formed and maintain their regular, distichous pattern. Here we elucidate the molecular and hormonal role of Six-rowed spike 2 (Vrs2), which encodes a SHORT INTERNODES (SHI) transcriptional regulator during barley inflorescence and shoot development. We show that Vrs2 is specifically involved in floral organ patterning and phase duration by maintaining hormonal homeostasis and gradients during normal spike development and similarly influences plant stature traits. Furthermore, we establish a link between the SHI protein family and sucrose metabolism during organ growth and development that may have implications for deeper molecular insights into inflorescence and plant architecture in crops.

  12. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  13. Net summertime emission of ammonia from corn and triticale fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Undine; Smith, Jeremy; Brümmer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Recent advancements in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we used a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure high-frequency concentrations of ammonia and the net exchange between an agricultural site and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. The footprint was split into two main sectors, one planted with corn (Zea mays) and the other one with triticale. Ammonia concentrations were highly variable between 2 and almost 100 ppb with an average value of 8.1 ppb during the observation period from April to September 2015. While both deposition and emission of ammonia was observed, the total campaign exchange resulted in a loss of 3.3 kg NH3-N ha-1. Highest average emission fluxes of 65 ng N m-2 s-1 were recorded after fertilization at the beginning of the campaign in April and May. Afterwards the exchange of ammonia with the atmosphere decreased considerably, but the site remained on average a consistent source with sporadic lower peaks and an average flux of 13 ng N m-2 s-1. While management in the form of fertilization was the main driver for ammonia concentration and exchange at the site, biophysical controls from temperature, wind regime, and surface wetness are also presented.

  14. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Md S I; Bowra, S; Schmidt, D; Dionisio, G; Holm, P B; Vincze, E

    2016-02-01

    C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7% reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, the protein band were excised and the proteins identified by quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Subsequent SDS-PAGE separation and analysis of the prolamin fraction of the transgenic lines revealed a reduction in the amounts of C-hordeins and increases in the content of other hordein family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C-hordein level. All transgenic lines that exhibited a reduction for C-hordein showed off-target effects: the lines exhibited increased level of B/γ-hordein while D-hordein level was reduced. Furthermore, the multicopy insertions correlated negatively with silencing.

  15. Climate and N-Mineral Fertilization Changes on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    -600 mm growth period rainfall. References Harnos, Zs. 1993. Időjárás és időjárás-termés összefüggéseinek idősoros elemzése. In: Aszály 1983 (Szerk.: Baráth, Cs-né., Győrffy, B., és Harnos, Zs.). KÉE. Budapest Johnston, A. E. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. José, A. B., Estáquio, M. J., and Márton, L. 2001. Results of Crotalaria ssp. effects on soil conservation. In: Congress on Conservation Agriculture, (Eds Armando, M. V.), ECAF., Madrid, 5, pp 1-4. Márton, L. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effect analysis at Tisza-river basin in a long term field experiment. Szent István University, Gödöllő, p. 9. Márton, L. 2001b. Climate change, N-fertilisation effect on rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. In: Rural development-Ecologically farming-Agriculture, (Eds Palkovics, M.), University Veszprém, Keszthely, pp 924-929. Márton, L. 2002a. Climate-Rainfall Change (CRC) and mineral fertilisation (MF) effects on different crop production. In: Challenges of the new millennium our joint responsibility. (Eds A. Borhidi). MTA ÖBKI. Budapest. 1, pp 110-111. Márton, L. 2002b. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Production 51: 529-542. Márton, L. 2003. Relationships between rainfall, nutrient supplies and the yield of triticale. Plant Production. In press Márton, L., and Pekli, J. 2003. Plant production under sub-arctical and temperate climate conditions. SZIU. Gödöllő Acknowledgement This research was supported by Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-Budapest Adderss of the author Dr. Márton László Ph.D Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1022 H-Budapest, Herman O. u. 15. E-mail:marton@rissac.hu

  16. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    PubMed

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  17. Lignocellulosic nanofibers from triticale straw: The influence of hemicelluloses and lignin in their production and properties.

    PubMed

    Tarrés, Quim; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Vallejos, María Evangelina; Area, Maria Cristina; Delgado-Aguilar, Marc; Mutjé, Pere

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims to determine the influence of hemicellulose and lignin content in the production of lignocellulosic nanofibers (LCNF) from triticale straws. Triticale straws were digested and then gradually delignified, preserving as much hemicelluloses as possible. The obtained LCNF was characterized and used as paper strength additive, observing that hemicellulose and lignin have a key role on the final properties thereof, as well as on their reinforcing potential as paper additive, obtaining LCNF with the same paper reinforcing potential than CNF obtained by TEMPO ((2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperidin-1-yl)oxyl) mediated oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Variation in Seed Longevity within Rye, Wheat and the Intergeneric Hybrid Triticale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the mechanisms by which seeds deteriorate in storage and the genetic and environmental factors that modify seed aging rates require reliable measurement of the seed longevity phenotype and good estimates of within-species variation. To that end, this study compares seed longevity amo...

  19. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  20. Wheat stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanquan; Wellings, Colin; Chen, Xianming; Kang, Zhengsheng; Liu, Taiguo

    2014-06-01

    Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a serious disease of wheat occurring in most wheat areas with cool and moist weather conditions during the growing season. The basidiomycete fungus is an obligate biotrophic parasite that is difficult to culture on artificial media. Pst is a macrocyclic, heteroecious fungus that requires both primary (wheat or grasses) and alternate (Berberis or Mahonia spp.) host plants to complete its life cycle. Urediniospores have the capacity for wind dispersal over long distances, which may, under high inoculum pressure, extend to thousands of kilometres from the initial infection sites. Stripe rust, which is considered to be the current major rust disease affecting winter cereal production across the world, has been studied intensively for over a century. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the Pst-wheat pathosystem, with emphasis on the life cycle, uredinial infection process, population biology of the pathogen, genes for stripe rust resistance in wheat and molecular perspectives of wheat-Pst interactions. The stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis Westend. (Ps), is classified in kingdom Fungi, phylum Basidiomycota, class Urediniomycetes, order Uredinales, family Pucciniaceae, genus Puccinia. Ps is separated below the species level by host specialization on various grass genera, comprising up to nine formae speciales, of which P. striiformis f. sp. tritici Erikss. (Pst) causes stripe (or yellow) rust on wheat. Uredinial/telial hosts: Pst mainly infects common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (T. turgidum var. durum L.), cultivated emmer wheat (T. dicoccum Schrank), wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides Korn) and triticale (Triticosecale). Pst can infect certain cultivated barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), but generally does not cause severe epidemics. In addition, Pst may infect naturalized and improved pasture grass species, such

  1. Application of Brachypodium to the genetic improvement of wheat roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the potential of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon to be used to study grass roots. The aim of such research is to develop knowledge that can be used by plant breeders to create higher yielding cultivars of cereal grains like wheat and barley. It is desirable to use a mode...

  2. Detection and prediction of Sitophilus oryzae infestations in triticale via near infrared spectral signature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The goal of this research was to detect and predict degree of triticale seed infestation with rice weevils using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Groups of seeds at 11 different levels (degrees) of infestation were tested by combining mixtures of infested and uninfested seeds at different ratios. S...

  3. Steam explosion pretreatment of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) straw for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Roberto A; García-Aparicio, María P; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-01-25

    Triticale, a non-food based, low-cost and well-adapted crop in marginal lands has been considered as a potential 1G and 2G feedstock for bio-ethanol production. In this work, triticale straw was evaluated as a source of fermentable sugars by combination of uncatalyzed steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. Pretreatment conditions with severities from 3.05 to 4.12 were compared in order to identify conditions that favour the recovery of hemicellulose-derived sugars, cellulose digestibility or the combined sugars yield (CSY) from the pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis. Xylose oligosaccharide was the major sugar in hydrolysates from all pretreatment conditions. Maximum hemicellulose-sugars recovery (52% of the feedstock content) was obtained at 200 °C and 5 min. The highest cellulose digestibility (95%) was found at 200 °C - 15 min, although glucose recovery from hydrolysis was maximised at 200 °C - 10 min (digestibility >92%) due to higher mass yield of pretreated solids. The maximum CSY (nearly 77% of theoretical content) was obtained at 200 °C - 5 min. Sugar loss after pretreatment was observed to higher extent at harsher severities. However, the concentrations of sugar degradation products and acetic acid were at levels below tolerance limits of the downstream biological conversions. Steam explosion pretreatment without acid impregnation is a good technology for production of fermentable sugars from triticale straw. This work provides foundation for future autohydrolysis steam explosion optimization studies to enhanced sugars recovery and digestibility of triticale straw.

  4. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per..., 3, or 4; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones or any number of stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds...

  5. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight per..., 3, or 4; or (b) Contains 8 or more stones or any number of stones which have an aggregate weight in excess of 0.2 percent of the sample weight, 2 or more pieces of glass, 3 or more crotalaria seeds...

  6. Starch synthesis and programmed cell death during endosperm development in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Wei-Hua; Li, Cheng; Gaudet, Denis A; Laroche, André; Cao, Lian-Pu; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2010-07-01

    Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) grains synthesize and accumulate starch as their main energy source. Starch accumulation rate and synthesis activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthases, granule-bound starch synthase and starch-branching enzyme showed similar pattern of unimodal curves during endosperm development. There was no significant difference in activity of the starch granule-bound protein isolated from total and separated starch granules at different developmental stages after anthesis in triticale. Evans Blue staining and analysis of DNA fragmentation indicated that cells of triticale endosperm undergo programmed cell death during its development. Dead cells within the endosperm were detected at 6 d post anthesis (DPA), and evidence of DNA fragmentation was first observed at 21 DPA. The period between initial detection of PCD to its rapid increase overlapped with the key stages of rapid starch accumulation during endosperm development. Cell death occurred stochastically throughout the whole endosperm, meanwhile, the activities of starch biosynthetic enzymes and the starch accumulation rate decreased in the late stages of grain filling. These results suggested that the timing and progression of PCD in triticale endosperm may interfere with starch synthesis and accumulation.

  7. Relationship between climatic factors and distribution of Pratylenchus spp. in the dryland wheat production areas of Eastern Washington

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field surveys were conducted by collecting soil samples to estimate nematode densities in soil from winter wheat, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring legumes (lentil, chickpea, and pea) fields during 2010 and 2011. Pratylenchus spp. were observed in 60 percent of sampled fields. However, nematod...

  8. Identification of barley-specific peptide markers that persist in processed foods and are capable of detecting barley contamination by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-16

    Consumers, especially those with allergies and/or intolerances, should have confidence in two critical areas of food safety: foods should be correctly labelled and free from contamination. To this end, global proteomic analysis employing LC-MS/MS of gluten-enriched extracts derived from 12 barley cultivars was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of barley contamination in foods. Subsequently, a number of candidate barley-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. From an initial panel of 26, 9 peptide markers were unique to barley, yet present in a wide range of barley varieties. The analytical method was then used to examine a range of breakfast cereals and was able to detect barley in a barley-based breakfast cereal and a muesli, but additionally allowed detection of contamination of cereals that were comprised of ancient grains and in commercially-sourced flours, including amaranth, chia, buckwheat, millet, rice, corn, oats, rye, spelt and green wheat (0.01-0.08%). LC-MS/MS provides an alternative to ELISA approaches to monitor food safety and the identification of robust and sensitive cereal-specific peptide markers is the first step toward the adoption of this technology. Coeliac disease is a serious health issue affecting up to 70million people globally for which there is no cure. The only treatment is a life-long gluten-free diet. Contamination of foods can occur at many stages of food production from farm to fork. As such, accurate quantification and identification of the source (i.e. cereal) and type (e.g. gluten) of contamination is critical to the health and well-being of a subset of the population, including those affected by coeliac disease and non-coeliac gluten sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Single nucleotide mutation in the barley acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) gene confers resistance to imidazolinone herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyejin; Rustgi, Sachin; Kumar, Neeraj; Burke, Ian; Yenish, Joseph P.; Gill, Kulvinder S.; von Wettstein, Diter; Ullrich, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Induced mutagenesis can be an effective way to increase variability in self-pollinated crops for a wide variety of agronomically important traits. Crop resistance to a given herbicide can be of practical value to control weeds with efficient chemical use. In some crops (for example, wheat, maize, and canola), resistance to imidazolinone herbicides (IMIs) has been introduced through mutation breeding and is extensively used commercially. However, this production system imposes plant-back restrictions on rotational crops because of herbicide residuals in the soil. In the case of barley, a preferred rotational crop after wheat, a period of 9–18 mo is required. Thus, introduction of barley varieties showing resistance to IMIs will provide greater flexibility as a rotational crop. The objective of the research reported was to identify resistance in barley for IMIs through induced mutagenesis. To achieve this objective, a sodium azide-treated M2/M3 population of barley cultivar Bob was screened for resistance against acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. The phenotypic screening allowed identification of a mutant line showing resistance against IMIs. Molecular analysis identified a single-point mutation leading to a serine 653 to asparagine amino acid substitution in the herbicide-binding site of the barley AHAS gene. The transcription pattern of the AHAS gene in the mutant (Ser653Asn) and WT has been analyzed, and greater than fourfold difference in transcript abundance was observed. Phenotypic characteristics of the mutant line are promising and provide the base for the release of IMI-resistant barley cultivar(s). PMID:21551103

  10. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Effect of Whole-Grain Barley on the Human Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Vannini, Lucia; Cosola, Carmela; Cavallo, Noemi; Gozzi, Giorgia; Maranzano, Valentina; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community-level catabolic profiles. Pyrosequencing data showed that levels of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium orbiscindens and Clostridium sp.), Roseburia hominis, and Ruminococcus sp. increased, while levels of other Firmicutes and Fusobacteria decreased, from the HSB samples to the HS fecal samples. Community-level catabolic profiles were lower in HSB samples. Compared to the results for HS samples, cultivable lactobacilli increased in HSB fecal samples, while the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, and Aeromonas bacteria decreased. Metabolome analyses were performed using an amino acid analyzer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry solid-phase microextraction. A marked increase in short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as 2-methyl-propanoic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids, was found in HSB samples with respect to the HS fecal samples. Durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing 3% barley β-glucans appeared to be effective in modulating the composition and metabolic pathways of the intestinal microbiota, leading to an increased level of SCFA in the HSB samples. PMID:26386056

  12. Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically Isolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell.

    PubMed Central

    Holm, P. B.; Knudsen, S.; Mouritzen, P.; Negri, D.; Olsen, F. L.; Roue, C.

    1994-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from ~75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the protoplasts of the fertilized egg cells developed into embryo-like structures that gave rise to fully fertile plants. On average, 75% of cocultivated protoplasts of fertilized egg cells developed into embryo-like structures. Fully fertile plants were regenerated from ~50% of the embryo-like structures. The isolation-regeneration techniques may be largely genotype independent, because similar frequencies were obtained in two different barley varieties with very different performance in anther and microspore culture. Protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized eggs of wheat were isolated by the same procedure, and a fully fertile wheat plant was regenerated by cocultivation with barley microspores. PMID:12244247

  13. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and ‘Miracle-Wheat’

    PubMed Central

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Youssef, Helmy M.; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. ‘Compositum-Barley’ and tetraploid ‘Miracle-Wheat’ (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation ‘Miracle-Wheat’ produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in ‘Compositum-Barley,’ i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched headt (bht) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid ‘Miracle-Wheat.’ Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bht locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of ‘Miracle-Wheat.’ mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat’s yield potential. PMID:26156223

  14. Wheat cultivation: Identification and estimation of areas using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Cottrell, D. A.; Tardin, A. T.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Moreira, M. A.; Delimaefernandocelsosoaresmaia, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatically processed multispectral data obtained from LANDSAT to identify wheat and estimate the areas planted with this grain was investigated. Three 20 km by 40 km segments in a wheat growing region of Rio Grande do Sul were aerially photographed using type 2443 Aerochrome film. Three maps corresponding to each segment were obtained from the analysis of the photographs which identified wheat, barley, fallow land, prepared soil, forests, and reforested land. Using basic information about the fields and maps made from the photographed areas, an automatic classification of wheat was made using MSS data from two different periods: July to September and July to October 1979. Results show that orbital data is not only useful in characterizing the growth of wheat, but also provides information of the intensity and extent of adverse climate which affects cultivation. The temporal and spatial characteristics of LANDSAR data are also demonstrated.

  15. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  16. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of

  17. Safety of barley starch syrup in patients with allergy to cereals.

    PubMed

    Nermes, Merja; Karvonen, Henna; Sarkkinen, Essi; Isolauri, Erika

    2009-01-01

    It is not known whether trace amounts of proteins that may remain in cereal-starch-derived food ingredients even after food processing can trigger allergic symptoms in cereal-allergic individuals. The aim of this study was to find out if barley starch syrup causes allergic reactions in patients with allergy to wheat, barley, rye or oats. Fifteen children with allergy to these cereals, confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), were selected for the study. When exposed to cereals, seven of the children (47%) showed immediate type reactions, such as urticaria, rash or anaphylaxis. Eight of the children (53%) showed delayed type reactions, such as deterioration of atopic dermatitis or diarrhoea. The fifteen children with allergy to cereals were exposed to barley starch syrup in DBPCFC and none of them showed any objective signs of allergy. On skin-prick tests (SPT), five of the children (33.3%) showed a positive (>or= 3 mm) reaction to at least one of the cereals but none of them to barley starch syrup. This study confirmed with 98% confidence that at least 90% of the patients with verified allergy to cereals will not react with allergic symptoms to barley starch syrup.

  18. Induction of beta-1,3-glucanase in barley in response to infection by fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jutidamrongphan, W; Andersen, J B; Mackinnon, G; Manners, J M; Simpson, R S; Scott, K J

    1991-05-01

    The sequence of a partial cDNA clone corresponding to an mRNA induced in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by infection with fungal pathogens matched almost perfectly with that of a cDNA clone coding for beta-1,-3-glucanase isolated from the scutellum of barley. Western blot analysis of intercellular proteins from near-isogenic barley lines inoculated with the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) showed a strong induction of glucanase in all inoculated lines but was most pronounced in two resistant lines. These data were confirmed by beta-1,3-glucanase assays. The barley cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to detect mRNAs in barley, wheat (Triticum aestivum), rice (oryza sativus), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), which are induced by infection with the necrotrophic pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana. These results demonstrate that activation of beta-1,3-glucanase genes may be a general response of cereals to infection by fungal pathogens.

  19. Sequencing of 15 622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Lonardi, Stefano; Luo, MingCheng; Madishetty, Kavitha; Svensson, Jan T; Moscou, Matthew J; Wanamaker, Steve; Jiang, Tao; Kleinhofs, Andris; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Wise, Roger P; Stein, Nils; Ma, Yaqin; Rodriguez, Edmundo; Kudrna, Dave; Bhat, Prasanna R; Chao, Shiaoman; Condamine, Pascal; Heinen, Shane; Resnik, Josh; Wing, Rod; Witt, Heather N; Alpert, Matthew; Beccuti, Marco; Bozdag, Serdar; Cordero, Francesca; Mirebrahim, Hamid; Ounit, Rachid; Wu, Yonghui; You, Frank; Zheng, Jie; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Duma, Denisa; Altschmied, Lothar; Blake, Tom; Bregitzer, Phil; Cooper, Laurel; Dilbirligi, Muharrem; Falk, Anders; Feiz, Leila; Graner, Andreas; Gustafson, Perry; Hayes, Patrick M; Lemaux, Peggy; Mammadov, Jafar; Close, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) possesses a large and highly repetitive genome of 5.1 Gb that has hindered the development of a complete sequence. In 2012, the International Barley Sequencing Consortium released a resource integrating whole-genome shotgun sequences with a physical and genetic framework. However, because only 6278 bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs) in the physical map were sequenced, fine structure was limited. To gain access to the gene-containing portion of the barley genome at high resolution, we identified and sequenced 15 622 BACs representing the minimal tiling path of 72 052 physical-mapped gene-bearing BACs. This generated ~1.7 Gb of genomic sequence containing an estimated 2/3 of all Morex barley genes. Exploration of these sequenced BACs revealed that although distal ends of chromosomes contain most of the gene-enriched BACs and are characterized by high recombination rates, there are also gene-dense regions with suppressed recombination. We made use of published map-anchored sequence data from Aegilops tauschii to develop a synteny viewer between barley and the ancestor of the wheat D-genome. Except for some notable inversions, there is a high level of collinearity between the two species. The software HarvEST:Barley provides facile access to BAC sequences and their annotations, along with the barley-Ae. tauschii synteny viewer. These BAC sequences constitute a resource to improve the efficiency of marker development, map-based cloning, and comparative genomics in barley and related crops. Additional knowledge about regions of the barley genome that are gene-dense but low recombination is particularly relevant.

  20. Sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emissions from winter barley biofuel feedstock life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speers, C. M.; Gurian, P. L.; Adler, P. R.; Del Grosso, S.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Winter barley is an attractive feedstock for first generation biofuel production in the US Mid-Atlantic region that can serve East Coast transportation fuel markets. Recently designated advanced fuel standing by US EPA, the influence of barley grown as a winter crop on N2O emissions is uncertain because of high spatial and temporal variability. Our objective is to examine the sensitivity of direct and indirect N2O emissions to different management and environmental factors within a 20 year winter barley rotation in two Mid-Atlantic counties (Lenoir, North Carolina, and Queen Anne's, Maryland) using first order uncertainty methods. Specifically, we conducted simulations using the DayCent biogeochemical model, where winter barley was introduced in a two-year rotation following corn and preceding soybean, and grown in four-year cycles that alternate with winter wheat and fallow periods. We tested different model input parameters and analyzed the level of uncertainty each contributes to both direct and indirect N2O emissions with the introduction of barley into the crop rotation. The input values for pH, precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and fertilizer quantity applied were altered from base values and outputs for rotations with and without winter barley were compared by calculating partial derivatives for each parameter to estimate the relative change in N2O emitted. Fertilizer, followed by soil texture, introduces the greatest uncertainty in N2O emissions, with the remaining parameters contributing to lesser, but still significant uncertainty. Therefore, as barley is introduced onto a farm for biofuel production, it is most important to carefully control the fertilizer additions, and to monitor the soil texture class characteristics.

  1. A Genome Wide Association Study of arabinoxylan content in 2-row spring barley grain.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ali Saleh; Houston, Kelly; Lahnstein, Jelle; Shirley, Neil; Schwerdt, Julian G; Gidley, Michael J; Waugh, Robbie; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A

    2017-01-01

    In barley endosperm arabinoxylan (AX) is the second most abundant cell wall polysaccharide and in wheat it is the most abundant polysaccharide in the starchy endosperm walls of the grain. AX is one of the main contributors to grain dietary fibre content providing several health benefits including cholesterol and glucose lowering effects, and antioxidant activities. Due to its complex structural features, AX might also affect the downstream applications of barley grain in malting and brewing. Using a high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method we quantified AX amounts in mature grain in 128 spring 2-row barley accessions. Amounts ranged from ~ 5.2 μg/g to ~ 9 μg/g. We used this data for a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) that revealed three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with grain AX levels which passed a false discovery threshold (FDR) and are located on two of the seven barley chromosomes. Regions underlying the QTLs were scanned for genes likely to be involved in AX biosynthesis or turnover, and strong candidates, including glycosyltransferases from the GT43 and GT61 families and glycoside hydrolases from the GH10 family, were identified. Phylogenetic trees of selected gene families were built based on protein translations and were used to examine the relationship of the barley candidate genes to those in other species. Our data reaffirms the roles of existing genes thought to contribute to AX content, and identifies novel QTL (and candidate genes associated with them) potentially influencing the AX content of barley grain. One potential outcome of this work is the deployment of highly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms markers in breeding programs to guide the modification of AX abundance in barley grain.

  2. Distribution, functional impact, and origin mechanisms of copy number variation in the barley genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence for the prevalence of copy number variation (CNV) and its role in phenotypic variation in many eukaryotic species. Here we use array comparative genomic hybridization to explore the extent of this type of structural variation in domesticated barley cultivars and wild barleys. Results A collection of 14 barley genotypes including eight cultivars and six wild barleys were used for comparative genomic hybridization. CNV affects 14.9% of all the sequences that were assessed. Higher levels of CNV diversity are present in the wild accessions relative to cultivated barley. CNVs are enriched near the ends of all chromosomes except 4H, which exhibits the lowest frequency of CNVs. CNV affects 9.5% of the coding sequences represented on the array and the genes affected by CNV are enriched for sequences annotated as disease-resistance proteins and protein kinases. Sequence-based comparisons of CNV between cultivars Barke and Morex provided evidence that DNA repair mechanisms of double-strand breaks via single-stranded annealing and synthesis-dependent strand annealing play an important role in the origin of CNV in barley. Conclusions We present the first catalog of CNVs in a diploid Triticeae species, which opens the door for future genome diversity research in a tribe that comprises the economically important cereal species wheat, barley, and rye. Our findings constitute a valuable resource for the identification of CNV affecting genes of agronomic importance. We also identify potential mechanisms that can generate variation in copy number in plant genomes. PMID:23758725

  3. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  5. Wheat Newsletter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  6. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  7. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheat-free diet is less restrictive than a gluten-free diet. Wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis Some people ... that it's always safe. Ingredients change. Shop for gluten-free foods. Some specialty stores and supermarkets offer gluten- ...

  8. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  9. Defeating the Warrior: genetic architecture of triticale resistance against a novel aggressive yellow rust race.

    PubMed

    Losert, Dominik; Maurer, Hans Peter; Leiser, Willmar L; Würschum, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Genome-wide association mapping of resistance against the novel, aggressive 'Warrior' race of yellow rust in triticale revealed a genetic architecture with some medium-effect QTL and a quantitative component, which in combination confer high levels of resistance on both leaves and ears. Yellow rust is an important destructive fungal disease in small grain cereals and the exotic 'Warrior' race has recently conquered Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of yellow rust resistance in hexaploid winter triticale as the basis for a successful resistance breeding. To this end, a diverse panel of 919 genotypes was evaluated for yellow rust infection on leaves and ears in multi-location field trials and genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing as well as for known Yr resistance loci. Genome-wide association mapping identified ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yellow rust resistance on the leaves and seven of these also for ear resistance. The total genotypic variance explained by the QTL amounted to 44.0% for leaf and 26.0% for ear resistance. The same three medium-effect QTL were identified for both traits on chromosomes 1B, 2B, and 7B. Interestingly, plants pyramiding the resistance allele of all three medium-effect QTL were generally most resistant, but constitute less than 5% of the investigated triticale breeding material. Nevertheless, a genome-wide prediction yielded a higher predictive ability than prediction based on these three QTL. Taken together, our results show that yellow rust resistance in winter triticale is genetically complex, including both medium-effect QTL as well as a quantitative resistance component. Resistance to the novel 'Warrior' race of this fungal pathogen is consequently best achieved by recurrent selection in the field based on identified resistant lines and can potentially be assisted by genomic approaches.

  10. Chromatin structure in barley nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mithieux, G; Roux, B

    1983-10-03

    In order to study the chromatin structure of a higher plant we used a high-yield method, which allows one to obtain up to 10(9) nuclei/kg fresh barley leaves. Significant amounts of low-ionic-strength-soluble chromatin can be extracted from these nuclei. Physicochemical properties were examined and discussed. Electric birefringence allowed us to observe the same transition in electro-optical properties as has been observed for animal chromatin, and suggested the existence of a symetrical structure occurring for approximately six nucleosomes. Circular dichroism showed that barley oligonucleosomes exhibit a higher molar ellipticity at 282 nm than total soluble chromatin and than their animal counterparts.

  11. Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative. PMID:22593686

  12. Growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants fertilized with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400 mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative.

  13. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    PubMed

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pH<4.0 after two backslopping steps), and of Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Weissella confusa and Weissella cibaria in the case of the bakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Liming and Fertilization Effects on Triticale (XTriticosecale W.) Yield Between 1999 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    Precipitation amount, distribution and nitrogen (N)-, phosphorus (P2O5)-, potassium (K2O)-, calcium (CaO)-, and magnesium (MgO) fertilization interaction effects were studied on a sandy acidic lessivated brown forest soil; WRB: Haplic Luvisol in the 44 year old Nyírlugos Field Trial (NYFT) in a Hungarian fragile agro-ecosystem in Nyírség region (N: 470 41' 60'' and E: 220 2' 80'') on triticale (X Triticosecale W.) yield from 1999 to 2006. At the trial set up in 1962, the soil had the following agrochemical properties: pH (H2O) 5.9, pH (KCl) 4.7, hydrolytic acidity 8.4, hy1 0.3, humus 0.7%, total N 34 mg kg-1, ammonlactate (AL) soluble-P2O5 43 mg kg-1, AL-K2O 60 mg kg-1 in the plowed (0-25 cm) layer. From 1980 to 2006, the experiment consisted of 32x4=128 plots in randomised block design. The gross plot size was 10x5=50 m2. The average fertilizer rates in kg ha-1 year-1 were nitrogen 75, phosphorus 90 (P2O5), potassium 90 (K2O), calcium 437.5 (CaCO3) and magnesium 140 (MgCO3). The groundwater table has had at a depth of 2-3 m below the surface. The main results are as follows. During drought conditions the respective yield of the control areas was -25% less than for average years. The application of N alone, or of NP and NK treatments, led to yield reduction of -19.7%, while that of NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg or NPKCaMg caused an -28.3% drop during these types of years. In the wet years, the yield decreased by -22.2% on the unfertilized soils; in the case of N, NP, or NK nutrition with an -14.1%; and increased at 13.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treated plots. In the very wettest year, the yields were dropped -43.1% on control soils, -39.3% of N, NP, or NK loadings and -35.8% on NPK, NPKCa, NPKMg and NPKCaMg treatments to those in the average year. The relationships between rainfall quantitiy during the vegetation period N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrition and yield were characterised by polynomial correlations (control: R= 0.7212***, N: R = 0.7410***, NP: R = 0

  15. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  16. Vulnerability of Barley to African Pathotypes of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and Sources of Resistance.

    PubMed

    Steffenson, B J; Case, A J; Pretorius, Z A; Coetzee, V; Kloppers, F J; Zhou, H; Chai, Y; Wanyera, R; Macharia, G; Bhavani, S; Grando, S

    2017-08-01

    The emergence of widely virulent pathotypes (e.g., TTKSK in the Ug99 race group) of the stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Africa threatens wheat production on a global scale. Although intensive research efforts have been advanced to address this threat in wheat, few studies have been conducted on barley, even though pathotypes such as TTKSK are known to attack the crop. The main objectives of this study were to assess the vulnerability of barley to pathotype TTKSK and identify possible sources of resistance. From seedling evaluations of more than 1,924 diverse cultivated barley accessions to pathotype TTKSK, more than 95% (1,844) were found susceptible. A similar high frequency (910 of 934 = 97.4%) of susceptibility was found for the wild progenitor (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) of cultivated barley. Additionally, 55 barley lines with characterized or putative introgressions from various wild Hordeum spp. were also tested against pathotype TTKSK but none was found resistant. In total, more than 96% of the 2,913 Hordeum accessions tested were susceptible as seedlings, indicating the extreme vulnerability of the crop to the African pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. In total, 32 (1.7% of accessions evaluated) and 13 (1.4%) cultivated and wild barley accessions, respectively, exhibited consistently highly resistant to moderately resistant reactions across all experiments. Molecular assays were conducted on these resistant accessions to determine whether they carried rpg4/Rpg5, the only gene complex known to be highly effective against pathotype TTKSK in barley. Twelve of the 32 (37.5%) resistant cultivated accessions and 11 of the 13 (84.6%) resistant wild barley accessions tested positive for a functional Rpg5 gene, highlighting the narrow genetic base of resistance in Hordeum spp. Other resistant accessions lacking the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were discovered in the evaluated germplasm and may possess useful resistance genes. Combining

  17. Genome assembly of Diuraphis noxia strain: RWA2 Russian wheat aphid. Bioproject: PRJNA233413. Assembly No. ASM118638v1 (Dnoxia_1.0)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is among one of the most destructive species with origins in Central Asia west of the Tian Shan Mountains in northwestern China. It is a significant pest of wheat and barley, expanded its range throughout all cereal production areas of the world, ...

  18. Development of a method using multispectral imagery and spatial pattern metrics to quantify stress to wheat fields caused by Diuraphis noxia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, is an important pest of winter wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare that has caused an annual economic loss estimated at over 1 billion dollars since it first appeared in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine the p...

  19. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  20. Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-07-27

    We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.

  1. Influence of inoculum and climatic factors on the severity of Fusarium head blight in German spring and winter barley.

    PubMed

    Linkmeyer, Andrea; Hofer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael; Herz, Markus; Hausladen, Hans; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small cereals is a disease of global importance with regard to economic losses and mycotoxin contamination harmful to human and animal health. In Germany, FHB is predominantly associated with wheat and F. graminearum is recognised as the major causal agent of the disease, but little is known about FHB of barley. Monitoring of the natural occurrence of FHB on Bavarian barley revealed differences for individual Fusarium spp. in incidence and severity of grain infection between years and between spring and winter barley. Parallel measurement of fungal DNA content in grain and mycotoxin content suggested the importance of F. graminearum in winter barley and of F. langsethiae in spring barley for FHB. The infection success of these two species was associated with certain weather conditions and barley flowering time. Inoculation experiments in the field revealed different effects of five Fusarium spp. on symptom formation, grain yield and mycotoxin production. A significant association between fungal infection of grain and mycotoxin content was observed following natural or artificial infection with the type B trichothecene producer F. culmorum, but not with the type A trichothecene-producing species F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Trichothecene type A toxin contamination also occurred in the absence of significant damage to grain and did not necessarily promote fungal colonisation.

  2. A high throughput barley stripe mosaic virus vector for virus induced gene silencing in monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cheng; Li, Cui; Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies.

  3. A High Throughput Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Vector for Virus Induced Gene Silencing in Monocots and Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lijie; Jackson, Andrew O.; Liu, Zhiyong; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2011-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a single-stranded RNA virus with three genome components designated alpha, beta, and gamma. BSMV vectors have previously been shown to be efficient virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) vehicles in barley and wheat and have provided important information about host genes functioning during pathogenesis as well as various aspects of genes functioning in development. To permit more effective use of BSMV VIGS for functional genomics experiments, we have developed an Agrobacterium delivery system for BSMV and have coupled this with a ligation independent cloning (LIC) strategy to mediate efficient cloning of host genes. Infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves provided excellent sources of virus for secondary BSMV infections and VIGS in cereals. The Agro/LIC BSMV VIGS vectors were able to function in high efficiency down regulation of phytoene desaturase (PDS), magnesium chelatase subunit H (ChlH), and plastid transketolase (TK) gene silencing in N. benthamiana and in the monocots, wheat, barley, and the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. Suppression of an Arabidopsis orthologue cloned from wheat (TaPMR5) also interfered with wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) infections in a manner similar to that of the A. thaliana PMR5 loss-of-function allele. These results imply that the PMR5 gene has maintained similar functions across monocot and dicot families. Our BSMV VIGS system provides substantial advantages in expense, cloning efficiency, ease of manipulation and ability to apply VIGS for high throughput genomics studies. PMID:22031834

  4. Interactions between Metopolophium festucae cerealium (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV)

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, S. E.; Bjur, J.; Ingwell, L.; Unger, L.; Bosque-Pérez, N. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between an invasive aphid, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium, and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV) were studied under laboratory conditions. M. festucae cerealium is an economic pest of wheat and barley that has recently been found in high population densities in wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. BYDV-PAV is the most prevalent and injurious species of BYDV worldwide and in the Pacific Northwest. Although M. festucae sensu stricto (Theobald 1917) has been reported previously as a vector of some BYDV isolates, there is no confirmed transmission of BYDV by M. festucae cerealium. Two experiments examined the ability of M. festucae cerealium to transmit BYDV-PAV. The first used single aphids caged to indicator plants of a BYDV-susceptible winter wheat cultivar and the second used multiple aphids on each test plant. M. festucae cerealium did not transmit BYDV-PAV in either experiment, whereas transmission by a known BYDV vector, Rhopalosiphum padi L., was consistently high (≥93%). A third experiment compared the intrinsic growth rate, days until first reproduction and daily reproduction by M. festucae cerealium on sham-inoculated and BYDV-PAV-infected wheat, but detected no differences. The findings are reviewed in light published data on M. festucae species, BYDV transmission, and the potential pest status of this new invading aphid. PMID:26896673

  5. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  6. Physical and sensory properties of all-barley and all-oat breads with additional hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace H

    2011-01-26

    Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) is a substituted cellulose that reduces serum cholesterol at modest intake levels. HPMC has also been used for decades in gluten-free breads at a level to optimize loaf volume. Because consumers resist the consumption of whole wheat breads, the sensory and physical properties of all oat and barley breads incorporating HPMC were evaluated. Oat and barley also contain β-glucan, a glucose polymer similar to HPMC that also lowers cholesterol. The textural and sensory properties of the breads were determined by instrumental and chemical methods and sensory panels. HPMC increased the loaf volume of the breads by up to 2 times and decreased hardness immediately after baking and after up to 3 days of storage. Barley bread with HPMC was rated the highest in overall acceptability by sensory panelists compared to oat and wheat breads with or without HPMC.

  7. Reduction of Rhizoctonia bare patch win wheat with barley rotations.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major fungal root disease in no-till cropping systems. In an 8-year experiment comparing various dryland no-till cropping systems near Ritzville, Washington, Rhizoctonia bare patch first appeared in year 3 and continued through year 8. ...

  8. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Production and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeri, Paul A.; Jones, Huw D.

    Ever since the first developments in plant transformation technology using model plant species in the early 1980s, there has been a body of plant science research devoted to adapting these techniques to the transformation of crop plants. For some crop species progress was relatively rapid, but in other crop groups such as the small grain cereals, which were not readily amenable to culture in vitro and were not natural hosts to Agrobacterium, it has taken nearly two decades to develop reliable and robust transformation methods.

  9. Transgenic wheat, barley and oats: production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Paul A; Jones, Huw D

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the first developments in plant transformation technology using model plant species in the early 1980s, there has been a body of plant science research devoted to adapting these techniques to the transformation of crop plants. For some crop species progress was relatively rapid, but in other crop groups such as the small grain cereals, which were not readily amenable to culture in vitro and were not natural hosts to Agrobacterium, it has taken nearly two decades to develop reliable and robust transformation methods.In the following chapters of this book, transformation procedures for small grain cereals are presented, together with methods for gene and protein expression and the characterization of transgenic plants. In this introductory chapter we try to put these later chapters into context, giving an overview of the development of transformation technology for small grain cereals, discussing some of the pros and cons of the techniques and what limitations still exist.

  10. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  11. Distribution and diversity of russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes in North America.

    PubMed

    Puterka, Gary J; Burd, John D; Porter, David; Shufran, Kevin; Baker, Cheryl; Bowling, Bob; Patrick, Carl

    2007-10-01

    Wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) resistance based on the Dn4 gene has been important in managing Russian wheat aphid since 1994. Recently, five biotypes (RWA1-RWA5) of this aphid have been described based on their ability to differentially damage RWA resistance genes in wheat. RWA2, RWA4, and RWA5 are of great concern because they can kill wheat with Dn4 resistance. In 2005, 365 Russian wheat aphid clone colonies were made from collections taken from 98 fields of wheat or barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and Wyoming to determine their biotypic status. The biotype of each clone was determined through its ability to differentially damage two resistant and two susceptible wheat entries in two phases of screening. The first phase determined the damage responses of Russian wheat aphid wheat entries with resistance genes Dn4, Dn7, and susceptible 'Custer' to infestations by each clone to identify RWA1 to RWA4. The second phase used the responses of Custer and 'Yuma' wheat to identify RWA1 and RWA5. Only two biotypes, RWA1 and RWA2, were identified in this study. The biotype composition across all collection sites was 27.2% RWA1 and 72.8% RWA2. RWA biotype frequency by state indicated that RWA2 was the predominant biotype and composed 73-95% of the biotype complex in Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and Wyoming. Our study indicated that RWA2 is widely distributed and that it has rapidly dominated the biotype complex in wheat and barley within its primary range from Texas to Wyoming. Wheat with the Dn4 resistance gene will have little value in managing RWA in the United States, based on the predominance of RWA2.

  12. Application of Molecular Genetics and Transformation to Barley Improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter of the new barley monograph summarizes current applications of molecular genetics and transformation to barley improvement. The chapter describes recent applications of molecular markers including association genetics, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in barley programs, and in...

  13. A New Resource for Cereal Genomics: 22K Barley GeneChip Comes of Age1

    PubMed Central

    Close, Timothy J.; Wanamaker, Steve I.; Caldo, Rico A.; Turner, Stacy M.; Ashlock, Daniel A.; Dickerson, Julie A.; Wing, Rod A.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Kleinhofs, Andris; Wise, Roger P.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, access to complete genomic sequences, coupled with rapidly accumulating data related to RNA and protein expression patterns, has made it possible to determine comprehensively how genes contribute to complex phenotypes. However, for major crop plants, publicly available, standard platforms for parallel expression analysis have been limited. We report the conception and design of the new publicly available, 22K Barley1 GeneChip probe array, a model for plants without a fully sequenced genome. Array content was derived from worldwide contribution of 350,000 high-quality ESTs from 84 cDNA libraries, in addition to 1,145 barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database. Conserved sequences expressed in seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum), oat (Avena strigosa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and maize (Zea mays) were identified that will be valuable in the design of arrays across grasses. To enhance the usability of the data, BarleyBase, a MIAME-compliant, MySQL relational database, serves as a public repository for raw and normalized expression data from the Barley1 GeneChip probe array. Interconnecting links with PlantGDB and Gramene allow BarleyBase users to perform gene predictions using the 21,439 non-redundant Barley1 exemplar sequences or cross-species comparison at the genome level, respectively. We expect that this first generation array will accelerate hypothesis generation and gene discovery in disease defense pathways, responses to abiotic stresses, development, and evolutionary diversity in monocot plants. PMID:15020760

  14. Sequence diversity of wheat mosaic virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lucy R

    2016-02-02

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), transmitted by eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) is the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat and maize. WMoV and other members of the genus Emaravirus evaded thorough molecular characterization for many years due to the experimental challenges of mite transmission and manipulating multisegmented negative sense RNA genomes. Recently, the complete genome sequence of a Nebraska isolate of WMoV revealed eight segments, plus a variant sequence of the nucleocapsid protein-encoding segment. Here, near-complete and partial consensus sequences of five more WMoV isolates are reported and compared to the Nebraska isolate: an Ohio maize isolate (GG1), a Kansas barley isolate (KS7), and three Ohio wheat isolates (H1, K1, W1). Results show two distinct groups of WMoV isolates: Ohio wheat isolate RNA segments had 84% or lower nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate, whereas GG1 and KS7 had 98% or higher nucleotide sequence identity to the NE isolate. Knowledge of the sequence variability of WMoV isolates is a step toward understanding virus biology, and potentially explaining observed biological variation.

  15. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of barley dietary fiber by chemical modification.

    PubMed

    Park, Ka Hwa; Lee, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Chemical modification of dietary fiber (DF), extracted from whole grain barley, was carried out to obtain cross-linked (CL) DF, carboxymethyl (CM) DF, and hydroxypropyl (HP) DF. The DF components, physicochemical properties, and subsequent influence on the in vitro digestibility of wheat starch gels were comparatively investigated. The redistribution of fiber components from chemically modified DF was observed. An increase in the total DF (TDF) content of CL- and HP-DF was observed, which was mainly due to an increase of insoluble DF. Carboxymethylation led to an appreciable increase of soluble DF (1.17-6.20%) but TDF contents slightly decreased. Chemical modification of barley DF led to increases in arabinose (7.1-11.5%) and xylose (10.7-17.5%), but glucose contents decreased (67.4-79.9%). The treatments, especially carboxymethylation, effectively (P<0.05) increased hydration properties (e.g. water solubility, swelling power, and water absorption index). Substitution of 5% wheat starch with CL-, and HP-DF led to decreased in vitro digestibility in comparison to the control starch. Our results suggest that chemical modification improve the DF characteristics of barley and to exploit its potential application as a functional ingredient in fiber-rich products.

  16. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  17. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-08

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4).

  18. [Characteristics of alpha-amylase isozymes in cytologenetically different wheat cultivars].

    PubMed

    Netsvetaev, V P; Badaeva, E D

    2014-07-01

    The isoenzyme composition of alpha-amylase is studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in Tris-glycine (pH 8.3) system in wheat cultivars with different genome composition. We show that durum wheat (Triticum durum, 2n=4x=28, BBAA) lacks the isoenzymes encoded by 6D and 7D chromosomes that are present in common wheat zymograms (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, BBAADD). A similar pattern is observed in a synthetic allohexaploid carrying the BBAA genomes of wheat and the HchHch genome of barley (Hordeum chilense). Our method of electrophoresis fails to reveal additional variants of alpha-amylase encoded by the barley genome, although C-banding analysis confirms the genomic structure BBAAHChHCh of this allopolyploid. The electrophoretic spectrum of the spring common wheat cultivar Dobrynya with the wheat-Agropyron translocation 7DL-7AiL contains all of the alpha-amylase isoenzymes typical for common wheat (2n=6x=42, BBAADD) except for the zymotype encoded by the long arm of chromosome 7D. This observation confirms the results of cytogenetic analysis that identified a 7DL-7AiL translocation in this cultivar. No additional alpha-amylase isoenzymes encoded by Agropyron chromosome have been observed. Our data indicate that analysis of wheat-alien hybrids or introgressive forms should be carried out using a complex of different methods.

  19. Screening Locally Adapted Spring Wheat Lines for Resistance to Cereal Cyst Nematode

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) has become an increasing problem in the high precipitation areas of eastern Washington and the Palouse. Since 2010, surveys have discovered serious infestations of this nematode, which infects wheat, barley and grassy weeds. It causes severe yield loss, restr...

  20. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  1. Soil-borne wheat mosaic virus infectious clone and manipulation for gene-carrying capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) is a bipartite single stranded positive sense RNA virus with rigid-rod shaped virions. Taxonomically the virus is in the family Viragviridae, as are commonly used gene silencing or expression viral vectors, Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Barley stripe mosaic viru...

  2. DON modification in naturally-contaminated wheat samples using microorganisms isolated from the environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum produces the toxic compound deoxynivalenol (DON) that contaminates wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to mitigate DON in the United States. Microbes were isolated from different soil types, and cultured in a mineral salt media using 100 ppm DON as the...

  3. The wheat Sr50 gene reveals rich diversity at a cereal disease resistance locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We identify the wheat stem rust resistance gene Sr50 by physical mapping, mutation and complementation as homologous to barley Mla encoding a Coiled-Coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Leucine-Rich Repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. We show that Sr50 confers a unique resistance specificity, different from Sr31 and oth...

  4. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Sorghum, Millet, and Whole Wheat Flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease, or about 1 in 133 individuals. People who have this disease cannot tolerate gluten, a protein in wheat, rye, and barley. The only treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet. Nutrient profiles were lacking in the USDA Nat...

  5. Imaging surface plasmon resonance detection for T-2 toxin in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    T-2 toxin is a trichothecene (Type A) mycotoxin harmful to humans and animals. It is produced by mainly Fusarium species, particularly F. sporotrichoides. Fusarium species often contaminate grains such as corn, wheat, barley, oats, rice and rye. T-2 toxin contamination in grains has been observed mo...

  6. Wheat glutenin alters protein body structure in maize but not levels of endogenous storage proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cereal grains are an important nutritional source of amino acids for humans and livestock worldwide. They belong to three subfamilies of grasses or Poaceae. Wheat, barley, and oats belong to the subfamily Pooideae, rice to the Ehrhartoideae, and maize, millets, sugarcane, and sorghum to the Panicoid...

  7. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  8. Quantitative trait loci associated with androgenic responsiveness in triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) anther culture.

    PubMed

    Krzewska, M; Czyczyło-Mysza, I; Dubas, E; Gołębiowska-Pikania, G; Golemiec, E; Stojałowski, S; Chrupek, M; Zur, I

    2012-11-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with androgenic responsiveness in triticale were analyzed using a population of 90 DH lines derived from the F1 cross between inbred line 'Saka 3006' and cv. 'Modus', which was used in a number of earlier studies on molecular mapping in this crop. Using Windows QTL Cartographer and MapQTL 5.0, composite interval mapping (CIM) and association studies (Kruskal-Wallis test; K-W) for five androgenesis parameters (androgenic embryo induction, total regeneration and green plant regeneration ability, and two characteristics describing final androgenesis efficiency) were conducted. For the studied components of androgenic response, CIM detected in total 28 QTLs which were localized on 5 chromosomes from A and R genomes. Effects of all QTLs that were identified at 2.0 or above of the LOD score explained 5.1-21.7 % of the phenotypic variation. Androgenesis induction was associated with seven QTLs (LOD between 2.0 and 5.8) detected on chromosomes 5A, 4R, 5R and 7R, all of them confirmed by K-W test as regions containing the markers significantly linked to the studied trait. What is more, K-W test revealed additional markers on chromosomes: 5A, 2BL, 7B and 5R. Both total and green regeneration ability were controlled by genes localized on chromosome 4A. Some of the QTLs that affected final androgenesis efficiency were identical with those associated with androgenic embryo induction efficiency, suggesting that the observed correlation may be either due to tight linkage or to pleiotropy. Key message Five regions of the triticale genome were indicated as revealing significant marker/trait association. Markers located in these regions are potentially useful for triticale breeding through marker-assisted selection.

  9. Identification and characterization of high-molecular-weight secalins from triticale seeds by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, Boleslaw P

    2010-07-01

    A rapid and reliable method for separation and characterization of the variability of high-molecular-weight secalin subunits (HMW-SS) in hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) by CZE has been developed. In this method, a mixture of two poly(ethylene oxide) polymers differing in molecular weight and a high concentration of ACN in isoelectric buffer was applied as the running electrolyte. For dynamic coating of the capillary inner wall, a low-concentration mixture of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was employed. Wide allelic variations in rye HMW-SS composition, including some novel x- and y-type HMW-SS, were detected by CZE. The CZE electropherograms of HMW-SS showed two groups of peaks in accordance with y- and x-type subunits, with migration times of 8.0-8.8 and 11.0-13.3 min, respectively. HMW-SS differed in migration times from the simultaneously resolved HMW glutenin subunits, but frequently had very similar electrophoretic mobilities during separation by SDS-PAGE. Each of the two rye subunits 2r and 6.5r detected by SDS-PAGE represents in fact two subunits (5.1r or 5.2r, and 6.4r or 6.5r, respectively). After analyzing 106 European triticale cultivars, 12 HMW-SS were identified (six x-type and six y-type). They form six allelic variants of these subunits. The simultaneous separation and identification of triticale HMW glutenin and secalin subunits by CZE is an efficient alternative to SDS-PAGE and should facilitate breeding of valuable cultivars.

  10. Genetic mapping of a 7R Al tolerance QTL in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack).

    PubMed

    Niedziela, A; Bednarek, P T; Labudda, M; Mańkowski, D R; Anioł, A

    2014-02-01

    Triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) is a relatively new cereal crop. In Poland, triticale is grown on 12 % of arable land ( http://www.stat.gov.pl ). There is an increasing interest in its cultivation due to lowered production costs and increased adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. However, it has an insufficient tolerance to the presence of aluminum ions (Al(3+)) in the soil. The number of genes controlling aluminum tolerance in triticale and their chromosomal location is not known. Two F2 mapping biparental populations (MP1 and MP15) segregating for aluminum (Al) tolerance were tested with AFLP, SSR, DArT, and specific PCR markers. Genetic mapping enabled the construction of linkage groups representing chromosomes 7R, 5R and 2B. Obtained linkage groups were common for both mapping populations and mostly included the same markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) allowed identification of a single QTL that mapped to the 7R chromosome and explained 25 % (MP1) and 36 % (MP15) of phenotypic variation. The B1, B26 and Xscm150 markers were 0.04 cM and 0.02 cM from the maximum of the LOD function in the MP1 and MP15, respectively and were highly associated with aluminum tolerance as indicated by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Moreover, the molecular markers B1, B26, Xrems1162 and Xscm92, previously associated with the Alt4 locus that encoded an aluminum-activated malate transporter (ScALMT1) that was involved in Al tolerance in rye (Secale cereale) also mapped within QTL. Biochemical analysis of plants represented MP1 and MP15 mapping populations confirmed that the QTL located on 7R chromosome in both mapping populations is responsible for Al tolerance.

  11. A wheat homologue of PHYTOCLOCK 1 is a candidate gene conferring the early heading phenotype to einkorn wheat.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Nasuda, Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    An X-ray mutant showing an early flowering phenotype has been identified in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), for which a major QTL for heading time was previously mapped in the telomeric region on the long arm of chromosome 3A. Recent advances in Triticeae genomics revealed that the gene order in this region is highly conserved between wheat and barley. Thus, we adopted a hypothetical gene order in barley, the so-called GenomeZipper, to develop DNA markers for fine mapping the target gene in wheat. We identified three genes tightly linked to the early heading phenotype. PCR analysis revealed that early-flowering is associated with the deletion of two genes in the mutant. Of the two deleted genes, one is an ortholog of the LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX)/PHYTOCLOCK 1 (PCL1) gene found in Arabidopsis, which regulates the circadian clock and flowering time. We found distorted expression patterns of two clock genes (TOC1 and LHY) in the einkorn pcl1 deletion mutant as was reported for the Arabidopsis lux mutant. Transcript accumulation levels of photoperiod-response related genes, a photoperiod sensitivity gene (Ppd-1) and two wheat CONSTANS-like genes (WCO1 and TaHd1), were significantly higher in the einkorn wheat mutant. In addition, transcripts of the wheat florigen gene (WFT) accumulated temporally under short-day conditions in the einkorn wheat mutant. These results suggest that deletion of WPCL1 leads to abnormally higher expression of Ppd-1, resulting in the accumulation of WFT transcripts that triggers flowering even under short-day conditions. Our observations from gene mapping, gene deletions, and expression levels of flowering related genes strongly suggest that WPCL1 is the most likely candidate gene for controlling the early flowering phenotype in the einkorn wheat mutant.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of nivalenol in barley.

    PubMed Central

    Teshima, R; Hirai, K; Sato, M; Ikebuchi, H; Ichinoe, M; Terao, T

    1990-01-01

    Antibodies against nivalenol (NIV) tetraacetate (Tetra-Ac-NIV) were prepared by immunizing rabbits with a hemisuccinate derivative of 8-hydroxy-3,4,7,15-tetraacetyl-12, 13-epoxytrichothece-9-en conjugated to bovine serum albumin. A radioimmunoassay system with one of these sera was developed to measure NIV contamination in barley. The detection limit for Tetra-Ac-NIV was about 0.5 ng/ml. The relative cross-reactivities of the antiserum with Tetra-Ac-NIV, acetyl T-2 toxin, and scirpenol triacetate, which were determined by the competitive radioimmunoassay, were 1, 0.78, and 0.56, respectively. Other derivatives showed no cross-reactivity. For the determination of NIV in a barley sample, NIV was extracted from the sample with acetonitrile-water (7:3), defatted with hexane, and then acetylated with acetic anhydride to form Tetra-Ac-NIV. The reaction mixture was loaded onto a C18 cartridge to remove excess reagents and impurities. Tetra-Ac-NIV was eluted from the cartridge with 50% methanol in water, and the eluate was subjected to radioimmunoassay. Analysis of six naturally contaminated barley samples for NIV revealed that radioimmunoassay results agreed well with gas chromatographic analyses. PMID:2317045

  13. Microflora of Barley Kernels1

    PubMed Central

    Follstad, M. N.; Christensen, C. M.

    1962-01-01

    Numbers and kinds of microflora were determined in 160 samples of barley grown in different regions of the United States; microflora were more abundant in the grains grown in the central states than in those grown in the western states. During steeping and germination in micromalting equipment, the number of colonies of filamentous fungi increased from two to five times, colonies of yeasts from five to ten times, and bacteria from 50 to more than 100 times the numbers present in the grain before malting. Kiln drying according to a commercial schedule reduced the number of all types of microflora below the number present before kilning, but all were present in larger numbers in the kilned malt than in the original grain. In barley stored at room temperature and at a moisture content of 15 to 18%, members of the Aspergillus glaucus group increased with increasing time and increasing moisture content, and germination percentage of the seeds decreased. Stored free of storage fungi at room temperature, barley with a moisture content just over 15% retained a high germination percentage for 5 months, but at a moisture content of 16% the germination decreased to zero. PMID:13893856

  14. Chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): review of five years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Haesaert, G; Latre, J

    2013-01-01

    During five subsequent growing seasons field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the University College Ghent (Belgium) to evaluate the selectivity and efficacy of herbicides for chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). The experiments were set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a completely randomised block design with four replicates. Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides were applied pre- and post-emergence, at different rates. The influence of the different treatments on weed diversity, weed density, growth inhibition and chlorosis of the crop and grain yield was studied. Results obtained from these field trials indicated differences between the different treatments.

  15. Chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): review of five years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Veerle, Derycke; Joos, Latré; Geert, Haesaert

    2014-01-01

    During five subsequent growing seasons field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the University College Ghent (Belgium) to evaluate the selectivity and efficacy of herbicides for chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). The experiments were set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a completely randomised block design with four replications. Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides were applied pre- and post-emergence, at different rates. The influence of the different treatments on weed diversity, weed density, growth inhibition and chlorosis of the crop and grain yield was studied. Results obtained from these field trials indicated differences between the different treatments.

  16. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

  17. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.301 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 1421.301 Section 1421.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.301 Administration. (a) This subpart shall be...

  19. Discriminating oat and groat kernels from other grains using near infrared spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oat and groats can be discriminated from other grains such as barley, wheat, rye, and triticale (non-oats) using near infrared spectroscopy. The two instruments tested were the manual version of the ARS-USDA Single Kernel Near Infrared (SKNIR) and the automated QualySense QSorter Explorer high-speed...

  20. 76 FR 16413 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... treatment on alfalfa, potato, and rice; seed treatment on alfalfa, barley, dry bean and peas (crop subgroup 6C), potato, rice, soybeans, triticale, and wheat; and nursery seed and seedlings of conifers and..., lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed (canola), sesame, and sweet...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.305 - Misrepresentation and scheme or device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation and scheme or device. 1421.305... the 2008 Through 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.305 Misrepresentation and... producer engaged in a misrepresentation, scheme, or device, or to any other person as a result of the...

  2. Immunological investigation for the presence of lunasin, a chemopreventive soybean peptide, in the seeds of diverse plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lunasin, a 43-amino acid soybean bioactive peptide, exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. All soybean varieties that have been examined contain lunasin. It has also been reported in a few other plant species including Amaranth, black nightshade, wheat, barley, rye and triticale. Int...

  3. A barley homolog of yeast ATG6 is involved in multiple abiotic stress responses and stress resistance regulation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaowei; Zeng, Zhanghui; Liu, Cuicui; Yuan, Weiyi; Hou, Ning; Bian, Hongwu; Zhu, Muyuan; Han, Ning

    2017-03-19

    Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation pathway among eukaryote cells, which can recycle damaged or unwanted cell materials upon encountering stress conditions. As a key component of the Class III PI3K kinase complex, ATG6/Beclin-1 is essential for autophagosome formation. In this study, we isolated a putative HvATG6 gene in barley genome. The protein encoded by HvATG6 shares high sequence identity to ATG6 orthologs in rice and wheat, and has a typical autophagy-specific domain containing segments of repeated β-sheet-α-helix. The expression of HvATG6 protein restored the appearance of autophagosomes in yeast atg6 mutant, indicating that HvATG6 complements the deficiency of yeast ATG6 protein in autophagy. Punctate florescence signals, considered as the PAS for autophagosome initiation, were observed in the cytoplasm of cells when HvATG6-GFP fusion construct was transformed into barley protoplast. Furthermore, the expression of HvATG6 was upregulated by various abiotic stresses including dark, H2O2 treatment, nitrogen deficiency, high salinity, drought, low temperature and toxic aluminum. Knockdown of HvATG6 in barley leaves through barley strip mosaic virus (BSMV)-induced gene silencing led to accelerated yellowing under dark and H2O2 treatments. Based on the above findings, we propose that barley ATG6 plays the similar role as other plant ATG6 orthologs, and might be involved in stress-induced autophagy process.

  4. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Mississippi Valley Uniform Regional Barley Nursery 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report is a cooperative venture involving state agricultural experiment stations and the Agricultural Research Service. The purpose of the nursery is to evaluate advanced barley germplasm for suitability as malting barley for the upper Midwestern U.S. Eight locations contributed useable data ...

  6. Barley and oats: underutilized nutrition sources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley and oats are two unique ancient crops. Their grains contain beta-glucan in substantial amounts, which can lower cholesterol levels and reduce glycemic response. Yet, food uses of barley and oats are rather limited due to lack of palatability of whole grain food or functionality of milled flou...

  7. The effects of seeding sterile triticale on a native plant community after wildfire in a pinyon pinemountain mahogany woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitman, B.A.; Draper, T.M.; Esque, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire seeding with grasses is a common practice for emergency rehabilitation of burned woodlands. However, most post-seeding monitoring does not address consequences to native flora. In November 2004, the US Forest Service hand-seeded triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus), a sterile wheatrye hybrid, on a small burned area in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, United States. A monitoring project using paired plots was designed to quantify the effects of seeding triticale on density and species richness of native annual and perennial plants, cover of perennial plants, and aboveground production of annual plants. We did not find any effects of triticale seeding on annual plant species or most responses of perennial plants. However, the density of woody perennial seedlings was significantly lower 2 years after triticale was added. Although we found a smaller impact from seeding with exotic grass than other studies, quantifiable costs to native vegetation were observed. We caution against the use of non-native grass for seeding in areas with naturally low perennial recruitment. ?? IAWF 2009.

  8. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation on the amino acid digestibility of different triticale genotypes in caecectomised laying hens.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Wolfgang; Boguhn, Jeannette; Maurer, Hans Peter; Weiss, Jochen; Zuber, Tobias; Möhring, Jens; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen fertilisation and genotype on the amino acid (AA) digestibility of triticale grain was investigated in caecectomised laying hens. Three genotypes, Grenado, EAW6002 and Lasko, were cultivated with and without nitrogen fertilisation at the end of the heading stage. The six triticale variants as well as a basal diet were each used to feed seven laying hens in a 7 × 7 Latin square design. Nitrogen fertilisation influenced the digestibility of Cys, Glu, Phe and Ser in some triticale genotypes and reduced Ala, Ile, Lys, Met and Val digestibility in all genotypes (P < 0.05). Nitrogen fertilisation increased the concentration of all AAs in the grain. Consequently, the concentration of digestible AAs in the grains was increased for most AAs upon nitrogen fertilisation. Overall, Lys had the lowest digestibility, whereas that of Glu and Pro was the highest. For the triticale genotypes, the level of AA digestibility was highest for EAW6002 followed by Lasko and Grenado, with significant differences (P < 0.05) between genotypes for some but not all AAs. The results indicated that the accuracy of the digestible AA supply for hen feeding might benefit from considering fertilisation and genotype-specific digestibility data in feed formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Using a Supercontinuum Laser: Application to Long Wavelength Transmission Spectra of Barley Endosperm and Oil.

    PubMed

    Ringsted, Tine; Dupont, Sune; Ramsay, Jacob; Jespersen, Birthe Møller; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; Keiding, Søren Rud; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-07-01

    The supercontinuum laser is a new type of light source, which combines the collimation and intensity of a laser with the broad spectral region of a lamp. Using such a source therefore makes it possible to focus the light onto small sample areas without losing intensity and thus facilitate either rapid or high-intensity measurements. Single seed transmission analysis in the long wavelength (LW) near-infrared (NIR) region is one area that might benefit from a brighter light source such as the supercontinuum laser. This study is aimed at building an experimental spectrometer consisting of a supercontinuum laser source and a dispersive monochromator in order to investigate its capability to measure the barley endosperm using transmission experiments in the LW NIR region. So far, barley and wheat seeds have only been studied using NIR transmission in the short wavelength region up to 1100 nm. However, the region in the range of 2260-2380 nm has previously shown to be particularly useful in differentiating barley phenotypes using NIR spectroscopy in reflectance mode. In the present study, 350 seeds (consisting of 70 seeds from each of five barley genotypes) in 1 mm slices were measured by NIR transmission in the range of 2235-2381 nm and oils from the same five barley genotypes were measured in a cuvette with a 1 mm path length in the range of 2003-2497 nm. The spectra of the barley seeds could be classified according to genotypes by principal component analysis; and spectral covariances with reference analysis of moisture, β-glucan, starch, protein and lipid were established. The spectral variations of the barley oils were compared to the fatty acid compositions as measured using gas chromotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

  10. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat.

  11. The anther-culture response of triticale line x tester progenies.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Karol; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Seven triticale cultivars (Ampiac, Aubrac, Trinidad, Ticino, Lamberto, Pronto and Prado) and their F1 hybrids obtained after crossing in a line x tester scheme were examined with respect to their androgenetic effectiveness. The embryo induction rate (number of embryos per 100 anthers), green plant regeneration rate (number of green plantlets per 100 embryos), plant yield (number of green and albino plantlets per 100 anthers) and green plant yield (number of green plantlets per 100 anthers) were assessed. The multivariate and univariate effects of general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities for the studied traits were estimated and tested. Significant differences between the genotypes were found for individual traits as well as for all the traits treated jointly. Hybrids generally showed a better response in anther culture than their parental genotypes. Heterosis effects were observed in some hybrids for embryo induction rate and green plant yield. GCA and SCA variances were significant and a dominance of the GCA over the SCA variation was found. Among the examined cultivars, Ticino and Pronto were characterised by positive and significant GCA for embryo induction and green plant yield, and these cultivars may be recommended for the improvement of anther culture responsiveness in triticale.

  12. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    PubMed

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Triticale Bran Alkylresorcinols Enhance Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Agil, Rania; Patterson, Zachary R.; Mackay, Harry; Abizaid, Alfonso; Hosseinian, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB) added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF) and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR), 10% TB (HF-TB), or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE). Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects. PMID:28231100

  14. Optimization of processing conditions for the fractionation of triticale straw using pressurized low polarity water.

    PubMed

    Pronyk, C; Mazza, G

    2011-01-01

    Pressurized low polarity water (PLPW) fractionation of triticale straw was optimized to maximize hemicellulose and lignin yield, and to produce a cellulose rich fraction for biofuels production. The optimum PLPW conditions for hemicellulose yield was determined to be 165 °C, with a flow rate of 115 mL/min, and a solvent-to-solid ratio of 60 mL/g. Hemicellulose and lignin yield generally increased with increasing temperature and solvent-to-solid ratio. There was a small decrease in hemicellulose yield with an increase in flow rate. Minimum lignin content of the triticale straw residue after extraction was predicted to occur at a processing condition of 206 °C, 160 mL/min, and 67 mL/g. PLPW was successful in removing 73-78% of the hemicellulose, leaving a cellulose rich fraction (65% glucose concentration). Lignin was equally distributed between the solid residues and the extracts and most of the hemicellulose was extracted in oligomer form. Remaining solid residues after fractionation were highly digestible by cellulase enzymes. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction To Detect the Take-All Fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis, in Infected Wheat Plants.

    PubMed

    Schesser, K; Luder, A; Henson, J M

    1991-02-01

    Gaeumannomyces graminis, the causative agent of take-all disease of wheat, barley, and oats, was detected in infected wheat seedlings by using the polymerase chain reaction to amplify Gaeumannomyces-specific DNA fragments. Nested primers and two rounds of amplification were used to amplify two fragments, approximately 287 and 188 bp in size, from G. graminis-infected wheat seedlings. The use of nested primers greatly decreased the number of nonspecific amplification products. Polymerase chain reaction products were not obtained with DNA from seedlings infected with several other phytopathogenic fungi or with DNA from uninfected seedlings. Amplified products were visualized on agarose gels, and their identities were confirmed by DNA hybridization. This method did not require culturing the fungus and has potential for detecting G. graminis in infested wheat, barley, or oat fields.

  16. Wheat Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Raison, John K.; Chapman, Elza A.; White, P. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative activity and membrane lipid structure of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were measured as a function of temperature. The Arrhenius activation energy for the oxidation of both succinate and α-ketoglutarate was constant over the temperature range of 3 to 27 C. The activation energy for succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was also constant over the same temperature range. The concentration of mitochondria in the reaction, the degree of initial inhibition of state 3 respiration, and the time after isolation of mitochondria were each shown to be capable of causing a disproportionate decrease in the rate of oxidation at low temperatures which resulted in an apparent increase in the activation energy of oxidative activity. Using three spin-labeling techniques, wheat membrane lipids were shown to undergo phase changes at about 0 C and 30 C. It is concluded that the membrane lipids of wheat, a chillingresistant plant, undergo a phase transition similar to the transition observed in the membrane lipids of chilling-sensitive plants. For wheat, however, the transition is initiated at a lower temperature and extends over a wider temperature range. PMID:16659906

  17. Variability in amino acid digestibility of triticale grain from diverse genotypes as studied in cecectomized laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zuber, T; Maurer, H P; Möhring, J; Nautscher, N; Siegert, W; Rosenfelder, P; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-12-01

    Triticale, an anthropogenic hybrid grain, is increasing in importance as a feed grain for laying hens. However, our limited knowledge of its nutritional qualities and their impact on hen performance prevents optimization of its use. The present study investigated the digestibility of amino acids ( AA: ) in triticale grain in laying hens, and additionally examined relationships between AA digestibility and chemical and physical characteristics of the grain. Twenty genotypes of triticale were grown under standardized agronomic and environmental conditions and were characterized according to their physical properties (thousand-seed weight, test weight, falling number, extract viscoelasticity), chemical composition (proximate nutrients, non-starch polysaccharides, AA, minerals, inositol phosphates) and gross energy concentration. Additionally, the in vitro solubility of nitrogen was determined. The animal trial comprised 4 Latin Squares (6 × 6) distributed among 2 subsequent runs. Twelve cecectomized LSL-Classic hens were individually housed in metabolism cages and either fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg cornstarch or one of 20 triticale diets, each replacing the cornstarch with one triticale genotype, for 8 d. During the last 4 d, feed intake was recorded and excreta were collected quantitatively. Amino acid digestibility of the triticale genotypes was calculated by linear regression. The digestibility of all AA differed significantly between the 20 genotypes, including Lys (digestibility range 68 to 80%), Met (77 to 86%), Thr (68 to 78%) and Trp (74 to 83%). However, AA digestibility only correlated with characteristics of the grain in few cases, without a consistent pattern among AA. Equations to predict AA digestibility based on the grain's physical and chemical characteristics were calculated by multiple linear regression. The explanatory power (adjusted R(2);) of these prediction equations was below 0.7 for most AA and thus not sufficiently precise to be

  18. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  19. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

    1997-11-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  20. Biotypic diversity in Colorado Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Aubrey A; Peairs, Frank B; Randolph, Terri L; Rudolph, Jeffrey B; Haley, Scott D; Puterka, Gary J

    2008-04-01

    The biotypic diversity of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), was assessed in five isolates collected in Colorado. Three isolates, RWA 1, RWA 2, and an isolate from Montezuma County, CO, designated RWA 6, were originally collected from cultivated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and obtained from established colonies at Colorado State University. The fourth isolate, designated RWA 7, was collected from Canada wildrye, Elymus canadensis L., in Baca County, CO. The fifth isolate, designated RWA 8, was collected from crested wheatgrass, Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn., in Montezuma County, CO. The four isolates were characterized in a standard seedling assay, by using 24 plant differentials, 22 wheat lines and two barley, Hordeum vulgare L., lines. RWA 1 was the least virulent of the isolates, killing only the four susceptible entries. RWA 8 also killed only the four susceptible entries, but it expressed intermediate virulence on seven wheat lines. RWA 6, killing nine entries, and RWA 7, killing 11 entries, both expressed an intermediate level of virulence overall, but differed in their level of virulence to 'CO03797' (Dn1), 'Yumar' (Dn4), and 'CO960293-2'. RWA 2 was the most virulent isolate, killing 14 entries, including Dn4- and Dny-containing wheat. Four wheat lines, '94M370' (Dn7), 'STARS 02RWA2414-11', CO03797, and 'CI2401', were resistant to the five isolates. The results of this screening confirm the presence of five unique Russian wheat aphid biotypes in Colorado.

  1. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  2. Vertical distribution of dry mass in cereals straw and its loss during harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaç, T.; Oleksy, A.; Stokłosa, A.; Klimek-Kopyra, A.; Macuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the distribution of mass in the straw of cereal species and also at assessing the straw yield and its losses resulting from the amount of the stubble left in the field. It was found empirically that the wheat culms are composed of five internodes, and in barley, triticale and oats of six. The highest straw mass per 1 cm was found in the second internode in both forms of wheat and winter triticale, whereas barley and oats gathered the highest weight in the first internode. In the southern part of Silesia species and forms of cereals differed in the straw yield, which can be arranged as follows, from the highest: winter wheat > spring wheat, winter triticale, winter barley, and oats > spring barley. Due to the specific distribution of dry matter in each of internodes of both wheat forms - winter and spring, they loose less stubble mass (22 and 24%, respectively), comparing to other cereals, especially spring barley, which loose 31% yield of straw in the stubble of 15 cm height.

  3. Resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2 in CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid wheat lines.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Paola; Starkey, Sharon; Voothuluru, Priyamvada; Wilde, Gerald E; Smith, C Michael

    2009-06-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), devastates wheat and barley production on all continents except Australia. Although D. noxia-resistant cultivars exist, virulent D. noxia populations exist in Asia, North America, and South America that have the ability to overcome resistance. In this study, synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes created at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) were evaluated and characterized for resistance to North American biotype 2 (RWA2). Fewer RWA2 were produced on several genotypes, and D. noxia-induced leaf rolling and chlorosis were reduced on these genotypes as well. Aphid numbers were positively correlated with chlorosis and with leaf rolling. However, some genotypes were highly resistant to leaf rolling and chlorosis while supporting large RWA2 populations. There were negative correlations between leaf chlorosis and leaf dry weight (r = -0.267, df = 106, P = 0.006) and between aphid numbers and leaf dry weight (r = -0.297, df = 105, P = 0.002). These results indicate that chlorosis and aphid number individually explain at least 27% of the changes observed in leaf dry weights. Interestingly, there was no correlation between leaf rolling and leaf dry weight. The RWA2-resistant lines identified, which are also resistant to D. noxia populations in Mexico and to greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) biotype G, are strong candidates for use in improving the genetic diversity in bread wheat for resistance to different biotypes of both S. graminum and D. noxia.

  4. Molecular Evolution of Receptor-Like Kinase Genes in Hexaploid Wheat. Independent Evolution of Orthologs after Polyploidization and Mechanisms of Local Rearrangements at Paralogous Loci1

    PubMed Central

    Feuillet, Catherine; Penger, Anja; Gellner, Klaus; Mast, Austin; Keller, Beat

    2001-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat is a young polyploid species and represents a good model to study mechanisms of gene evolution after polyploidization. Recent studies at the scale of the whole genome have suggested rapid genomic changes after polyploidization but so far the rearrangements that have occurred in terms of gene content and organization have not been analyzed at the microlevel in wheat. Here, we have isolated members of a receptor kinase (Lrk) gene family in hexaploid and diploid wheat, Aegilops tauschii, and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phylogenetic analysis has allowed us to establish evolutionary relationships (orthology versus paralogy) between the different members of this gene family in wheat as well as with Lrk genes from barley. It also demonstrated that the sequences of the homoeologous Lrk genes evolved independently after polyploidization. In addition, we found evidence for gene loss during the evolution of wheat and barley. Analysis of large genomic fragments isolated from nonorthologous Lrk loci showed a high conservation of the gene content and gene organization at these loci on the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes of wheat and barley. Finally, sequence comparison of two paralogous fragments of chromosome 1B showed a large number of local events (sequence duplications, deletions, and insertions), which reveal rearrangements and mechanisms for genome enlargement at the microlevel. PMID:11244111

  5. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    PubMed Central

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  6. Nutritional Physiology of the Khapra Beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Fed on Various Barley Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Seifi, S; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2016-02-01

    The Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), is known as one of the mostserious pests of grains in many parts of the world. In this study, the effect of nine barley cultivars (‘Bahman’,‘CB-84-10’, ‘Fajr 30’, ‘Makuyi’, ‘Nosrat’, ‘Yousof’, ‘13A1’, ‘18A1’, and ‘19 A1’) and a wheat cultivar (‘MV17’, as a control) was determined on the nutritional indices and digestive enzymatic activity of T. granarium at 33 6 1C,relative humidity of 6565%, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The highest and lowest values of larval weight gain of sixth instar were detected on wheat (0.757±0.068 mg) and cultivar Bahman (0.342±0.071 mg). Also, T. granarium larvae fed on cultivar Bahman had the lowest value of efficiency of conversion of ingested food(10.90±2.09%) as compared with wheat and other barley cultivars. Also, the highest midgut amylolytic and proteolytic activities of sixth instar were on cultivar Bahman (0.364±0.024 mU/mg and 80.54±1.73 U/mg, respectively)and the lowest activities were on cultivar Nosrat (0.043±0.004 mU/mg and 7.15±0.01 U/mg, respectively).It is concluded that barley cultivar Bahman was the most unsuitable host for feeding of T. granarium.

  7. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  8. Tibet as a Potential Domestication Center of Cultivated Barley of China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2013-01-01

    The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

  9. Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Bing-xin; Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Wei-feng; Yang, Ching-hong; Yu, Jing-quan; Zhao, Yu-hua

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum. PMID:16052710

  10. Surface interactions of Fusarium graminearum on barley.

    PubMed

    Imboden, Lori; Afton, Drew; Trail, Frances

    2017-09-21

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a devastating pathogen of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), produces mycotoxins that pose a health hazard. To investigate the surface interactions of F. graminearum with barley, we focused on barley florets, as the most important infection site leading to grain contamination. The fungus interacted with silica accumulating cells (trichomes and silica/cork cell pairs) on the host surface. We identified variation in trichome-type cells between two-row and six-row barley, and in the role of specific epidermal cells in the ingress of F. graminearum into barley florets. Prickle-type trichomes functioned to trap conidia and were sites of fungal penetration. Infections of more mature florets supported the spread of hyphae into the vascular bundles, whereas younger florets did not show this spread. These differences related directly to the timing and location of increases in silica content during maturation. Focal accumulation of cellulose in infected paleae of two-row and six-row barley indicated that the response is in part linked to trichome type. Overall, silica accumulating epidermal cells had an expanded role in barley, serving to trap conidia, provide sites for fungal ingress, and initiate resistance responses, suggesting a role for silica in pathogen establishment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Colonization of wheat heads by antagonist Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 when applied alone or in combination with different concentrations of Prosaro® and the effect on Fusarium head blight development in field-grown wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The significant and consistent reduction of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of wheat and barley remains elusive though research results indicate that utilizing an integrated pest management approach achieves the greatest level of disease/toxin control. The use of y...

  12. Expression of a truncated form of yeast ribosomal protein L3 in transgenic wheat improves resistance to Fusarium head blight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease that causes major economic losses in wheat and barley production worldwide. Contamination of food with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by Fusarium is a major health concern for humans and animals because trichothecenes are potent cyt...

  13. DNA barcoding to identify all life stages of holocyclic cereal aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on wheat and other poaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of the mtDNA was sequenced in eight holocyclic monoecious aphids that occur on wheat, barley, oat, and sorghum in the US. The first 640 bp of the 3' end were considered as a DNA barcoding technique for species identification. DNA barcoding successfully...

  14. Purification and characterization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from triticale.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Dixit, A; Upadhyaya, K C

    1994-04-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase has been isolated from a synthetic cereal triticale and purified using a newly developed rapid procedure involving precipitation with ammonium sulphate (35-55% saturation), DEAE-cellulose (DE-52) chromatography and filtration through Sepharose CL-68. Molecular weights of the enzyme subunits are 15.5 and 52 kDa which corresponds to 540 kDa for the hexadecameric holoenzyme. Isoelectric focussing showed that the enzyme has a pI of 4.2. Various kinetic constants determined under aerobic conditions are: Km (CO2), 118 microM; Km (RuBP), 220 microM (at 20 mM NaHCO3) and Vmax, 690 nmole CO2 fixed/mg enzyme/min.

  15. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    PubMed Central

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping. PMID:23942574

  16. Production of carbohydrates, lignins, and minor components from triticale straw by hydrothermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Pronyk, Carl; Mazza, Giuseppe; Tamaki, Yukihiro

    2011-04-27

    The effects of temperature (116 °C, 150 °C, and 183 °C) and flow rate (66, 150, and 234 mL/min) on the fractionation of triticale straw into different products was determined using a flow-through pressurized low polarity water reactor. The greatest concentration of biomass was hydrolyzed and extracted in the first two of eight 600 mL fractions (1.2 L), after which dry matter yield decreased. Carbohydrate, lignin, acetyl group, and uronic acid yield increased with temperature, but there was no effect due to flow rate. Most dry matter extracted at 116 °C was probably associated with the extractives. Xylan yields decrease slightly at the highest flow rate due to a decrease in the residence time of the acids produced in situ. Carbohydrates were extracted mostly as oligosaccharides, and the highest processing temperature resulted in the production of furans from the xylose and arabinose in the liquid extracts.

  17. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping.

  18. A novel method for increasing the frequency of somatic embryogenesis in wheat tissue culture by NaCl and KCl supplementation.

    PubMed

    Galiba, G; Yamada, Y

    1988-01-01

    The effect of NaCl, KCl and LiCl on the growth and morphogeneis of tissue cultures originating from immature embryos of four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and one triticale (Triticosecale)varieties was investigated. The morphogenetic pathway to plant regeneration in Chinese Spring wheat was determined as incomplete somatic embryogenesis because the differentiation and subsequent germination of the shoot apices happened in the early phase of embryo development. Culture medium supplemented by NaCl suppressed the differentiation of shoot apices resulting in the development of more typical somatic embryoids. Forty mM concentrations of both NaCl or KCl increased the formation of somatic embryos in Chinese Spring. Arthur and GK Kincso wheat varieties while Lasko triticale regenerated well without the addition. The salts inhibited plantlet formation from somatic embryoids so the salts supplement should be omitted. Forty mM LiCl inhibited growth while 10mM LiCl had no effect on growth or embryogenesis.

  19. Hormonal requirements for effective induction of microspore embryogenesis in triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.) anther cultures.

    PubMed

    Żur, Iwona; Dubas, Ewa; Krzewska, Monika; Waligórski, Piotr; Dziurka, Michał; Janowiak, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    Effective microspore embryogenesis in triticale is determined by a specific hormonal homeostasis: low value of IAA/cytokinins, IAA/ABA and cytokinins/ABA ratios as well as proper endogenous/exogenous auxin balance, which favours androgenic structure formation and green plant regeneration ability. The concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs): auxins (Auxs), cytokinins (CKs) and abscisic acid (ABA) was measured in anthers of eight DH lines of triticale (× Triticosecale Wittm.), and associated with microspore embryogenesis (ME) responsiveness. The analysis was conducted on anthers excised from control tillers at the phase optimal for ME induction and then after ME-initiating tillers treatment (21 days at 4 °C). In control, IAA predominated among Auxs (11-39 nmol g(-1) DW), with IBA constituting only 1 % of total Auxs content. The prevailing isoforms of CKs were cis isomers of zeatin (121-424 pmol g(-1) DW) and zeatin ryboside (cZR, 146-432 pmol g(-1) DW). Surprisingly, a relatively high level (10-64 pmol g(-1) DW) of kinetin (KIN) was detected. Cold treatment significantly changed the levels of all analysed PGRs. The anthers of 'responsive' DH lines contained higher concentrations of IBA, cis and trans zeatin, cZR and ABA, and lower amount of IAA and KIN in comparison with 'recalcitrant' genotypes. However, the effects of exogenous ABA, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid treatments suggest that none of the studied PGRs acts alone in the acquisition of embryogenic competency, which seems to be an effect of concerted PGRs crosstalk. The initiation of ME required a certain threshold level of ABA. A crucial prerequisite for high ME effectiveness was a specific PGRs homeostasis: lower Auxs level in comparison with CKs and ABA, and lower CKs/ABA ratio. A proper balance between endogenous Auxs in anthers and exogenous Auxs supplied by culture media was also essential.

  20. Spring Wheat Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  1. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  2. Barley β-glucan in poultry diets

    PubMed Central

    Pescatore, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the use of immunomodulators as substitutes for antibiotics in food animal production. Beta-glucans from yeast and fungi may be ideal substitutes because of their positive effects on the avian immune system without adversely affecting poultry performance. Barley β-glucans, however, have not shown this potential due to the adverse effects dietary inclusion of barley has on poultry performance. PMID:25332996

  3. A transient assay system for the assessment of cell-autonomous gene function in dehydration-stressed barley

    PubMed Central

    Marzin, Stephan; Mihaly, Robert; Pauk, Janos; Schweizer, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Drought is a serious, worldwide problem for crop production and also affects yields of barley and wheat, together with other stressors such as frost, viral diseases, or fungal pathogens. Although a number of candidate genes have been identified by transcriptome approaches in recent years, only very few have been tested in functional assays for a beneficial effect on drought tolerance. Here, a transient assay system in microprojectile-bombarded barley leaves is described that allows the functional testing of dehydration stress-related candidate genes by RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression. Cellular stress or damage in dedydrated leaves is reported by a reduced accumulation of slowly maturing, native red-fluorescing protein DsRed that is known to be sensitive to denaturing conditions. After a dehydration-stress period of 4 d during which the relative fresh weight of leaves was kept at 60–66% of initial fresh weight, a reproducible reduction of normalized DsRed fluorescence was observed. In order to obtain proof of concept, a number of barley mRNAs homologous to drought response genes were selected and targeted by transient induced gene silencing (TIGS). TIGS of four tested genes resulted in a significantly stronger decrease of normalized DsRed fluorescence in dehydration-stressed leaves, whereas they had no effect in fully turgescent control leaves. These genes encode barley drought-responsive factor HvDRF1 (DREB2-like), dehydrin 6, late embryogenesis-abundant protein HVA1, and the vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter HvHNX1. The four targeted transcripts were also found to accumulate rapidly in dehydration-stressed barley leaf segments. The results suggest a value of the TIGS system for functional pre-screening of larger numbers of drought or dehydration stress-related candidate genes in barley. PMID:18641397

  4. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (p<0.01) was correlated with 1) temperature increases, 2) to the hotter 'African' slope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants.

  5. Surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients.

    PubMed

    Kasarda, Donald D; Dupont, Frances M; Vensel, William H; Altenbach, Susan B; Lopez, Rocio; Tanaka, Charlene K; Hurkman, William J

    2008-11-12

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries but is avoided in the United States because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye, and barley proteins and products that contain them. These proteins are capable of initiating damage to the absorptive lining of the small intestine in CD patients, apparently as a consequence of undesirable interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this study, starch surface-associated proteins were extracted from four commercial wheat starches, fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis. More than 150 proteins were identified, many of which (for example, histones, purothionins, and glutenins) had not been recognized previously as starch-associated. The commercial starches were analyzed by the R-5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to estimate the amount of harmful gluten protein present. One of these starches had a low gluten content of 7 ppm and actually fell within the range proposed as a new Codex Alimentarius Standard for naturally gluten-free foods (maximum 20 ppm). This low level of gluten indicates that the starch should be especially suitable for use by celiac patients, although wheat starches with levels up to 100 ppm are deemed safe in the proposed Codex standards.

  6. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  7. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  8. [INFLUENCE OF AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE 10/1 ON ASSOCIATIVE NITROGEN FIXATION AND INTRAVARIETAL POLYMORPHISM OF SPRING TRITICALE].

    PubMed

    Patika, V P; Nadkernichna, O V; Shahovnina, O O

    2015-01-01

    It is shown, that the perspective Ukrainian sorts of spring triticale characterizes by considerable polymorphism by associative N2-fixing ability in root zone of plants. Application of active strain Azospirillum brasilense 10/1 promotes the decline of variability of this sign within the limits of sort, increase potential nitrogen activity is on the average in 3,2-4,7 times and also distributing normalizations in the selections of the inoculated plants.

  9. Change in Biotypic Diversity of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Puterka, G J; Giles, K L; Brown, M J; Nicholson, S J; Hammon, R W; Peairs, F B; Randolph, T L; Michaels, G J; Bynum, E D; Springer, T L; Armstrong, J S; Mornhinweg, D W

    2015-04-01

    A key component of Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), management has been through planting resistant wheat cultivars. A new biotype, RWA2, appeared in 2003 which caused widespread damage to wheat cultivars containing the Dn4 gene. Biotypic diversity in Russian wheat aphid populations has not been addressed since 2005 when RWA2 dominated the biotype complex. Our objectives were to determine the biotypic diversity in the Central Great Plains and Colorado Plateau at regional (2010, 2011, 2013) and local (2012) levels and detect the presence of new Russian wheat aphid biotypes. Regional and within-field aphid collections were screened against Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat genotypes containing genes Dn3, Dn4, Dn6, Dn7, Dn9, CI2401; and resistant barley STARS 9301B. In 2010, all aphid collections from Texas were avirulent to the Dn4 resistance gene in wheat. Regional results revealed Dn4 avirulent RWA6 was widespread (55-84%) in populations infesting wheat in both regions. Biotypes RWA1, 2, and 3/7 were equally represented with percentages<20% each while RWA8 was rarely detected. Combining percentages of RWA1, 6, and 8 across regions to estimate avirulence to Dn4 gene revealed high percentages for both 2011 (64-80%) and 2013 (69-90%). In contrast, the biotype structure at the local level differed where biotype percentages varied up to ≥2-fold between fields. No new biotypes were detected; therefore, Dn7, CI2401, and STARS9301B remained resistant to all known Russian wheat aphid biotypes. This study documents a shift to Dn4 avirulent biotypes and serves as a valuable baseline for biotypic diversity in Russian wheat aphid populations prior to the deployment of new Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars.

  10. Exceptionally High Levels of Genetic Diversity in Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Populations from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Szydło, W; Hein, G; Denizhan, E; Skoracka, A

    2015-08-01

    Recent research on the wheat curl mite species complex has revealed extensive genetic diversity that has distinguished several genetic lineages infesting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereals worldwide. Turkey is the historical region of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) domestication and diversification. The close relationship between these grasses and the wheat curl mite provoked the question of the genetic diversity of the wheat curl mite in this region. The scope of the study was to investigate genetic differentiation within the wheat curl mite species complex on grasses in Turkey. Twenty-one wheat curl mite populations from 16 grass species from nine genera (Agropyron sp., Aegilops sp., Bromus sp., Elymus sp., Eremopyrum sp., Hordeum sp., Poa sp., Secale sp., and Triticum sp.) were sampled in eastern and southeastern Turkey for genetic analyses. Two molecular markers were amplified: the cytochrome oxidase subunit I coding region of mtDNA (COI) and the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high genetic variation of the wheat curl mite in Turkey, primarily on Bromus and Hordeum spp., and exceptionally high diversity of populations associated with bread wheat. Three wheat-infesting wheat curl mite lineages known to occur on other continents of the world, including North and South America, Australia and Europe, were found in Turkey, and at least two new genetic lineages were discovered. These regions of Turkey exhibit rich wheat curl mite diversity on native grass species. The possible implications for further studies on the wheat curl mite are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rowan A.C.; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain. PMID:24817784

  12. Lunasin in cereal seeds: What is the origin?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rowan A C; Lovegrove, Alison; Shewry, Peter R

    2013-05-01

    Lunasin is a peptide from soybean seeds which has been demonstrated to have anticancer properties. It has also been reported in cereal seeds: wheat, rye, barley and Triticale. However, extensive searches of transcriptome and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals have failed to identify sequences encoding either the lunasin peptide or a precursor protein. This raises the question of the origin of the lunasin reported in cereal grain.

  13. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Caleigh M; McKay, Diane L; McKeown, Nicola M; Dallal, Gerard; Chen, C -Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2016-12-15

    While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40-70 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 27-35.9 kg/m². After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control), with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  14. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sawicki, Caleigh M.; McKay, Diane L.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Dallal, Gerard; Chen, C. -Y. Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control), with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus. PMID:27983687

  15. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  16. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  17. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  18. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  19. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  20. Genome-wide evaluation of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent advances in genotyping with high-density markers nowadays enable genome-wide genomic analyses in crops. A detailed characterisation of the population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is essential for the application of genomic approaches and consequently for knowledge-based breeding. In this study we used the triticale-specific DArT array to analyze population structure, genetic diversity, and LD in a worldwide set of 161 winter and spring triticale lines. Results The principal coordinate analysis revealed that the first principal coordinate divides the triticale population into two clusters according to their growth habit. The density distributions of the first ten principal coordinates revealed that several show a distribution indicative of population structure. In addition, we observed relatedness within growth habits which was higher among the spring types than among the winter types. The genome-wide analysis of polymorphic information content (PIC) showed that the PIC is variable among and along chromosomes and that especially the R genome of spring types possesses a reduced genetic diversity. We also found that several chromosomes showed regions of high genetic distance between the two growth habits, indicative of divergent selection. Regarding linkage disequilibrium, the A and B genomes showed a similar LD of 0.24 for closely linked markers and a decay within approximately 12 cM. LD in the R genome was lower with 0.19 and decayed within a shorter map distance of approximately 5 cM. The extent of LD was generally higher for the spring types compared to the winter types. In addition, we observed strong variability of LD along the chromosomes. Conclusions Our results confirm winter and spring growth habit are the major contributors to population structure in triticale, and a family structure exists in both growth types. The specific patterns of genetic diversity observed within these types, such as the low diversity on some rye