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Sample records for barn swallows hirundo

  1. The maintenance of phenotypic divergence through sexual selection: An experimental study in barn swallows Hirundo rustica.

    PubMed

    Safran, Rebecca J; Vortman, Yoni; Jenkins, Brittany R; Hubbard, Joanna K; Wilkins, Matthew R; Bradley, Rachel J; Lotem, Arnon

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that sexual signals can rapidly diverge among closely related species. However, we lack experimental studies to demonstrate that differences in trait-associated reproductive performance maintain sexual trait differences between closely related populations, in support for a role of sexual selection in speciation. Populations of Northern Hemisphere distributed barn swallows Hirundo rustica are closely related, yet differ in two plumage-based traits: ventral color and length of the outermost tail feathers (streamers). Here we provide experimental evidence that manipulations of these traits result in different reproductive consequences in two subspecies of barn swallow: (H. r. erythrogaster in North America and H. r. transitiva in the East Mediterranean). Experimental results in Colorado, USA, demonstrate that males with (1) darkened ventral coloration and (2) shortened streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. In contrast, exaggeration of both traits improved reproductive performance within H. r. transitiva in Israel: males with a combination treatment of darkened ventral coloration and elongated streamers gained paternity between two successive reproductive bouts. Collectively, these experimental results fill an important gap in our understanding for how divergent sexual selection maintains phenotype differentiation in closely related populations, an important aspect of the speciation process.

  2. Clock gene polymorphism and scheduling of migration: a geolocator study of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Gaia; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Liechti, Felix; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Saino, Nicola; Rubolini, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Circannual rhythms often rely on endogenous seasonal photoperiodic timers involving ‘clock’ genes, and Clock gene polymorphism has been associated to variation in phenology in some bird species. In the long-distance migratory barn swallow Hirundo rustica, individuals bearing the rare Clock allele with the largest number of C-terminal polyglutamine repeats found in this species (Q8) show a delayed reproduction and moult later. We explored the association between Clock polymorphism and migration scheduling, as gauged by light-level geolocators, in two barn swallow populations (Switzerland; Po Plain, Italy). Genetic polymorphism was low: 91% of the 64 individuals tracked year-round were Q7/Q7 homozygotes. We compared the phenology of the rare genotypes with the phenotypic distribution of Q7/Q7 homozygotes within each population. In Switzerland, compared to Q7/Q7, two Q6/Q7 males departed earlier from the wintering grounds and arrived earlier to their colony in spring, while a single Q7/Q8 female was delayed for both phenophases. On the other hand, in the Po Plain, three Q6/Q7 individuals had a similar phenology compared to Q7/Q7. The Swiss data are suggestive for a role of genetic polymorphism at a candidate phenological gene in shaping migration traits, and support the idea that Clock polymorphism underlies phenological variation in birds. PMID:26197782

  3. Sexual Dimorphism in Melanin Pigmentation, Feather Coloration and Its Heritability in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  4. Sexual dimorphism in melanin pigmentation, feather coloration and its heritability in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Teplitsky, Celine; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Canova, Luca; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    Melanin is the main pigment in animal coloration and considerable variation in the concentrations of the two melanin forms (pheo- and eumlanin) in pigmented tissues exists among populations and individuals. Melanin-based coloration is receiving increasing attention particularly in socio-sexual communication contexts because the melanocortin system has been hypothesized to provide a mechanistic basis for covariation between coloration and fitness traits. However, with few notable exceptions, little detailed information is available on inter-individual and inter-population variation in melanin pigmentation and on its environmental, genetic and ontogenetic components. Here, we investigate melanin-based coloration in an Italian population of a passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica), its sex- and age-related variation, and heritability. The concentrations of eu- and pheomelanin in the throat (brown) and belly (white-to-brownish) feathers differed between sexes but not according to age. The relative concentration of either melanin (Pheo:Eu) differed between sexes in throat but not in belly feathers, and the concentrations in males compared to females were larger in belly than in throat feathers. There were weak correlations between the concentrations of melanins within as well as among plumage regions. Coloration of belly feathers was predicted by the concentration of both melanins whereas coloration of throat feathers was only predicted by pheomelanin in females. In addition, Pheo:Eu predicted coloration of throat feathers in females and that of belly feathers in males. Finally, we found high heritability of color of throat feathers. Melanization was found to differ from that recorded in Hirundo rustica rustica from Scotland or from H. r. erythrogaster from North America. Hence, present results show that pigmentation strategies vary in a complex manner according to sex and plumage region, and also among geographical populations, potentially

  5. Nestling rearing is antioxidant demanding in female barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, David; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rubolini, Diego; Caprioli, Manuela; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    Reproduction is a demanding activity, since organisms must produce and, in some cases, protect and provision their progeny. Hence, a central tenet of life-history theory predicts that parents have to trade parental care against body maintenance. One physiological cost thought to be particularly important as a modulator of such trade-offs is oxidative stress. However, evidence in favour of the hypothesis of an oxidative cost of reproduction is contradictory. In this study, we manipulated the brood size of wild barn swallows Hirundo rustica soon after hatching of their nestlings to test whether an increase in nestling rearing effort translates into an increased oxidative damage and a decreased antioxidant protection at the end of the nestling rearing period. We found that, while plasma oxidative damage was unaffected by brood size enlargement, females rearing enlarged broods showed a decrease in plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants during the nestling rearing period. This was not the case among females rearing reduced broods and among males assigned to either treatment. Moreover, individuals with higher plasma oxidative damage soon after the brood size manipulation had lower plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants at the end of the nestling rearing period, suggesting that non-enzymatic antioxidants were depleted to buffer the negative effects of high oxidative damage. Our findings point to antioxidant depletion as a potential mechanism mediating the cost of reproduction among female birds.

  6. A trade-off between reproduction and feather growth in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Costanzo, Alessandra; Bazzi, Gaia

    2014-01-01

    Physiological trade-offs mediated by limiting energy, resources or time constrain the simultaneous expression of major functions and can lead to the evolution of temporal separation between demanding activities. In birds, plumage renewal is a demanding activity, which accomplishes fundamental functions, such as allowing thermal insulation, aerodynamics and socio-sexual signaling. Feather renewal is a very expensive and disabling process, and molt is often partitioned from breeding and migration. However, trade-offs between feather renewal and breeding have been only sparsely studied. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) breeding in Italy and undergoing molt during wintering in sub-Saharan Africa, we studied this trade-off by removing a tail feather from a large sample of individuals and analyzing growth bar width, reflecting feather growth rate, and length of the growing replacement feather in relation to the stage in the breeding cycle at removal and clutch size. Growth bar width of females and length of the growing replacement feather of both sexes were smaller when the original feather had been removed after clutch initiation. Importantly, in females both growth bar width and replacement feather length were negatively predicted by clutch size, and more strongly so for large clutches and when feather removal occurred immediately after clutch completion. Hence, we found strong, coherent evidence for a trade-off between reproduction, and laying effort in particular, and the ability to generate new feathers. These results support the hypothesis that the derived condition of molting during wintering in long-distance migrants is maintained by the costs of overlapping breeding and molt.

  7. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Hobson, Keith A; Kardynal, Kevin J; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L; Albrecht, Gretchen; Salvadori, Antonio; Cadman, Michael D; Liechti, Felix; Fox, James W

    2015-01-01

    Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27) from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8) and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5)) traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3) and New Brunswick (n = 10), Canada) which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67%) birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America.

  8. Switching Hemispheres: A New Migration Strategy for the Disjunct Argentinean Breeding Population of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Perez, Belen; Hobson, Keith A.; Powell, Rebecca L.; Still, Christopher J.; Huber, Gernot H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) breed almost exclusively in the Northern Hemisphere. However, since the early 1980's, a small disjunct breeding population has become established in eastern Argentina, presumably by birds previously derived from those breeding in North America. Currently, it is unknown where these individuals go following breeding and how they have adjusted to a reversal in phenology. Their austral wintering period corresponds to the breeding period of the northern ancestral population and so they can potentially return to these more traditional breeding sites or they may occupy other South American wintering regions left vacant by conspecifics returning to the Northern Hemisphere. Principal Findings We used a three-isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H) approach to investigate potential wintering areas in Central and South America of individuals breeding in Argentina. Feather isotope values differed from those expected and measured at local breeding sites in Argentina indicating molt after the austral breeding period and away from the breeding grounds. Potential molting origins were identified applying likelihood-based assignment methods to a δ2H isoscape for South America and dichotomous prior information on the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation types based on modeled vegetation-δ13C values. Barn Swallows now breeding in Argentina have changed their migratory behavior but presumably use the same cues as those used by the ancestral population, molting their feathers during the austral winter, likely in north-eastern South America. PMID:23383257

  9. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Differences in Structural Properties of Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Wing and Tail Feathers.

    PubMed

    Pap, Péter L; Osváth, Gergely; Aparicio, José Miguel; Bărbos, Lőrinc; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Vágási, Csongor I; Vincze, Orsolya; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection and aerodynamic forces affecting structural properties of the flight feathers of birds are poorly understood. Here, we compared the structural features of the innermost primary wing feather (P1) and the sexually dimorphic outermost (Ta6) and monomorphic second outermost (Ta5) tail feathers of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a Romanian population to investigate how sexual selection and resistance to aerodynamic forces affect structural differences among these feathers. Furthermore, we compared structural properties of Ta6 of barn swallows from six European populations. Finally, we determined the relationship between feather growth bars width (GBW) and the structural properties of tail feathers. The structure of P1 indicates strong resistance against aerodynamic forces, while the narrow rachis, low vane density and low bending stiffness of tail feathers suggest reduced resistance against airflow. The highly elongated Ta6 is characterized by structural modifications such as large rachis width and increased barbule density in relation to the less elongated Ta5, which can be explained by increased length and/or high aerodynamic forces acting at the leading tail edge. However, these changes in Ta6 structure do not allow for full compensation of elongation, as reflected by the reduced bending stiffness of Ta6. Ta6 elongation in males resulted in feathers with reduced resistance, as shown by the low barb density and reduced bending stiffness compared to females. The inconsistency in sexual dimorphism and in change in quality traits of Ta6 among six European populations shows that multiple factors may contribute to shaping population differences. In general, the difference in quality traits between tail feathers cannot be explained by the GBW of feathers. Our results show that the material and structural properties of wing and tail feathers of barn swallows change as a result of aerodynamic forces and sexual selection, although the result of these

  10. Heterogeneity in stable isotope profiles predicts coexistence of populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in morphology and reproductive performance.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Hobson, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    Population studies assume that individuals belonging to a study population are homogeneous for natal and breeding origin, although this assumption is rarely tested. We tested for heterogeneity in stable-isotope profiles (delta15N, delta13C, deltaD) of feathers grown in the African winter quarters from a Danish breeding population of adult barn swallows, Hirundo rustica. Deuterium isotope values did not provide useful information on population segregation of wintering swallows in Africa. However, both delta15N and delta13C values showed a clearly bimodal distribution with 6% belonging to one category and the remaining birds belonging to another category, resulting in this population comprising three categories of birds. Adults belonging to the two categories of delta13C isotope profiles differed weakly in morphology for several different characters. The frequency and the size of second broods differed between categories of delta13C isotope profiles. Phenotypes of nestlings from the first brood in terms of tarsus length, body mass and T-cell response differed significantly between the two delta15N isotope categories, suggesting that conditions during winter carried over to the breeding season at least as late as the first brood. Polymorphism can be maintained only if fitness is similar for birds from categories of isotope profiles. We suggest that fluctuating selection or migration-selection balance may maintain the observed polymorphism. PMID:15306333

  11. Sex-related effects of reproduction on biomarkers of oxidative damage in free-living barn swallows (Hirundo rustica).

    PubMed

    Rubolini, Diego; Colombo, Graziano; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caprioli, Manuela; Clerici, Marco; Colombo, Roberto; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Milzani, Aldo; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Saino, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    According to life-history theory, the allocation of limiting resources to one trait has negative consequences for other traits requiring the same resource, resulting in trade-offs among life-history traits, such as reproduction and survival. In vertebrates, oxidative stress is increasingly being considered among the physiological mechanisms forming the currency of life-history trade-offs. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), we focus on the oxidative costs of reproduction, especially egg laying, by investigating the effects of breeding stage (pre- vs. post-laying) and progression of the season on three biomarkers of oxidative damage (OD) to plasma proteins, namely the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA)-protein adducts and of protein thiol groups (PSH), and the protein carbonyl (PCO) content. Moreover, we investigated whether males and females differed in plasma OD levels, because the inherent sex differences in reproductive roles and physiology may originate sex-specific patterns of OD during breeding. We found that MDA-protein adduct levels were higher in the pre-laying than in the post-laying phase, that males had lower levels of MDA-modified proteins than females, and that the decline of MDA-protein adduct concentration between the pre- and the post-laying phase was more marked for females than males. In addition, MDA-protein adduct levels declined with sampling date, but only during the pre-laying phase. On the other hand, plasma PCO levels increased from the pre- to the post-laying phase in both sexes, and females had higher levels of PCO than males. PSH concentration was unaffected by breeding stage, sex or sampling date. On the whole, our findings indicate that biomarkers of protein oxidation closely track the short-term variation in breeding stage of both male and female barn swallows. Moreover, the higher protein OD levels observed among females compared to males suggest that egg laying entails oxidative costs, which might negatively

  12. Early-Life Telomere Dynamics Differ between the Sexes and Predict Growth in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica)

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Khoriauli, Lela; Nergadze, Solomon G.; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Santagostino, Marco; Saino, Nicola; Giulotto, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are conserved DNA-protein structures at the termini of eukaryotic chromosomes which contribute to maintenance of genome integrity, and their shortening leads to cell senescence, with negative consequences for organismal functions. Because telomere erosion is influenced by extrinsic and endogenous factors, telomere dynamics may provide a mechanistic basis for evolutionary and physiological trade-offs. Yet, knowledge of fundamental aspects of telomere biology under natural selection regimes, including sex- and context-dependent variation in early-life, and the covariation between telomere dynamics and growth, is scant. In this study of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) we investigated the sex-dependent telomere erosion during nestling period, and the covariation between relative telomere length and body and plumage growth. Finally, we tested whether any covariation between growth traits and relative telomere length depends on the social environment, as influenced by sibling sex ratio. Relative telomere length declined on average over the period of nestling maximal growth rate (between 7 and 16 days of age) and differently covaried with initial relative telomere length in either sex. The frequency distribution of changes in relative telomere length was bimodal, with most nestlings decreasing and some increasing relative telomere length, but none of the offspring traits predicted the a posteriori identified group to which individual nestlings belonged. Tail and wing length increased with relative telomere length, but more steeply in males than females, and this relationship held both at the within- and among-broods levels. Moreover, the increase in plumage phenotypic values was steeper when the sex ratio of an individual’s siblings was female-biased. Our study provides evidence for telomere shortening during early life according to subtly different dynamics in either sex. Furthermore, it shows that the positive covariation between growth and relative telomere

  13. Low Variation in the Polymorphic Clock Gene Poly-Q Region Despite Population Genetic Structure across Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Roi; Lovette, Irby J.; Safran, Rebecca J.; Billerman, Shawn M.; Huber, Gernot H.; Vortman, Yoni; Lotem, Arnon; McGowan, Andrew; Evans, Matthew R.; Cooper, Caren B.; Winkler, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of several species have reported a latitudinal cline in the circadian clock gene, Clock, which influences rhythms in both physiology and behavior. Latitudinal variation in this gene may hence reflect local adaptation to seasonal variation. In some bird populations, there is also an among-individual association between Clock poly-Q genotype and clutch initiation date and incubation period. We examined Clock poly-Q allele variation in the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), a species with a cosmopolitan geographic distribution and considerable variation in life-history traits that may be influenced by the circadian clock. We genotyped Barn Swallows from five populations (from three subspecies) and compared variation at the Clock locus to that at microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We found very low variation in the Clock poly-Q region, as >96% of individuals were homozygous, and the two other alleles at this locus were globally rare. Genetic differentiation based on the Clock poly-Q locus was not correlated with genetic differentiation based on either microsatellite loci or mtDNA sequences. Our results show that high diversity in Clock poly-Q is not general across avian species. The low Clock variation in the background of heterogeneity in microsatellite and mtDNA loci in Barn Swallows may be an outcome of stabilizing selection on the Clock locus. PMID:22216124

  14. Signaling stress? An analysis of phaeomelanin-based plumage color and individual corticosterone levels at two temporal scales in North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Brittany R; Vitousek, Maren N; Safran, Rebecca J

    2013-09-01

    Sexually selected traits confer greater reproductive benefits to individuals with more elaborate forms of the signal. However, whether these signals convey reliable information about the physiology underlying trait development remains unknown in many species. The steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) mediates important physiological and behavioral processes during the vertebrate stress response, and CORT secretion itself can be modulated by melanocortins. Thus, sexually selected melanin-based plumage coloration could function as an honest signal of an individual's ability to respond to stressors. This hypothesis was tested in North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster, where males with darker ventral plumage color exhibit higher phaeomelanin content and are more successful at reproduction. Because reproductive behavior occurs months after plumage signals are developed, we also addressed the potential temporal disconnect of physiological state during trait development and trait advertisement by analyzing three different measurements of CORT levels in adult males during the breeding season (trait advertisement) and in nestling males while they were growing their feathers (trait development). Variation in adult plumage color did not predict baseline or stress-induced CORT, or stress responsiveness. Likewise, there was no relationship between nestling plumage color and any of the CORT measurements, but heavier nestlings had significantly lower baseline CORT. Our finding that a predominantly phaeomelanin-based trait is unrelated to circulating CORT suggests that phaeomelanin and eumelanin signals may convey different physiological information, and highlights the need for further study on the biochemical links between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the production of different melanin-based pigments.

  15. Abundance and genetic damage of barn swallows from Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Koyama, K.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Kitamura, W.; Sukuzi, H.; Ostermiller, S.; Arai, E.; Møller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have assessed or modeled the distribution of the radionuclides released by the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Few studies however have investigated its consequences for the local biota. We tested whether exposure of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) nestlings to low dose ionizing radiation increased genetic damage to their peripheral erythrocytes. We estimated external radiation exposure by using thermoluminescent dosimeters, and by measuring radioactivity of the nest material. We then assessed DNA damage by means of the neutral comet assay. In addition, we conducted standard point-count censuses of barn swallows across environmental radiation levels, and estimated their abundance and local age ratio. Radioactivity of nest samples was in the range 479–143,349 Bq kg−1, while external exposure varied between 0.15 and 4.9 mGy. Exposure to radioactive contamination did not correlate with higher genetic damage in nestlings. However, at higher levels of radioactive contamination the number of barn swallows declined and the fraction of juveniles decreased, indicating lower survival and lower reproduction and/or fledging rate. Thus, genetic damage to nestlings does not explain the decline of barn swallows in contaminated areas, and a proximate mechanism for the demographic effects documented here remains to be clarified. PMID:25838205

  16. Cryptococcus neoformans isolation from swallow (Hirundo rustica) excreta in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Fakhar, Mahdi; Shokohi, Tahereh; Majidi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can cause cryptococcosis, a life-threatening infection that mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients. The major environmental sources of C. neoformans have been shown to be soil contaminated with avian droppings. In the present study, we evaluated the isolation of C. neoformans from swallow (Hirundo rustica) excreta in two northern cities of Iran. Ninety-seven swallow droppings were evaluated and 498 yeast-like colonies were isolated and identified as Rhodotorula spp. (62.8%), Candida spp. (28.5%)and C. neoformans (8.7%). Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 5/97 (5.2%) of collected samples. Min-Max colony forming units (CFU) per one gram for the positive samples were 3-10 C. neoformans colonies. The total mean CFU per one gram for the positive samples was 4.8. The results of this study demonstrate that excreta of swallow may harbor different species of potentially pathogenic yeasts, mainly C. neoformans, and may be capable of disseminating these fungi in the environment.

  17. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  18. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Matthew R; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B; Hubbard, Joanna K; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-10-07

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male-male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems.

  19. Multimodal signalling in the North American barn swallow: a phenotype network approach

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Matthew R.; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex signals, involving multiple components within and across modalities, are common in animal communication. However, decomposing complex signals into traits and their interactions remains a fundamental challenge for studies of phenotype evolution. We apply a novel phenotype network approach for studying complex signal evolution in the North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). We integrate model testing with correlation-based phenotype networks to infer the contributions of female mate choice and male–male competition to the evolution of barn swallow communication. Overall, the best predictors of mate choice were distinct from those for competition, while moderate functional overlap suggests males and females use some of the same traits to assess potential mates and rivals. We interpret model results in the context of a network of traits, and suggest this approach allows researchers a more nuanced view of trait clustering patterns that informs new hypotheses about the evolution of communication systems. PMID:26423842

  20. Dynamic paternity allocation as a function of male plumage color in barn swallows.

    PubMed

    Safran, R J; Neuman, C R; McGraw, K J; Lovette, I J

    2005-09-30

    Paternity in male animals can be influenced by their phenotypic signals of quality. Accordingly, the behavior underlying patterns of paternity should be flexible as signals of quality change. To evaluate the dynamics of paternity allocation, we analyzed paternity before and after manipulating plumage coloration, a known signal of quality, in male barn swallows Hirundo rustica. We found that, in successive breeding bouts, only males whose plumage color was experimentally enhanced received greater paternity from their social mates, demonstrating evidence for flexible and dynamic paternity allocation and the importance for males of maintaining signals of quality well after pair bond formation.

  1. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 micro g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 micro g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  2. Contaminant exposure of barn swallows nesting on Bayou d'Inde, Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Goatcher, B.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Current and historical point source discharges, storm water runoff, and accidental spills have contaminated the water, sediment, and biota within the Calcasieu Estuary in southwestern Louisiana. In 2003, barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) eggs and nestlings were collected beneath two bridges that cross Bayou d'Inde, the most contaminated waterway within the Calcasieu Estuary. Samples were also collected from a bridge over Bayou Teche, a reference site in south central Louisiana. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestlings were significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (2.8 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and 1.5 mu g/g PCBs in nestlings) than at the other two sites (< 0.2 mu g/g PCBs in eggs and nestlings at both sites). Ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity in nestling livers was significantly higher at the downstream site on Bayou d'Inde (50 pmol/min/mg) compared to the other two locations (24 pmol/min/mg, each), probably because of exposure to PCBs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in eggs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nestlings were at background concentrations at all sites. Trace element concentrations in barn swallow eggs and nestling livers were at background levels and did not differ among the three sites. A biomarker of DNA damage did not differ among sites.

  3. Differential effects of egg albumen content on barn swallow nestlings in relation to hatch order.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, R P; Martinelli, R; Saino, N

    2006-05-01

    In diverse animal taxa, egg mass variation mediates maternal effects with long-term consequences for offspring ontogeny and fitness. Patterns of egg mass variation with laying order differ considerably among birds, but no study has experimentally investigated the function of variation in albumen or yolk egg content in the wild. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), absolute and relative albumen mass increased with egg laying order. Experimental albumen removal delayed hatching, had larger negative effects on growth of late-hatched nestlings, and reduced nestling survival. Laying order positively predicted hatch order. Because nestling competitive ability depends on size, and albumen egg content influences hatchling size, present results suggest that by increasing albumen content of late eggs mothers reduce hatching asynchrony and enhance growth particularly of late-hatched nestlings. Thus, variation in albumen mass with laying order may function to mitigate the negative phenotypic consequences of hatching late in species that adopt a 'brood-survival' strategy.

  4. Testosterone, Plumage Colouration and Extra-Pair Paternity in Male North-American Barn Swallows

    PubMed Central

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length), and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively), but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. PMID:21853105

  5. Sexual selection for white tail spots in the barn swallow in relation to habitat choice by feather lice.

    PubMed

    Kose; Mänd; Møller

    1999-12-01

    Many bird species have white spots in their tails or wing feathers, and such characters have been hypothesized to be either reliable signals (handicaps) or amplifiers that facilitate the message of a signal. In barn swallows, Hirundo rustica, the size of the white spots in the tail feathers is sexually dimorphic and positively correlated with feather length. We tested whether such spots act as handicaps or amplifiers. These white spots affect sexual selection in barn swallows, as shown by an experiment in which we randomly subjected males to (1) a considerable reduction of the size of all the spots by the use of a black permanent marker pen, (2) a small reduction of the size of the spots, or (3) no reduction. There was a positive association between spot size and the number of offspring produced per season. The white tail spots were preferred by feather-eating Mallophaga as a feeding site: holes made by Mallophaga were more abundant in the white spots than expected by chance. A habitat choice experiment with Mallophaga on barn swallow tail feathers revealed that they preferred white spots over black parts of the tail feathers. We therefore expected long-tailed male barn swallows to have more Mallophaga than short-tailed males. However, the opposite relationship was observed, indicating that long-tailed males may reliably signal their quality by the presence of large white tail spots without parasite damage. Thus white tail spots in barn swallows appear to be a reliable signal of phenotypic quality. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. Geographic Variation in Hirundo pyrrhonota (Cliff Swallow) from Northern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M. Ralph

    1992-01-01

    The number of subspecies recognized in Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot (Cliff Swallow) from Alaska, Canada, and the northern contiguous United States ranges from one (Peters 1960) to three (e.g., Jewett et al. 1953, Oberholser, 1920, breeding from central Alaska to the central Great Basin, and two disjunct populations of nominate pyrrhonota, breeding on the west coast and east of the Rocky Mountains. Although various authors have reported measurements of wing chord, they have not provided quantitative data for other plumage characters, and they disagree in the characterizations and ranges of the subspecies they recognize. Because of this, I reviewed the geographic variation among the northern populations. My study is confined to specimens from Alaska, Canada, and the contigeous United States south to Merced County in California, both slopes of the Rocky Mountains from Montana and Colorado, and northern half of the eastern United States from Kansas east to Virginia (Figure 1). The A.O.U. (1957) gave the breeding range of hypopolia as extending from Alaska and Mackenzie to southeastern British Columbia, the eastern parts of Washington, Oregon, and central-eastern California, central Nevada, northern Utah, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming, and the range of nominate pyrhonota as from southwestern British Columbia, western Oregon and Washington to southern California, southern Nevada, southern and eastern Utag, and east of the Rocky Mountains. I excluded specimens of H. p. ganieri Phillips, 1986, a subspecies (Browning 1990) that breeds from at least west-central Tennessee to Texas, and H. p. tachina Oberholser, 1903 (sensu Phillips 1986), which breeds north to central California, Utah, Arizona, and new Mexico. I follow Phillips (1973) for the use of the generic name Hirundo for the Cliff Swallow, Hellmayr (1935) for the use of the specific name pyrrhonota.

  7. Foraging at the edge of the world: low-altitude, high-speed manoeuvering in barn swallows.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Biewener, Andrew A; Crandell, Kristen E; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    While prior studies of swallow manoeuvering have focused on slow-speed flight and obstacle avoidance in still air, swallows survive by foraging at high speeds in windy environments. Recent advances in field-portable, high-speed video systems, coupled with precise anemometry, permit measures of high-speed aerial performance of birds in a natural state. We undertook the present study to test: (i) the manner in which barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) may exploit wind dynamics and ground effect while foraging and (ii) the relative importance of flapping versus gliding for accomplishing high-speed manoeuvers. Using multi-camera videography synchronized with wind-velocity measurements, we tracked coursing manoeuvers in pursuit of prey. Wind speed averaged 1.3-2.0 m s(-1) across the atmospheric boundary layer, exhibiting a shear gradient greater than expected, with instantaneous speeds of 0.02-6.1 m s(-1) While barn swallows tended to flap throughout turns, they exhibited reduced wingbeat frequency, relying on glides and partial bounds during maximal manoeuvers. Further, the birds capitalized on the near-earth wind speed gradient to gain kinetic and potential energy during both flapping and gliding turns; providing evidence that such behaviour is not limited to large, fixed-wing soaring seabirds and that exploitation of wind gradients by small aerial insectivores may be a significant aspect of their aeroecology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  8. Quantitative genetics of migration syndromes: a study of two barn swallow populations.

    PubMed

    Teplitsky, C; Mouawad, N G; Balbontin, J; De Lope, F; Møller, A P

    2011-09-01

    Migration is a complex trait although little is known about genetic correlations between traits involved in such migration syndromes. To assess the migratory responses to climate change, we need information on genetic constraints on evolutionary potential of arrival dates in migratory birds. Using two long-term data sets on barn swallows Hirundo rustica (from Spain and Denmark), we show for the first time in wild populations that spring arrival dates are phenotypically and genetically correlated with morphological and life history traits. In the Danish population, length of outermost tail feathers and wing length were negatively genetically correlated with arrival date. In the Spanish population, we found a negative genetic correlation between arrival date and time elapsed between arrival date and laying date, constraining response to selection that favours both early arrival and shorter delays. This results in a decreased rate of adaptation, not because of constraints on arrival date, but constraints on delay before breeding, that is, a trait that can be equally important in the context of climate change.

  9. Evolutionary divergence in sexual signals: Insights from within and among barn swallow populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Matthew Reed

    A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the

  10. Eggshell bacterial load is related to antimicrobial properties of feathers lining barn swallow nests.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Soler, Juan José; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Knight, Rob; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Møller, Anders Pape

    2014-02-01

    The use of feathers to line bird's nests has traditionally been interpreted as having a thermoregulatory function. Feather-degrading bacteria growing on feathers lining nests may have antimicrobial properties, which may provide an additional benefit to lining nests with feathers. We test the hypothesis that the production of antimicrobial substances by feather bacteria affects the microbiological environment of the nest, and therefore the bacterial density on eggshells and, indirectly, hatching success. These effects would be expected to differ between nests lined with pigmented and white feathers, because bacteria grow differently on feathers of different colors. We experimentally manipulated the composition of pigmented and unpigmented feathers in nests of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) and studied the antimicrobial properties against the keratin-degrading bacterium Bacillus licheniformis of bacteria isolated from feathers of each color. Analyzed feathers were collected at the end of the incubation period, and antimicrobial activity was defined as the proportion of bacteria from the feathers that produce antibacterial substances effective against B. licheniformis. Our experimental manipulation affected antimicrobial activity, which was higher in nests with only white feathers at the beginning of incubation. Moreover, white feathers showed higher antimicrobial activity than black ones. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity in feathers of one of the colors correlated negatively with bacterial density on feather of the opposite color. Finally, antimicrobial activity of white feathers was negatively related to eggshell bacterial load. These results suggest that antimicrobial properties of feathers in general and of white feathers in particular affect the bacterial environment in nests. This environment in turn affects the bacterial load on eggshells, which may affect hatching success.

  11. With a little help from my kin: barn swallow nestlings modulate solicitation of parental care according to nestmates' need.

    PubMed

    Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, M; Boncoraglio, G; Saino, N; Rubolini, D

    2012-09-01

    In altricial species, offspring competing for access to limiting parental resources (e.g. food) are selected to achieve an optimal balance between the costs of scrambling for food, the benefits of being fed and the indirect costs of subtracting food to relatives. As the marginal benefits of acquiring additional food decrease with decreasing levels of need, satiated offspring should be prone to favour access to food by their needy kin, thus enhancing their own indirect fitness, while concomitantly reducing costs of harsh competition with hungry broodmates. We tested this prediction in feeding trials of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) nestlings by comparing begging behaviour and food intake of two similar-sized nestmates, one of which was food-deprived (FD). Non-food-deprived (NFD) offspring modulated begging intensity depending on their nestmate's need: when competing with FD nestmates, NFD nestlings reduced both the intensity and frequency of begging displays compared to themselves in the control trial before food deprivation. Hence, NFD nestlings reduced their competitiveness to the advantage of FD nestmates, which obtained more feedings and showed a threefold larger increase in body mass. Moderation of individual selfishness can therefore be adaptive in the presence of a needier kin, because the indirect fitness benefits of promoting its condition can outweigh the costs of forgoing being fed, and because it limits the cost of begging escalation against a vigorous competitor.

  12. Migration phenology and breeding success are predicted by methylation of a photoperiodic gene in the barn swallow

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Nicola; Ambrosini, Roberto; Albetti, Benedetta; Caprioli, Manuela; De Giorgio, Barbara; Gatti, Emanuele; Liechti, Felix; Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Bollati, Valentina; Rubolini, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Individuals often considerably differ in the timing of their life-cycle events, with major consequences for individual fitness, and, ultimately, for population dynamics. Phenological variation can arise from genetic effects but also from epigenetic modifications in DNA expression and translation. Here, we tested if CpG methylation at the poly-Q and 5′-UTR loci of the photoperiodic Clock gene predicted migration and breeding phenology of long-distance migratory barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that were tracked year-round using light-level geolocators. Increasing methylation at Clock poly-Q was associated with earlier spring departure from the African wintering area, arrival date at the European breeding site, and breeding date. Higher methylation levels also predicted increased breeding success. Thus, we showed for the first time in any species that CpG methylation at a candidate gene may affect phenology and breeding performance. Methylation at Clock may be a candidate mechanism mediating phenological responses of migratory birds to ongoing climate change. PMID:28361883

  13. Migration phenology and breeding success are predicted by methylation of a photoperiodic gene in the barn swallow.

    PubMed

    Saino, Nicola; Ambrosini, Roberto; Albetti, Benedetta; Caprioli, Manuela; De Giorgio, Barbara; Gatti, Emanuele; Liechti, Felix; Parolini, Marco; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Bollati, Valentina; Rubolini, Diego

    2017-03-31

    Individuals often considerably differ in the timing of their life-cycle events, with major consequences for individual fitness, and, ultimately, for population dynamics. Phenological variation can arise from genetic effects but also from epigenetic modifications in DNA expression and translation. Here, we tested if CpG methylation at the poly-Q and 5'-UTR loci of the photoperiodic Clock gene predicted migration and breeding phenology of long-distance migratory barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) that were tracked year-round using light-level geolocators. Increasing methylation at Clock poly-Q was associated with earlier spring departure from the African wintering area, arrival date at the European breeding site, and breeding date. Higher methylation levels also predicted increased breeding success. Thus, we showed for the first time in any species that CpG methylation at a candidate gene may affect phenology and breeding performance. Methylation at Clock may be a candidate mechanism mediating phenological responses of migratory birds to ongoing climate change.

  14. Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Weaver, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between Barn Swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated Martin Lake, Texas, USA, and swallows nesting at a reference site. Nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at Martin Lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. Nest success was significantly higher a Martin Lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. Selenium concentrations in 14 of 20 eggs from Martin Lake were above background ( gt 3 ppm, dry weight); two of 20 eggs contained gt 5 ppm, a concentration associated with a 20% embryo mortality/deformity rate in some bird species. Selenium concentrations in the kidneys of adult swallows were higher at Martin Lake (mean = 14 ppm dry weight) than at the reference site (5.8 ppm). DDE, the only detected organochlorine compound, was in two of 10 eggs from Martin Lake; these concentrations were below those associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems. The maximum mercury concentration in livers of adult Barn Swallows (0.83 ppm, dry weight) was within the range for background levels ( lt 5 ppm).

  15. Reproductive success of barn swallows nesting near a selenium-contaminated lake in east Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Weaver, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Reproductive success and contaminant levels in 1986 and 1987 were compared between Barn Swallows nesting at selenium-contaminated Martin Lake, Texas, USA, and swallows nesting at a reference site. Nests were initiated about the same time or earlier at Martin Lake than at the reference site and clutch size was similar between the two locations. Nest success was significantly higher at Martin Lake than at the reference site and no embryo or chick deformities were documented. Selenium concentrations in 14 of 20 eggs from Martin Lake were above background (> 3 ppm, dry weight); two of 20 eggs contained > 5 ppm, a concentration associated with a 20% embryo mortality/deformity rate in some bird species. Selenium concentrations in the kidneys of adult swallows were higher at Martin Lake (mean = 14 ppm dry weight) than at the reference site (5.8 ppm). DDE, the only detected organochlorine compound, was in two of 10 eggs from Martin Lake; these concentrations were below those associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems. The maximum mercury concentration in livers of adult Barn Swallows (0.83 ppm, dry weight) was within the range for background levels (< 5 ppm).

  16. Effect of current reproduction on apparent survival, breeding dispersal, and future reproduction in barn swallows assessed by multistate capture-recapture models.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Michael; von Hirschheydt, Johann

    2009-05-01

    1. Theoretical models predict a negative effect of current reproduction on breeding dispersal, survival and future reproduction, and many studies confirm these predictions. Yet, results of most previous studies may be difficult to interpret because the fate of the affected individuals cannot always be observed. Detection is almost always imperfect and some individuals emigrate from the study area, resulting in biased estimates of both survival and dispersal. 2. Most studies bypass these problems with strong assumptions. We use a multistate capture-recapture model that does not require these assumptions. States are defined based on classes of reproductive success and on observed dispersal events within the study area. By accounting for imperfect detection within the study area, the model allows estimation of the effect of reproductive success on apparent survival, dispersal probabilities within the study area and the annual transition probabilities among classes of reproductive success. Based on an assumption about the estimate of real survival, the model allows the estimation of total dispersal that is not specific to a fixed study area. 3. We applied this model to capture-recapture data of 2262 adult barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) sampled from 1997-2004 in eight local populations in Switzerland. 4. We found that dispersal within the study area decreased with increasing reproductive success in both sexes, that reproductive success was not affected by preceding dispersal and that apparent survival of females but not of males increased with increasing reproductive success. Apparent survival of females with high reproductive success was identical to apparent survival of males suggesting that this estimate of apparent survival (0.48) was close to true survival. Total breeding dispersal was generally higher in females and it increased with decreasing reproductive success in both sexes. Current reproductive success depended on reproductive success in the preceding year

  17. PCB, PAH and trace element exposure in barn swallows nesting on the Grand Calumet River, IN, watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, T.W.; Sparks, D.W. |

    1995-12-31

    The Grand Calumet River/Indiana Harbor Canal (GCR/IHC) is an International Joint Commission Area of Concern (AOC) and is heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements. Barn swallow hatchlings and nestlings were collected from four bridges which span the GCR/IHC and a reference location. PCB and PAH concentrations in hatchlings and nestlings were significantly higher in colonies along the GCR/IHC than the reference colony. For example, mean PCB concentrations in hatchlings and nestlings were significantly higher in colonies along the GCR/IHC than the reference colony. For example, mean PCB concentrations in hatchlings were 0.04 {micro}g/g wet weight at the reference colony and 20.42 {micro}g/g at one colony on the GCR/IHC; mean concentrations of PAHs were 0.05 {micro}g/g at the reference colony and 0.15 {micro}g/g at one colony on the GCR/IHC. PCBs accumulated in nestlings at a rate of 18.2 {micro}g/day at one colony on the GCR/IHC compared to 0.03 {micro}g/day at the reference colony. These data suggest that contaminants in the water and sediment of the GCR/IHC are being incorporated into the vertebrate food chain via aquatic insects. Because the contaminant data in the barn swallow hatchlings and nestlings seem to reflect the sediment chemistry nearby the colony, this study suggests that barn swallows are a useful biomonitoring species for this AOC.

  18. Barn Again! Indiana Barns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This final issue of the "Indiana History Bulletin" focuses on Indiana barns. Four articles feature the barn theme: (1) "Smithsonian Exhibit on Barns Will Tour Indiana in 2001-2002"; (2) "Indiana Barns," which contains several photographs of old barns; (3) "Indiana Barn Types," which contains drawings of…

  19. The Odour of Sex: Sex-Related Differences in Volatile Compound Composition among Barn Swallow Eggs Carrying Embryos of Either Sex.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Alessandra; Panseri, Sara; Giorgi, Annamaria; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Saino, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Avian communication has been traditionally believed to be mainly mediated by visual and auditory channels. However, an increasing number of studies are disclosing the role of olfaction in the interaction of birds with their social environment and with other species, as well as in other behaviors such as nest recognition, food location and navigation. Olfaction has also been suggested to play a role in parent-offspring communication not only in the post- but also in the pre-hatching period. Volatile compounds produced during embryogenesis and passively released through the eggshell pores may indeed represent the only cue at parents' disposal to assess offspring quality, including the sex composition of their clutch before hatching. In turn, sex identification before hatching may mediate adaptive strategies of allocation to either sex. In the present study, we analyzed odour composition of barn swallow eggs incubated in their nest in order to identify any sex-related differences in volatile compounds emitted. For the first time in any bird species, we also investigated whether odour composition is associated with relatedness. The evidence of differences in odour composition among eggs containing embryos of either sex indicates that parents have a cue to identify their brood sex composition even before hatching which can be used to modulate their behavior accordingly. Moreover, odour similarity within nests may represent the prerequisite for kin recognition in this species.

  20. The Odour of Sex: Sex-Related Differences in Volatile Compound Composition among Barn Swallow Eggs Carrying Embryos of Either Sex

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Alessandra; Panseri, Sara; Giorgi, Annamaria; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Saino, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Avian communication has been traditionally believed to be mainly mediated by visual and auditory channels. However, an increasing number of studies are disclosing the role of olfaction in the interaction of birds with their social environment and with other species, as well as in other behaviors such as nest recognition, food location and navigation. Olfaction has also been suggested to play a role in parent-offspring communication not only in the post- but also in the pre-hatching period. Volatile compounds produced during embryogenesis and passively released through the eggshell pores may indeed represent the only cue at parents’ disposal to assess offspring quality, including the sex composition of their clutch before hatching. In turn, sex identification before hatching may mediate adaptive strategies of allocation to either sex. In the present study, we analyzed odour composition of barn swallow eggs incubated in their nest in order to identify any sex-related differences in volatile compounds emitted. For the first time in any bird species, we also investigated whether odour composition is associated with relatedness. The evidence of differences in odour composition among eggs containing embryos of either sex indicates that parents have a cue to identify their brood sex composition even before hatching which can be used to modulate their behavior accordingly. Moreover, odour similarity within nests may represent the prerequisite for kin recognition in this species. PMID:27851741

  1. The Barn.

    PubMed

    Lingelbach, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    A short history of the Barn is given, including the description of a few objects. The Barn is a well-known 'hands-on' museum; two examples are given to show that from time to time something new is presented. Prior to the 2009 European Conference on Visual Perception in Regensburg, a conference called '3-Dillusions' was held in the Barn. Owing to the success of that meeting the conference, 'Illusions and Delusions' was held in August 2013.

  2. Swallowing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as cream-based soups, pudding, ice cream, yogurt, and milkshakes). Take small bites, and swallow each ... dishes, tuna salads, and thick liquids such as yogurt may be easier to swallow. Sauces and gravies ...

  3. Shampoo - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... The time it was swallowed The amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  4. Swallowing soap

    MedlinePlus

    ... if known) Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  5. Dirt - swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Dirt - swallowing URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002840.htm Dirt - swallowing ...

  6. Painful swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ulcer in the esophagus, especially due to the antibiotic doxycycline Other causes of swallowing problems include: Mouth or throat ulcers Something stuck in the throat (for example, fish or chicken bones) Tooth infection or abscess

  7. Swallowing sunscreen

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be treated. The person may receive: Activated charcoal Blood and urine tests Breathing support, including a ... alcohol called ethanol. Children who swallow a large amount of sunscreen that contains ethanol may become drunk ( ...

  8. U.S. Air Force Environmental Assessment: Repair by Replacement JP-8 Fuel Transfer Line Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    macroura), barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), meadowlark (Sturnella spp.), scissor- tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus...considered optimal wildlife habitat; typical grassland species such as cottontail, fox squirrel, raccoon, red-winged blackbird , mourning dove, and

  9. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1), MILKING BARN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF FEED BARN (STRUCTURE 1), MILKING BARN (CENTER) (STRUCTURE 2) AND CORNER OF MILK HOUSE (STRUCTURE 3) FROM SOUTHEAST - Twin Oaks Dairy, Northwest of Metcalfe Road, off State Route 101 (Monterey Road), Coyote, Santa Clara County, CA

  10. View west, barn, east elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west, barn, east elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  11. View south, barn, north elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, barn, north elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  12. View north, barn, south elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, barn, south elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  13. View east, barn, west elevation Woods Homestead, Barn, County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, barn, west elevation - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  14. LOWER LEVEL OF CROCKETT BARN, LOOKING SOUTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOWER LEVEL OF CROCKETT BARN, LOOKING SOUTH. The barn is built on a fieldstone foundation with a heavy-timber, mortise and tenon wood construction. A bank of window openings spans the south and east walls. Every other opening is covered with an operable shutter that is hinged to the window header above. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  15. 6. Livestock barn (far left), log drafthorse barn (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Livestock barn (far left), log draft-horse barn (left of center), loafing shed (center), log calving barn (right of center). View to west-northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. Keeping Barns in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomash, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a landscape project using Grant Wood's paintings as an example. As part of the project, the students are required to include a barn in their picture. This project is a great opportunity to study an Iowa artist who did landscape painting and to study perspective. This is also an excellent project for teaching…

  17. Neurophysiology of swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Fitzgerald, Michelle E.; McLaren, Donald G.; Johnson, Sterling; Porcaro, Eva; Kosmatka, Kris; Hind, Jacqueline; Robbins, JoAnne

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in swallowing from an integrated biomechanical and functional imaging perspective in order to more comprehensively characterize changes in swallowing associated with age. We examined swallowing-related fMRI brain activity and videoflouroscopic biomechanics of three bolus types (saliva, water and barium) in 12 young and 11 older adults. We found that age-related neurophysiological changes in swallowing are evident. The group of older adults recruited more cortical regions than young adults, including the pericentral gyri and inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis and pars triangularis (primarily right-sided). Saliva swallows elicited significantly higher BOLD responses in regions important for swallowing compared to water and barium. In separate videofluoroscopy sessions, we obtained durational measures of supine swallowing. The older cohort had significantly longer delays before the onset of the pharyngeal swallow response and increased residue of ingested material in the pharynx. These findings suggest that older adults without neurological insult elicit more cortical involvement to complete the same swallowing tasks as younger adults. PMID:19010424

  18. Some Reflections on the Barnes Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinnie, Harold

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the founding, development, and issues surrounding the Barnes Foundation and its art collection, specifically designed for art education. Also discusses myths about Albert C. Barnes, the Barnes Foundation, and its relationship to the ideas of John Dewey. (CFR)

  19. Interview with Peter Barnes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    Peter Barnes first started his career in respiratory research in the late 1970s following studies at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. He is currently Professor of Thoracic Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Head of Respiratory Medicine at Imperial College and Honorary Consultant Physician at the Royal Brompton Hospital. He speaks to Future Medicinal Chemistry about the molecular mechanisms currently under investigation by his group, and discusses his views on the latest therapeutic breakthroughs and the future of respiratory research.

  20. The Videofluorographic Swallowing Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Jones, Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The evidence for the physiologic foundation and interpretation of the videofluorographic swallowing study (VFSS) is described. The purpose and clinical utility of VFSS are explained. Standardization of the VFSS procedure, protocol, interpretation and reporting is highlighted as a critical step in future clinical practice and in clinical research. Individualized, evidenced –based rehabilitation strategies are presented as key components that are systematically applied during the VFSS procedure and integrated into the swallowing management plan. A new tool that has been developed and tested for the quantification of swallowing impairment is introduced. PMID:18940640

  1. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  2. Talking about Poems, Elaborating Barnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, John

    2010-01-01

    In "Language, the Learner and the School", Douglas Barnes recognised that intonation was important to classroom interaction but also acknowledged that his own research team did not choose to analyse it. This article presents instances of classroom talk about poetry and reflects on them using Barnes' concepts of pupil participation, exploratory…

  3. Dysphagia (Difficulty Swallowing)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your breathing tube. A visual examination of your esophagus (endoscopy). A thin, flexible lighted instrument (endoscope) is passed down your throat so your doctor can see your esophagus. Fiber-optic endoscopic swallowing evaluation (FEES). Your may ...

  4. [Arrhythmias from swallowing].

    PubMed

    Palazzuoli, V; Mondillo, S; Faglia, S; D'Aprile, N; De Luca, G; Kristodhullu, A; Corba, E

    1992-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year old, non cardiopathic patient, with recurrent attacks of supraventricular tachycardia induced by swallowing. In the existing literature we found several descriptions of hypokinetic arrhythmias, easily explained by a mechanism of vagal inhibition. The cases of predominantly hyperkinetic arrhythmias, however, are much less common. In these patients the origin of the disease seems to be due to sympathetic oesophageal fibers and superior and medium cardiac nerves. In the present case, as in the others reported in the literature, the drug of choice seems to be Amiodarone which appears to be the most effective in preventing tachyarrhythmias caused by swallowing.

  5. GROUND FLOOR OF JENNE BARN LOOKING EAST. (The barn’s ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GROUND FLOOR OF JENNE BARN LOOKING EAST. (The barn’s ground floor is used for animal pens. On the left is an area enclosed for chickens. The Jenne milking stanchions remain along the south end of the barn.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  6. The Barnes Foundation: A Place for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Rika

    2007-01-01

    This article tells the story of the author's invitation to teach at the Barnes Foundation, and her transformative experience as a teacher in this extraordinary place. The author comes to realize that the Barnes is the physical realization of a philosophical dream, and progresses to an understanding of how Albert C. Barnes collected and assembled…

  7. 2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn 41. North side. 'Butterfly' roof line is similar to those of barns in middle barn area (Barns 1A through 8B). Part of 'panorama' with photo WA-201-13-1. - Longacres, Barn 41, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  8. Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of front (east) side of milk barn includes portion of creamery on left and main barn on right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  9. 2. Interior passageway at west end of Barn 3. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Interior passageway at west end of Barn 3. Camera pointed S. A pronounced sag in barn roof causes the apparent distortion of image in upper left. - Longacres, Barn 3, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  10. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  11. Swallowing Disorders: What Families Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Tom; Rende, Barbara

    Swallowing problems can result from a catastrophic illness or injury, and the family's role is very important in implementing the swallowing precautions recommended by the rehabilitation team. Explained in this pamphlet are the stages of the normal swallowing sequence, symptoms of a swallowing disorder, medical conditions associated with…

  12. 9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted ... stiffness (spasticity), fatigue and more. Let's Talk About Stroke Fact Sheets Our stroke fact sheets cover treatments, ...

  14. Rodenticides in British barn owls.

    PubMed

    Newton, I; Wyllie, I; Freestone, P

    1990-01-01

    Out of 145 Barn Owls found dead through accidents (66%), starvation (32%), shooting (2%) and poisoning (<1%), 10% contained residues of rodenticides, difenacoum or brodifacoum, in their livers. Difenacoum was in the range 0.005-0.106 microg g(-1) fresh weight, and brodifacoum was in the range 0.019-0.515 microg g(-1). Minimum levels of detection were about 0.005 microg g(-1) for both chemicals. Mice fed for 1 day on food containing difenacoum and brodifacoum died after 2-11 days. Within these mice residues were present at greater concentration in the liver than in the rest of the carcass. The mean mass of residue in a whole 35g mouse was estimated at 10.17 microg (range 4.73-20.65 microg) for difenacoum and 15.36 microg (range 8.07-26.55) for brodifacoum. Such poisoned mice were fed to Barn Owls for successive periods of 1, 3 and 6 days. All six owls fed on difenacoum-dosed mice survived all three treatments, in which up to an estimated 101.7 microg of difenacoum was consumed, and the coagulation times of their blood returned to near normal in less than 5-23 days. Four of the six owls fed on brodifacoum-dosed mice died 6-17 days after the 1-day treatment, but the survivors also survived the 3-day and 6-day treatments. Those that died had each eaten 3 mice, with a combined weight of about 105g and a total brodifacoum content of about 46.07 microg, which was equivalent to a dose of 0.150-0.182 mg kg(-1) of owl body weight. After death these owls had 0.63-1.25 micro g(-1) of brodifacoum in their livers. Blood from the survivors would not coagulate at 9 days post-treatment, but did so at 16 days in one bird and between 38 and 78 days in the other. It is concluded that: (1) Barn Owls in Britain are now widely exposed to second-generation rodenticides; (2) not all owls exposed to these chemicals are likely to receive a lethal dose; (3) brodifacoum is more toxic to owls than difenacoum; and (4) while there is yet no evidence that rodenticides have had any appreciable

  15. Swallowing dysfunction following endotracheal intubation

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Ku, Shih-Chi; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Huang, Guan-Hua; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate postextubation swallowing dysfunction (PSD) 21 days after endotracheal extubation and to examine whether PSD is time-limited and whether age matters. For this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 151 adult critical care patients (≥20 years) who were intubated for at least 48 hours and had no pre-existing neuromuscular disease or swallowing dysfunction. Participants were assessed for time (days) to pass bedside swallow evaluations (swallow 50 mL of water without difficulty) and to resume total oral intake. Outcomes were compared between younger (20–64 years) and older participants (≥65 years). PSD, defined as inability to swallow 50 mL of water within 48 hours after extubation, affected 92 participants (61.7% of our sample). At 21 days postextubation, 17 participants (15.5%) still failed to resume total oral intake and were feeding-tube dependent. We found that older participants had higher PSD rates at 7, 14, and 21 days postextubation, and took significantly longer to pass the bedside swallow evaluations (5.0 vs 3.0 days; P = 0.006) and to resume total oral intake (5.0 vs 3.0 days; P = 0.003) than their younger counterparts. Older participants also had significantly higher rates of subsequent feeding-tube dependence than younger patients (24.1 vs 5.8%; P = 0.008). Excluding patients with pre-existing neuromuscular dysfunction, PSD is common and prolonged. Age matters in the time needed to recover. Swallowing and oral intake should be monitored and interventions made, if needed, in the first 7 to 14 days postextubation, particularly for older patients. PMID:27310972

  16. 5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View southwest within dairy barn and milk house yard, milk house to left, barn ramp at center, and east side of dairy barn at center right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. INTERIOR OF BARN HAYLOFT, LOOKING WEST (Charles Arnold added a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BARN HAYLOFT, LOOKING WEST (Charles Arnold added a Cleaning Mill to the barn's hayloft c. 1960. This photograph shows the elevator, chaff shoot, and metal funnel that still remain. The barn's gambrel roof is supported by a three-hinged arch truss system) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Organochlorine concentrations in prefledging common terns Sterna hirundo at three Rhode Island USA colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Bunck, C.M.; Stafford, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDPEs) in carcasses of prefledging Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) at three Rhode Island colonies support the hypothesis that local contamination is responsible for among-colony differences observed in eggs in an earlier study. The highest concentrations of DDE and PCBs (mean=0.24 and 2.8 ppm wet weight) were found in prefledging terns from Providence, a highly industrialized area, and the lowest (DDE range=nd-0.11, PCBs mean=0.85) in terns from Price Neck, an undeveloped area 40 km to the south, PCDPEs were detected in 3 of 14 tern carcasses from Providence and were not detected in carcasses from 2 other colonies. The occurrence and concentrations of DDE and PCBs in killifish (Fundulus spp.), a major dietary item of Common Terns, qualitatively demonstrated the same trend among locations.

  20. Reproductive vulnerability: Parental attendance around hatching in roseate (Sterna dougallii) and common (S. hirundo) terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1991-01-01

    Presence of one or both members of a pair at the nest site during the incubation and early chick stage reduces reproductive losses due to predation and weather stresses. The authors monitored the presence of pair members by the temporary removal of one member of several pairs of Roseate (Sterna dougallii ) and Common (Sterna hirundo ) Terns at nests at Cedar Beach, New York, to determine if vulnerability varies by reproductive stage, to compare species differences that might partially account for declines in Roseate Tern populations, and to examine their response to trapping. There were significant differences between species in the time to return to the nest following an initial disturbance, and Roseate Terns that were trapped and released took longer to return to the nest and resume incubating than did Common Terns. The nests of Roseate Terns were vulnerable (neither adult in attendance) for longer time than were the nests of Common Terns.

  1. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  2. Understanding differences between healthy swallows and penetration-aspiration swallows via compressive sensing of tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.

    2014-05-01

    Swallowing accelerometry is a promising tool for non-invasive assessment of swallowing difficulties. A recent contribution showed that swallowing accelerometry signals for healthy swallows and swallows indicating laryn- geal penetration or tracheal aspiration have different time-frequency structures, which may be problematic for compressive sensing schemes based on time-frequency dictionaries. In this paper, we examined the effects of dif- ferent swallows on the accuracy of a compressive sensing scheme based on modulated discrete prolate spheroidal sequences. We utilized tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals recorded from four patients during routinely schedule videofluoroscopy exams. In particular, we considered 77 swallows approximately equally distributed between healthy swallows and swallows presenting with some penetration/aspiration. Our results indicated that the swallow type does not affect the accuracy of a considered compressive sensing scheme. Also, the results con- firmed previous findings that each individual axis contributes different information. Our findings are important for further developments of a device which is to be used for long-term monitoring of swallowing difficulties.

  3. Temporal Sequence of Swallow Events during the Oropharyngeal Swallow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendell, Dorie A.; Logemann, Jeri A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To (a) identify and characterize the temporal relation of selected structural movements during the oropharyngeal swallow across participants, (b) determine whether patterns of movement could be identified, and (c) determine whether the temporal relations were affected by aging and bolus characteristics. Method: Retrospective analysis of…

  4. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  5. Teledynamic Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; McCullough, Gary; He, Xuming; McWeeny, Elizabeth; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the present investigation was to test the feasibility and clinical utility of a real-time Internet-based protocol for remote, telefluoroscopic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Method: In this prospective cohort study, the authors evaluated 32 patients with a primary diagnosis of stroke or head/neck cancer. All…

  6. Ultrastructure of the Interlamellar Membranes of the Nacre of the Bivalve Pteria hirundo, Determined by Immunolabelling

    PubMed Central

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio J.; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Marin, Frédéric; Checa, Antonio G.

    2015-01-01

    The current model for the ultrastructure of the interlamellar membranes of molluscan nacre imply that they consist of a core of aligned chitin fibers surrounded on both sides by acidic proteins. This model was based on observations taken on previously demineralized shells, where the original structure had disappeared. Despite other earlier claims, no direct observations exist in which the different components can be unequivocally discriminated. We have applied different labeling protocols on non-demineralized nacreous shells of the bivalve Pteria. With this method, we have revealed the disposition and nature of the different fibers of the interlamellar membranes that can be observed on the surface of the nacreous shell of the bivalve Pteria hirundo by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minor chitin component consists of very thin fibers with a high aspect ratio and which are seemingly disoriented. Each fiber has a protein coat, which probably forms a complex with the chitin. The chitin-protein-complex fibers are embedded in an additional proteinaceous matrix. This is the first time in which the sizes, positions and distribution of the chitin fibers have been observed in situ. PMID:25909912

  7. Early postnatal lead exposure: behavioral effects in common tern chicks (Sterna Hirundo)

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure to lead early in life is known to affect behavioral and intellectual development. To develop an animal model the authors chose the common tern, Sterna hirundo, a species whose early developmental landmarks are well known. One potential for avian models lies in the reliance of birds on visual and acoustic rather than olfactory (and ultrasonic) modes of communication. One randomly chosen member from each of 8 pairs of young common tern chicks was injected with lead nitrate solution at a concentration of 0.2 mg/g. The pairs were not siblings but were matched for age (+/-1 d) and weight (+/-3 g). The second member of each pair was injected with an equal volume of sterile saline. Behavioral tests performed examined locomotion, balance and righting response, feeding tasks and begging, depth perception and response on a visual cliff, and behavioral thermoregulation. In each pair the control chick was heavier at 4 wk of age. For most behavioral measures, except begging and movement on a stationary incline, the lead-injected chicks performed less well than the control chicks. When presented with a novel feeding situation (reversal of fish position), the lead-injected chicks required significantly more time to eat the same number of fish. The single injection of lead, thus, affected a variety of behavioral patterns, with effects apparent within 5 d after injection.

  8. Ultrastructure of the Interlamellar Membranes of the Nacre of the Bivalve Pteria hirundo, Determined by Immunolabelling.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Mascaró, Antonio J; Cruz-Bustos, Teresa; Marin, Frédéric; Checa, Antonio G

    2015-01-01

    The current model for the ultrastructure of the interlamellar membranes of molluscan nacre imply that they consist of a core of aligned chitin fibers surrounded on both sides by acidic proteins. This model was based on observations taken on previously demineralized shells, where the original structure had disappeared. Despite other earlier claims, no direct observations exist in which the different components can be unequivocally discriminated. We have applied different labeling protocols on non-demineralized nacreous shells of the bivalve Pteria. With this method, we have revealed the disposition and nature of the different fibers of the interlamellar membranes that can be observed on the surface of the nacreous shell of the bivalve Pteria hirundo by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The minor chitin component consists of very thin fibers with a high aspect ratio and which are seemingly disoriented. Each fiber has a protein coat, which probably forms a complex with the chitin. The chitin-protein-complex fibers are embedded in an additional proteinaceous matrix. This is the first time in which the sizes, positions and distribution of the chitin fibers have been observed in situ.

  9. 8. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE BARNES BUILDING FROM POPLAR STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE BARNES BUILDING FROM POPLAR STREET, FACING NORTHEAST. CITY AUDITORIUM (BACKGROUND RIGHT) AND THE SHRINE TEMPLE (BACKGROUND LEFT). - Barnes Building, 477 Cotton Avenue, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  10. 3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 DEGREES SOUTHEAST, SHOWING RAISED FLOOR OF CENTRAL AISLE. - Hudson-Cippa-Wolf Ranch, Milk Barn, Sorento Road, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of main section of milk barn. Opening overhead leads to attic crawl space. Camera is pointed SW. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  12. 12. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE, SHOWING COLUMNS AND ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE, SHOWING COLUMNS AND ROOF STRUCTURE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. 4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARN. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH. THREE HORSE STALLS ARE AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE STORE ROOM DOOR IS AT THE NEAR RIGHT. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. 2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES AN ORIGINAL 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. EAST FRONT OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: East front of powerhouse and car barn. 'Annex' is right end of building. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 5. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST SIDE OF CAR BARN TOWARD POWER SUBSTATION - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  19. 8. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHEAST ADJACENT TO WAREHOUSE TOWARD CAR BARN - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. 5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log draft horse barn. Detail of west side showing Dutch door and square notching at wall corner. View to east. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Draft Horse Barn, 290 feet southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  1. 8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Double crib barn, south corner, log section, loft area, detail of log construction - Wilkins Farm, Barn, South side of Dove Hollow Road, 6000 feet east of State Route 259, Lost City, Hardy County, WV

  2. 5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn. Detail of wall corner showing half dovetail notching on hand-hewn logs. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. Two Techniques to Make Swallowing Pills Easier

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Julia T.; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly. PMID:25384817

  4. Two techniques to make swallowing pills easier.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Julia T; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly.

  5. 3. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE HIGH WINDOW (RIGHT) IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE HIGH WINDOW (RIGHT) IS IN THE LOFT. NOTE THE END OF THE GARAGE AT THE LEFT OF THE BARN. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. The Barnes Foundation: Pioneer Patron of Black Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubilee, Vincent

    1982-01-01

    Describes the activities of Dr. Albert Barnes and the Barnes Foundation Galleries in Merion, Pennsylvania, in promoting Black art and supporting Black artists through research and education grants. Focuses on the educative relationship between Dr. Barnes and four Black artists who became accomplished university art teachers. (Author/MJL)

  7. Surface Electromyographic Assessment of Swallowing Function

    PubMed Central

    Poorjavad, Marziyeh; Talebian, Saeed; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Soleymani, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of surface electromyographic (sEMG) variables during swallowing determines the potential usefulness of these measures in swallowing assessment and treatment. This study aimed to establish the reliability of the sEMG measures of the swallowing function of muscles during different swallowing conditions in healthy young and old volunteers. Two groups of volunteers (24 older adults, 10 younger adults) participated in this cross-sectional study during 2014. The activity of masseter, submental, and infrahyoid groups were measured using sEMG during three repetitions of different swallowing tasks. Both the relative and absolute reliability (characterized respectively by ICC, SEM%, and SRD%) were calculated for the sEMG indices of muscle activity during swallowing events. Statistical analyses were performed by the SPSS 19.0 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software packages. Statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. The relative reliability calculations showed significant agreements between repetitions for the mean and peak amplitude and the average of median frequency (MDF) of the studied muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. However, the duration and particularly the time to peak of muscle activity showed significant agreements during fewer swallowing conditions. Excluding MDF, we found high SEM% and SRD% for the studied measures (particularly timing measures) of muscles function during most swallowing types in both groups. The reliability of sEMG measures was influenced by the age and swallowing types. Our findings suggest that the MDF of muscle function during almost all studied swallowing types can be a reliable measure for the sEMG assessment of swallowing function in both younger and older adults. PMID:28360446

  8. Ovine fetal swallowing responses to polyhydramnios

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Robert A.; Anderson, Debra F.; Cheung, Cecilia Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Swallowing of amniotic fluid by late gestation fetuses increases when amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is elevated. Our objectives were to quantitatively characterize fetal swallowing when AFV is elevated above normal to polyhydramniotic levels and to explore the mechanisms that mediate these changes. Late gestation fetal sheep were studied under basal conditions and during intra‐amniotic infusion of lactated Ringer's solution. Control AFV averaged 631 ± 214 mL (SE, n = 6), swallowed volume was 299 ± 94 mL/day, and there were 5.7 ± 1.8 bouts/day of rapid swallowing. During intra‐amniotic infusion, AFV (3065 ± 894 mL) and daily swallowed volume (699 ± 148 mL/day) increased (P < 0.05) and the number of bouts reached a maximum of 13.7 ± 2.0 bouts/day when AFV exceeded 1500 mL. Unexpectedly, the volume swallowed per bout (57.3 ± 5.8 mL, n = 102) did not vary with AFV (r = 0.023, P = 0.81). Neither the number of swallows/day nor the volume/swallow changed consistently with elevated AFV. Daily swallowed volume increases and reaches a maximum of twice normal as AFV approaches polyhydramniotic levels. Mechanistically, the increase in swallowing was achieved primarily by an increase in the number of bouts of swallowing per day rather than the expected passive increase in volume per bout. This implies changes in fetal behavior as AFV was elevated. Furthermore, swallowed volume was four times more sensitive to increases in AFV than reported previously. PMID:24760530

  9. Cliff swallows, swallow bugs, and West Nile virus: an unlikely transmission mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Paul; Nemeth, Nicole; Young, Ginger; Mooers, Nicole; Elmore, Stacey; Bowen, Richard; Doherty, Paul; Hall, Jeffrey; McLean, Robert; Clark, Larry

    2010-06-01

    The cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) could play an important role in the transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) because of its breeding ecology, reservoir competence status, and potentially high natural exposure rates. Cliff swallows nest within colonies and their nests are occupied year-round by swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius), hematophagus ectoparasites that feed primarily on cliff swallows. These parasites are likely exposed to WNV while feeding on infectious blood of nesting cliff swallow adults and nestlings and thus, if competent vectors, could contribute to seasonal elevations in WNV transmission. In addition, swallow bugs remain within nests year-round and therefore could provide a potential overwintering mechanism for WNV if persistently infected. To test the hypotheses that swallow bugs are competent vectors and become persistently infected with WNV, we experimentally inoculated cliff swallow nestlings, allowed swallow bugs to feed on these birds during the acute phase of infection, and then exposed naive cliff swallow nestlings to the same swallow bugs. In addition, a subset of swallow bugs that fed on infectious swallow nestlings was maintained through a simulated overwintering period. Although swallow bugs ingested infectious blood (up to 10(6.8) plaque-forming units of WNV/mL serum) and subsequently blood-fed on naive swallows, no WNV transmission was detected, and all bugs tested WNV negative after the simulated overwintering period. Although many ecologic scenarios exist beyond the present study, our results suggest that swallow bugs may be unlikely to serve as competent biological vectors for WNV during active transmission periods or to reinitiate seasonal transmission.

  10. Delayed Initiation of the Pharyngeal Swallow: Normal Variability in Adult Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B.; Michel, Yvonne; Lee, Fu-Shing; Walters, Bobby

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine bolus head timing and location relations with the onset of hyoid movement at the initiation of the pharyngeal swallow and at the onset of swallow-related apnea. Method: Bolus head timing and location and the timing of swallow-related apnea were recorded from frame-by-frame analyses of…

  11. Lung Volume during Swallowing: Single Bolus Swallows in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen M. Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between swallowing and lung volume initiation in healthy adults during single swallows of boluses differing in volume and consistency. Differences in lung volume according to respiratory phase surrounding the swallow were also assessed. Method: Nine men and 11 women between the ages of 19 and 28 years…

  12. Videomanometric analysis of supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bülow, M; Olsson, R; Ekberg, O

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous videoradiography and solid-state manometry (videomanometry) was applied in eight healthy volunteers (four women, four men; age range 25-64 years, mean age 41 years) without swallowing problems. Three different swallowing techniques were tested; supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck. Seven videoradiographic variables and six manometric variables were analyzed. The supraglottic swallowing technique did not differ significantly from that of the control swallows. The effortful swallow had a significantly (p = 0.0001) reduced hyoid-mandibular distance preswallow due to an elevation of the hyoid and the larynx, which caused a significantly (p = 0.007) reduced maximal hyoid movement and a significantly (p = 0.009) reduced laryngeal elevation during swallow. The chin tuck swallow had a significantly (p = 0. 001) reduced laryngohyoid distance and also a significantly (p = 0. 004) reduced hyoid-mandibular distance. The chin tuck swallow also displayed significantly (p = 0.003) weaker pharyngeal contractions. Videomanometry allows for analysis of bolus transport, movement of anatomical structures, and measurement of intraluminal pressures. These variables are important when evaluating swallowing techniques. In the present study, we made a few observations that never have been reported before. When healthy volunteers performed supraglottic swallow, they performed the technique somewhat differently. Therefore, we assume dysphagic patients would need a substantial period of training to perform a technique efficiently. Chin tuck could impair protection of the airways in dysphagic patients with weak pharyngeal constrictor muscles.

  13. November 2007 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-02-28

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility (during most of the interval 1949-1974) at Barnes, Kansas. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to investigate this contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2007). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells at 19 distinct locations, 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination at levels slightly exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound, in a plume that appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2007). The present report presents the results of the November 2007 sampling event that followed the targeted investigation.

  14. Swallowing: A Professional and Parental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Petronchak, JoAnn; Eicher, Peggy S.

    2008-01-01

    For humans, successful drinking is a necessity early in life. In fact, swallowing can be observed with ultrasound at approximately the 16th week of pregnancy. The fetus "drinks" amniotic fluid as a way to filter fetal debris and to help maintain the amniotic fluid level for its mother. All this "swallowing practice" in utero enables the fetus to…

  15. March 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-08-28

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2007). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2007). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2007) and the initial monitoring in November 2007 (Argonne 2008) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels slightly exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2007). In particular, the local school district (USD 223) handled, stored, and disposed of chemicals including carbon tetrachloride. This current report presents the results of the second quarterly monitoring event, conducted in March 2008. During this second

  16. October 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-26

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events in November 2007 (Argonne 2008b), March 2008 (Argonne 2008c), and July 2008 (Argonne 2008d) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigations indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fourth

  17. July 2008 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-20

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events in November 2007 (Argonne 2008b) and March 2008 (Argonne 2008c) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels slightly exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigations indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). This current report presents the results of the third monitoring event, conducted in July 2008. During this third monitoring event, low-flow sampling methods were used to purge and sample all wells. This was the second event at

  18. Electrophysiological association of spontaneous yawning and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Cumhur; Bulbul, Nazlı Gamze; Uludag, Irem Fatma; Tiftikcioglu, Bedile Irem; Arici, Sehnaz; Gurgor, Nevin

    2015-07-01

    Yawning and swallowing are fundamental physiological processes that are present from fetal stages throughout life and that involve sequential motor activities in the oropharyngo-larynx making it likely that they may share neuroanatomical pathways. We postulate that yawning and swallowing are controlled by a distributed network of brainstem regions including the central pattern generator of swallowing, and therefore spontaneous swallowing is frequently associated with spontaneous yawning. In this study, we sought to test this hypothesis by evaluating the elementary features of yawning in the facial, masseter and submental muscles, together with laryngeal movement sensor and respiratory recordings for spontaneous swallowing. We investigated 15 healthy, normal control subjects, 10 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 patients with brainstem stroke (BSS). Apart from four subjects with PD and two with BSS, who had dysphagia, none of the other study subjects were dysphagic by published criteria. Twenty-five subjects (10 control, 10 BSS, 5 PD) were evaluated by 1-h polygraphic recording, and 10 (5 control, 5 PD) underwent whole-night sleep recordings. One hundred thirty-two yawns were collected, 113 of which were associated with spontaneous swallows, a clear excess of what would be considered as coincidence. The yawns related with swallows could be classified into the following three categories. The characteristics or the duration of swallows and yawns were similar between controls and disease subjects, with the exception of increased duration of yawning in subjects with BSS. Our findings support the presence of common neuroanatomico-physiological pathways for spontaneous swallows and yawning.

  19. Pharyngeal swallowing phase and chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Drozdz, Daniela Rejane Constantino; Costa, Cintia Conceição; Jesus, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira; Trindade, Mateus Silva; Weiss, Guilherme; Neto, Abdias Baptista M.; da Silva, Ana Maria T.; Mancopes, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The act of swallowing depends on a complex and dynamic process which uses common structures to the act of breathing; respiratory problems can cause swallowing difficulties. Aim: To assess the swallowing pharyngeal phase in patients with chronic cough. Method: Retrospective study with 15 patients of both genders, patients with chronic cough and risk factors for aspiration defined by the pneumologic diagnosis. The patients were submitted to anamnesis on complaints related to swallowing, chewing and breathing, or related to food and to videofluoroscopic examination. Results: It was observed that 33.3% had normal and functional swallowing, being the last one of most prevalence. The mild dysphagia was observed in 20% of the patients, the mild to moderate dysphagia in 6.7% of them. In relation to the Rosenbek scale, 73.3% of patients presented degree 1, 6.7% presented degrees 2 and 3, and 13.3% presented degree 8. The most found pathology was the chronic cough with 40%, followed by asthma with 20%; 69.2% of patients presented stasis and of these, five used protection maneuvers, of these, seven were effective and only three were used in the presence of stasis. The most used maneuver was the multiple swallowing, being effective in 100%. Conclusion: There are peculiarities in the patients' swallowing with chronic cough that, although not presenting complaints relating to swallowing, it presents an important aspiration risk due to the presence of changes in breathing pattern that can intervene in the coordination between breathing and swallowing, which is essential to protect the lower airway. PMID:25991980

  20. Lung Volume Measured during Sequential Swallowing in Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Huber, Jessica E.; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul W.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Outcomes from studying the coordinative relationship between respiratory and swallow subsystems are inconsistent for sequential swallows, and the lung volume at the initiation of sequential swallowing remains undefined. The first goal of this study was to quantify the lung volume at initiation of sequential swallowing ingestion cycles and…

  1. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA) was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing. PMID:21294905

  2. VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MACHINE SHOP STORAGE OPENINGS, NORTH END OF BARN, LOOKING SOUTH (This northern-most facade of the barn was originally a board and batten wall with two sliding doors. In the early decades of the twentieth century Frederick Edward Arnold moved the wall and doors; they now make up the north end of bay 3. This was done to ease machine storage) - Arnold Farm, Barn, 1948 Arnold Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. 14. Relationship of barn, claim house, and residence to each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Relationship of barn, claim house, and residence to each other and immediate surroundings, looking south - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  4. BARN IN SETTING FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN IN SETTING FROM ADJOINING FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST. The photograph was taken from the east side of the hedgerow along Fort Casey Road. Also shown are the mechanic’s shop, to the west of the barn; the tractor shed, directly south of the shop; and the monitor-roofed hay and lambing barn to the east. The Hugh Crockett house sat between the tractor shed and the hay and lambing barn. Only its chimney remains. - Boyer Farm, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  5. Huntington's Disease: Speech, Language and Swallowing

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices and techniques that can supplement the individual's verbal communication. The SLP can evaluate a person's swallowing function ... available, people with HD generally prefer to attempt verbal communication for as long as possible, even if their ...

  6. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p < 0.02) and disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration.

  7. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%–100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%–100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows. PMID:27170905

  8. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound.

    PubMed

    Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%-100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%-100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows.

  9. The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale--revisited.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Thomas R E

    2003-12-01

    Akathisia is a syndrome of motor restlessness, principally seen in association with antipsychotic medication. It is characterized by a subjective experience of mental unease and the urge to move, and manifests physically as particular patterns of restless movement. This review focuses on the signs and symptoms of the condition, and its diagnosis and assessment using the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. This scale was generated 15 years ago, and was derived from the findings of studies exploring the clinical features of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. Subsequently, its validity and reliability have been established, and it has been used extensively in clinical studies worldwide.

  10. The GEMPAK Barnes objective analysis scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Desjardins, M.; Kocin, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    GEMPAK, an interactive computer software system developed for the purpose of assimilating, analyzing, and displaying various conventional and satellite meteorological data types is discussed. The objective map analysis scheme possesses certain characteristics that allowed it to be adapted to meet the analysis needs GEMPAK. Those characteristics and the specific adaptation of the scheme to GEMPAK are described. A step-by-step guide for using the GEMPAK Barnes scheme on an interactive computer (in real time) to analyze various types of meteorological datasets is also presented.

  11. Swallowing assessment in myotonic dystrophy type 1 using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES).

    PubMed

    Pilz, Walmari; Baijens, Laura W J; Passos, Valéria Lima; Verdonschot, Rob; Wesseling, Frederik; Roodenburg, Nel; Faber, Catharina G; Kremer, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    This study describes the swallowing function of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and the effect of bolus consistency on swallowing in this group. The aim of the study is twofold: (a) to identify which (and to what extent) swallowing variables change for DM1 patients relative to healthy control subjects and (b) to examine whether the degree of oropharyngeal dysphagia is associated with disease severity. Forty-five consecutive DM1 patients and ten healthy subjects underwent a swallowing assessment, at Maastricht University medical Center in the Netherlands. The assessment included a standardized fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) protocol using different bolus consistencies. Clinical severity of the disease was assessed using the muscular impairment rating scale (MIRS). Significant differences were found between patients and controls for all FEES variables. The magnitude of these differences depended on the bolus consistency. The odds of a more pathological swallowing outcome increased significantly with higher MIRS levels. In conclusion, swallowing function is found to be significantly altered in DM1 patients. The results emphasize the importance of conducting a detailed swallowing assessment in all patients, even those with mild muscle weakness.

  12. Influences of swallowing volume and viscosity on regulation of levator veli palatini muscle activity during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Okuno, K; Tachimura, T; Sakai, T

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the aspect of the regulation of velum movement in the transition from the oral to pharyngeal phases of swallowing in relation to changes in the swallowing volume and viscosity by means of measurment of levator veli palatini muscle activity. The subjects were nine normal adults, ranging in age from 24 to 30 years. The swallowing volume was set at 1/4, 1/2 and 1 volume of the optimum volume of green tea for swallowing determined in each subject, and the viscosity was adjusted to 0, 2·0 and 4·6 Pa·s by mixing with thickener. Nine test foods were prepared in total. The electromyographic activity of the levator veli palatini muscle was monitored using bipolar hooked wire electrodes. The levator veli palatini muscle activity was defined as the integrated electromyographic wave. The mean in swallowing each test food was determined in each subject. The levator veli palatini muscle activity increased with the swallowing volume for all subjects (P < 0·05) and decreased inversely with the viscosity for six subjects (P < 0·05), but no change with the increase in the viscosity was noted for three subjects. This study clarified the aspect of the regulation of velar movement with regard to the involvement of the levator veli palatini muscle in swallowing activity with changes in the swallowing volume and viscosity.

  13. Tapping Timbers: A Barn Rises from the Hands of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Gould Farm, the oldest therapeutic community in the United States, uses the rural farming lifestyle and a multigenerational community to serve adults with psychiatric disabilities. The Timber Framers Guild helped raise a barn there as one of its community service projects. The barn will be used to enhance the farm's food processing and vocational…

  14. Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of SW corner of milk barn shows that entire south side has been covered by briar bushes. Bushes also obscure west side of creamery to the right. - Kosai Farm, Milk Barn, B Street north of Northwest Twenty-ninth Street, Auburn, King County, WA

  15. 2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Barn, light tower and keeper's house, view southeast, west and north sides of barn, northwest side of light tower, and west northwest and north northeast sides of keeper's house - Curtis Island Light Station, Curtis Island, at entrance to Camden Harbor, Camden, Knox County, ME

  16. CROCKETT BARN FROM ACROSS CROCKETT LAKE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. A bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN FROM ACROSS CROCKETT LAKE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. A bridge once spanned Crockett Lake. The pylons are all that remain. The Crockett barn’s hipped roof can be seen just under the tree line left of center. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  17. Harry Elmer Barnes: Prophet of a "Usable" Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doenecke, Justus D.

    1975-01-01

    The ideological proximity of historian Harry Elmer Barnes to the New Left revisionist historians of today are examined. Both Barnes and the New Left emphasize the need for a deliberate and conscious effort to use history as an instrument of social transformation. (DE)

  18. A Second Look at Douglas Barnes's "From Communication to Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits Douglas Barnes's book-length exploration of the implications for teachers of a constructivist epistemology, notably in relation to the importance of small-group talk in classrooms. Empirically based consideration of small-group exploratory pupil-pupil talk enabled Barnes to reveal the learning strategies such a context…

  19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HAY STORAGE, LOOKING NORTH. The barn is constructed of hand-hewn, 10" square post and beams with mortise and tenon, pegged joints. The photograph also shows the hayfork and track, double doors on the north façade, and window opening. - Boyer Farm, Barn, 711 South Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  20. INTERIOR OF JENNE BARN GROUND FLOOR. (The Jenne milking stanchions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF JENNE BARN GROUND FLOOR. (The Jenne milking stanchions can be seen on the left. The space that originally served as the milking parlor has now been converted into animal pens for goats, chickens, and pigs.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  1. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 7. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM POWER SUBSTATION TOWARD CAR BARN, SHOWING POWER LINE DETAIL - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. The interaction between breathing and swallowing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Nazan Simsek; Karaali, Kamil; Ünal, Ali; Kızılay, Ferah; Öğüş, Candan; Uysal, Hilmi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the association between respiratory swallow patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Furthermore, it aims to clarify the role of the dysphagia limit in defining the relationship between swallowing disorders and respiratory disorders. Functional rating scales were used to describe swallowing and respiratory function. Swallowing was observed using the dysphagia limit. Dysphagia limit is the volume at which a second or more swallows are required to swallow the whole bolus. Laryngeal and chest movement sensors, pulmonary function tests, submental, and diaphragm electromyography activity were used to evaluate the relationship between swallowing and respiratory phase. Of the 27 patients included in the study, 14 were dysphagic and 13 were non-dysphagic. Tests showed normal respiratory function in 11 of the non-dysphagic patients and 3 of the dysphagic patients. There was a high correlation between the dysphagia limit and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale swallowing parameters. Non-dysphagic patients were able to swallow during inspiration but only six patients in the dysphagic group were able to swallow during inspiration. The occurrence of dysphagia in ALS is related to piecemeal deglutition and respiration consistency during swallowing. Detecting the timing of disturbances in the relationship between swallowing and respiration may be a way of identifying dysphagia. Dysphagia limit may be a useful, complementary test for assessing swallowing disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  4. Growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (L.,1758) in an intermediate stage of culture in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M C P; Alves, R; Zanandrea, A C V; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R; Magalhães, A R M

    2012-02-01

    There are no records in Brazil for the culture of Pteridae family oysters, genus Pteria and Pinctada. The intermediate culture can be considered one of the critical stages during the oyster farming. The changes in life conditions from a semi-closed environment provided by the collector to the structures utilized for the growth represents a considerable stress factor to which the animals are subjected. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758) kept in intermediate lanterns. Seeds of P. hirundo, obtained through larviculture carried out at the Marine Molluscs Laboratory (UFSC), southern Brazil were detached from the collectors, transferred and kept in an intermediate culture system (oyster lantern). During 6 months, growth (dorso-ventral height - DVH in mm) and survival (%) were evaluated. Two size classes were tested: medium (M), between 3.4 and 4.4 mm, and large (L), bigger than 4.5 mm. The density of occupation in each floor of the lantern was 50%. At the end of the experiment, the survivals observed were 90 and 94% for the sizes M and L, respectively. Medium juveniles of Pteria hirundo had an average (Std) increase of 16.1 (±4.38) mm in the dorso-ventral height, and large juveniles an average increase of 11.4 (±3.77) mm after six months of experiment. The results observed during the intermediate stage of cultivation indicate that Pteria hirundo presents survival and growth similar to other species of pearl oysters traditionally used in the pearl industry in several countries.

  5. View of the cinder block milking barn (UT126D) and attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the cinder block milking barn (UT-126-D) and attached livestock barn (UT-126-B) with large barn (UT-126-A) in the foreground, looking east-northeast - Thomas Powers Ranch, Milking Barn, 4137 North Highway 224, Snyderville, Summit County, UT

  6. Effects of pollution on swallowing: how little we know

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, J.B.; Silver, K.H. )

    1992-06-01

    Swallowing is an essential function of the upper alimentary tract. It is highly complex, requiring precise coordination of numerous nerves and muscles of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Swallowing is integrated with other physiologic functions, including mastication and respiration. Impairments of swallowing may result from many different structural or physiologic disorders. Little is currently known about the direct effects of pollution on swallowing. Structures critical to swallowing, however, are vulnerable to damage by environmental hazards such as exposure to ionizing radiation or intake of toxins by ingestion or inhalation. The relationship of swallowing to environmental lung disease is an area of particular interest because impaired swallowing may result in aspiration of food particles into the lung, and because pollutants may hamper airway defense mechanisms. In this article, we discuss the possible impact of selected environmental agents on swallowing and suggest future directions for research.26 references.

  7. Rehabilitation of swallowing and communication following glossectomy.

    PubMed

    LaBlance, G R; Kraus, K; Steckol, K F

    1991-01-01

    Patients who have had surgical removal of part or all of the tongue are left with varying degrees of swallowing and speech deficiencies. The extent of resection, mobility of the residual tongue segment, and adequacy of the remaining structures determine the amount and type of deficiency. While communicative impairment and dysphagia commonly are seen in a rehabilitation setting, the problems of the glossectomy patient often are unique. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the oral and pharyngeal musculature, discusses the speech and swallowing of the glossectomy patient, and presents nursing considerations for successful rehabilitation.

  8. Development of a swallowing frequency meter using a laryngeal microphone.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Okuno, K; Kotani, Y; Okazaki, H; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2012-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs is suspected when decreased swallowing frequency is seen in the elderly. However, swallowing frequency has not been examined in elderly people during daily life. We developed a swallowing frequency meter containing a laryngeal microphone that does not restrict the subject's ability to perform daily activities. In this study, the utility of the meter was assessed. Experiment 1: The ability of the meter to detect swallowing was examined. The subject was instructed to swallow saliva or foods at a voluntarily pace. During these procedures, swallowing events were simultaneously recorded by the meter, self-enumeration and videofluorography. As a result, all of the swallowing events identified by the meter coincided with the swallowing events identified by self-enumeration and videofluorography. Experiment 2: Swallowing sounds display various patterns both between and within individuals. Therefore, we examined the concordance rate between the number of swallowing events counted by the meter and that counted by self-enumeration in 15 subjects over a longer period than in experiment 1. The concordance rates calculated by two examiners between the meter and self-enumeration were 96·8 ± 4·5% and 98·9 ± 3·3% at rest and 95·2 ± 4·5% and 96·1 ± 4·1% during meals, respectively. Our findings indicate that this meter is useful for measuring the frequency of swallowing during daily situations.

  9. Effects of Verbal Cue on Bolus Flow during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Schroeder, Mae Fern; DeGeorge, Pamela C.; Corey, David M.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of verbal cuing to initiate swallowing on bolus flow measures in healthy adults. Method: Videofluoroscopic examinations were completed in 12 healthy older adults (median age = 69 years) as they swallowed 5 ml of self-administered liquid barium in 2 conditions: verbally cued and noncued swallows. In the cued…

  10. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  11. Symptomatic swallowing-induced paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, D M; Bandura, J P; Brody, D A

    1977-05-04

    A 55 year old woman with palpitations during ingestion of food or drink was evaluated with surface, esophageal and dynamic electrocardiographic techniques. Recordings documented the consistent induction of supraventricular tachycardia by swallowing; no definable gastrointestinal or other cardiac abnormality was present. Nine previously reported cases are reviewed, with special reference to the role of vagovagal reflexes in the pathogenesis of this unusual clinical syndrome.

  12. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  13. 3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HJELM FARMSTEAD. OVERVIEW SHOWING EDGE OF GRANARY, SMALL BARN, WINDMILL, AND POTATO CELLAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Hjelm Farmstead, U.S. Highway 20 at New Sweden, Idaho Falls, Bonneville County, ID

  14. View west, interior, detail of joinery Woods Homestead, Barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west, interior, detail of joinery - Woods Homestead, Barn, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  15. View southeast, general view, barn at left Woods Homestead, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, general view, barn at left - Woods Homestead, County Route 12 on north side of North Fork of Hughes River, 2.2 miles north & east of Goose Run Road intersection, Harrisville, Ritchie County, WV

  16. 9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM WAREHOUSE, SHOWING TRACK MATERIAL STORED IN YARD - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. 5. VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF HOP BARN COMPLEX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF HOP BARN COMPLEX, LOOKING NORTH INTO THE 'FUEL BAY' (IN THE CENTER). - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  18. 3. View west from Benjamin Carr Farm driveway toward barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View west from Benjamin Carr Farm driveway toward barn, Benjamin Carr house to the south (left), Eldred Avenue to the north (right). - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  19. 60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. View to northwest from in front of barn, showing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View to northwest from in front of barn, showing west end and south side. Note proximity of adjacent subdivision at left. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, Shed, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, SHOWING DETAIL OF TRACK WORK AND OVERHEAD WIRING - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  2. 1. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. 6. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM THIRD AVENUE - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  4. 3. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  5. 2. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF CAR BARN PROPERTY AT THIRD AVENUE AND PINE STREET, LOOKING WEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  6. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  7. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. Carol A. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2014 award winners is Carol A. Barnes, who received this award for her "groundbreaking work on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory changes in normal aging." Barnes' award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  9. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph of west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The tracks in the yard behind the building lead to a turntable, barely visible in the far left background of the photograph. This is the building's second floor, used for storing and repairing cars. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Effects of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date on growth and survival of Common Tern Sterna hirundo chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, J.M.; Hatch, J.J.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of egg size, parental quality and hatch-date to growth and survival of second-hatched chicks (those chicks making the greatest contribution to differences in productivity among pairs) by exchanging clutches among nests of Common Terns Sterna hirundo matched for lay-date (range 13 May to 9 June). The mass of a second-laid egg in an exchanged clutch ranged from 17.70 to 23.80 g. Growth and survival were studied during three periods: early (days 0-3), middle (days 3-12) and late (days 12-25). Both egg mass and hatch-date were important predictors of hatchling mass (positive relationships), although there was no seasonal trend in egg mass. During the middle period, hatch-date was a significant predictor of mass gain and survival (inverse relationships). After controlling for hatch-date, other indices of parental quality made only small contributions to chick mass gain and survival. Our results suggest that although breeding early generally leads to greater overall survival of chicks, several important interactions among egg 'quality', parental quality and early laying may affect breeding success under specific conditions. ?? 2006 British Ornithologists' Union.

  12. Mothers under stress? Hatching sex ratio in relation to maternal baseline corticosterone in the common tern (Sterna hirundo).

    PubMed

    Riechert, Juliane; Chastel, Olivier; Becker, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    Sex ratio of progeny should be balanced if costs and benefits of rearing sons and daughters are equal. However, shifts in sex ratio have been demonstrated across bird species and it was suggested that females are able to adjust the primary sex ratio. One possible mechanism is the glucocorticoid corticosterone which rises under stressful conditions and can be deposited into egg yolk by mothers. We analysed primary sex ratio of common terns Sterna hirundo from 2006 to 2008 and related it to maternal baseline corticosterone level, laying date and year. Therefore, we took 101 blood samples of 71 breeding females via blood sucking bugs, a method with negligible stress for the birds. Sex ratio did not differ from parity in any of the analysed years, which were characterized by poor food availability and breeding success. Only within 1 year there was a tendency for more females in the last hatched chick. Neither corticosterone level nor laying date or year showed an influence on hatching sex ratio. The negative result concerning primary sex ratio and maternal baseline corticosterone level might suggest conditions to be good enough for mothers to prevent them from depositing high levels of corticosterone into eggs.

  13. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia(®) Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3 years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31°, 0.07°, and 0.05° (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98°, 1.42°, and 0.85° (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05 s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology.

  14. Otoacoustic interrelationships of the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A.; Köppl, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Significant debate still exists about the biophysical mechanisms at work in otoacoustic emission (OAE) generation and how such may differ between mammals and non-mammals given gross morphological differences (e.g., existence of basilar membrane traveling waves, degree of tectorial membrane coupling). To further elucidate general principles at work, we examined the barn owl for interrelationships between spontaneous emissions (SOAEs) and those evoked using a single tone (SFOAEs). First, most ears exhibited SOAEs as a stable periodic `rippling' whose peak-to-peak spacing was relatively constant (˜0.4 kHz). Some ears showed substantially larger narrowband peaks, although their statistical distributions were highly noisy. Second, significant interactions between a low-level tone and SOAE activity were observed via an interference pattern as the tone frequency was swept. Using a suppression paradigm to extract SFOAEs as the residual, the magnitude exhibited a stable pattern of peaks and valleys unique to each ear. Third, SFOAE phase exhibited significant accumulation as frequency was swept, with a phase-gradient delay of approximately 2 ms that was constant across frequency. The amount of SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peaks tended to cluster about an integral number of cycles, as previously observed for humans. Taken together, our data suggest that the principles underlying how active hair cells work together (e.g., entrainment, phase coherence) are shared between widely different inner ear morphologies, leading to the generation of OAEs with similar properties.

  15. Towards automated ingestion detection: swallow sounds.

    PubMed

    Walker, William P; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and is a cause of many major chronic diseases. In most cases, obesity is a result of an imbalance between food intake and calories burned. Steps toward automated ingestion detection are being made. In order to automate the process of capturing ingestion, a method for detecting, analyzing, and recording sounds related to ingestion is being developed. In this paper, preliminary swallow sound analysis is presented and compared with various other noises captured from a throat mounted microphone. Initial frequency analysis indicates a stronger presence at high frequency intervals for swallow sounds in relation to other captured sounds such as voice. Comparisons show that a single high-pass filter can offer similar results as wavelet decomposition. Two simple methods for event detection are given.

  16. Adaptation potential of naturally ventilated barns to high temperature extremes: The OptiBarn project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Climate change interferes with various aspects of the socio-economic system. One important aspect is its influence on animal husbandry, especially dairy faming. Dairy cows are usually kept in naturally ventilated barns (NVBs) which are particular vulnerable to extreme events due to their low adaptation capabilities. An effective adaptation to high outdoor temperatures for example, is only possible under certain wind and humidity conditions. High temperature extremes are expected to increase in number and strength under climate change. To assess the impact of this change on NVBs and dairy cows also the changes in wind and humidity needs to be considered. Hence we need to consider the multivariate structure of future temperature extremes. The OptiBarn project aims to develop sustainable adaptation strategies for dairy housings under climate change for Europe, by considering the multivariate structure of high temperature extremes. In a first step we identify various multivariate high temperature extremes for three core regions in Europe. With respect to dairy cows in NVBs we will focus on the wind and humidity field during high temperature events. In a second step we will use the CORDEX-EUR-11 ensemble to evaluate the capability of the RCMs to model such events and assess their future change potential. By transferring the outdoor conditions to indoor climate and animal wellbeing the results of this assessment can be used to develop technical, architectural and animal specific adaptation strategies for high temperature extremes.

  17. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE FROM BARN YARD SHOWING EAST AND SOUTH FAÇADES OF THE BARN, LOOKING NORTHWEST. The sliding door on the barns east façade leads into the animal pens and milking stalls. The barn’s hip-on-gable roof is covered in corrugated metal. The gable end is clad in board and battens, matching the rest of the barns exterior. The pump house can be seen to the north; the garage to the west. - Kineth Farm, Barn, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload.

  19. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ... 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Swallow Déglutition barytée - français (French) Bilingual ...

  20. Gastrointestinal damage caused by swallowing multiple magnets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiqi; Li, Jianhui; Lv, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Swallowing multiple magnets is not uncommon worldwide and it frequently leads to serious consequences. However, most patients fail to receive timely and correct diagnosis and treatment. A literature search was performed to establish an algorithm for these accidents by the authors to identify relevant articles published from June 1987 to October 2010 in Google, Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge Ovid, CNKI, Korea Med and library document delivery, using search terms "magnet ingestion, " "fistula," and "perforation." A total of 149 patients with ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies from 20 countries and areas were identified. 22 of them were companioned with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Swallowing magnets occurred throughout childhood and adolescent, mostly ranging 2 to 4 years in age. Various gastrointestinal damages such as necrosis and intestinal perforation or fistula were encountered. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets carries a significant risk of morbidity and even mortality throughout childhood to adolescent worldwide. Older children and adults with neurological and psychiatric problems may be at high risk for such accidents. Early intervention is crucial.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from naturally ventilated freestall dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Ni, J.-Q.; Bogan, B. W.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.; Cortus, E.

    2015-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from two naturally-ventilated dairy freestall barns measured for a total of 21 d, one week each in May, July, and September 2009, are presented in this article. The holding capacity of Barn 1 (B1) was 400 Holstein cows, while that for Barn 2 (B2) was 850 cows. Air samples were taken from inlets and outlets of the barns via a custom made multiplexer gas sampling system for measurement of gas concentrations using a photoacoustic infrared multigas analyzer. Barn ventilation rates were based on air velocity measured with arrays of 3-D ultrasonic anemometers at inlets and outlets. Gas concentrations (10 min means) in the barns ranged from: 443-789 ppm for CO2, 0.0-39.4 ppm for CH4, and 0.25-0.39 ppm for N2O; with mean concentrations ranging from 6 to 20%, 0 to 4%, and 26 to 180% above the average background concentrations for CO2, N2O, and CH4, respectively. The correlations between CO2 and CH4 enhanced concentrations were relatively stronger (R of 0.67-0.74) than between CO2 and N2O enhanced concentrations (R of 0.10-0.20). Environmental conditions did not significantly (p = 0.46) impact the enhanced concentrations of N2O in the barns. All three parameters (T, RH, and v) had significant (p < 0.01) influences on CO2 enhanced concentrations; while only T (p < 0.01) and v (p < 0.01) had significant influences on CH4 enhanced concentrations. Enhanced concentrations of CO2 and CH4 correlated negatively with all three parameters. The influence of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on CO2 enhanced concentrations was higher than that of v; while the effect v had on CH4 enhanced concentrations was slightly higher than that of the temperature-humidity index. The average emissions, based on hourly means, ranged from 5.3 to 10.7 kg d-1 AU-1 for CO2; 0.3 to 2.5 g d-1 AU-1 for N2O; and between 67 and 252 g d-1 AU-1 for CH4. Nitrous oxide emissions from the smaller barn, B1 (0.4-2.5 g d-1 AU-1), were significantly higher than from the larger barn, B2

  2. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Heinz, Gary H.; Karouna-Reiner, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra L.; Hale, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63 μg g−1 lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8 μg g−1 egg wet weight; ∼32 μg−1 lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster’s terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20 μg g−1 egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20 μg DE-71 g−1 egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44 d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  3. Comparative embryotoxicity of a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture to common terns (Sterna hirundo) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Heinz, Gary H; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Schultz, Sandra L; Hale, Robert C

    2013-09-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from San Francisco Bay have been reported to range up to 63μgg(-1) lipid weight. This value exceeds the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (1.8μgg(-1) egg wet weight; ∼32μg(-1) lipid weight) reported in an embryotoxicity study with American kestrels (Falco sparverius). As a surrogate for Forster's terns, common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs were treated by air cell injection with corn oil vehicle (control) or a commercial penta-BDE formulation (DE-71) at nominal concentrations of 0.2, 2, and 20μgg(-1) egg. As a positive control, kestrel eggs received vehicle or 20μg DE-71g(-1) egg. In terns, there were no effects of DE-71 on embryonic survival, and pipping or hatching success; however, treated eggs hatched later (0.44d) than controls. Organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and bone lengths did not differ, and histopathological observations were unremarkable. Several measures of hepatic oxidative stress in hatchling terns were not affected by DE-71, although there was some evidence of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; 8-OH-dG). Although DE-71 did not impair pipping and hatching of kestrels, it did result in a delay in hatch, shorter humerus length, and reduced total thyroid weight. Concentrations of oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and 8-OH-dG in liver were greater in DE-71-treated kestrels compared to controls. Our findings suggest common tern embryos, and perhaps other tern species, are less sensitive to PBDEs than kestrel embryos.

  4. Examination of swallowing maneuver training and transfer of practiced behaviors to laryngeal vestibule kinematics in functional swallowing of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata; Azola, Alba; Macrae, Phoebe; Sunday, Kirstyn; Mejia, Veerley; Vose, Alicia; Humbert, Ianessa A

    2017-03-18

    Swallowing maneuvers are routinely trained in dysphagia rehabilitation with the assumption that practiced behaviors transfer to functional swallowing, however transfer is rarely examined in the deglutition literature. The goal of this study was to train the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure (vLVC) maneuver, which is a swallowing maneuver that targets prolonged laryngeal vestibule closure (LVC). In two different training experiments, 69 healthy adults underwent Long-hold (hold vLVC as long as possible) or Short-hold vLVC training (hold vLVC for 2s). Before and after vLVC training, natural swallows (swallowing without a therapeutic technique) were completed. The outcome variables included laryngeal vestibule closure reaction time and the duration of laryngeal vestibule closure. Results indicate that during both Long-hold and Short-hold vLVC trainings, vLVC swallows had faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times and longer durations of laryngeal vestibule closure than in pre-training 5ml liquid swallows. However, only faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times transferred to post-training 5ml liquid swallows (20-24% faster), but not prolonged durations of laryngeal vestibule closure. Our findings suggest that swallowing maneuver training has the potential to induce transfer of what was practiced to functional swallowing behavior, although not all practiced behaviors may generalize. These findings are significant for bolstering the effectiveness of dysphagia management in medical settings and should be tested in individuals with dysphagia.

  5. Diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia manifested by swallowing difficulty in videofluoroscopic swallowing study.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Han Gyeol; Lee, Seong Jae; Hyun, Jung Keun; Kim, Tae Uk

    2015-04-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is defined as a focal laryngeal disorder characterized by dystonic spasms of the vocal cord during speech. We described a case of a 22-year-old male patient who presented complaining of idiopathic difficulty swallowing that suddenly developed 6 months ago. The patient also reported pharyngolaryngeal pain, throat discomfort, dyspnea, and voice change. Because laryngoscopy found no specific problems, an electrodiagnostic study and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were performed to find the cause of dysphagia. The VFSS revealed continuous twitch-like involuntary movement of the laryngeal muscle around the vocal folds. Then, he was diagnosed with spasmodic dysphonia by VFSS, auditory-perceptual voice analysis, and physical examination. So, we report the first case of spasmodic dysphonia accompanied with difficulty swallowing that was confirmed by VFSS.

  6. Coordinate mapping of hyolaryngeal mechanics in swallowing.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Thomas Z; Obeidin, Farres; Davidoff, Alisa A; Hightower, Cody L; Johnson, Christohper Z; Rice, Sonya L; Sokolove, Rebecca-Lyn; Taylor, Brandon K; Tuck, John M; Pearson, William G

    2014-05-06

    Characterizing hyolaryngeal movement is important to dysphagia research. Prior methods require multiple measurements to obtain one kinematic measurement whereas coordinate mapping of hyolaryngeal mechanics using Modified Barium Swallow (MBS) uses one set of coordinates to calculate multiple variables of interest. For demonstration purposes, ten kinematic measurements were generated from one set of coordinates to determine differences in swallowing two different bolus types. Calculations of hyoid excursion against the vertebrae and mandible are correlated to determine the importance of axes of reference. To demonstrate coordinate mapping methodology, 40 MBS studies were randomly selected from a dataset of healthy normal subjects with no known swallowing impairment. A 5 ml thin-liquid bolus and a 5 ml pudding swallows were measured from each subject. Nine coordinates, mapping the cranial base, mandible, vertebrae and elements of the hyolaryngeal complex, were recorded at the frames of minimum and maximum hyolaryngeal excursion. Coordinates were mathematically converted into ten variables of hyolaryngeal mechanics. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated by Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Two-tailed t-tests were used to evaluate differences in kinematics by bolus viscosity. Hyoid excursion measurements against different axes of reference were correlated. Inter-rater reliability among six raters for the 18 coordinates ranged from ICC = 0.90 - 0.97. A slate of ten kinematic measurements was compared by subject between the six raters. One outlier was rejected, and the mean of the remaining reliability scores was ICC = 0.91, 0.84 - 0.96, 95% CI. Two-tailed t-tests with Bonferroni corrections comparing ten kinematic variables (5 ml thin-liquid vs. 5 ml pudding swallows) showed statistically significant differences in hyoid excursion, superior laryngeal movement, and pharyngeal shortening (p < 0.005). Pearson correlations of hyoid excursion measurements from two

  7. Annual Report of Monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2012

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M.

    2013-06-01

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). Barnes is located in Section 9, Township 4 South, Range 5 East, at approximate latitude 39°43'0'' north and longitude 96°52'25'' west (USGS 1968). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area’s topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. This report summarizes findings for groundwater inspection in Barnes.

  8. Using Sensory Properties of Food to Trigger Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Loret, C.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of food consistency on swallowing function has been widely studied, and it is well recognized that by delaying the flow of the food bolus, thickened liquids can help in the management of swallowing dysfunction. However, fewer studies have been carried out on the impact of food sensory properties and related liking on swallowing function. This paper reviews the role of taste, olfaction, and trigeminal perceptions on swallowing function and highlights the need for a deeper investigation of this aspect of patient diet modification. PMID:24915399

  9. Self-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Theresa A.; Mann, Eric A.; Stoklosa, Joseph B.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Hyolaryngeal elevation is essential for airway protection during swallowing and is mainly a reflexive response to oropharyngeal sensory stimulation. Targeted intramuscular electrical stimulation can elevate the resting larynx and, if applied during swallowing, may improve airway protection in dysphagic patients with inadequate hyolaryngeal motion. To be beneficial, patients must synchronize functional electrical stimulation (FES) with their reflexive swallowing and not adapt to FES by reducing the amplitude or duration of their own muscle activity. We evaluated the ability of nine healthy adults to manually synchronize FES with hyolaryngeal muscle activity during discrete swallows, and tested for motor adaptation. Hooked-wire electrodes were placed into the mylo- and thyrohyoid muscles to record electromyographic activity from one side of the neck and deliver monopolar FES for hyolaryngeal elevation to the other side. After performing baseline swallows, volunteers were instructed to trigger FES with a thumb switch in synchrony with their swallows for a series of trials. An experimenter surreptitiously disabled the thumb switch during the final attempt, creating a foil. From the outset, volunteers synchronized FES with the onset of swallow-related thyrohyoid activity (~225 ms after mylohyoid activity onset), preserving the normal sequence of muscle activation. A comparison between average baseline and foil swallows failed to show significant adaptive changes in the amplitude, duration, or relative timing of activity for either muscle, indicating that the central pattern generator for hyolaryngeal elevation is immutable with short term stimulation that augments laryngeal elevation during the reflexive, pharyngeal phase of swallowing. PMID:16107520

  10. CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN SOUTH AND EAST FAÇADES, LOOKING NORTH. The Crockett barn was constructed into the sloping landscape. The Pennsylvania Bank Barn construction style allows for access at ground level on both the upper and lower floors. The Crockett granary is visible on the right hand side of the photograph. Currently a property line runs between the two buildings. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  11. Port of Sanctuary: The Aesthetic of the African/African American and the Barnes Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that, although it has been ignored by most art historians and art educators, the Barnes Foundation was founded upon a unique African/African American esthetic influence. Describes influences on the life of Dr. Albert C. Barnes, his world view, and the decision to establish the Barnes Foundation and its art collection. (CFR)

  12. The influence of product and oral characteristics on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Lina; Fontijn-Tekamp, Anneke; van der Bilt, Andries

    2005-08-01

    The urge to swallow food could be triggered by a threshold level in both food particle size and lubrication of the food bolus. Thus, both oral physiology and product characteristics may influence the swallowing threshold. We quantified the swallowing threshold in a group of 266 healthy adult subjects (age 42 +/- 12 years) by counting the number of chewing cycles needed to prepare food for swallowing. The influence of oral physiology on the swallowing threshold was determined by measuring salivary flow rate, maximum bite force and masticatory performance. We used about 10 cm(3) of bread, toast, melba toast, breakfast cake, peanuts and cheese to determine the influence on the swallowing threshold of various food characteristics, e.g. hardness, moisture and fat. Furthermore, we tested the effect of buttering the bread, toast, melba toast and breakfast cake on the swallowing threshold. Salivary flow rates were significantly and negatively correlated with the number of chewing cycles of melba toast and breakfast cake. Hence, subjects with more saliva needed less chewing cycles for these dry products. Maximum bite force and masticatory performance had an influence on the swallowing threshold for the hard products only (carrot and peanut). Although significant, the correlation coefficients were less than 0.28. Thus, the oral physiology parameters explained less than 10% of the variance in the swallowing threshold. We found significantly different numbers of chewing cycles for the various foods, ranging from 17 for cake to 63 for carrot. Hard and dry products needed more chewing cycles until swallowing. Buttering the food significantly reduced the number of chewing cycles needed before swallowing. This was especially true for the dry products cake, melba toast and toast. Hard and dry products require more chewing cycles and longer time in mouth until swallowing for sufficient breakdown to take place and for enough saliva to be added to form a coherent bolus safe for

  13. Multimodal swallowing evaluation with high-resolution manometry reveals subtle swallowing changes in early and mid-stage Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Corinne A; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    Background Parkinson disease (PD) has detrimental effects on swallowing function. Treatment options are largely behavioral; thus, patients would benefit from an earlier start to therapy. Early swallowing changes in PD are not well-known, so patients do not typically receive swallowing treatment until later in the progression of PD. Objective We used predictive modeling to determine what quantitative swallowing variables best differentiate individuals with early to mid-stage PD from healthy controls. Methods Participants included twenty-six individuals with early to mid-stage PD and 26 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Swallowing was evaluated by simultaneous high-resolution manometry and videofluoroscopy as well as the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ). Binomial logistic regression was performed on 4 sets of data: 1) high-resolution manometry only; 2) videofluoroscopy only; 3) SSQ only; and 4) all data combined. Results A model from a combined data set had the highest accuracy in differentiating individuals with PD from controls. The model included maximum pressure in the velopharynx (soft palate), pressure variability in the velopharynx, and the SSQ item concerning difficulty with saliva swallowing. No significant models could be generated using the videofluoroscopy data. Conclusions Individuals with PD show quantitative changes in pressure generation and are able to self-assess aspects of swallowing function in the early and mid-stages of PD, even in the absence of swallowing changes seen on videofluoroscopy. A multimodal approach for the assessment of swallowing may be more accurate for determining subtle swallowing changes that occur in the early stages of PD. PMID:26891176

  14. Mechanisms of Airway Protection during Chin-Down Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Phoebe; Anderson, Cheryl; Humbert, Ianessa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of chin-down swallowing on laryngeal vestibule closure. It also investigated the technique's rehabilitative impact, by assessing the stability of effects across multiple trials and aftereffects in neutral swallows on cessation of the technique. Method: Duration of laryngeal vestibule closure (dLVC) was…

  15. Therapy for Children with Swallowing Disorders in the Educational Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the various types of swallowing therapy available, including postural changes, sensory enhancements, changes in feeding processes, and exercise programs. Other therapy issues discussed include the relationship of the feeding process to swallowing therapy, the schedule of therapy, and maintenance programs as compared to…

  16. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  17. Integrating Academic and Clinical Learning Using a Clinical Swallowing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an experiential learning activity designed to integrate classroom knowledge and a clinical swallowing assessment. Twenty master's-level graduate students in a dysphagia course conducted a clinical swallowing assessment with a resident of an independent retirement community. The exercise was designed to allow students an…

  18. Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

  19. Assessment of Infant Oral Sensorimotor and Swallowing Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Brian; Arvedson, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing is the result of a complex interface between the developing nervous system, various physiological systems, and the environment. The purpose of this article is to review the neurobiology, development, and assessment of feeding and swallowing during early infancy. In recent years, there have been exciting…

  20. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  1. Spatial and Nonspatial Escape Strategies in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Fiona E.; Reiserer, Randall S.; Tomarken, Andrew J.; McDonald, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    The Barnes maze is a spatial memory task that requires subjects to learn the position of a hole that can be used to escape the brightly lit, open surface of the maze. Two experiments assessed the relative importance of spatial (extra-maze) versus proximal visible cues in solving the maze. In Experiment 1, four groups of mice were trained either…

  2. Saving a Progressive Vision: Moving the Barnes Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the progressive understanding of art advanced by Albert Barnes, and asks how the educational vision for his large collection of art might be preserved as it has now moves from its location in the idyllic suburban setting in Merion, PA to the hustle and bustle of central Philadelphia. I submit that the vision will be endangered…

  3. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  4. Swallowing disorders in patients with blepharospasm.

    PubMed

    Cersósimo, María G; Juri, Silvia; Suárez de Chandler, Silvia; Clerici, Roxana; Micheli, Federico E

    2005-01-01

    Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eye closure due to abnormal contraction of orbicular eyelid muscles. When blepharospasm is associated to the presence of involuntary oromandibular movements, it is termed Meige syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of deglutition alterations in patients with concurrent blepharospasm and Meige syndrome. Twenty consecutive patients were studied by video fluoroscopy using a barium technique. The 4 stages of deglutition were investigated. Ninety percent of patients (18 cases) presented deglutition disorders. The more commonly found alterations were premature food drop, 15 cases (83%) and vallecuale residuals, 14 cases (78%). Sixty seven percent of abnormal findings occurred in the third stage of deglutition. Eighty-nine percent of patients (16) presented more than one swallowing alteration. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of alterations and patient's age or disease duration. Prevalence of swallowing disorders in the healthy elderly population is reported to be 44%. In our series it reached 90%, suggesting that our findings might be related not only with age but also with a more widespread dystonia exceeding the orofacial muscles.

  5. John Dewey's Socially Instrumental Practice at the Barnes Foundation and the Role of "Transferred Values" in Aesthetic Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Margaret Hess

    2012-01-01

    When Albert Barnes established an art education program at the Barnes Foundation in 1924, he asked John Dewey to become the first president and director of education. Barnes and Dewey enjoyed a sustained and fruitful relationship with regard to aesthetic experience and scientific theory as applied to education. Barnes and Dewey shared a serious…

  6. Aeroallergens in dairy barns near Cooperstown, New York and Rochester, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Fernandez-Caldas, E.; Reed, C.E.; May, J.J.; Pratt, D.S. )

    1989-08-01

    We sampled atmospheric barn air using a volumetric air sampler in ten barns near Cooperstown, NY and six barns near Rochester, MN, and, with radioimmunoassays, measured allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Micropolyspori faeni, short ragweed, rye grass group I pollen, Alternaria (Alt-1), Dermatophagoides sp. Lepidoglyphus destructor, common insect allergen, mouse urine, rat urine, and cattle epithelium. The most abundant allergen present was A. fumigatus followed by L. destructor. This study provides initial data on barn aerobiology and demonstrates for the first time the abundance of L. destructor allergens in North American dairy barns. More comprehensive study of barns, poultry houses, confinement houses for swine, and other agricultural environments from various geographic locations is needed to define the allergen levels to which millions of farm workers are exposed each day. While most of the allergens were expected, the presence of airborne allergens reactive with antisera to Dermatophagoides suggests indirectly that substantial amounts of pyroglyphid mites are present in some barns.

  7. Cervical auscultation synchronized with images from endoscopy swallow evaluations.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Paula; Drinnan, Michael J; Zammit-Maempel, Ivan; Coyle, James L; Ford, Gary A; Wilson, Janet A

    2007-10-01

    Cervical auscultation is the use of a listening device, typically a stethoscope in clinical practice, to assess swallow sounds and by some definitions airway sounds. Judgments are then made on the normality or degree of impairment of the sounds. Listeners interpret the sounds and suggest what might be happening with the swallow or causing impairment. A major criticism of cervical auscultation is that there is no evidence on what causes the sounds or whether the sounds correspond to physiologically important, health-threatening events. We sought to determine in healthy volunteers (1) if a definitive set of swallow sounds could be identified, (2) the order in which swallow sounds and physiologic events occur, and (3) if swallow sounds could be matched to the observed physiologic events. Swallow sounds were computer recorded via a Littmann stethoscope from 19 healthy volunteers (8 males, 11 females, age range = 18-73 years) during simultaneous fiberoptic laryngoscopy and respiration monitoring. Six sound components could be distinguished but none of these occurred in all swallows. There was a wide spread and a large degree of overlap of the timings of swallow sounds and physiologic events. No individual sound component was consistently associated with a physiologic event, which is a clinically significant finding. Comparisons of groups of sounds and events suggest associations between the preclick and the onset of apnea; the preclick and the start of epiglottic excursion; the click and the epiglottis returning to rest; the click and the end of the swallow apnea. There is no evidence of a causal link. The absence of a swallow sound in itself is not a definite sign of pathologic swallowing, but a repeated abnormal pattern may indicate impairment. At present there is no robust evidence that cervical auscultation of swallow sounds should be adopted in routine clinical practice. There are no data to support the inclusion of the technique into clinical guidelines or

  8. Swallowing Function Defined by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated factors related to swallowing dysfunction after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Preoperative and postoperative VFSSs were done with 5 mL diluted barium. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, pharyngeal response time (PRT), and pharyngeal transit time were measured. Hyoid bone movement and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) diameter were measured serially. Thickness of prevertebral soft tissue was measured from digitized VFSS images. In results, 12 of 20 patients showed abnormal postoperative VFSS findings. PRT decreased significantly after surgery. Hyoid bone movement did not change significantly after surgery. The maximal distance of UES opening decreased significantly after surgery, and the higher the level of surgery (C3 > C4 > C5 > C6), the greater the decrease in maximal distance of the UES opening after surgery. The time to widest opening of the UES was prolonged significantly. At the C3 and C4 levels, the change in prevertebral soft tissue thickness of patients with VFSS abnormalities was significantly greater than those without abnormalities. In conclusion, patients after ADCF with their highest surgery level at C3 and C4 showed more abnormal VFSS findings, significantly increased soft tissue thickness, and decreased maximal distance of UES opening. VFSS provided objective data related with swallowing dysfunction after ACDF. PMID:27822944

  9. Oral medication delivery in impaired swallowing: thickening liquid medications for safe swallowing alters dissolution characteristics.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Yady J; Sparkes, Arron M; Cichero, Julie A Y; Stokes, Jason R; Nissen, Lisa M; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2016-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is available in a wide range of oral formulations designed to meet the needs of the population across the age-spectrum, but for people with impaired swallowing, i.e. dysphagia, both solid and liquid medications can be difficult to swallow without modification. The effect of a commercial polysaccharide thickener, designed to be added to fluids to promote safe swallowing by dysphagic patients, on rheology and acetaminophen dissolution was tested using crushed immediate-release tablets in water, effervescent tablets in water, elixir and suspension. The inclusion of the thickener, comprised of xanthan gum and maltodextrin, had a considerable impact on dissolution; acetaminophen release from modified medications reached 12-50% in 30 min, which did not reflect the pharmacopeia specification for immediate release preparations. Flow curves reflect the high zero-shear viscosity and the apparent yield stress of the thickened products. The weak gel nature, in combination with high G' values compared to G'' (viscoelasticity) and high apparent yield stress, impact drug release. The restriction on drug release from these formulations is not influenced by the theoretical state of the drug (dissolved or dispersed), and the approach typically used in clinical practice (mixing crushed tablets into pre-prepared thickened fluid) cannot be improved by altering the order of incorporation or mixing method.

  10. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  11. Characteristics of Dry Chin-Tuck Swallowing Vibrations and Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Dudik, Joshua M; Jestrović, Iva; Luan, Bo; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effects of the chin-tuck maneuver, a technique commonly employed to compensate for dysphagia, on cervical auscultation are not fully understood. Characterizing a technique that is known to affect swallowing function is an important step on the way to developing a new instrumentation-based swallowing screening tool. Methods In this study, we recorded data from 55 adult participants who each completed five saliva swallows in a chin-tuck position. The resulting data was processed using previously designed filtering and segmentation algorithms. We then calculated 9 time, frequency, and time-frequency domain features for each independent signal. Results We found that multiple frequency and time domain features varied significantly between male and female subjects as well as between swallowing sounds and vibrations. However, our analysis showed that participant age did not play a significant role on the values of the extracted features. Finally, we found that various frequency features corresponding to swallowing vibrations did demonstrate statistically significant variation between the neutral and chin-tuck positions but sounds showed no changes between these two positions. Conclusion The chin-tuck maneuver affects many facets of swallowing vibrations and sounds and its effects can be monitored via cervical auscultation. Significance These results suggest that a subject’s swallowing technique does need to be accounted for when monitoring their performance with cervical auscultation based instrumentation. PMID:25974926

  12. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young’s modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing. PMID:27977775

  13. March-June 2009 monitoring results for Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-09-08

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the fifth and sixth quarterly monitoring events, conducted in March and June

  14. Stability of Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Miller, G. H.; Rabus, B.; Gardner, A. S.; Van Wychen, W. D.; Copland, L.; Radic, V.

    2015-12-01

    Barnes Ice Cap is a modern remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of North America during the Last Glacial Maximum. Moraine chronology shows that Barnes reached a quasi-equilibrium state about 1000 years ago and has been relatively stable since. The flat and low-elevation bedrock topography under Barnes implies that the accumulation area owes its existence to the ice cap itself. As a "self-sustaining" ice mass, Barnes is expected to be sensitive to climate and/or dynamical changes given the surface-elevation / mass-balance feedback. In this study, we combine historical observations (1960-1980) with new satellite and air-borne data (1995-2010) to drive a mass-balance model coupled to a transient full-Stokes thermo-mechanical model with an adaptive mesh geometry. The model is used to characterize the current state of the ice cap and to investigate its stability as a function of climate and internal ice dynamics. Thermo-mechanically coupled simulations show zones of locally enhanced ice flow that imprint themselves on the shape of the ice-cap. These simulations suggest that an additional heat source, such as refreezing of water at the base of the ice cap, is required to maintain temperate conditions where sliding is known to occur. Modelled dynamics highlight the influence of contrasting viscosities between Pleistocene and Holocene ice that affect the form and flow of the ice cap. On millennial timescales, the internal dynamics of the ice cap may lead to divergent evolution pathways even for a constant climate. Sensitivity experiments reveal that Barnes was in a delicate equilibrium with pre-industrial climate. An increase in air temperature of less than 0.2K or a decrease precipitation of less than 15%, relative to this climate, is enough to push the ice cap into an unstable regime. Based on recent observations of the equilibrium line altitude, Barnes is expected to disappear even with no additional warming.

  15. Electrophysiological evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, C; Yuceyar, N; Aydogdu, I; Karasoy, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a common feature of patients with myotonic dystrophy and is not usually perceived due to their emotional deficits and lack of interest. The aim was to show the existence and frequency of subclinical electrophysiological abnormalities in oropharyngeal swallowing and to clarify the mechanisms of dysphagia in myotonic dystrophy.
METHODS—Eighteen patients with myotonic dystrophy were examined for oropharyngeal phase of swallowing by clinical and electrophysiological methods. Ten patients had dysphagia whereas 11 patients had signs and symptoms reflecting CNS involvement. Four patients with myotonia congenita and 30 healthy volunteers served as controls. Laryngeal movements were detected by means of a piezoelectric sensor. EMG activities of the submental muscle (SM-EMG) and needle EMG of the cricopharyngeal muscle of the upper eosophageal sphincter (CP-EMG) were also recorded during swallowing.
RESULTS—In about 70% of the patients with myotonic dystrophy, the existence of oropharyngeal dysphagia was indicated objectively by means of the technique of "dysphagia limit" and by clinical evaluation. Duration of the swallowing reflex as defined by the laryngeal relocation time (0-2 time interval) and submental muscle excitation as a part of the swallowing reflex (A-C interval) were significantly prolonged in patients with myotonic dystrophy, especially in dysphagic patients. Triggering time of the swallowing reflex (A-0 interval) also showed significant prolongation, especially in the patients having both dysphagia and CNS involvement. During swallowing, CP muscle activity was abnormal in 40% of the patients with myotonic dystrophy.
CONCLUSION—Both myopathic weakness and myotonia encountered in oropharyngeal muscles play an important part in the oral and the pharyngeal phases of swallowing dysfunction in myotonic dystrophy. It was also suggested that CNS involvement might contribute to the delay of the triggering of the

  16. Characterization of Swallowing Sound: Preliminary Investigation of Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Tsuyoshi; Baba, Takuro; Fujimoto, Keiko; Goto, Takaharu; Nagao, Kan; Harada, Masafumi; Honda, Eiichi; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the swallowing sound and identify the process of sound generation during swallowing in young healthy adults. Methods Thirty-three healthy volunteers were enrolled and allocated into three experimental groups. In experiment 1, a microphone was attached to one of eight cervical sites in 20 subjects, participants swallowed 5 ml water, and the sound waveform was recorded. In experiment 2, 10 subjects swallowed either 0, 5, 10, or 15 ml water during audio recording. In addition, participants consumed the 5 ml bolus in two different cervical postures. In experiment 3, the sound waveform and videofluoroscopy were simultaneously recorded while the three participants consumed 5 ml iopamidol solution. The duration and peak intensity ratio of the waveform were analyzed in all experimental groups. Results The acoustic analysis of the waveforms and videofluoroscopy suggested that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods, each associated with a stage of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising posterior tongue and hyoid bone movement; the pharyngeal phase comprising larynx movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and passage of the bolus through the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the return of the hyoid bone and larynx to their resting positions, and reopening of the epiglottis. Conclusion Acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds and videofluoroscopy suggests that the swallowing sound could be divided into three periods associated with each process of the swallowing movement: the oral phase comprising the posterior movement of the tongue and hyoid bone; the pharyngeal phase comprising the laryngeal movement, hyoid bone elevation, epiglottis closure, and the bolus passage to the esophagus orifice; and the repositioning phase comprising the repositioning of the hyoid bone and larynx, and reopening of the epiglottis. PMID:27959902

  17. Sensory Input Pathways and Mechanisms in Swallowing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research on the physiology of swallowing has confirmed that the oropharyngeal swallowing process can be modulated, both volitionally and in response to different sensory stimuli. In this review we identify what is known regarding the sensory pathways and mechanisms that are now thought to influence swallowing motor control and evoke its response. By synthesizing the current state of research evidence and knowledge, we identify continuing gaps in our knowledge of these mechanisms and pose questions for future research. PMID:20814803

  18. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG. PMID:26372528

  19. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  20. Cervical auscultation as an adjunct to the clinical swallow examination: a comparison with fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Liza; Svensson, Per; Hartelius, Lena

    2014-10-01

    This prospective, single-blinded study investigated the validity and reliability of cervical auscultation (CA) under two conditions; (1) CA-only, using isolated swallow-sound clips, and (2) CSE + CA, using extra clinical swallow examination (CSE) information such as patient case history, oromotor assessment, and the same swallow-sound clips as condition one. The two CA conditions were compared against a fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) reference test. Each CA condition consisted of 18 swallows samples compiled from 12 adult patients consecutively referred to the FEES clinic. Patients' swallow sounds were simultaneously recorded during FEES via a Littmann E3200 electronic stethoscope. These 18 swallow samples were sent to 13 experienced dysphagia clinicians recruited from the UK and Australia who were blinded to the FEES results. Samples were rated in terms of (1) if dysphagic, (2) if the patient was safe on consistency trialled, and (3) dysphagia severity. Sensitivity measures ranged from 83-95%, specificity measures from 50-92% across the conditions. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 69-97% total agreement. Inter-rater reliability for dysphagia severity showed substantial agreement (rs = 0.68 and 0.74). Results show good rater reliability for CA-trained speech-language pathologists. Sensitivity and specificity for both CA conditions in this study are comparable to and often better than other well-established CSE components.

  1. Practical considerations for ventilating calf barns in winter.

    PubMed

    Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2008-03-01

    The use of air sampling devices to measure the concentrations of airborne bacteria in clinical investigations and research trials in calf barns has indicated that traditional systems of ventilation are problematic in cold weather. Individual pen designs should have two solid sides, but the front and rear should be as open as possible. Thermal stress should be managed by providing deep bedding and not by enclosing the pen. Air hygiene can be improved by reducing stocking density and using supplemental positive-pressure ventilation systems to deliver small amounts of air to each pen. Implementation of these recommendations can produce calf barns that seem to equal calf hutches in minimizing disease and provide better working conditions for the caregivers.

  2. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. New four-dimensional integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform

    SciTech Connect

    Allendes, Pedro; Guerrero, Natanael; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte Cuello, Eduardo A.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of a special class of integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform. It contains double integrals in the position space in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions, where {epsilon} is parameter of dimensional regularization. These integrals contribute to the effective action of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The integrand is a fraction in which the numerator is the logarithm of the ratio of space-time intervals, and the denominator is the product of powers of space-time intervals. According to the method developed in the previous papers, in order to make use of the uniqueness technique for one of two integrations, we shift exponents in powers in the denominator of integrands by some multiples of {epsilon}. As the next step, the second integration in the position space is done by Mellin-Barnes transform. For normalizing procedure, we reproduce first the known result obtained earlier by Gegenbauer polynomial technique. Then, we make another shift of exponents in powers in the denominator to create the logarithm in the numerator as the derivative with respect to the shift parameter {delta}. We show that the technique of work with the contour of the integral modified in this way by using Mellin-Barnes transform repeats the technique of work with the contour of the integral without such a modification. In particular, all the operations with a shift of contour of integration over complex variables of twofold Mellin-Barnes transform are the same as before the {delta} modification of indices, and even the poles of residues coincide. This confirms the observation made in the previous papers that in the position space all the Green's function of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be expressed in terms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions.

  4. Mellin-Barnes Representation of the Topological String

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krefl, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We invoke integrals of Mellin-Barnes type to analytically continue the Gopakumar-Vafa resummation of the topological string free energy in the string coupling constant, leading to additional non-perturbative terms. We also discuss in a similar manner the refined and Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit version thereof. The derivation is straight-forward and essentially boils down to taking residue. This allows us to confirm some related conjectures in the literature at tree-level.

  5. Hunting increases adaptive auditory map plasticity in adult barn owls.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Joseph F; Ro, Peter; Ro, Daniel; Knudsen, Eric I

    2005-10-19

    The optic tectum (OT) of barn owls contains topographic maps of auditory and visual space. Barn owls reared with horizontally displacing prismatic spectacles (prisms) acquire a novel auditory space map in the OT that restores alignment with the prismatically displaced visual map. Although juvenile owls readily acquire alternative maps of auditory space as a result of experience, this plasticity is reduced greatly in adults. We tested whether hunting live prey, a natural and critically important behavior for barn owls, increases auditory map plasticity in adult owls. Two groups of naive adult owls were fit with prisms. The first group was fed dead mice during 10 weeks of prism experience, while the second group was required to hunt live prey for an identical period of time. When the owls hunted live prey, auditory maps shifted substantially farther (five times farther, on average) and the consistency of tuning curve shifts within each map increased. Only a short period of time in each day, during which the two groups experienced different conditions, accounts for this effect. In addition, increased map plasticity correlated with behavioral improvements in the owls' ability to strike and capture prey. These results indicate that the experience of hunting dramatically increases adult adaptive plasticity in this pathway.

  6. Spatial contrast sensitivity and grating acuity of barn owls.

    PubMed

    Harmening, Wolf M; Nikolay, Petra; Orlowski, Julius; Wagner, Hermann

    2009-07-22

    The eyes of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) display very little aberrations, and have thus excellent optical quality. In a series of behavioral experiments, we tested whether this presumably beneficial feature is also reflected at a perceptual level in this species. As fundamental indicators for visual performance, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and grating acuity were measured in two barn owls with psychophysical techniques. Stimulus luminance was 2.7 cd/m(2). The CSF found here renders the typical band-limited, inverted U-shaped function, with a low maximum contrast sensitivity of 8-19 at a spatial frequency of 1 cyc/deg. Grating acuity was estimated from the CSF high frequency cut-off and yielded 3.0-3.7 cyc/deg. In a second experiment, in which contrast was held constant and spatial frequency was varied, grating acuity was measured directly (2.6-4.0 cyc/deg). These results put barn owls at the very low end of the visual acuity spectrum of birds, and demonstrate that visual resolution and sensitivity cannot be predicted by optical considerations alone.

  7. Gelfoam-induced Swallowing Difficulty after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joo Chul; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Kwan Ho

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is not common. Gelfoam is one of the most commonly used topical hemostatic agents. But, in the partially moistened state, air retained in its pores may result in excessive expansion on contact with liquid. The onset of swallowing difficulty after anterior cervical spine surgery due to appling gelfoam is a rare complication. A 77-year-old man with swallowing difficulty was admitted to our hospital and we diagnosed him as DISH confirmed by radiological study. After removing the DISH, patient's symptom was relieved gradually. However, on postoperative day (POD) 7, the symptom recurred but lesser than the preoperative state. We confirmed no hematoma and esophageal perforation on the operation site. We observed him closely and controlled the diet. Three months later, he had no symptom of swallowing difficulty, and was able to be back on a regular diet, including solid foods. We present a complication case of swallowing difficulty occurring by gelfoam application.

  8. Super Guppy Swallows T-38s; Heads for El Paso

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA T-38 aircraft were swallowed whole by NASA's Super Guppy recently on Dryden Flight Research Center's back ramp. The Guppy then airlifted the two retired T-38s to El Paso, Texas, where they...

  9. Swallowed magnets and batteries: a dangerous but not unexpected attraction.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick Jonathan; Vaughan, Elizabeth Mary; McHoney, Merrill; McCabe, Amanda Jayne

    2013-04-10

    An 18-month-old boy was witnessed swallowing a cluster of five magnetic toy balls. He was coincidentally noted on plain x-rays to have also recently swallowed a watch battery and a small screw. Initial outpatient management with serial review and x-rays was unsuccessful, and delayed inpatient surgical care by 9 days. Although the child never manifested features of systemic or gastrointestinal upset, emergency laparotomy confirmed a resultant jejunocolic fistula. This case demonstrates how clinical assessment of children who have swallowed magnets separately from each other can be falsely reassuring, and highlights the potential dangers of outpatient management. We recommend children who have swallowed separately >1 magnetic objects (or >1 objects capable of magnetic attraction) be managed as inpatients with active observation and timely foreign body removal.

  10. Temperature distribution of air source heat pump barn with different air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhao, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    There are two type of airflow form in tobacco barn, one is air rising, the other is air falling. They are different in the structure layout and working principle, which affect the tobacco barn in the distribution of temperature field and velocity distribution. In order to compare the temperature and air distribution of the two, thereby obtain a tobacco barn whose temperature field and velocity distribution are more uniform. Taking the air source heat pump tobacco barn as the investigated subject and establishing relevant mathematical model, the thermodynamics of the two type of curing barn was analysed and compared based on Fluent. Provide a reasonable evidence for chamber arrangement and selection of outlet for air source heat pump tobacco barn.

  11. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (p<0.05). Among 10 subjects, one scored 1-3 using the four evaluation criteria. Overall, no aspiration occurred and a significant improvement in the swallowing function score was observed (p<0.05) after taking the ginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  12. Parameters of Instrumental Swallowing Evaluations: Describing a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters of two swallow evaluations: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the modified barium swallow (MBS) study. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fifty-five clinicians were asked to watch video recordings of swallow evaluations of 2 patients that were done using fluoroscopy and endoscopy simultaneously. In a randomized order, clinicians viewed 4 edited videos from simultaneous evaluations: the FEES and MBS videos of patient 1 and 2 each taking one swallow of 5 mL applesauce. Clinicians filled out a questionnaire that asked (1) which anatomical sites they could visualize on each video, (2) where they saw pharyngeal residue after a swallow, (3) their overall clinical impression of the pharyngeal residue, and (4) their opinions of the evaluation styles. Clinicians reported a significant difference in the visualization of anatomical sites, 11 of the 15 sites were reported as better-visualized on the FEES than on the MBS video (p < 0.05). Clinicians also rated residue to be present in more locations on the FEES than on the MBS. Clinicians' overall impressions of the severity of residue on the same exact swallow were significantly different depending on the evaluation type (FEES vs. MBS for patient 1 χ(2) = 20.05, p < 0.0001; patient 2 χ(2) = 7.52, p = 0.006), with FEES videos rated more severely. FEES advantages were: more visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal swallowing anatomy and residue. However, as a result, clinicians provided more severe impressions of residue amount on FEES. On one hand, this suggests that FEES is a more sensitive tool than MBS studies, but on the other hand, clinicians might provide more severe interpretations on FEES.

  13. Role of tongue pressure production in oropharyngeal swallow biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kazuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Magara, Jin; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Li, Qiang; Ono, Takahiro; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The tongue is important for orofacial movements, including swallowing. Although numerous studies have focused on tongue pressure against the palate, its physiological role has not been fully evaluated. The tongue pressure generation may have the temporal coordination with the swallowing relational organs. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological mechanisms of tongue pressure and to investigate the temporal relationship among tongue pressure, supra-hyoid muscle activity, and videofluorographic (VF) images during swallowing. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated. Tongue pressure measured using a sensor sheet with five channels, electromyographic EMG, and VF was recorded synchronously during 4-ml barium swallowing. Swallowing behavior in VF images with and without the sensor sheet was compared. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between events measured from tongue pressure, EMG, and VF was evaluated. Swallowing behavior on VF images was not affected by placement of the sensor sheet. Tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral point of the hard palate tended to have biphasic peaks. Tongue pressure production with a monophasic pattern appeared during the same period as the second peak in the biphasic pattern. The onset of tongue pressure was later than the start of hyoid movement and onset of EMG, and offset was observed between the hyoid at the up-forward position and reposition. Onset of tongue pressure at the anterior area was correlated with the start of slight hyoid elevation. Offset of tongue pressure at the posterio-lateral points was strongly time locked with the hyoid at the up-forward position. The present results suggested the temporal coordination of tongue pressure generation with the swallowing-related organs. That is, the tongue pressure was produced for bolus propulsion, and was closely related to hyoid movement temporally during swallowing. These results may contribute to clarify the clinical state with the disorder of tongue

  14. A swallowed fishbone penetrating the oesophagus into the sternomastoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Al-Shukry, Sabah M

    2003-08-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with the history of swallowing a fishbone one hour earlier. Since the patient was swallowing normally and the X-ray results were negative, she was reassured and sent home. Twenty days later, when the patient again presented with pain and tenderness in her neck, the fishbone was detected in the left sternomastoid muscle, and removed under local anaesthesia.

  15. A direct method of measuring gaseous emissions from naturally ventilated dairy barns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, H. S.; Ndegwa, P. M.; Heber, A. J.; Bogan, B. W.; Ni, J.-Q.; Cortus, E. L.; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J. C.

    2014-04-01

    Air pollutant emission rates from mechanically ventilated (MV) dairy barns are determined from the product of the differences in concentrations of pollutants in air at the inlet and exhaust points and the corresponding ventilation rates. In contrast to well defined entry and exit points in MV barns, large area air inlets or outlets characterize naturally ventilated (NV) freestall dairy barns. Complicating this scenario even more, pertinent airflow characteristics (velocity and direction) necessary for determining ventilation rates vary continuously, both temporally and spatially. This paper describes implementation of a direct method, generally equivalent to the approach used for MV barns, for determining air emission rates of NV barns. Ultrasonic anemometers (sonics) located at salient points in the barn openings mapped air inflow and outflow velocities necessary to calculate ventilation rates. Pollutant concentrations in the air entering or leaving the barn during a given period were measured at sampling points located next to the anemometers. The air inflow rates were, in general, higher than the air outflow rates from the barns, but diurnal profiles were similar. The observed ventilation characteristics were consistent with prevailing wind directions. Air inflows were observed predominantly at windward openings of the barn, while the outflows were mainly at the barn's leeward openings. Results indicated that either: (i) the average of the air inflow and outflow rates (averaging approach), or (ii) the air inflow rates (inflow-only approach) were credible representations of ventilation rates. Results also revealed use of an on-site weather station and one sonic mounted in the middle of each wall of the barn as a possible approach for determining barn ventilation rates. The suggested use of ventilation rates for interpolating missing concentrations from intermittent gas measurements could potentially increase the integrity of emission rates at significantly lower

  16. A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Gee, Erica; Lancaster, Elizabeth; Meltzer, Jospeh; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature.

  17. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  18. Human hyolaryngeal movements show adaptive motor learning during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Christopherson, Heather; Lokhande, Akshay; German, Rebecca; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    The hyoid bone and larynx elevate to protect the airway during swallowing. However, it is unknown whether hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing can adjust and adapt to predict the presence of a persistent perturbation in a feed-forward manner (adaptive motor learning). We investigated adaptive motor learning in nine healthy adults. Electrical stimulation was administered to the anterior neck to reduce hyolaryngeal elevation, requiring more strength to swallow during the perturbation period of this study. We assessed peak hyoid bone and laryngeal movements using videofluoroscopy across thirty-five 5-ml water swallows. Evidence of adaptive motor learning of hyolaryngeal movements was found when (1) participants showed systematic gradual increases in elevation against the force of electrical stimulation and (2) hyolaryngeal elevation overshot the baseline (preperturbation) range of motion, showing behavioral aftereffects, when the perturbation was unexpectedly removed. Hyolaryngeal kinematics demonstrates adaptive, error-reducing movements in the presence of changing and unexpected demands. This is significant because individuals with dysphagia often aspirate due to disordered hyolaryngeal movements. Thus, if rapid motor learning is accessible during swallowing in healthy adults, patients may be taught to predict the presence of perturbations and reduce errors in swallowing before they occur.

  19. Silent aspiration detection by breath and swallowing sound analysis.

    PubMed

    Sarraf Shirazi, Samaneh; Moussavi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Detecting aspiration after swallows (the entry of bolus into trachea) is often a difficult task particularly when the patient does not cough; those are called silent aspiration. In this study, the application of acoustical analysis in detecting silent aspiration is investigated. We recorded the swallowing and the breath sounds of 10 individuals with swallowing disorders, who demonstrated silent aspiration during the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) assessment. We analyzed the power spectral density (PSD) of the breath sound signals following each swallow; the PSD showed higher magnitude at low frequencies for the breath sounds following an aspiration. Therefore, we divided the frequency range below 300 Hz into 3 sub-bands, over which we calculated the average power as the characteristic features for the classification purpose. Then, the fuzzy k-means unsupervised classification method was deployed to find the two clusters in the data set: the aspirated and non-aspirated groups. The results were evaluated using the FEES assessments provided by the speech language pathologists. The results show 82.3% accuracy in detecting swallows with silent aspiration. Although the proposed method should be verified on a larger dataset, the results are promising for the use of acoustical analysis as a clinical tool to detect silent aspiration.

  20. Compost bedded pack dairy barn management, performance, and producer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Black, R A; Taraba, J L; Day, G B; Damasceno, F A; Bewley, J M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to characterize herd performance, producer satisfaction and recommendations, and management practices used by compost bedded pack (CBP) managers in Kentucky (42 farms and 47 CBP facilities). Farms were visited between October 2010 and March 2011. A random selection of cows housed solely in the CBP were scored for locomotion and hygiene. Changes in monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association performance records, including milk production, SCC, reproductive performance, and daily bulk-tank somatic cell count after moving into the CBP were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The GLM procedure of SAS (SAS 9.3) was used to develop models to describe CBP moisture, CBP temperature at 20.3 cm, and mean herd hygiene. Producers provided 9.0 ± 2.2 m2 of pack space per cow (n = 44). Barns constructed with an attached feed alley cost $1,051 ± 407 per cow (n = 40). Barns constructed without an attached feed alley cost $493 ± 196 per cow (n = 13). Kiln-dried shavings required 0.05 ± 0.04 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 15). Green shavings required 0.07 ± 0.06 m3 of bedding per cow per day (n = 12). The most-frequently cited benefits of the CBP included cow comfort (n = 28), cow cleanliness (n = 14), and the low-maintenance nature of the system (n = 10). Increased stirring frequency, stirring depth, and ambient temperature increased pack temperature, measured at 20.3 cm below the CBP surface. Increased stirring depth, pasture-adjusted space per cow, and drying rate decreased CBP moisture. Mean herd locomotion and hygiene scores were 1.5 ± 0.3 (n = 34) and 2.2 ± 0.4 (n = 34), respectively. Increased 20.3-cm depth CBP temperature and ambient temperatures improved mean herd hygiene. Bulk-tank somatic cell count decreased from the year before to the year after moving into the CBP barn (323,692 ± 7,301 vs. 252,859 ± 7,112 cells/mL, respectively) for farms using the CBP barn as the primary

  1. The Relationship Between Pharyngeal Constriction and Post-swallow Residue.

    PubMed

    Stokely, Shauna L; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Leigh, Chelsea; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2015-06-01

    Pharyngeal constriction has been proposed as a parameter that may distinguish functional from impaired swallows. We employed anatomically normalized pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction, and the ratio of this measure to area at rest, and explored the association between these measures and post-swallow residue using the normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS). Videofluoroscopy data for 5 ml boluses of 22 % (w/v) liquid barium were analyzed from 20 healthy young adults and 40 patients with suspected neurogenic dysphagia. The frames of maximum pharyngeal constriction and post-swallow hyoid rest were extracted. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal area were made using ImageJ and size-normalized using the squared C2-C4 vertebral distance as a reference scalar. Post-swallow residue and the areas of the vallecular and pyriform sinus spaces were measured on the hyoid rest frame to calculate the NRRSv and NRRSp. The dataset was divided into swallows with residue within or exceeding the upper confidence interval boundary seen in the healthy participants. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare pharyngeal area (rest, constriction) and the pharyngeal constriction ratio, between individuals with and without residue. Measures of pharyngeal area at maximum constriction were significantly larger (i.e., less constricted, p = 0.000) in individuals with post-swallow residue in either the valleculae or the pyriform sinus. These results support the idea that interventions targeted toward improving pharyngeal constriction have the potential to be effective in reducing post-swallow residue.

  2. Sensorimotor modulation of human cortical swallowing pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, Shaheen; Aziz, Qasim; Rothwell, John C; Hobson, Anthony; Thompson, David G

    1998-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation over motor areas of cerebral cortex in man can activate short latency bilateral cortical projections to the pharynx and oesophagus. In the present paper we investigate the interaction between pathways from each hemisphere and explore how activity in these pathways is modulated by afferent feedback from the face, pharynx and oesophagus.Comparison of unilateral and bilateral stimulation (using interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 1, 5 or 10 ms between shocks) showed spatial summation of responses from each hemisphere at an ISI of 1 ms, indicating that cortical efferents project onto a shared population of target neurones. Such summation was not evident at ISIs of 5 or 10 ms. There was little evidence for transcallosal inhibition of responses from each hemisphere, as described for limb muscles.Single stimuli applied to the vagus nerve in the neck or the supraorbital nerve, which alone produce intermediate (onset 20-30 ms) and long (50-70 ms) latency reflex responses in the pharynx and oesophagus, were used to condition the cortical responses. Compared with rest, responses evoked by cortical stimulation were facilitated when they were timed to coincide with the late part of the reflex. The onset latency was reduced during both parts of the reflex response. No facilitation was observed with subthreshold reflex stimuli.Single electrical stimuli applied to the pharynx or oesophagus had no effect on the response to cortical stimulation. However, trains of stimuli at frequencies varying from 0.2 to 10 Hz decreased the latency of the cortically evoked responses without consistently influencing their amplitudes. The effect was site specific: pharyngeal stimulation shortened both pharyngeal and oesophageal response latencies, whereas oesophageal stimulation shortened only the oesophageal response latencies.Cortical swallowing motor pathways from each hemisphere interact and their excitability is modulated in a site-specific manner by sensory

  3. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2011.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2012-07-26

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area's topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes of the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. The findings of the monitoring events at Barnes in 2011 continued to support the following previous conclusions: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders have consistently indicated that the flow direction is strongly influenced by pumping of the public water supply wells. The results have demonstrated an apparent groundwater flow direction to the northeast when the public wells are not pumping and a northwesterly groundwater flow trend when the public wells are pumping. (2) Evaluation of manual water level measurements and carbon tetrachloride concentrations continues to suggest that three vertically distinguishable aquifer zones are present at Barnes: shallow, intermediate, and deep (Table 4.1). The highest concentration of carbon tetrachloride occurs in the intermediate zone, in wells near the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Lower concentrations have been detected in the deep aquifer zone (where the public water supply wells are screened), and no carbon tetrachloride has been detected in the shallow zone. (3) The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system at Barnes, as postulated on the basis of the accumulated results, suggests that the observed vertical hydraulic gradients and

  4. Auditory Processing, Plasticity, and Learning in the Barn Owl

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José L.; DeBello, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The human brain has accumulated many useful building blocks over its evolutionary history, and the best knowledge of these has often derived from experiments performed in animal species that display finely honed abilities. In this article we review a model system at the forefront of investigation into the neural bases of information processing, plasticity, and learning: the barn owl auditory localization pathway. In addition to the broadly applicable principles gleaned from three decades of work in this system, there are good reasons to believe that continued exploration of the owl brain will be invaluable for further advances in understanding of how neuronal networks give rise to behavior. PMID:21131711

  5. {sf MBsums} -- a {sf Mathematica} Package for the Representation of Mellin-Barnes Integrals by Multiple Sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochman, M.; Riemann, T.

    Feynman integrals may be represented by the Mathematica packages AMBRE and MB as multiple Mellin-Barnes integrals. With the Mathematica package MBsums these Mellin-Barnes integrals are transformed into multiple sums.

  6. The generation of pharyngeal phase of swallow and its coordination with breathing: interaction between the swallow and respiratory central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Tara G; Sun, Qi-Jian; Pilowsky, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Swallowing and breathing utilize common muscles and an anatomical passage: the pharynx. The risk of aspiration of ingested material is minimized not only by the laryngeal adduction of the vocal folds and laryngeal elevation but also by the precise coordination of swallows with breathing. Namely, swallows: (1) are preferentially initiated in the postinspiratory/expiratory phase, (2) are accompanied by a brief apnea, and (3) are often followed by an expiration and delay of the next breath. This review summarizes the expiratory evidence on the brainstem regions comprising the central pattern generator (CPG) that produces the pharyngeal stage of swallow, how the motor acts of swallowing and breathing are coordinated, and lastly, brainstem regions where the swallowing and respiratory CPGs may interact in order to ensure "safe" swallows.

  7. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  8. Central Nervous System Control of Voice and Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review of the central nervous control systems for voice and swallowing has suggested that the traditional concepts of a separation between cortical and limbic and brain stem control should be refined and more integrative. For voice production, a separation of the non-human vocalization system from the human learned voice production system has been posited based primarily on studies of non-human primates. However, recent humans studies of emotionally based vocalizations and human volitional voice production has shown more integration between these two systems than previously proposed. Recent human studies have shown that reflexive vocalization as well as learned voice production not involving speech, involve a common integrative system. On the other hand, recent studies of non-human primates have provided evidence of some cortical activity during vocalization and cortical changes with training during vocal behavior. For swallowing, evidence from the macaque and functional brain imaging in humans indicates that the control for the pharyngeal phase of swallowing is not primarily under brain stem mechanisms as previously proposed. Studies suggest that the initiation and patterning of swallowing for the pharyngeal phase is also under active cortical control for both spontaneous as well as volitional swallowing in awake humans and non-human primates. PMID:26241238

  9. Application of Kinesio Taping method for newborn swallowing difficultly

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Lin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of sucking problems, swallowing difficulty, and poor nourishment. During the neonatal period, the neurobehavioral organization of a preterm baby is poor compared with that of appropriate gestational age infants. Kinesio Taping has been widely used for edema control, joint protection, and proprioception training. With the help of augmentation of the sensory input for muscle facilitation and inhibition through tapping, the coordination of the target muscle groups can be improved. Until now, no research is available on the use of Kinesio Taping for the swallowing difficulty of infant. Methods: We reported a preterm infant suffering from brain edema at birth and swallowing difficultly until 40 weeks. The swallowing reflex was delayed. Moreover, lip closure and rooting reflex combined with the dysfunction grade of jaw movement were poor. We performed KT methods on the baby under the theory of the direction of the tape for facilitate or inhibit the muscle. Result: After the Kinesio Taping treatment, the sucking function was improved with good lip closure.One week later, the baby was discharged without the use of an oral gastric tube. Conclusion: Kinesio Taping contributed significantly to the improvement of impaired sucking and swallowing and could be implemented as a regular rehabilitative approach for infants suffering from these difficulties. PMID:27495080

  10. Swallowing problems in the nursing home: a novel training response.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, G; Shanley, C

    1998-01-01

    Various studies suggest that between 50% and 75% of nursing home residents have some difficulty in swallowing. Some of these residents are assessed and treated by speech pathologists, but many are managed by nursing staff without specialist input. A training program called Swallowing ... on a Plate (SOAP) has been developed by the Centre for Education and Research on Ageing and the Inner West Geriatrics and Rehabilitation Service to help address swallowing-related problems in local nursing homes (Inner West of Sydney, Australia). The training program teaches nursing staff how to identify, assess, and manage swallowing problems, including making appropriate referrals. Several new instruments were developed specifically for this program including two assessment checklists, a set of management guidelines, and a swallowing care plan. Evaluation of the program--including 3 months follow-up--showed it to be highly successful. A stand-alone training resource has been produced for wide distribution to help staff implement the program as a permanent aspect of their nursing care. This paper describes the development, content, presentation, resource, and evaluation of the above program.

  11. Swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease: a surface electromyography study.

    PubMed

    Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.

  12. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing front and side. Note the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing front and side. Note the open door, the gate post, and log frame, facing northeast - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  13. View of McKenzieRichey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey barn showing shed design, rolled roofing and wood shed roof, facing southwest - McKenzie Property, Barn, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  14. Correspondence Between Small- and Large-Scale Determinations of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy barns are known to be major emitters of ammonia. However, quantifying ammonia emissions from dairy barns is difficult due to their large volume, open ventilation, and other factors. Correspondence between ammonia emissions derived from small-scale and large-scale operational studies could faci...

  15. Unheralded Historian: Mary Sheldon Barnes and Primary Source Material in History Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, James A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Mary Sheldon Barnes emerged as a leading historical methods professor and history textbook author. Although men dominated the field, she wrote several articles and books alone or with her husband Earl Barnes about primary source materials and teaching. She lived during an era in United States history…

  16. The Educational Theory of Mary Sheldon Barnes: Inquiry Learning as Indoctrination in History Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1990-01-01

    Barnes, an educator and textbook author, was a pioneer in the use of inquiry to teach secondary school history. Her work is criticized for the indoctrination it entailed and for its failure to encourage students to identify and examine the spiritual and political premises underlying the historical framework Barnes presented. (IAH)

  17. Mary Sheldon Barnes and the Introduction of Social Sciences in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, David Warren

    1989-01-01

    Presents the source method that Mary Sheldon Barnes publicized in her book, "Studies in General History" in 1885. Defines the source method as the thorough examination of original source materials through the application of systematic inquiry tools. Points out that Barnes combined the study of history with the study of contemporary life.…

  18. Prevalence of swallowing dysfunction screened in Swedish cohort of COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez Lindh, Margareta; Blom Johansson, Monica; Jennische, Margareta; Koyi, Hirsh

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD is a common problem associated with morbidity and mortality. COPD may also affect the dynamics and coordination of functions such as swallowing. A misdirected swallow may, in turn, result in the bolus entering the airway. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subgroup of people with COPD is prone to oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD and to determine the relation between signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted). Methods Fifty-one patients with COPD in a stable phase participated in a questionnaire survey, swallowing tests, and spirometry. A post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/best of forced vital capacity and vital capacity <0.7 was used to define COPD. Swallowing function was assessed by a questionnaire and two swallowing tests (water and cookie swallow tests). Results Sixty-five percent of the patients reported subjective signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction in the questionnaire and 49% showed measurable ones in the swallowing tests. For the combined subjective and objective findings, 78% had a coexisting swallowing dysfunction. No significant difference was found between male and female patients. Conclusion Swallowing function is affected in COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation, and the signs and symptoms of this swallowing dysfunction were subjective, objective, or both. PMID:28176891

  19. Validation and demonstration of an isolated acoustic recording technique to estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

    PubMed

    Crary, Michael A; Sura, Livia; Carnaby, Giselle

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous swallowing is considered a reflexive, pharyngeal clearance mechanism. Reductions in spontaneous swallow frequency may be a sensitive index for dysphagia and related morbidities. This study evaluated an acoustic recording technique as a measure to estimate spontaneous swallow frequency. Initially, a multichannel physiologic (surface electromyography, swallow apnea, cervical auscultation) recording technique was validated and subsequently compared to an isolated acoustic (microphone) recording technique on a sample of younger (25 ± 2.8 years) and older (68 ± 5.3 years) healthy adult participants. Sensitivity (94 %), specificity (99 %), and classification accuracy (98 %) were high for swallow identification from the multichannel physiologic recording technique. Interjudge reliability was high (k = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.92-0.96). No significant differences in spontaneous swallow frequency were observed between the multichannel physiologic recordings and the acoustic recordings (0.85 vs. 0.81 swallows per minute). Furthermore, these two techniques were highly correlated (r = 0.95). Interjudge reliability for swallow identification via acoustic recordings was high (k = 0.96, 95 % CI = 0.94-0.99). Preliminary evaluation of the temporal stability of spontaneous swallow frequency measured from acoustic recordings indicated that time samples as short as 5 min produce viable results. Age differences were identified in spontaneous swallow frequency rates, with older participants swallowing less frequently than younger participants (0.47 vs. 1.02 swallows per minute). Collectively, these results indicate that an isolated acoustic recording technique is a valid approach to estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  20. From optics to attention: visual perception in barn owls.

    PubMed

    Harmening, Wolf M; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-11-01

    Barn owls are nocturnal predators which have evolved specific sensory and morphological adaptations to a life in dim light. Here, some of the most fundamental properties of spatial vision in barn owls are reviewed. The eye with its tubular shape is rigidly integrated in the skull so that eye movements are very much restricted. The eyes are oriented frontally, allowing for a large binocular overlap. Accommodation, but not pupil dilation, is coupled between the two eyes. The retina is rod dominated and lacks a visible fovea. Retinal ganglion cells form a marked region of highest density that extends to a horizontally oriented visual streak. Behavioural visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are poor, although the optical quality of the ocular media is excellent. A low f-number allows high image quality at low light levels. Vernier acuity was found to be a hyperacute percept. Owls have global stereopsis with hyperacute stereo acuity thresholds. Neurons of the visual Wulst are sensitive to binocular disparities. Orientation based saliency was demonstrated in a visual-search experiment, and higher cognitive abilities were shown when the owl's were able to use illusory contours for object discrimination.

  1. Evaluation of swallowing by Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with primary surgery.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Raghav C; St Rose, Suzanne; Chisholm, Edward J; Georgalas, Christos; Bisase, Brian; Amen, Furrat; Kerawala, Cyrus J; Clarke, Peter M; Nutting, Christopher M; Rhys-Evans, Peter H; Harrington, Kevin J; Kazi, Rehan

    2012-12-01

    This work aimed at evaluating patients' swallowing functions by a newly validated swallow-specific questionnaire, the Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ), in a cohort of oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Mean/median SSQ scores were calculated and compared with study variables using the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean composite SSQ scores (SD) for the base of tongue, oral tongue, and tonsillar cancer patients were 663.8 (382.8), 456.2 (407.6), and 283.0 (243.1), respectively (p = 0.005); for advanced vs. early T stage disease they were 918.1 (319.5) vs. 344.8 (292.1) (p ≤ 0.001); for patients <60 years vs. ≥60 years they were 549.3 (415.1) vs. 314.0 (247.3) (p = 0.02); and for patients with reconstruction vs. without reconstruction they were 676.5 (410.5) vs. 331.9 (286.5) (p = 0.002). SSQ is a useful tool for evaluation of swallowing in head and neck cancer patients. Site of cancer, T stage, patient's age, and reconstruction directly affect post-treatment swallow outcome.

  2. Analysis of pressure generation and bolus transit during pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    McConnel, F M

    1988-01-01

    Current pharyngeal deglutition theory has stressed the role of the pharyngeal constrictors as producing a peristaltic wave responsible for bolus propulsion through the pharynx. This thesis presents data obtained using manofluorography which supports the significance of tongue and laryngeal motion in swallowing. The usage of the term peristalsis to describe the constrictor contraction is challenged. The results of this quantitative study of swallowing in normal subjects, laryngectomized patients, and patients with restricted tongue motion show that tongue driving pressure and the negative pressure developed in the pharyngeal esophageal segment appear more important than the peristaltic-like pressure of the constrictors. Bolus transit is really dependent upon these two pressures. This model for analysis has clinical significance because it permits quantification of the pharyngeal swallowing mechanism.

  3. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter.

    PubMed

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V

    2006-10-01

    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  4. Annual report of monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-05-25

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, in 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). The results of that investigation indicated that carbon tetrachloride contamination is present in groundwater at low to moderate levels in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation also indicated that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began periodic groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the direction of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. Through 2010, sampling was conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b, 2010) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the KDHE Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Long

  5. Tracking the hyoid bone in videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellen, Patrick M.; Becker, Darci; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; van Daele, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, has become a growing problem. Swallowing complications can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infection, and even death. The current gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic barium swallow study. In these studies, a fluoroscope is used to image the patient ingesting barium solutions of different volumes and viscosities. The hyoid bone anchors many key muscles involved in swallowing and plays a key role in the process. Abnormal hyoid bone motion during a swallow can indicate swallowing dysfunction. Currently in clinical settings, hyoid bone motion is assessed qualitatively, which can be subject to intra-rater and inter-rater bias. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for tracking the hyoid bone that makes quantitative analysis feasible. The user defines a template of the hyoid on one frame, and this template is tracked across subsequent frames. The matching phase is optimized by predicting the position of the template based on kinematics. An expert speech pathologist marked the position of the hyoid on each frame of ten studies to serve as the gold standard. Results from performing Bland-Altman analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed a bias of 0.0+/-0.08 pixels in x and -0.08+/-0.09 pixels in y between the manually-defined gold standard and the proposed method. The average Pearson's correlation between the gold standard and the proposed method was 0.987 in x and 0.980 in y. This paper also presents a method for automatically establishing a patient-centric coordinate system for the interpretation of hyoid motion. This coordinate system corrects for upper body patient motion during the study and identifies superior-inferior and anterior-posterior motion components. These tools make the use of quantitative hyoid motion analysis feasible in clinical and research settings.

  6. Swallow-related cerebral cortical activity maps are not specific to deglutition.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Birn, R; Jaradeh, S; Jesmanowicz, A; Cox, R; Hyde, J; Shaker, R

    2001-04-01

    Cortical representation of swallow-related motor tasks has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we elucidated and compared these cortical representations to those of volitional swallow using block-trial and single-trial methods. Fourteen volunteers were studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical activation during both swallowing and swallow-related motor tasks that can be performed independent of swallowing, such as jaw clenching, lip pursing, and tongue rolling, was found in four general areas: the anterior cingulate, motor/premotor cortex, insula, and occipital/parietal region corresponding to Brodmann's areas 7, 19, and 31. Regions of activity, volume of activated voxels, and increases in signal intensity were found to be similar between volitional swallow and swallow-related motor tasks. These findings, using both block-trial and single-trial techniques, suggest that cerebral cortical regions activated during swallowing may not be specific to deglutitive function.

  7. Segmentation of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals in healthy subjects with analysis of anthropometric effects on duration of swallowing activities.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2009-04-01

    Dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) is a serious and debilitating condition that often accompanies stroke, acquired brain injury, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Individuals with dysphagia are prone to aspiration (the entry of foreign material into the airway), which directly increases the risk of serious respiratory consequences such as pneumonia. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising noninvasive tool for the detection of aspiration and the evaluation of swallowing. In this paper, dual-axis accelerometry was implemented since the motion of the hyolaryngeal complex occurs in both anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions during swallowing. Dual-axis cervical accelerometry signals were acquired from 408 healthy subjects during dry, wet, and wet chin tuck swallowing tasks. The proposed segmentation algorithm is based on the idea of sequential fuzzy partitioning of the signal and is well suited for long signals with nonstationary variance. The algorithm was validated with simulated signals with known swallowing locations and a subset of 295 real swallows manually segmented by an experienced speech language pathologist. In both cases, the algorithm extracted individual swallows with over 90% accuracy. The time duration analysis was carried out with respect to gender, body mass index (BMI), and age. Demographic and anthropometric variables influenced the duration of these segmented signals. Male participants exhibited longer swallows than female participants (p=0.05). Older participants and participants with higher BMIs exhibited swallows with significantly longer (p=0.05) duration than younger participants and those with lower BMIs, respectively.

  8. Patterns and causes of change in a cliff swallow colony during a 17-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The number of cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonata) nests at a farmstead in southeastern North Dakota increased at an average annual rate of 87% with house sparrow (Passer domesticus) removal during 1957-60 and 1970-72. Harassment of nesting cliff swallows by house sparrows, adult swallow mortality from cold weather in late May, and collapse of nests were the principal observed factors limiting swallow population growth during a 17-year period.

  9. Does soil pH influence swallow-wort distribution in its current range?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The perennial non-native vines, pale swallow-wort (Cynanchum rossicum [Kleopow] Borhidi) and black swallow-wort (Cynanchum louiseae [L.] Kartesz & Gandhi), are established invaders in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and are spreading westward. The swallow-worts typically colo...

  10. Use of a metal detector in the location of a swallowed razor blade in the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Kessler, A; Yellin, A; Kessler, A; Kronenberg, J

    1990-05-01

    A case describing the use of a metal detector to locate a metallic foreign body swallowed by a prisoner. Initial work up included plain thoracic X-rays and a gastrografin swallow which were negative. A metal detector was used to confirm the presence of a metal body in the oesophagus which was verified by a barium swallow.

  11. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  12. [Characteristics and limitation of portable bedside swallowing test in elderly with dementia: comparison between the repetitive saliva swallowing test and the simple swallowing provocation test].

    PubMed

    Baba, Yuki; Teramoto, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Machida, Ayako; Akishita, Masahiro; Toba, Kenji

    2005-05-01

    Several bedside portable swallowing tests have been advocated for screening for dysphagia. However, the clinical usefulness and limitation of these tests have not been examined in elderly patients with dementia. We performed the repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST) and the simple swallowing provocation test (SSPT) in 37 elderly inpatients (81.8 +/- 1.2 years old). Simultaneously, cognitive and verbal communication ability were assessed by the Hasegawa Dementia Scale revised version (HDSR) and the Mini-Communication Test (MCT). RSST was completed only in 22 patients (59%), whereas SSPT was successfully completed in all cases. Scores of HDSR and MCT were significantly lower in patients who were unable to cooperate with RSST compared to successful examinees (HDSR: 7 +/- 1 vs 15 +/- 3, p < 0.0; MCT: 47 +/- 8 vs 81 +/- 5, p < 0.01). Dysphagia was detected in 14 patients (64%) by RSST and 5 (14%) by SSPT. Patients with dysphagia showed significantly lower cognitive function (p < 0.05) and verbal communication ability (p < 0.05). In conclusion, RSST is more sensitive to detect dysphagia in elderly patients; however, compliance with RSST is strongly influenced by the patient's cognitive function and verbal communication ability. Comprehensive geriatric assessment will help to choose an alternative test for dysphagia such as SSPT which is more specific test for aspiration pneumonia.

  13. Bird flight characteristics near wind turbines in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osborn, R.G.; Dieter, C.D.; Higgins, K.F.; Usgaard, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1994-1995, we saw 70 species of birds on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area. In both years bird abundance peaked in spring. Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) were the species most commonly seen. Most birds (82-84%) flew above or below the height range of wind turbine blades (22-55 m). The Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area poses little threat to resident or migrating birds at its current operating level.

  14. Screening technologies for detection of swallowed packages of narcotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Kumar, Sankaran

    1997-01-01

    An increasingly popular method of transporting modest quantities of narcotics across international borders is to employ 'swallowers'. These are people who typically enter the country as international airline passengers after swallowing small, water-tight packages of heroin and/or cocaine. Rapid and accurate identification of swallowers in the airport environment poses difficult technical changes. Commonly used medical inspection technologies fall into one of two categories. Either they are unsuitable for widespread use, or they do not provide adequate information. An example of the former is x-ray scanning, while an example of the latter is ultrasonic imaging. Quantum Magnetics has developed a system to screen selected airline passengers for the presence of swallowed narcotics. The system utilizes magnetic resonance, which provides the physical basis for the magnetic resonance imaging systems widely used in the medical community as an alternative to x-rays. The system is currently operational, and laboratory performance testing is complete. Both the design of the system and its performance will be discussed. This work was sponsored in part by the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the US Customs Service.

  15. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  16. Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911): Ecological Foremother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Most educated women (in the sciences and other fields) still have a hard time discarding the patriarchal socialization and pressures in their own fields which prevent them from seeing this extraordinary woman as an environmental pioneer and ecological foremother. Ellen Swallow Richards merits attention and respect as a foremother of what would…

  17. Coordination in oro-pharyngeal biomechanics during human swallowing.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Minagi, Yoshitomo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Kondoh, Jugo; Fujiwara, Shigehiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Inoue, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yongjin; Ono, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    In swallowing, the tongue contacts against the hard palate to generate pressure for propelling a bolus from the oral cavity into the pharynx. Meanwhile, the hyoid and larynx move upward and forward to facilitate the bolus from the pharynx into the esophagus. It has been well known that sequential coordination between those actions is critical for safety accomplishment of swallowing. However, the absence of noninvasive assessment for it limits the detection to the physiological symptom of dysphagia. We applied a sensor sheet on the hard palate to measure tongue contact pressure and a bend sensor on the frontal neck to monitor the laryngeal movement, which was synchronized with hyoid motion for assessing the coordination between both actions in 14 healthy male subjects when swallowing 5ml of water. The sequential order of tongue pressure and hyoid movement was successfully displayed. Tongue pressure was produced after slight movement of the hyoid and closely to the hyoid elevation, then reached a maximum when the hyoid stabilized in the most anterior-superior position, and ceased concurrently with the onset of hyoid descent. Additionally, the synchronized data from both sensors showed positive correlations between identified time points on the laryngeal signal waveform and onset, peak and offset of tongue pressure. Our sensing system successfully showed the coordination between tongue pressure production and hyoid motion, and could be a simple and noninvasive method for clinicians to evaluate the oral and pharyngeal stages of swallowing.

  18. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  19. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  20. [A case of swallowing a lower partial denture].

    PubMed

    Carbery, A; Provençal, M

    1993-10-01

    This paper reports on the case of an elderly person who accidentally swallowed his partial denture. The ingestion did not result in any signs or symptoms and the denture was found totally by chance. A major surgical procedure was required to remove the prosthesis.

  1. Persistence of Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination after Laryngectomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Isabelle; Lund, James P.; McFarland, David H.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide additional insights into the neural mechanisms underlying respiratory-swallowing coupling by studying potential alterations in movement coordination when upper airway protection is no longer necessary. Twelve laryngectomized participants, all at least 3 years postsurgery, were compared to age- and…

  2. Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder (AD) how to swallow pills.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa H; Cataldo, Marilyn; Slifer, Keith J; Pulbrook, Valerie; Guhman, Jaswinder K

    2005-01-01

    One barrier to medication adherence in pediatric populations is difficulty swallowing pills. Some children may not have prerequisite skills for pill swallowing, while others may have developed conditioned anxiety from repeated negative experiences. Eight children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autistic disorder participated in behavioral training to increase cooperation with pill swallowing. A pill-swallowing protocol was utilized during practice sessions with placebo "pills" of increasing size to implement systematic desensitization. Seven of the 8 children swallowed medication with a therapist. Six of the 8 children maintained treatment gains over time. Interventions used to succeed with these children are presented along with methods to reduce conditioned behavioral distress.

  3. Sensory stimulation to improve swallowing reflex and prevent aspiration pneumonia in elderly dysphagic people.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Kohzuki, Masahiro; Sumi, Yasunori; Ebihara, Takae

    2011-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from aspiration pneumonia continues to be a major health problem in the elderly. A swallowing disorder, such as a delayed triggering of the swallowing reflex, exists in patients with aspiration pneumonia. We found that the swallowing reflex in elderly people was temperature-sensitive. The swallowing reflex was delayed when the temperature of the food was close to body temperature. The actual swallowing time shortened when the temperature difference increases. The improvement of swallowing reflex by temperature stimuli could be mediated by the temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel. The administration of a pastille with capsaicin as an agonist stimulus of TRPV1, a warm-temperature receptor, decreased the delay in swallowing reflex. Food with menthol, an agonist of TRPM8, a cold-temperature receptor, also decreased the delay in swallowing reflex. Olfactory stimulation such as black pepper was useful to improve the swallowing reflex for people with low activity of daily living (ADL) levels or with decreased consciousness. Oral care also shortened the latent time of swallowing reflex presumably due to stimulating the nociception of the oral cavity. A combination of these sensory stimuli may improve the swallowing disorders and prevent aspiration pneumonia.

  4. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; (Peter Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K.

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo. It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s-1, as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo.

  5. Neural network pattern recognition of lingual-palatal pressure for automated detection of swallow.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Aaron J; Krival, Kate R; Ridgel, Angela L; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel device and method for real-time measurement of lingual-palatal pressure and automatic identification of the oral transfer phase of deglutition. Clinical measurement of the oral transport phase of swallowing is a complicated process requiring either placement of obstructive sensors or sitting within a fluoroscope or articulograph for recording. Existing detection algorithms distinguish oral events with EMG, sound, and pressure signals from the head and neck, but are imprecise and frequently result in false detection. We placed seven pressure sensors on a molded mouthpiece fitting over the upper teeth and hard palate and recorded pressure during a variety of swallow and non-swallow activities. Pressure measures and swallow times from 12 healthy and 7 Parkinson's subjects provided training data for a time-delay artificial neural network to categorize the recordings as swallow or non-swallow events. User-specific neural networks properly categorized 96 % of swallow and non-swallow events, while a generalized population-trained network was able to properly categorize 93 % of swallow and non-swallow events across all recordings. Lingual-palatal pressure signals are sufficient to selectively and specifically recognize the initiation of swallowing in healthy and dysphagic patients.

  6. Human swallowing simulation based on videofluorography images using Hamiltonian MPS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro; Michiwaki, Yukihiro; Kamiya, Tetsu; Toyama, Yoshio; Tamai, Tasuku; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2015-09-01

    In developed nations, swallowing disorders and aspiration pneumonia have become serious problems. We developed a method to simulate the behavior of the organs involved in swallowing to clarify the mechanisms of swallowing and aspiration. The shape model is based on anatomically realistic geometry, and the motion model utilizes forced displacements based on realistic dynamic images to reflect the mechanisms of human swallowing. The soft tissue organs are modeled as nonlinear elastic material using the Hamiltonian MPS method. This method allows for stable simulation of the complex swallowing movement. A penalty method using metaballs is employed to simulate contact between organ walls and smooth sliding along the walls. We performed four numerical simulations under different analysis conditions to represent four cases of swallowing, including a healthy volunteer and a patient with a swallowing disorder. The simulation results were compared to examine the epiglottic downfolding mechanism, which strongly influences the risk of aspiration.

  7. Are Morphometrics Sufficient for Estimating Age of Pre-Fledging Birds in the Field? A Test Using Common Terns (Sterna hirundo)

    PubMed Central

    Wails, Christy N.; Oswald, Stephen A.; Arnold, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Age is a key component of fitness, affecting survival and reproductive capacities. Where it is not possible to study known individuals from birth, morphometrics (predominantly patterns of plumage development for birds) are most often used to estimate age. Although criteria for age estimations exist for many species, the degree to which these criteria improve the precision of estimates remains to be tested, restricting their widespread acceptance. We develop a photographic tool for estimating ages of Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks and test it using 100 human observers of varying prior experience across four breeding colonies (three North American sites and one European site) and under controlled laboratory conditions. We followed the design approach of other morphometric tools, expanding it to create a user-friendly guide (divided into six age groupings). The majority (86%) of observers improved in chick-aging accuracy when using the tool by an average of 20.1% (±1.4 SE) and correctly estimated 60.3% (±1.4) of chick ages. This was similar to the intrinsic aging ability of our best field observer (63.3%). Observers with limited experience showed the greatest increases in chick-aging accuracy over experienced observers who likely had established a method for estimating chick ages prior to using the tool. Even the best observers only correctly estimated ages of chicks 62.9% (±2.8) of the time in the field and 84.0% (±2.9) of the time in the lab when using the tool and typically underestimated ages. This indicates that developmental variation between individual chicks can prevent completely reliable age estimates and corroborates the few existing data that suggest that morphometric criteria fail to achieve robust levels of accuracy and may introduce error into studies that rely on them. We conclude that novel approaches for estimating age, not only morphometric criteria, must be pursued. PMID:25375105

  8. Submental sEMG and Hyoid Movement during Mendelsohn Maneuver, Effortful Swallow, and Expiratory Muscle Strength Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Hegland, Karen M.; Rosenbek, John C.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the concurrent biomechanical and electromyographic properties of 2 swallow-specific tasks (effortful swallow and Mendelsohn maneuver) and 1 swallow-nonspecific (expiratory muscle strength training [EMST]) swallow therapy task in order to examine the differential effects of each on hyoid motion and associated…

  9. Environment, respiratory disease, and performance of pigs in three Saskatchewan grower-finisher barns

    PubMed Central

    Bauck, Stewart W.; Rhodes, Charles S.; Barber, Ernest M.

    1990-01-01

    A microcomputer-based environmental monitoring system was used to monitor temperature, humidity, and ventilation rate continuously in three commercial grower-finisher swine barns in Saskatchewan. During the monitoring period, a group of pigs in each barn was examined for growth rate, amount of lung affected with pneumonia, and degree of atrophic rhinitis. In addition, the total bacterial colony forming particle count within the airspace of each barn was measured once each week. Significant differences existed among barns for daily maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, ventilation rate, and average bacterial colony forming particle counts. There was no difference among farms in the average percentage of lung affected with pneumonia, average snout atrophy score, or growth rate of the test animals. On one farm, there was a significant positive correlation between snout score and percentage of lung affected with pneumonia. On another farm, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage of lung affected with pneumonia and growth rate. PMID:17423628

  10. View of the front of the JaudonBraggSnelling Barn/Corn Crib, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the front of the Jaudon-Bragg-Snelling Barn/Corn Crib, from the southwest, facing northeast. - Jaudon-Bragg-Snelling Farm, Corn Crib, North side of GA State Route 21, Springfield, Effingham County, GA

  11. New proofs for the two Barnes lemmas and an additional lemma

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Bernd

    2013-01-15

    Mellin-Barnes (MB) representations have become a widely used tool for the evaluation of Feynman loop integrals appearing in perturbative calculations of quantum field theory. Some of the MB integrals may be solved analytically in closed form with the help of the two Barnes lemmas which have been known in mathematics already for one century. The original proofs of these lemmas solve the integrals by taking infinite series of residues and summing these up via hypergeometric functions. This paper presents new, elegant proofs for the Barnes lemmas which only rely on the well-known basic identity of MB representations, avoiding any series summations. They are particularly useful for presenting and proving the Barnes lemmas to students of quantum field theory without requiring knowledge on hypergeometric functions. The paper also introduces and proves an additional lemma for a MB integral {integral}dz involving a phase factor exp ({+-}i{pi}z).

  12. Night vision in barn owls: visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under dark adaptation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Julius; Harmening, Wolf; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-12-06

    Barn owls are effective nocturnal predators. We tested their visual performance at low light levels and determined visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of three barn owls by their behavior at stimulus luminances ranging from photopic to fully scotopic levels (23.5 to 1.5 × 10⁻⁶). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity decreased only slightly from photopic to scotopic conditions. Peak grating acuity was at mesopic (4 × 10⁻² cd/m²) conditions. Barn owls retained a quarter of their maximal acuity when luminance decreased by 5.5 log units. We argue that the visual system of barn owls is designed to yield as much visual acuity under low light conditions as possible, thereby sacrificing resolution at photopic conditions.

  13. Barn: Loft Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Northwest/Side Elevation, Southeast/Front Elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Barn: Loft Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Northwest/Side Elevation, Southeast/Front Elevation, Southwest/Side Elevation, Northeast/Side Elevation - Driapsa Centennial Farm, Potts Hill European Community, 4511 Potts Hill Road, Bainbridge, Ross County, OH

  14. Chicken barn climate and hazardous volatile compounds control using simple linear regression and PID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Bakar, M. A. A.; Shukor, S. A. A.; Saad, F. S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Mustafa, M. H.; Khalid, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    The hazardous volatile compounds from chicken manure in chicken barn are potentially to be a health threat to the farm animals and workers. Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced in chicken barn are influenced by climate changes. The Electronic Nose (e-nose) is used for the barn's air, temperature and humidity data sampling. Simple Linear Regression is used to identify the correlation between temperature-humidity, humidity-ammonia and ammonia-hydrogen sulphide. MATLAB Simulink software was used for the sample data analysis using PID controller. Results shows that the performance of PID controller using the Ziegler-Nichols technique can improve the system controller to control climate in chicken barn.

  15. Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Field in a New Bulk Tobacco Curing Barn Based on CFD

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhipeng; Guo, Duoduo; Li, Shoucang; Hu, Yaohua

    2017-01-01

    A new structure bulk tobacco curing barn was presented. To study the temperature and humidity field in the new structure tobacco curing barn, a 3D transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed using porous medium, species transport, κ-ε turbulence and discrete phase models. The CFD results demonstrated that (1) the temperature and relative humidity predictions were validated by the experimental results, and comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed a fairly close agreement; (2) the temperature of the bottom and inlet area was higher than the top and outlet area, and water vapor concentrated on the top and outlet area in the barn; (3) tobacco loading density and thickness of tobacco leaves had an explicit effect on the temperature distributions in the barn. PMID:28146128

  16. Construction of Nationhood through Education in Malaya: Revisiting the Barnes and Fenn-Wu Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Moses; Khan, Mahmud Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of two colonial reports, the Barnes and the Fenn-Wu Reports on education in the British colony of Malaya. The popular stance on the Barnes and the Fenn-Wu Reports is that one is an effect or reply to the other. We argue on the contrary that the two reports construct a common argument on nation-building which…

  17. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Successful endoscopic removal of a swallowed toothbrush: case report.

    PubMed

    Tonkic, Ante; Bogdanovic, Zoran; Grandić, Leo

    2011-04-06

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.

  19. Activation of upper airway muscles during breathing and swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2013-01-01

    The upper airway is a complex muscular tube that is used by the respiratory and digestive systems. The upper airway is invested with several small and anatomically peculiar muscles. The muscle fiber orientations and their nervous innervation are both extremely complex, and how the activity of the muscles is initiated and adjusted during complex behaviors is poorly understood. The bulk of the evidence suggests that the entire assembly of tongue and laryngeal muscles operate together but differently during breathing and swallowing, like a ballet rather than a solo performance. Here we review the functional anatomy of the tongue and laryngeal muscles, and their neural innervation. We also consider how muscular activity is altered as respiratory drive changes, and briefly address upper airway muscle control during swallowing. PMID:24092695

  20. Validation of the optimal site in the neck region for detecting swallowing sounds.

    PubMed

    Pan, Q; Maeda, N; Manda, Y; Kodama, N; Minagi, S

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the swallowing sound has been used to detect swallowing events non-invasively. A previous study, using an accelerometer, showed that the site over the lateral border of the trachea immediately inferior to the cricoid cartilage was the optimal site for detecting swallowing sounds. However, the optimal site for detection of the swallowing sound using a microphone remains undetermined. To validate the optimal site in the neck region for detecting swallowing sounds. Fourteen healthy subjects (mean age, 27·6 ± 2·2 years; seven male and seven female) participated in this study. Twenty condenser microphones were attached to 20 sites on the left neck surface to detect swallowing sounds. Participants were instructed to swallow five different stimuli three times as follows: Resting saliva, 1 and 5 mL of Japanese tea, and 1 and 5 mL of yoghurt. Mean relative peak intensity was used to indicate the magnitude of the swallowing sound. Sound spectrograms were used to illustrate differences in the properties of swallowing sounds. Mean relative peak intensity number was highest in sites at the inferior border of the mandible just above the sternocleidomastoid muscle (site 11) and sites over the lateral border of the trachea immediately inferior to the cricoid cartilage (site 8). Comparison of spectrograms showed a greater density distribution of higher frequency components at site 11 compared with site 8. These results indicate that the inferior border of the mandible just above the sternocleidomastoid muscle is the optimal site for the detection of swallowing sounds.

  1. Predation by ants controls swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) infestations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Page, Catherine E; Robison, Grant A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Booth, Warren

    2015-06-01

    The swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) is the only known vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV), an alphavirus that circulates in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in North America. We discovered ants (Crematogaster lineolata and Formica spp.) preying on swallow bugs at cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska, U.S.A. Ants reduced the numbers of visible bugs on active swallow nests by 74-90%, relative to nests in the same colony without ants. Ant predation on bugs had no effect on the reproductive success of cliff swallows inhabiting the nests where ants foraged. Ants represent an effective and presumably benign way of controlling swallow bugs at nests in some colonies. They may constitute an alternative to insecticide use at sites where ecologists wish to remove the effects of swallow bugs on cliff swallows or house sparrows. By reducing bug numbers, ant presence may also lessen BCRV transmission at the spatial foci (bird colony sites) where epizootics occur. The effect of ants on swallow bugs should be accounted for in studying variation among sites in vector abundance.

  2. Using a metal detector to locate a swallowed ring pull.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J; Perez-Avila, C A; Cherukuri, A; Tidey, B

    1995-03-01

    A 48-year-old man accidently swallowed the ring pull from a soft drink can. He complained of pain in his chest. Chest radiographs were normal. A metal detector emitted a strong response when passed across the front of his chest. Oesophagoscopy was carried out and the ring pull was successfully removed. We recommend the wider use of metal detectors by accident and emergency (A&E) department staff particularly when dealing with patients who have ingested metals of low radiodensity.

  3. Swallowing disorders: proposal of a method for forensic medicine assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fattori, B; Ursino, F; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Nacci, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary For a correct classification of dysphagia, morphologic instrumental investigations capable of analysing the anatomical structures of the digestive tract, are undoubtedly essential, but the most important investigations are the functional investigations, such as videofluoroscopy, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, oro-pharyngo-oesophageal scintigraphy, manometry and pH-metry. Results of these examinations enable us to identify, in patients with dysphagia, the extent of permanent damage, as a consequence of injury to the structures designated to swallowing, must be such that it at least minimally impairs and decreases the relative function, but to a degree that can be detected and, in some manner, measured. From a legal point of view, alterations in swallowing, caused by damage to structures belonging to the respiratory-digestive tract, can be found in crimes against persons and particularly in those involving body injury. In the case of civil, but also in private or social insurance proceedings, it is necessary to distinguish which parameters are to be used as reference for evaluating and quantifying the injury in terms of reimbursement. With the introduction of complete biological well-being, injury is considered as an impairment of the worth and right to enjoy psychological-physical integrity as a quality of life. The criteria currently used internationally take into account the conception of psychological-physical efficiency; nevertheless, in Italian forensic medicine, there is no table that offers a thorough quantification of swallowing modifications, if one excludes oesophageal disorders. Herewith, an evaluation table, dividing oro-pharyngo-oesophageal dysphagia into five, progressively serious classes, is proposed. PMID:17883190

  4. Enhancing effects of flavored nutritive stimuli on cortical swallowing network activity

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Arash; Kern, Mark; Antonik, Stephen; Mepani, Rachel; Ward, B. Douglas; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hyde, James

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of the central control of the physiology of deglutition is necessary for devising interventions aimed at correcting pathophysiological conditions of swallowing. Positive modulation of the cortical swallowing network can have clinical ramifications in dysphagia due to central nervous system deficits. Our aim was to determine the effect of nutritive sensory input on the cortical swallowing network. In 14 healthy right-handed volunteers, we utilized a paradigm-driven protocol to quantify the number of activated voxels and their signal intensity within the left hemispheric cortical swallowing network by high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI) during five different swallowing conditions. Swallowing conditions included a dry swallow (saliva) and natural water-, lemon-, popcorn-, and chocolate-flavored liquid swallows. Each flavored liquid was presented simultaneously by its image, scent, and taste in random order and tested over three runs. fMRIs were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Average fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity and number of activated voxels during swallowing concurrent with nutritive gustatory, olfactory, and visual stimulations were significantly increased compared with dry/natural water swallows throughout the cortical swallowing network (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Subregion analysis showed the increased activity for flavored liquids in prefrontal, cingulate gyrus, and sensory/motor cortex, but not in precuneus and insula. Concurrent gustatory, olfactory, and visual nutritive stimulation enhances the activity of the cortical swallowing network. This finding may have clinical implications in management of swallowing disorders due to cortical lesions. PMID:20508154

  5. Tongue-surface movement patterns during speech and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Green, Jordan R; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2003-05-01

    The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered.

  6. Pharyngeal swallowing disorders: selection for and outcome after myotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, R J; Bremner, C G; DeMeester, T R; Crookes, P F; Peters, J H; Hagen, J A; DeMeester, S R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop selection criteria based on the mechanical properties of pharyngoesophageal swallowing that indicate when patients with pharyngeal dysphagia will benefit from a myotomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The pathophysiology of pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders is complex. The disorder is of interest to several medical specialists (gastroenterologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general and thoracic surgeons), which contributes to confusion about the entity. The management is compounded because it is most frequently seen in the elderly, is often associated with generalized neuromuscular disease, and occurs with a high prevalence of concomitant disease. The selection of patients for myotomy is difficult and of major importance to the quality of life of the affected patients. METHOD: One hundred seven patients without a Zenker diverticulum but with pharyngeal dysphagia underwent a detailed manometric assessment of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Cricopharyngeal opening was identified by the presence of a subatmospheric pressure drop before bolus arrival. Impaired pharyngoesophageal segment compliance resulting in a resistance to pharyngoesophageal flow was determined by measuring the intrabolus pressure generated by a 5-ml liquid bolus. RESULTS: Thirty-one of 107 patients underwent a myotomy (29%). Both impaired sphincter opening and increased intrabolus pressure predicted a good outcome. CONCLUSION: Myotomy is beneficial in patients with pharyngeal swallowing disorders and manometric evidence of defective sphincter opening and increased intrabolus pressure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9790349

  7. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual.

  8. Rehabilitation of farmhouses and barns: limits of salt content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clercq, Hilde; Godts, Sebastiaan

    2016-09-01

    The rehabilitation of historic buildings is a practice that aims to turn a historic property into a state of contemporary comfort for private or commercial use, while preserving its historic, architectural and cultural value, respecting items of authenticity, compatibility and sustainability. What once was a modest use of locally fired brick and mortar has become the subject of ambitious rehabilitation campaigns conforming to the rules of comfort and hygiene of the twenty-first century. A pre-investigation concerning the diagnosis of damage phenomena and the risk assessment of interventions is a crucial aspect for the success of a restoration campaign. The question of "How to optimally preserve a monument within its current conditions" is replaced by "How can a monument optimally perform in the conditions suited to the assigned rehabilitation project". Today historic farms and their surroundings, after being abandoned for several decades, are the subject of different types of private or commercial rehabilitation projects. An example of such a project is the farm "Hof De Pleyne" in Loppem (West-Flanders, Belgium). The project intended to integrate a restaurant kitchen into the former animal barn. The limits of salt content with respect to the desired rehabilitation facilities while respecting safety regulations are presented.

  9. Central projections of auditory nerve fibers in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Carr, C E; Boudreau, R E

    1991-12-08

    The central projections of the auditory nerve were examined in the barn owl. Each auditory nerve fiber enters the brain and divides to terminate in both the cochlear nucleus angularis and the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis. This division parallels a functional division into intensity and time coding in the auditory system. The lateral branch of the auditory nerve innervates the nucleus angularis and gives rise to a major and a minor terminal field. The terminals range in size and shape from small boutons to large irregular boutons with thorn-like appendages. The medial branch of the auditory nerve conveys phase information to the cells of the nucleus magnocellularis via large axosomatic endings or end bulbs of Held. Each medial branch divides to form 3-6 end bulbs along the rostrocaudal orientation of a single tonotopic band, and each magnocellular neuron receives 1-4 end bulbs. The end bulb envelops the postsynaptic cell body and forms large numbers of synapses. The auditory nerve profiles contain round clear vesicles and form punctate asymmetric synapses on both somatic spines and the cell body.

  10. Sleep and vigilance linked to melanism in wild barn owls.

    PubMed

    Scriba, M F; Rattenborg, N C; Dreiss, A N; Vyssotski, A L; Roulin, A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the function of variation in sleep requires studies in the natural ecological conditions in which sleep evolved. Sleep has an impact on individual performance and hence may integrate the costs and benefits of investing in processes that are sensitive to sleep, such as immunity or coping with stress. Because dark and pale melanic animals differentially regulate energy homeostasis, immunity and stress hormone levels, the amount and/or organization of sleep may covary with melanin-based colour. We show here that wild, cross-fostered nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) born from mothers displaying more black spots had shorter non-REM (rapid eye movement) sleep bouts, a shorter latency until the occurrence of REM sleep after a bout of wakefulness and more wakefulness bouts. In male nestlings, the same sleep traits also correlated with their own level of spotting. Because heavily spotted male nestlings and the offspring of heavily spotted biological mothers switched sleep-wakefulness states more frequently, we propose the hypothesis that they could be also behaviourally more vigilant. Accordingly, nestlings from mothers displaying many black spots looked more often towards the nest entrance where their parents bring food and towards their sibling against whom they compete. Owlets from heavily spotted mothers might invest more in vigilance, thereby possibly increasing associated costs due to sleep fragmentation. We conclude that different strategies of the regulation of brain activity have evolved and are correlated with melanin-based coloration.

  11. The influence of bedding materials on bio-aerosol exposure in dairy barns.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Sadegh; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Jamshidifard, Ali-Reza; Otten, Giovanna P; Droppert, Marijke; Heederik, Dick J J; Wouters, Inge M

    2012-07-01

    Bio-aerosol is a well-known cause of respiratory diseases. Exposure to bio-aerosols has been reported previously in dairy barns, but little is known about the sources of bio-aerosol. Bedding materials might be a significant source or substrate for bio-aerosol exposure. The aim of this study was to explore bio-aerosol exposure levels and its determinants in dairy barns with various bedding materials. Dust samples were collected at dairy barns using various bedding materials. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin and β(1 → 3)-glucan contents. Culturable bacteria and fungi were sampled by the Anderson N6 impactor. Exposure models were constructed using linear mixed models. The personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin, and β(1 → 3)-glucan differed significantly between the barns utilizing diverse main bedding types (P<0.05), with the highest levels (GM: dust, 1.38 mg/m(3); endotoxin, 895 EU/m(3); β(1 → 3)-glucan, 7.84 μg/m(3)) in barns with compost bedding vs the lowest in barns with sawdust bedding (GM: dust, 0.51 mg/m(3); endotoxin, 183 EU/m(3); β(1 → 3)-glucan, 1.11 μg/m(3)). The exposure levels were also highly variable, depending on various extra bedding materials applied. Plant materials, particularly straw, utilized for bedding appeared to be a significant source for β(1 → 3)-glucan. Compost was significantly associated with elevated exposure levels. Between-worker variances of exposure were highly explained by determinants of exposure like type of bedding materials and milking by robot, whereas determinants could explain to lesser extent the within-worker variances. Exposure levels to endotoxin, β(1 → 3)-glucan, bacteria, and fungi in dairy barns were substantial and differed depending on bedding materials, suggesting bedding material types as a significant predictor of bio-aerosol exposure.

  12. Late onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula following a swallowed dental plate.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, P B; Goiti, J J

    1993-01-01

    Swallowing dentures and dental plates has been a cause of distress among elderly patients. Tracheo-oesophageal fistula caused by a foreign body is rare and of the cases reported in the literature only one was due to a swallowed denture which resulted in a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy [4]. We describe a delayed onset tracheo-oesophageal fistula due to a swallowed dental plate in a young patient.

  13. Adaptation of swallowing hyo-laryngeal kinematics is distinct in oral vs. pharyngeal sensory processing

    PubMed Central

    Lokhande, Akshay; Christopherson, Heather; German, Rebecca; Stone, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Before a bolus is pushed into the pharynx, oral sensory processing is critical for planning movements of the subsequent pharyngeal swallow, including hyoid bone and laryngeal (hyo-laryngeal) kinematics. However, oral and pharyngeal sensory processing for hyo-laryngeal kinematics is not fully understood. In 11 healthy adults, we examined changes in kinematics with sensory adaptation, sensitivity shifting, with oropharyngeal swallows vs. pharyngeal swallows (no oral processing), and with various bolus volumes and tastes. Only pharyngeal swallows showed sensory adaptation (gradual changes in kinematics with repeated exposure to the same bolus). Conversely, only oropharyngeal swallows distinguished volume differences, whereas pharyngeal swallows did not. No taste effects were observed for either swallow type. The hyo-laryngeal kinematics were very similar between oropharyngeal swallows and pharyngeal swallows with a comparable bolus. Sensitivity shifting (changing sensory threshold for a small bolus when it immediately follows several very large boluses) was not observed in pharyngeal or oropharyngeal swallowing. These findings indicate that once oral sensory processing has set a motor program for a specific kind of bolus (i.e., 5 ml water), hyo-laryngeal movements are already highly standardized and optimized, showing no shifting or adaptation regardless of repeated exposure (sensory adaptation) or previous sensory experiences (sensitivity shifting). Also, the oral cavity is highly specialized for differentiating certain properties of a bolus (volume) that might require a specific motor plan to ensure swallowing safety, whereas the pharyngeal cavity does not make the same distinctions. Pharyngeal sensory processing might not be able to adjust motor plans created by the oral cavity once the swallow has already been triggered. PMID:22403349

  14. Pharyngeal swallowing elicited by fluid infusion: role of volition and vallecular containment.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Logemann, J A; Kahrilas, P J

    1996-02-01

    Nonalimentary swallows minimize aspiration by clearing accumulated fluid from the pharynx. This study aimed to define 1) the pharyngeal sensory field to elicit swallowing and 2) the effect of infusion rate, volition, taste, and temperature on pharyngeal swallows. Test solutions were directed into the valleculae at 6.5, 11.5, and 32 ml/min through a catheter in eight healthy volunteers. Deglutition was signaled with electromyography and electroglottography. Spatial distribution of infusate before swallowing was studied using videofluoroscopy coupled with a video timer. Volitional control was assessed with rapid or restrained swallows. Pharyngeal swallow latency decreased as the instillation rate increased, was potently modified with volition, and was unchanged by infusate taste or temperature. Water infusion into the valleculae did not trigger pharyngeal swallowing until liquids overflowed and reached the aryepiglottic folds or pyriform sinuses. The variation in swallow latency among flow rates was mainly due to the duration of liquid containment within the valleculae. This suggests that the valleculae act to contain pharyngeal secretions and residue and prevent aspiration by diverting their contents around the larynx before swallowing.

  15. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Pediatric Neuromuscular Diseases: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J.M.; de Swart, Bert J.M.; Erasmus, Corrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist. PMID:27858755

  16. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  17. Experimental exposure of swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Paul; Nemeth, Nicole; Doherty, Paul; McLean, Robert; Clark, Larry

    2010-09-01

    The cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Vieillot) could potentially play an important role in the transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) because of its breeding ecology, reservoir competence status, and potentially high natural exposure rates. These birds nest in colonies and their nests are occupied year round by swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius, Hovarth), hematophagus ectoparasites that feed primarily on cliff swallows. Swallow bugs are most likely exposed to WNV while feeding on infectious blood of cliff swallows and, thus, if competent vectors, could contribute to initiation and maintenance of seasonal WNV transmission. In addition, swallow bugs remain within nests year round and, therefore, if persistently infected and competent vectors, they could provide an overwintering mechanism for WNV. We tested the hypothesis that swallow bugs become infected with WNV through direct abdominal inoculation or ingestion of infectious blood meals. We observed that swallow bugs did not maintain or amplify WNV, and infectious virus titers within bugs declined over 15 d postexposure. These results suggest that swallow bugs may not be competent vectors of WNV, and therefore are unlikely to play a significant role in transmission.

  18. Barn Owl Productivity Response to Variability of Vole Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pavluvčík, Petr; Poprach, Karel; Machar, Ivo; Losík, Jan; Gouveia, Ana; Tkadlec, Emil

    2015-01-01

    We studied the response of the barn owl annual productivity to the common vole population numbers and variability to test the effects of environmental stochasticity on their life histories. Current theory predicts that temporal environmental variability can affect long-term nonlinear responses (e.g., production of young) both positively and negatively, depending on the shape of the relationship between the response and environmental variables. At the level of the Czech Republic, we examined the shape of the relationship between the annual sum of fledglings (annual productivity) and vole numbers in both non-detrended and detrended data. At the districts’ level, we explored whether the degree of synchrony (measured by the correlation coefficient) and the strength of the productivity response increase (measured by the regression coefficient) in areas with higher vole population variability measured by the s-index. We found that the owls’ annual productivity increased linearly with vole numbers in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, based on district data, we also found that synchrony between dynamics in owls’ reproductive output and vole numbers increased with vole population variability. However, the strength of the response was not affected by the vole population variability. Additionally, we have shown that detrending remarkably increases the Taylor’s exponent b relating variance to mean in vole time series, thereby reversing the relationship between the coefficient of variation and the mean. This shift was not responsible for the increased synchrony with vole population variability. Instead, we suggest that higher synchrony could result from high food specialization of owls on the common vole in areas with highly fluctuating vole populations. PMID:26709518

  19. Hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Israel; Von Essen, Susanna G

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term exposure to an aqueous extract of hog barn dust increases macromolecular efflux from the intact hamster cheek pouch and, if so, to begin to determine the mechanism(s) underlying this response. By using intravital microscopy, we found that suffusion of hog barn dust extract onto the intact hamster cheek pouch for 60 min elicited a significant, concentration-dependent leaky site formation and increase in clearance of FITC-labeled dextran (molecular mass, 70 kDa). This response was significantly attenuated by suffusion of catalase (60 U/ml), but not by heat-inactivated catalase, and by pretreatment with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg iv) (P < 0.05). Catalase had no significant effects on adenosine-induced increase in macromolecular efflux from the cheek pouch. Suffusion of hog barn dust extract had no significant effects on arteriolar diameter in the cheek pouch. Taken together, these data indicate that hog barn dust extract increases macromolecular efflux from the in situ hamster cheek pouch, in part, through local elaboration of reactive oxygen species that are inactivated by catalase. This response is specific and attenuated by corticosteroids. We suggest that plasma exudation plays an important role in the genesis of upper airway dysfunction evoked by short-term exposure to hog barn dust.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of DBSCAN, K-Means, and Quadratic Variation Algorithms for Automatic Identification of Swallows from Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dudik, Joshua M.; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. Methods In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Results Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differen-tiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. Conclusions In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. PMID:25658505

  1. Development of Suck and Swallow Mechanisms in Infants.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants' hospital discharge is often delayed due to their inability to feed by mouth safely and competently. No evidence-based supported guidelines are currently available for health-care professionals caring for these infants. Available interventions advocating benefits are not readily acknowledged for lack of rigorous documentation inasmuch as any improvements may ensue from infants' normal maturation. Through research, a growing understanding of the development of nutritive sucking skills has emerged, shedding light on how and why infants may encounter oral feeding difficulties due to the immaturity of specific physiologic functions. Unfortunately, this knowledge has yet to be translated to the clinical practice to improve the diagnoses of oral feeding problems through the development of relevant assessment tools and to enhance infants' oral feeding skills through the development of efficacious preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the maturation of the various physiologic functions implicated in the transport of a bolus from the oral cavity to the stomach. Although infants' readiness for oral feeding is deemed attained when suck, swallow, and respiration are coordinated, we do not have a clear definition of what coordination implies. We have learned that each of these functions encompasses a number of elements that mature at different times and rates. Consequently, it would appear that the proper functioning of sucking, the swallow processing, and respiration need to occur at two levels: first, the elements within each function must reach an appropriate functional maturation that can work in synchrony with each other to generate an appropriate suck, swallow process, and respiration; and second, the elements of all these distinct functions, in turn, must be able to do the same at an integrative level to ensure the safe and efficient transport of a bolus from the mouth to the stomach.

  2. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  3. Real time swallowing measurement system by using photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Masahiro; Kato, Kunihito; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement system to evaluate the swallowing by estimating the movement of the thyroid cartilage. We developed a measurement system based on the vision sensor in order to achieve the noncontact and non-invasive sensor. The movement of the subject's thyroid cartilage is tracked by the three dimensional information of the surface of the skin measured by the photometric stereo. We constructed a camera system that uses near-IR light sources and three camera sensors. We conformed the effectiveness of the proposed system by experiments.

  4. Low frequency eardrum directionality in the barn owl induced by sound transmission through the interaural canal.

    PubMed

    Kettler, Lutz; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wagner, Hermann

    2016-10-01

    The middle ears of birds are typically connected by interaural cavities that form a cranial canal. Eardrums coupled in this manner may function as pressure difference receivers rather than pressure receivers. Hereby, the eardrum vibrations become inherently directional. The barn owl also has a large interaural canal, but its role in barn owl hearing and specifically in sound localization has been controversial so far. We discuss here existing data and the role of the interaural canal in this species and add a new dataset obtained by laser Doppler vibrometry in a free-field setting. Significant sound transmission across the interaural canal occurred at low frequencies. The sound transmission induces considerable eardrum directionality in a narrow band from 1.5 to 3.5 kHz. This is below the frequency range used by the barn owl for locating prey, but may conceivably be used for locating conspecific callers.

  5. The Strategy to Increase Women Farmer's Participation in the Program of Village Food Barn in East Java

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuliatia, Yayuk; Iskaskar, Riyanti

    2016-01-01

    Food Barn Village Programme is one of the government's efforts in achieving household food security which includes four components. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy to increase women's participation in the Food Barn Village Programme. This research was conducted in three villages in the district of Malang, namely: Village…

  6. Prey composition modulates exposure risk to anticoagulant rodenticides in a sentinel predator, the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Gabriel, Doreen; Jacob, Jens

    2016-02-15

    Worldwide, small rodents are main prey items for many mammalian and avian predators. Some rodent species have pest potential and are managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). ARs are consumed by target and non-target small mammals and can lead to secondary exposure of predators. The development of appropriate risk mitigation strategies is important and requires detailed knowledge of AR residue pathways. From July 2011 to October 2013 we collected 2397 regurgitated barn owl (Tyto alba) pellets to analyze diet composition of owls on livestock farms in western Germany. 256 of them were fresh pellets that were collected during brodifacoum baiting. Fresh pellets and 742 liver samples of small mammals that were trapped during baiting in the same area were analyzed for residues of ARs. We calculated exposure risk of barn owls to ARs by comparing seasonal diet composition of owls with AR residue patterns in prey species. Risk was highest in autumn, when barn owls increasingly preyed on Apodemus that regularly showed AR residues, sometimes at high concentrations. The major prey species (Microtus spp.) that was consumed most frequently in summer had less potential to contribute to secondary poisoning of owls. There was no effect of AR application on prey composition. We rarely detected ARs in pellets (2 of 256 samples) but 13% of 38 prey individuals in barn owl nests were AR positive and substantiated the expected pathway. AR residues were present in 55% of 11 barn owl carcasses. Fluctuation in non-target small mammal abundance and differences in AR residue exposure patterns in prey species drives exposure risk for barn owls and probably other predators of small mammals. Exposure risk could be minimized through spatial and temporal adaption of AR applications (avoiding long baiting and non-target hot spots at farms) and through selective bait access for target animals.

  7. Trace metals in primary feathers of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba guttatus) in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Denneman, W D; Douben, P E

    1993-01-01

    The number of Barn Owls in The Netherlands has been reduced substantially over the last few decades. Death as a result of poisoning seems unlikely, but the pathology of all bird species found dead in The Netherlands between 1975 and 1988 (n = 15 422) shows that 21% of all the birds were contaminated. However, the most important factor responsible for the decline in Barn Owl numbers in The Netherlands has not yet been established. As a part of a new national protection plan for the Barn Owl, the role of heavy metals has been investigated. Concentrations of heavy metals in the primary feathers of the Barn Owl varied according to their position in the wing; especially As, Sb, Fe and Zn whose concentrations depended on the place of the primary feather in the wing and the part of the vane which is used for the monitoring. The HS7 feather vane appears to provide a good estimate, even though the metal concentrations of this feather are always slightly lower than the concentrations in mixed samples of all ten primaries. It is recommended that they are used as a standard. Many factors affect metal concentrations. Increasing levels with age are found, presumably because metals are stored during growth at the end of the feathers as a method of reducing possible harmful effects. No significant correlations were found between the metal concentrations in the organs and those in the feather. Kidney and liver concentrations are always lower than the generally accepted levels for pathological damage of these organs. Even though metal concentrations in Barn Owl feathers are high compared with those reported for other birds in the Netherlands, it is concluded that Barn Owls are not adversely affected by current levels of heavy metal contamination in The Netherlands.

  8. [Videofluoroscopic Examination of Swallowing Using the AsR Score for Postoperative Swallowing Function in Oral Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motoyuki; Fujii, Takashi; Yoshii, Tadashi; Otozai, Shinji; Kida, Kohta; Sugawa, Toshimitsu; Kitamura, Koji; Kanamura, Ryo; Koike, Ryosuke

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the postoperative swallowing function in head and neck cancer patients, videofluoroscopic examination of swallowing (VF) proved useful as a qualitative evaluation, but was complex as a quantitative evaluation. We made use of the AsR score which consisted of a 10-point scale as a quantitative evaluation of VF. To identify the usefulness of the AsR score, 146 patients who had undergone extensive resection and reconstruction with free flaps or pedicle grafts were reviewed. The AsR score of VF for the first time after surgery was defined as "first score", and at the last time in the hospital was defined as "last score". The correlations between the first score and continuity of direct therapy, and between the last score and way of nutrition at the time of discharge were examined. Using the ROC (receiver operator characteristic) analysis and the AUC (area under the curve) the cut-off values of the AsR score were estimated. One hundred and thirty one patients could continue direct therapy after the first time of VF. The first score detected continuity of direct therapy with high accuracy (AUC = 0.946), furthermore using a cut-off of 5, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were about 96.2%, 86.6%, 98.4%, and 72.2%, respectively. At the time of discharge, 138 patients had no limitation of oral intake and 8 patients had a limitation e.g. PEG (n = 7) and a total laryngectomy for preventing aspiration (n = 1). The last score detected oral intake ability with no limitation with high accuracy (AUC = 0.925). Using a cut-off of 6, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were about 82.6%, 87.5%, 99.1% and 22.6%, respectively. The AsR score is useful as a quantitative evaluation of postoperative swallowing function in oral cancer patients.

  9. Barnes quits AIDS Action; Freeman leaves NAPWA. National Association of People with AIDS.

    PubMed

    1996-04-05

    Important personnel changes at the AIDS Action Council (AAC) and the National Association of People With AIDS (NAPWA) are noted. Mark Barnes, former chair and executive director of the AAC has resigned, and William J. Freeman, executive director of NAPWA, left his post after a 5-year tenure. Barnes co-founded Columbia University's AIDS law clinic and held top positions in AIDS programs throughout the state. Freeman expanded the NAPWA program, which sponsored national publicity events. Both gentlemen left their positions to pursue new careers. Fred Miller will serve as acting executive director of the AIDS Action Council and the AIDS Action Foundation. A. Cornelius Baker will be NAPWA's deputy executive director.

  10. Michael E. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia's Child Guidance Clinic, Barnes and his staff have provided exceptional psychological service to thousands of adjudicated youths, developed an APA-accredited internship program, and supervised the development of a juvenile mental health court that diverts mentally ill court-involved youth from delinquency proceedings and into treatment.

  11. POLYCHLORINATED BYPHENOLS AND P,P'-DDE IN TREE SWALLOW EGGS AND NESTLINGS FROM A SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed biologically available contaminant concentrations in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from a marine Superfund site. Tree swallows are used widely to assess and monitor aquatic contamination due to their preference for nesting near water an...

  12. [Effect of Bolus Volume on Pharyngeal Swallowing Dynamics Evaluated with Small High-Resolution Manometry Catheters].

    PubMed

    Jungheim, Michael; Kallusky, Johanna; Ptok, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The bolus volume has a modulating effect on the swallowing dynamics, but previously reported adaptations of the pharyngeal function have been inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate changes of pressure and time parameters in the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in relation to the swallowed bolus volume with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine the normal swallowing physiology, particularly thin HRM probes were used, which were expected to influence the investigated structures only minimally.10 healthy volunteers accomplished 10 swallows with 2 and 10 ml water respectively in an upright position, while an HRM-examination was performed. Pressure and time parameters of the velopharynx, the tongue base region and the UES were determined and analyzed for statistical differences with respect to the bolus volume.Swallowing larger bolus volumes resulted in both, a longer closure of the velopharynx and in a longer opening of the UES. Volume dependent pressure changes in the pharyngeal swallowing sequence were not detectable.Under the chosen test conditions, bolus volume had an impact on the time parameters of the pharyngeal phase, thus, temporal adaptations of the automated swallowing dynamics were detected. Changes in pharyngeal pressure parameters as shown in other studies cannot be confirmed. They may be due to HRM probes with a larger diameter, which take an effect on the pharyngeal structures themselves. With regard to diagnostic aspects, HRM studies should always be conducted with different bolus volumes in order to investigate the swallowing process completely.

  13. Comparison of Clinician Judgments and Measurements of Swallow Response Time: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnell, Michael P.; Rogus, Nicole M.

    2005-01-01

    Practicing clinicians frequently offer judgments about aspects of swallowing physiology rather than performing actual measurements. Little is known about the accuracy of those judgments. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore agreement of clinicians' judgments of pharyngeal swallow response time (PSRT) with temporal measurements of…

  14. Phytophagous arthropods of invasive swallow-wort vines (Vincetoxicum spp.) in New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum [Kleopow] Barbar.) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum [L.] Moench), European species of herbaceous, perennial viny milkweeds, have become increasingly invasive in various natural and managed habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, i...

  15. Mechanism of Sequential Swallowing during Straw Drinking in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Corey, David M.; Hadskey, Leslie D.; Legendre, Calli; Priestly, Daniel H.; Rosenbek, John C.; Foundas, Anne L.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has revealed differences between isolated and sequential swallowing in healthy young adults; however, the influence of normal aging on sequential swallowing has not been studied. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of normal aging on deglutition during sequential straw drinking. Videofluoroscopic…

  16. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  17. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  18. Identifying Patterns of FEES-Derived Swallowing Trajectories Using Group-Based Trajectory Model.

    PubMed

    Baijens, Laura W J; Pilz, Walmari; Kremer, Bernd; Passos, Valeria Lima

    2015-10-01

    The present study delineates and visualizes swallowing trajectories along seven swallow trials in dysphagic patients using group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM). This model facilitates the recognition of swallowing functional categories, estimates their frequency of occurrence, and enhances the understanding of swallowing dynamics. Two hundred and five dysphagic patients underwent a standardized FEES examination protocol. Five ordinal variables were blindly assessed for each swallow by two observers independently. GBTM analysis was conducted to find and characterize trajectories of FEES responses. For most FEES outcome variables, trajectories were qualitatively distinct in degree and kind (level of impairment and how this changed over the seven swallow trials). Two FEES outcome variables-delayed initiation of the pharyngeal reflex and postswallow pyriform sinus pooling-showed the highest prevalence of severe swallowing impairment. Highly impaired categories were more stable throughout the different swallow trials. Intermediate trajectories, by contrast, were erratic, responding more sensitively to shifts in bolus consistency. GBTM can identify distinct developmental trajectories of measured FEES variables in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. In clinical practice, classification into distinct groups would help to identify the subgroup of dysphagic patients who may need specific medical attention.

  19. Functional outcome in acute stroke patients with oropharyngeal Dysphagia after swallowing therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P < .05). When comparing the results of the VFS among the 3 groups, we found significant improvements in patients eating cookies and thick liquid after combined NMES/TS therapy (P < .05). In acute stroke patients with dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids.

  20. Both head extension and mouth opening impair the ability to swallow in the supine position.

    PubMed

    Hanamoto, H; Kadono, K; Boku, A; Kudo, C; Morimoto, Y; Sugimura, M; Niwa, H

    2014-08-01

    Head position and mouth opening in the supine position may impair the ability to swallow. If this does occur, it would lead to retention of intra-oral fluids during dental treatment, which would lead to stimulation of the cough reflex. This study was conducted to investigate how head position and mouth opening affect swallowing ability. The water swallowing test was performed in 13 healthy adult subjects in the supine position. The subjects were asked to swallow 10 mL of water that was injected into the mouth in a single attempt. After swallowing, the residual intra-oral water was suctioned and its volume was measured. An electromyogram (EMG) of the suprahyoid (SH) muscles was also recorded during the test. The duration of SH muscle activity and peak amplitude of SH EMG were examined. The water swallowing test was performed under three head positions (neutral, extended and flexed) and four mouth opening patterns (interincisal distances of 0, 20, 30 and 40 mm). The wider the subject opened the mouth, the more the water remained in the mouth after swallowing. The residual volume of water was more in the extended position compared with that in the neutral and flexed positions. Peak amplitude of SH EMG decreased with mouth opening. Duration of SH muscle activity was longer in the extended position than in the neutral and flexed positions. Head extension and mouth opening can induce difficulty in swallowing in the supine position by extending the duration of SH muscle activity while reducing its intensity.

  1. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  2. Tongue Pressure and Submental Surface Electromyography Measures during Noneffortful and Effortful Saliva Swallows in Healthy Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Erin M.; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The effortful swallow, a compensatory technique frequently employed by speech-language pathologists for their patients with dysphagia, is still not fully understood in terms of how it modifies the swallow. In particular, although age-related changes are known to reduce maximum isometric tongue pressure, it is not known whether age affects…

  3. The Influence of Stimulus Taste and Chemesthesis on Tongue Movement Timing in Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the influence of taste and trigeminal irritation (chemesthesis) on durational aspects of tongue movement in liquid swallowing, controlling for the influence of perceived taste intensity. Method: Electromagnetic midsagittal articulography was used to trace tongue movements during discrete liquid swallowing with 5 liquids: water,…

  4. Development of Swallowing and Feeding: Prenatal through First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Amy L.; Arvedson, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide…

  5. Prevalence and Severity of Voice and Swallowing Difficulties in Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jennifer L.; Whittaker, Roger G.; Miller, Nick; Clark, Sue; Taylor, Robert; McFarland, Robert; Turnbull, Douglass

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that voice and swallow problems are a common feature of these diseases. Aims: To characterize accurately the prevalence and severity of voice and swallow problems in a large cohort of patients with mitochondrial disease.…

  6. Invasive Swallow-worts: An allelopathic role for -(-) antofine remains unclear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) are two invasive plant species in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada that have undergone rapidly expanding ranges over the past 30 years. Both species possess a highly bioactive phytotoxin -(-) antofine in r...

  7. Biomechanical Correlates of Surface Electromyography Signals Obtained during Swallowing by Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby (Mann), Giselle D.; Groher, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical correlates of the surface electromyographic signal obtained during swallowing by healthy adult volunteers. Method: Seventeen healthy adults were evaluated with simultaneous videofluoroscopy and surface electromyography (sEMG) while swallowing 5 mL of liquid barium sulfate. Three…

  8. Preliminary studies on seed dispersal of swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) and V. nigrum (black swallow-wort) are invasive, perennial vines that have become problematic in natural areas in the northeastern United States and neighboring southeastern Canada. Both species reproduce primarily via wind-dispersed seeds in the form of ac...

  9. Vocal Variability Post Swallowing in Individuals with and without Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karoline Weber dos; Scheeren, Betina; Maciel, Antonio Carlos; Cassol, Mauriceia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Voice modification after swallowing may indicate changes in the transit of the bolus. Objective The aim of this study is to verify the use of perceptual voice analysis to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Study Design Case series. Methods Twenty-seven patients with dysphagia as diagnosed by videofluoroscopy and 25 without were evaluated. The sustained vowel /a/ was recorded before this exam and after swallowing different consistencies (pasty, liquid and solid). For the voice evaluation, the GRBAS scale (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain) and the parameter “wet voice” were used. Three judges blinded to study group and time of emission performed voice analysis. Results Individuals with dysphagia showed significant decrease in grade of voice and asthenia and increase in strain after swallowing pasty substances, differing from individuals without dysphagia who showed no modification of the parameters after swallowing. The wet voice parameter showed no difference after swallowing in both study groups. Conclusion The decrease in grade and asthenia and increased strain are indicative of a swallowing disorder, indicating increased vocal strain to clean the vocal tract of food. The modification of vocal production after swallowing proved to be a trusted resource for detection of swallowing disorders. PMID:25992153

  10. Vocal Variability Post Swallowing in Individuals with and without Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karoline Weber Dos; Scheeren, Betina; Maciel, Antonio Carlos; Cassol, Mauriceia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Voice modification after swallowing may indicate changes in the transit of the bolus. Objective The aim of this study is to verify the use of perceptual voice analysis to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Study Design Case series. Methods Twenty-seven patients with dysphagia as diagnosed by videofluoroscopy and 25 without were evaluated. The sustained vowel /a/ was recorded before this exam and after swallowing different consistencies (pasty, liquid and solid). For the voice evaluation, the GRBAS scale (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain) and the parameter "wet voice" were used. Three judges blinded to study group and time of emission performed voice analysis. Results Individuals with dysphagia showed significant decrease in grade of voice and asthenia and increase in strain after swallowing pasty substances, differing from individuals without dysphagia who showed no modification of the parameters after swallowing. The wet voice parameter showed no difference after swallowing in both study groups. Conclusion The decrease in grade and asthenia and increased strain are indicative of a swallowing disorder, indicating increased vocal strain to clean the vocal tract of food. The modification of vocal production after swallowing proved to be a trusted resource for detection of swallowing disorders.

  11. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  12. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  13. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  14. Function of upper esophageal sphincter during swallowing: the grabbing effect.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Kahrilas, P J

    1997-05-01

    This study investigated deglutitive axial force developed within the pharynx, upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and cervical esophagus. Position and deglutitive excursion of the UES were determined using combined manometry and videofluoroscopy in eight healthy volunteers. Deglutitive clearing force was quantified with a force transducer to which nylon balls of 6- or 8-mm diameter were tethered and positioned within the oropharynx, hypopharynx, UES, and cervical esophagus. Axial force recordings were synchronized with videofluoroscopic imaging. Clearing force was dependent on both sphere diameter (P < 0.05) and location, with greater force exhibited in the hypopharynx and UES compared with the oropharynx and esophagus (P < 0.05). Within the UES, the onset of traction force coincided with passage of the pharyngeal clearing wave but persisted well beyond this. On videofluoroscopy, the persistent force was associated with the aboral motion of the ball caught within the UES. Force abated with gradual slippage of the UES around the ball. The force attributable to the combination of UES contraction and laryngeal descent was named the grabbing effect. The grabbing effect functions to transfer luminal contents distal to the laryngeal inlet at the end of the pharyngeal swallow, presumably acting to prevent regurgitation and/or aspiration of swallowed material.

  15. Neuropharmacologic correlates of deglutition: lessons from fictive swallowing.

    PubMed

    Bieger, D

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacologic investigations into the transmission processes underlying fictive swallowing in the rat have disclosed the potential diversity of chemical signals used in central deglutitive pathways. Monoaminergic mechanisms appear to serve as links between subcortical structures and the medullary pattern generator of swallowing (PGS), and may play a critical role in maintaining internal facilitatory drive, required by the PGS for optimal responsivity to peripheral sensory input. Cholinergic bulbar interneurons form an integral component of the PGS subnetwork controlling esophageal peristalsis. Local GABA neurons exert a tonic inhibition of the buccopharyngeal stage, may regulate buccopharyngeal-esophageal coupling, and may contribute to peristaltic rhythmic generation at both the premotoneuronal and motoneuronal level. Receptor subtypes for excitatory amino acids (glutamate, aspartate) are differentially associated with deglutitive premotoneurons for both the buccopharyngeal and esophageal stage, as well as with ambiguus motoneurons. Preliminary evidence suggests the existence of excitatory peptidergic mechanisms involving thyrotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, oxytocin, and somatostatin, a probable candidate for excitatory transmitter in the solitarioambigual internuncial projection to motoneurons innervating esophageal striated musculature. Further validation of this experimental model may ultimately help to establish a framework for the clinical recognition, management, and exploitation of drug actions on central deglutitive neuroeffectors.

  16. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): proposal for informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Nacci, A; Ursino, F; La Vela, R; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Fattori, B

    2008-01-01

    Summary Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now a first choice method for studying swallowing disorders on account of the various advantages it offers: easy to use, very well tolerated, allows bedside examination and is economic. Nevertheless, this diagnostic procedure is not without risks, the most probable consequences of which include discomfort, gagging and/or vomiting, vasovagal syncope, epistaxis, mucosal perforation, adverse reactions to topical anaesthetics and laryngospasm. The risks involved with FEES stress the importance of informing the patient of these; this is an important aspect in medicine that necessarily and immediately implies receiving the patient’s so-called “informed consent”. Informed consent should be obtained not only by means of specific printed forms but also after the patient has had an interview with the physician who will be performing the procedure and who will offer information according to the personal clinical, psychological, cultural and linguistic situation of the patient and in keeping with the type of procedure proposed. In the case of FEES, as with other invasive or non-invasive diagnostic procedures, therefore, routine written and signed consent, together with a patient/physician interview should fulfil what is known as “complete information”. In this report, a specific form for informed consent to FEES procedures, is proposed. PMID:18939710

  17. Energy intake estimation from counts of chews and swallows

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Juan M.; Higgins, Janine A.; Schuckers, Stephanie C.; Bellisle, France; Pan, Zhaoxing; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Current, validated methods for dietary assessment rely on self-report, which tends to be inaccurate, time-consuming, and burdensome. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the suitability of estimating energy intake using individually-calibrated models based on Counts of Chews and Swallows (CCS models). In a laboratory setting, subjects consumed three identical meals (training meals) and a fourth meal with different content (validation meal). Energy intake was estimated by four different methods: weighed food records (gold standard), diet diaries, photographic food records, and CCS models. Counts of chews and swallows were measured using wearable sensors and video analysis. Results for the training meals demonstrated that CCS models presented the lowest reporting bias and a lower error as compared to diet diaries. For the validation meal, CCS models showed reporting errors that were not different from the diary or the photographic method. The increase in error for the validation meal may be attributed to differences in the physical properties of foods consumed during training and validation meals. However, this may be potentially compensated for by including correction factors into the models. This study suggests that estimation of energy intake from CCS may offer a promising alternative to overcome limitations of self-report. PMID:25447016

  18. Incidence of Pneumonia After Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hannae; Park, Jung-Gyoo; Min, David; Park, Hee-Won; Kang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Jai; Baek, Sora

    2016-02-01

    Pneumonia after videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is sometimes considered to be caused by aspiration during VFSS; however, to our knowledge, a relationship between these events has not been clearly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of VFSS-related pneumonia and related factors. Overall, 696 VFSS cases were retrospectively reviewed. Cases in which blood culture was performed within 3 days after VFSS due to newly developed infectious signs were considered as post-VFSS infection cases. Pneumonia was suspected when there was some evidence of respiratory infectious signs in clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. The underlying disease, clinical signs, and VFSS findings of the pneumonia group were assessed. Among 696 cases, pneumonia was diagnosed in 15 patients. The patients in the pneumonia group tended to be older and had higher aspiration rate on VFSS than those in the non-pneumonia group. In the pneumonia group, 2 patients showed no aspiration during VFSS. In 6 patients, pneumonia developed after massive aspiration of gastric content in 5 patients and inappropriate oral feeding with risk of aspiration before VFSS in 1 patient. Only 7 patients (1.0 %) were finally determined as having VFSS-related pneumonia. In conclusion, the 72-h incidence of VFSS-related pneumonia was 1.0 %. Old age and severity of swallowing difficulty are associated with occurrence of pneumonia.

  19. Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and traditional swallowing rehabilitation in the treatment of stroke-related dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Sun, Hsien-Pin; Chang, Ping-Hsin; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jue-Long

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is common after stroke. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) for the treatment of dysphagia have gained in popularity, but the combined application of these promising modalities has rarely been studied. We aimed to evaluate whether combined NMES, FEES, and traditional swallowing rehabilitation can improve swallowing functions in stroke patients with moderate to severe dysphagia. Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe dysphagia poststroke (≥3 weeks) were recruited. Patients received 12 sessions of NMES for 1 h/day, 5 days/week within a period of 2-3 weeks. FEES was done before and after NMES for evaluation and to guide dysphagic therapy. All patients subsequently received 12 sessions of traditional swallowing rehabilitation (50 min/day, 3 days/week) for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). Secondary outcome measures included clinical degree of dysphagia, the patient's self-perception of swallowing ability, and the patient's global satisfaction with therapy. Patients were assessed at baseline, after NMES, at 6-month follow-up, and at 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine patients completed the study. FOIS, degree of dysphagia, and patient's self-perception of swallowing improved significantly after NMES, at the 6-month follow-up, and at the 2-year follow-up (p < 0.001, each compared with baseline). Most patients reported considerable satisfaction with no serious adverse events. Twenty-three of the 29 (79.3 %) patients maintained oral diet with no pulmonary complications at 2-year follow-up. This preliminary case series demonstrated that combined NMES, FEES, and traditional swallowing rehabilitation showed promise for improving swallowing functions in stroke patients with moderate-to-severe dysphagia. The benefits were maintained for up to 2 years. The results are promising enough to justify further studies.

  20. Ultrasound of oral and masticatory muscles: Why every neuromuscular swallow team should have an ultrasound machine.

    PubMed

    Van Den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Lagarde, Marloes; Van Alfen, Nens

    2017-03-01

    Patients with neuromuscular disorders often present with swallowing difficulties due to oral phase problems and pharyngeal residue after swallow. It is important to assess the underlying pathology and cause of the swallowing disturbance in this patient group, such as dystrophic changes in oral and masticatory muscles. This allows for more patient-tailored recommendations, for example optimal compensation strategies to maintain function for longer. Ultrasound can show structural changes caused by dystrophy or denervation of muscles, detect involuntary movements such as fasciculations, and provide dynamic video images of tongue motion during swallowing attempts. This article, based on the authors' extensive experience with ultrasound in neuromuscular disease, explains the concepts of oral muscle ultrasound and its proven value in assessing neuromuscular mastication and swallowing problems. As a patient-friendly and portable technique, we advocate its use as a standard tool for analyzing neuromuscular dysphagia. Clin. Anat. 30:183-193, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effects of compressive sensing on extracted features from tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Movahedi, Faezeh; Zhang, Zhenwei; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L.

    2016-05-01

    Acquiring swallowing accelerometry signals using a comprehensive sensing scheme may be a desirable approach for monitoring swallowing safety for longer periods of time. However, it needs to be insured that signal characteristics can be recovered accurately from compressed samples. In this paper, we considered this issue by examining the effects of the number of acquired compressed samples on the calculated swallowing accelerometry signal features. We used tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals acquired from seventeen stroke patients (106 swallows in total). From acquired signals, we extracted typically considered signal features from time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Next, we compared these features from the original signals (sampled using traditional sampling schemes) and compressively sampled signals. Our results have shown we can obtain accurate estimates of signal features even by using only a third of original samples.

  2. New directions for understanding neural control in swallowing: the potential and promise of motor learning.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ianessa A; German, Rebecca Z

    2013-03-01

    Oropharyngeal swallowing is a complex sensorimotor phenomenon that has had decades of research dedicated to understanding it more thoroughly. However, the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for normal and disordered swallowing remain very vague. We consider this gap in knowledge the result of swallowing research that has been broad (identifying phenomena) but not deep (identifying what controls the phenomena). The goals of this review are to address the complexity of motor control of oropharyngeal swallowing and to review the principles of motor learning based on limb movements as a model system. We compare this literature on limb motor learning to what is known about oropharyngeal function as a first step toward suggesting the use of motor learning principles in swallowing research.

  3. The Effects of Oral-Motor Exercises on Swallowing in Children: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this unregistered evidence-based systematic review was to determine the state and quality of evidence on the effects of oral motor exercises (OME) on swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing outcomes, and drooling management in children with swallowing disorders. Method: A systematic search of 20 electronic…

  4. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  5. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color - a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) - is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought.

  6. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  7. Cloacal Microbiome Structure in a Long-Distance Migratory Bird Assessed Using Deep 16sRNA Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kreisinger, Jakub; Čížková, Dagmar; Kropáčková, Lucie; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Effects of vertebrate-associated microbiota on physiology and health are of significant interest in current biological research. Most previous studies have focused on host-microbiota interactions in captive-bred mammalian models. These interactions and their outcomes are still relatively understudied, however, in wild populations and non-mammalian taxa. Using deep pyrosequencing, we described the cloacal microbiome (CM) composition in free living barn swallows Hirundo rustica, a long-distance migratory passerine bird. Barn swallow CM was dominated by bacteria of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla. Bacteroidetes, which represent an important proportion of the digestive tract microbiome in many vertebrate species, was relatively rare in barn swallow CM (< 5%). CM composition did not differ between males and females. A significant correlation of CM within breeding pair members is consistent with the hypothesis that cloacal contact during within-pair copulation may promote transfer of bacterial assemblages. This effect on CM composition had a relatively low effect size, however, possibly due to the species’ high level of sexual promiscuity. PMID:26360776

  8. Body temperature and fever in a free-living bird.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape

    2010-05-01

    Fever is an adaptive physiological response that animals use to fight infections by microorganisms. Although used routinely by veterinary and medical doctors for assessment of health status, there are hardly any studies of fever in free-living animals. Body temperature in a sample of more than 500 adult barn swallows Hirundo rustica varied considerably, but was consistent among capture events. Body temperature increased during the day, and reached a minimum in the middle of the breeding season. A normal quantile plot revealed that 4.5% of adults constituted a separate population that had fever. There were only marginal effects of handling on body temperature. Body temperature increased by 2.6 standard deviations following injection with LPS, showing that body temperature indeed increased with an immune challenge. Body temperature was negatively related to abundance of feather mites, but was not related to abundance of other ectoparasites or size of the uropygial gland. Barn swallows with high body temperatures also had large body mass and showed weak stress responses as reflected by their tonic immobility. Barn swallows in large colonies had lower body temperatures than solitary or less colonial individuals. Body temperature was not related to arrival date, timing of breeding, annual fecundity or adult survival. However, individuals that were easier to catch had higher body temperatures. These findings suggest that body temperature is a consistent physiological parameter of individuals, a small fraction of individuals has fever, and that febrile individuals have specific parasite loads, body mass, social environment and ability to escape capture.

  9. 3. View of McKenzieRichey property showing wood shed, barn, wooden ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of McKenzie-Richey property showing wood shed, barn, wooden walkway and stairs, with west side of house in the foreground, facing northeast. - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  10. 140° view of ranch core showing left to right: barn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140° view of ranch core showing left to right: barn, corrals, and planted cottonwood tree. This negative forms a 360° composite panoramic when joined with AZ-2-72 and AZ-2-74. See AZ-2-82 for color version. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  11. Systematics and distribution of the giant fossil barn owls of the West Indies (Aves: Strigiformes: Tytonidae).

    PubMed

    Suárez, William; Olson, Storrs L

    2015-09-23

    After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and even more robust representative of T. ostologa known from the Great Bahama Bank and Cuba; (3) the very rare species T. riveroi Arredondo (1972b) is here synonymized with T. pollens; (4) the smallest taxon of these giant barn owls is T. noeli Arredondo (1972a), which is widespread and abundant in Quaternary deposits of Cuba and is here reported for the first time from two cave deposits in Jamaica; (5) the only large barn owl named so far from the Lesser Antilles is T. neddi Steadman & Hilgartner (1999), which is here synonymized with T. noeli; (6) a new taxon from Cuba, T. cravesae new species, which in size approached the linear dimensions of T. ostologa, is named and described herein.

  12. Neural Coding of Relational Invariance in Speech: Human Language Analogs to the Barn Owl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Harvey M.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal model shown to code sound-source azimuth in the barn owl by H. Wagner et al. in 1987 is used as the basis for a speculative brain-based human model, which can establish contrastive phonetic categories to solve the problem of perception "non-invariance." (SLD)

  13. The Science of Science: A Physicist Reads Barnes, Bloor and Henry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mermin, N. David

    1998-01-01

    In their book entitled Scientific Knowledge, Barry Barnes, David Bloor, and John Henry repudiate the notion that physical environment plays no role in the creation of scientific knowledge, thereby removing a major bone of contention between scientists and practitioners of the sociology of scientific knowledge. A physicist discusses ways in which…

  14. 2. View of McKenzieRichey property from north fence line. Barn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of McKenzie-Richey property from north fence line. Barn with wood shed on left edge, root cellar behind trees, house in center, and garage in foreground, facing south - McKenzie Property, North Bank of Sailor Gulch 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  15. Adolescents, Health Education, and Computers: The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN) is a computer-based system designed as a confidential, nonjudgmental source of health information for adolescents. Topics include alcohol and other drugs, diet and activity, family communication, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management; programs are available for high school and middle school…

  16. Effectiveness of a manure scraper system for odor control in tunnel-ventilated swine finisher barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Options for odor control from tunnel-ventilated swine barns are limited. Automated scrapers have been successful for reducing odor emissions in free-stall dairies, and for reducing H2S emissions in research-scale swine finisher rooms, but their effectiveness for reducing odor in commercial tunnel-v...

  17. What Is Wrong with Religious Education? A Response to Philip Barnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whately, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews Philip Barnes' account of problems with religious education (RE), and explores the practical implications of his position. Acknowledging his compelling logic--that RE is premised on an acceptance of all religions as equally theologically true--this article argues for optimism: with controversy and ambiguity moving to centre…

  18. Non-planar Feynman diagrams and Mellin-Barnes representations with AMBRE 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz; Riemann, Tord

    2015-05-01

    We introduce the Mellin-Barnes representation of general Feynman integrals and discuss their evaluation. The Mathematica package AMBRE has been recently extended in order to cover consistently non-planar Feynman integrals with two loops. Prospects for the near future are outlined. This write-up is an introduction to new results which have also been presented elsewhere.

  19. Michael E. Barnes: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography on the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice. The 2012 winner is Michael E. Barnes for his pioneering leadership, dedication, and distinguished contributions to juvenile justice. As chief psychologist of the Superior Court of the…

  20. Sensitivity of Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, to climate state and internal dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Miller, G. H.; Rabus, B. T.; Van Wychen, W.; Gardner, A. S.; Copland, L.

    2016-08-01

    Barnes Ice Cap is a remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of northern North America during the Last Glacial Maximum. Barnes reached a quasi-equilibrium state ~2000 years ago and has remained similar in size since then, with a small increase during the Little Ice Age. In this study, we combine historical observations (1960-1980) with more recent satellite and airborne data (1995-2010) to drive a mass balance model coupled to a transient thermomechanical model with an adaptive mesh geometry. The model is used to characterize the current state of the ice cap and to investigate its stability as a function of climate and its own internal dynamics. On millennial time scales we show that ice flow is influenced by adjustment of an unsteady shape, by gently sloping bedrock, and by contrasting viscosities between the Pleistocene and Holocene ice. On shorter time scales, Barnes is affected by surge activity. Sensitivity tests reveal that Barnes experienced climate conditions which enabled its stability 2000 to 3000 years ago but will disappear under current climate conditions in the next millennium.

  1. Social huddling and physiological thermoregulation are related to melanism in the nocturnal barn owl.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Séchaud, Robin; Béziers, Paul; Villain, Nicolas; Genoud, Michel; Almasi, Bettina; Jenni, Lukas; Roulin, Alexandre

    2016-02-01

    Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather. We investigated in nestling barn owls (Tyto alba) whether body temperature, oxygen consumption and huddling were associated with melanin-based coloration. Isolated owlets displaying more black feather spots had a lower body temperature and consumed more oxygen than those with fewer black spots. This suggests that highly melanic individuals display a different thermoregulation strategy. This interpretation is also supported by the finding that, at relatively low ambient temperature, owlets displaying more black spots huddled more rapidly and more often than those displaying fewer spots. Assuming that spot number is associated with the ability to thermoregulate not only in Swiss barn owls but also in other Tytonidae, our results could explain geographic variation in the degree of melanism. Indeed, in the northern hemisphere, barn owls and allies are less spotted polewards than close to the equator, and in the northern American continent, barn owls are also less spotted in colder regions. If melanic spots themselves helped thermoregulation, we would have expected the opposite results. We therefore suggest that some melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulate thermoregulatory processes.

  2. Advance Organizers as a Teaching Strategy: A Reply to Barnes and Clawson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Wanska, Susan K.

    1977-01-01

    Barnes and Clawson's presentation of Ausubel's theory of meaningful learning (Review of Educational Research, 45, 1975, pp. 637-59) is misleading, according to the author. He states that Ausubel's crucial point is not that organizers relate new knowledge to an existing cognitive structure, but that new learning materials can only be considered…

  3. Contextual view to southeast from near barn, showing DrewSherwood Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view to southeast from near barn, showing Drew-Sherwood Tank House (HABS No. CA-2610-B) through east-west line of locust trees, with line of eucalyptus trees along north-south fence line at extreme right. Drew-Sherwood House (HABS No. CA-2610-A) - Drew-Sherwood Farm, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  4. The barn owl wing: an inspiration for silent flight in the aviation industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Thomas; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Wagner, Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Barn owls are specialists in prey detection using acoustic information. The flight apparatus of this bird of prey is most efficiently adapted to the hunting behavior by reducing flight noise. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms owls make use of could help minimize the noise disturbances in airport or wind power plant neighborhood. Here, we characterize wings of barn owls in terms of an airfoil as a role model for studying silent flight. This characterization includes surface and edge specialization (serrations, fringes) evolved by the owl. Furthermore, we point towards possible adaptations of either noise suppression or air flow control that might be an inspiration for the construction of modern aircraft. Three-dimensional imaging techniques such as surface digitizing, computed tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate the wings and feathers in high spatial resolution. We show that wings of barn owls are huge in relation to their body mass resulting in a very low wing loading which in turn enables a slow flight and an increased maneuverability. Profiles of the wing are highly cambered and anteriorly thickened, especially at the proximal wing, leading to high lift production during flight. However, wind tunnel experiments showed that the air flow tends to separate at such wing configurations, especially at low-speed flight. Barn owls compensated this problem by evolving surface and edge modifications that stabilize the air flow. A quantitative three-dimensionally characterization of some of these structures is presented.

  5. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  6. Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vitousek, Maren N.; Stewart, Rosemary A.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Across diverse taxa, morphological traits mediate social interactions and mate selection. Physiological constraints on signal elaboration have been widely documented, but the potential for trait display to influence physiological state remains poorly understood. We tested for the presence of causal links between ventral plumage colour—a trait known to covary with reproductive performance—and physiological measures in female North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Naturally darker swallows have lower levels of plasma oxidative damage. Females manipulated to display darker ventral plumage during reproduction rapidly decreased oxidative damage, adopting the physiological state of naturally darker individuals. These results support the presence of a social mechanism that links static plumage traits with the physiological state of their bearer during trait advertisement, long after the completion of signal development. PMID:23966597

  7. Female plumage colour influences seasonal oxidative damage and testosterone profiles in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Stewart, Rosemary A; Safran, Rebecca J

    2013-10-23

    Across diverse taxa, morphological traits mediate social interactions and mate selection. Physiological constraints on signal elaboration have been widely documented, but the potential for trait display to influence physiological state remains poorly understood. We tested for the presence of causal links between ventral plumage colour-a trait known to covary with reproductive performance-and physiological measures in female North American barn swallows, Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Naturally darker swallows have lower levels of plasma oxidative damage. Females manipulated to display darker ventral plumage during reproduction rapidly decreased oxidative damage, adopting the physiological state of naturally darker individuals. These results support the presence of a social mechanism that links static plumage traits with the physiological state of their bearer during trait advertisement, long after the completion of signal development.

  8. Monarch butterfly oviposition on swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Casagrande, R A; Dacey, J E

    2007-06-01

    As black swallow-wort, Vincetoxicum nigrum L. Moench, and pale swallow-wort, V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., spread throughout the northeastern United States and southern Canada, there is concern about the impact of these invasive plants on populations of the native North American monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. Recent laboratory studies in New York and Ontario, Canada, have found little or no oviposition by monarch butterflies on the two Vincetoxicum species. In Rhode Island, we found 10.5-21.7% oviposition on Vincetoxicum species relative to common milkweed Asclepias syriaca L. in choice tests and 11.9-20.3% in no-choice tests in 2 yr of laboratory testing. These results were supported by field cage trials where monarchs given a choice between V. nigrum and A. syriaca laid 24.5% of their eggs on V. nigrum. In surveys of three pasture fields in Rhode Island where relative coverage of A. syriaca exceeded that of V. nigrum by a 0.77:0.23 ratio, 15.4% of monarch eggs were found on V. nigrum plants. In V. nigrum stands with very little A. syriaca (6.25 stems/ha), monarch egg density on V. nigrum was found to be over five times greater than in the three mixed pasture fields. In none of our laboratory or field evaluations was there any survival of monarch larvae on Vincetoxicum species. It seems that in Rhode Island, Vincetoxicum species serve as an oviposition sink for monarch butterflies. These findings suggest that East Coast butterflies may differ in host selection from those in central New York and southern Ontario, Canada.

  9. The mandible advancement may alter the coordination between breathing and the non-nutritive swallowing reflex.

    PubMed

    Ayuse, T; Ayuse, T; Ishitobi, S; Yoshida, H; Nogami, T; Kurata, S; Hoshino, Y; Oi, K

    2010-05-01

    The coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing serves as a protective reflex against potentially asphyxiating material, i.e. saliva and secretions, entering the respiratory tract. Although this protective reflex is influenced by positional changes in the head and body, the effect of mandible position on this reflex is not fully understood. We examined the effect of mandible advancement associated with mouth opening on the coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing induced by continuous infusion of distilled water into the pharyngeal cavity. The combination of mandible advancement and mouth opening increased the duration of swallowing apnoea and submental electromyographic burst duration. When the mandible was advanced with the mouth open, the duration of swallowing apnoea increased significantly compared with the centric position (0.79 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.12 s, P < 0.05, n = 12), and the duration of submental electromyographic activity increased significantly (2.11 +/- 0.63 vs. 1.46 +/- 0.25 s, P < 0.05, n = 12). Mandible advancement with mouth opening altered the respiratory phase resetting during swallowing and the timing of swallow in relation to respiratory cycle phase. We conclude that mandible re-positioning may strongly influence the coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing by altering respiratory parameters and by inhibiting movement of the tongue-jaw complex.

  10. Routine Use of Contrast Swallow After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagectomy: Is it Justified?

    PubMed Central

    El-Sourani, Nader; Bruns, Helge; Troja, Achim; Raab, Hans-Rudolf; Antolovic, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background After gastrectomy or esophagectomy, esophagogastrostomy and esophagojejunostomy are commonly used for reconstruction. Water-soluble contrast swallow is often used as a routine screening to exclude anastomotic leakage during the first postoperative week. In this retrospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of oral water-soluble contrast swallow for the detection of anastomotic leakage and its clinical symptoms were analysed. Material/Methods Records of 104 consecutive total gastrectomies and distal esophagectomies were analysed. In all cases, upper gastrointestinal contrast swallow with the use of a water-soluble contrast agent was performed on the 5th postoperative day. Extravasation of the contrast agent was defined as anastomotic leakage. When anastomotic insufficiency was suspected but no extravasation was present, a computed tomography (CT) scan and upper endoscopy were performed. Results Oral contrast swallow detected 7 anastomotic leaks. Based on CT-scans and upper endoscopy, the true number of anastomotic leakage was 15. The findings of the oral contrast swallow were falsely positive in 4 and falsely negative in 12 patients, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the oral contrast swallow was 20% and 96%, respectively. Conclusions Routine radiological contrast swallow following total gastrectomy or distal esophagectomy cannot be recommended. When symptoms of anastomotic leakage are present, a CT-scan and endoscopy are currently the methods of choice.

  11. Acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Yokoyama, K; Takei, Y; Furuya, N; Nakamichi, Y; Ihara, Y; Takahashi, K; Groher, M E

    2014-09-01

    This research was designed to investigate the acoustic characteristics of voluntary expiratory sounds after swallow for detecting dysphagia. Forty-nine patients with complaints of swallow difficulty received a videofluorographic (VF) examination. They were divided into three groups: nine who did not have any apparent disease (Group N), 22 patients with head and neck cancer (Group H&N) and 18 patients with other diseases including cerebrovascular disease (Group OD). After liquid barium swallows, they exhaled voluntarily without voicing. Videofluorographic findings were classified into four groups: normal (Normal), acceptable swallow (Acceptable), swallow with residue (Resid) and swallows with penetration or aspiration (Pen/Asp). The duration of expiratory sounds was measured on the time waveform. Frequency characteristics of expiratory sounds were obtained using one-third octave band analysis ranging from 62·5 to 2000·0 Hz of central frequency. The averaged level of the 1000·0-Hz band was chosen as the reference band level (RB level). The revised averaged level of each band was obtained by subtracting the RB level from the averaged level of each band. Zero decibel of the revised magnitude of the 125·0-Hz band was set as the critical value to differentiate dysphagia (Resid or Pen/Asp) from no dysphagia (Normal or Acceptable). Comparison of this assessment with VF findings showed a significant percentage agreement (85·4%). These results suggest that frequency characteristics of post-swallow expiratory sounds can differentiate dysphagia from no dysphagia among multiple dysphagic patient groups.

  12. An evaluation of the University of Washington Quality of Life swallowing domain following oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L; Jones, T M; Tandon, S; Katre, C; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2008-07-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer and its treatment have debilitating effect on swallowing function which can impact on quality of life. The aims of this study were to assess swallowing dysfunction in patients treated for oropharyngeal cancer by both patient and observer assessed tools and to assess the suitability of University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) swallowing domain as a potential screening tool in routine clinic practice. This was a cross-sectional study of disease free survivors following radical treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma at a tertiary care centre between 1999 and May 2005. Evaluation included three questionnaires--the M. D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), the SWALQOL, the University of Washington Quality of Life (UWQOL) and Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES). Of 117 patients 77 (66%) participated. On the UW-QOL, 18% could only swallow liquids whilst 11% could not swallow at all. There is a clear demarcation between UW-QOL levels and food consistency and texture as measured by the SWALQOL (r= -0.86, P<0.001). There was a graduation in respect to function with correlations of r=0.61 with overall MDADI and SWALQOL and r= -0.45 for FEES. Patients scoring 70 or better in the UW-QOL were notably better in MDADI and the SWALQOL hence a cut off of below 70 could be regarded as a quick screening tool for swallowing dysfunction.

  13. Behavioural and neurophysiological disruption of corticobulbar motor systems and their effects on sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

    PubMed

    Al-Toubi, Aamir; Daniels, Stephanie K; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Corey, David M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H

    2016-10-15

    Primary motor networks are known to be involved in the control of voluntary oral movements as well as the modulation of pharyngeal movements during experimentally controlled single swallows performed on command. The role of these networks in the more typical task of sequential swallowing remains unexplored. This study evaluated the hypothesis that experimental disruption of motor cortical activation would reduce the rate and regularity of repeatedly performed volitional or volitionally initiated motor tasks controlled by corticospinal (finger tapping) and corticobulbar (eyebrow movement, jaw opening, volitional sequential swallowing) motor systems, but would not influence a more reflexive corticobulbar task (reflexive sequential swallowing to pharyngeal water infusion). This premise was investigated in 24 healthy participants using two techniques: a dual task paradigm and a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm. Disruption effects were quantified by changes in rate and regularity of performance for each tested motor task. In summary, volitional motor tasks controlled by corticospinal motor networks (finger tapping) are more susceptible to behavioural and neurophysiological disruption than tasks controlled by cortiobulbar motor networks containing a reflexive component (both volitional and experimentally initiated consecutive swallowing). Purely volitional motor tasks controlled by the corticobulbar motor system (eyebrow raising or jaw opening) were affected in similar ways as the volitional corticospinal motor tasks. In summary, tasks involving sequential pharyngeal swallowing - whether volitionally or experimentally initiated - are largely robust against disruption of primary cortical motor networks, supporting a key role of medullary CPGs in the motor control of sequential pharyngeal swallowing.

  14. Kinematic and temporal factors associated with penetration-aspiration in swallowing liquids.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    In this study we undertook careful analysis of 13 quantitative physiological variables related to oropharyngeal swallowing from a sample of 42 subacute patients referred for dysphagia assessment. Each patient underwent a videofluoroscopic swallowing examination in which they swallowed up to five boluses of 22 % w/v ultrathin liquid barium suspension administered by teaspoon. Our goal was to determine whether scores on 13 kinematic or temporal parameters of interest were independently associated with the presence of penetration-aspiration in the final compiled dataset of 178 swallows. Participants were classified as aspirators based on the presence of at least one swallow that demonstrated a Penetration-Aspiration Scale score of ≥3. The parameters of interest included six kinematic parameters for capturing hyoid position, three swallow durations [laryngeal closure duration, hyoid movement duration, and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening duration], and four swallow intervals (laryngeal closure to UES opening, bolus dwell time in the pharynx prior to laryngeal closure, stage transition duration, and pharyngeal transit time). Mixed-model repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted to determine the association between each parameter and aspiration status. Only 1 of the 13 parameters tested distinguished aspirators from nonaspirators: aspirators demonstrated significantly shorter UES opening duration. In addition, a trend toward reduced maximum superior position of the hyoid was seen in aspirators. Limitations and future considerations are discussed.

  15. Role of Barium Swallow in Diagnosing Clinically Significant Anastomotic Leak following Esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Simon; Iannettoni, Mark D.; Keech, John C.; Bashir, Mohammad; Gruber, Peter J.; Parekh, Kalpaj R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Barium swallow is performed following esophagectomy to evaluate the anastomosis for detection of leaks and to assess the emptying of the gastric conduit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the barium swallow study in diagnosing anastomotic leaks following esophagectomy. Methods Patients who underwent esophagectomy from January 2000 to December 2013 at our institution were investigated. Barium swallow was routinely done between days 5–7 to detect a leak. These results were compared to clinically determined leaks (defined by neck wound infection requiring jejunal feeds and or parenteral nutrition) during the postoperative period. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow in diagnosing clinically significant anastomotic leaks was determined. Results A total of 395 esophagectomies were performed (mean age, 62.2 years). The indications for the esophagectomy were as follows: malignancy (n=320), high-grade dysplasia (n=14), perforation (n=27), benign stricture (n=7), achalasia (n=16), and other (n=11). A variety of techniques were used including transhiatal (n=351), McKeown (n=35), and Ivor Lewis (n=9) esophagectomies. Operative mortality was 2.8% (n=11). Three hundred and sixty-eight patients (93%) underwent barium swallow study after esophagectomy. Clinically significant anastomotic leak was identified in 36 patients (9.8%). Barium swallow was able to detect only 13/36 clinically significant leaks. The sensitivity of the swallow in diagnosing a leak was 36% and specificity was 97%. The positive and negative predictive values of barium swallow study in detecting leaks were 59% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion Barium swallow is an insensitive but specific test for detecting leaks at the cervical anastomotic site after esophagectomy. PMID:27066433

  16. Swallowing transit times and valleculae residue in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breathing and swallowing are physiologically linked to ensure effortless gas exchange during oronasal breathing and to prevent aspiration during swallowing. Studies have indicated consistent aspiration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mainly related to delayed swallowing reflex and problems with lingual propulsion and pharyngeal peristalsis as a result of bilateral weakness and incoordination of the related muscles. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate swallowing transit times and valleculae residue characteristics of stable COPD patients who have no swallowing complaints. Methods Our study population included 20 stable patients with COPD and no swallowing complaints and 20 healthy controls. Swallowing was assessed through videofluoroscopic examination and involved the analysis of the following parameters: (1) pharyngeal stages of deglutition; (2) the duration of bolus movement through the oral cavity and pharynx (i.e. transit times); (3) valleculae residue ratio; (4) penetration/aspiration. Results Participants of the study did not present any signs of penetration-aspiration for any of the tested consistencies. Patients with COPD presented longer pharyngeal transit times during the ingestion of the liquid consistency and during the ingestion of the paste consistency. Regarding the duration of tongue base contact with the posterior pharyngeal wall, COPD patients also presented longer durations for the liquid and paste consistencies. No significant difference was observed for the distribution of individuals among the different valleculae residue severity levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that stable COPD patients may present physiological adaptations as a protective swallowing maneuver to avoid aspiration/penetration of pharyngeal contents. Moreover, valleculae residue cannot be seen as an isolated factor when trying to explain swallowing alterations in this population. PMID:24739506

  17. Dysphagia and swallowing-related quality of life in Friedreich ataxia.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Adam P; Brown, Sophie E; Folker, Joanne E; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and its impact on quality of life is not adequately understood. The objective of this study was to characterise dysphagia in FRDA and to determine the impact of swallowing dysfunction on activities, participation, and sense of well-being. Thirty-six individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of FRDA were assessed via a clinical bedside examination (CBE), the Royal Brisbane Hospital outcome measure for swallowing, an oral-motor examination and the Australian therapy outcome measures for speech and swallowing (AusTOMS). Data on swallowing function, diet modification and swallowing strategies were collated. Thirty-three (91.67 %) participants exhibited clinical signs of dysphagia according to the CBE, and all participants received ratings indicating swallowing difficulties on at least one other measure. Dysphagia in FRDA is characterised by oral and pharyngeal stage impairment relating to incoordination, weakness and spasticity. A significant positive correlation was found between the severity of impairment, activity, participation and distress/well-being on the AusTOMS, suggesting that swallowing function decreases with overall reductions in quality of life. A significant correlation was found between activity on the AusTOMS and disease duration (r = -0.283, p = 0.012). No significant correlations were found between dysphagia severity and GAA repeat length, age of onset or disease severity. Participants employing diet modification and swallowing strategies demonstrated higher dysphagia severity, activity limitations and participation restrictions. These data advocate a holistic approach to dysphagia management in FRDA. Early detection of swallowing impairment and consideration of the potential impact dysphagia has on quality of life should be key aspects in disease management.

  18. Microsatellite markers characterized in the barn owl (Tyto alba) and of high utility in other owls (Strigiformes: AVES).

    PubMed

    Klein, Akos; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Küpper, Clemens; Major, Agnes; Lee, Patricia L M; Hoffmann, Gyula; Mátics, Róbert; Dawson, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    We have identified 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the barn owl (Tyto alba), five from testing published owl loci and 10 from testing non-owl loci, including loci known to be of high utility in passerines and shorebirds. All 15 loci were sequenced in barn owl, and new primer sets were designed for eight loci. The 15 polymorphic loci displayed two to 26 alleles in 56-58 barn owls. When tested in 10 other owl species (n = 1-6 individuals), between four and nine loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are suitable for studies of population structure and parentage in owls.

  19. On Barnes Beta Distributions and Applications to the Maximum Distribution of the 2D Gaussian Free Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovsky, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    A new family of Barnes beta distributions on (0, ∞) is introduced and its infinite divisibility, moment determinacy, scaling, and factorization properties are established. The Morris integral probability distribution is constructed from Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2), and its moment determinacy and involution invariance properties are established. For application, the maximum distributions of the 2D gaussian free field on the unit interval and circle with a non-random logarithmic potential are conjecturally related to the critical Selberg and Morris integral probability distributions, respectively, and expressed in terms of sums of Barnes beta distributions of types (1, 0) and (2, 2).

  20. 'Pharyngocise': Randomized Controlled Trial of Preventative Exercises to Maintain Muscle Structure and Swallowing Function During Head-and-Neck Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Crary, Michael A.; Schmalfuss, Ilona

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy is common. The present randomized clinical trial studied the effectiveness of preventative behavioral intervention for dysphagia compared with the 'usual care.' Methods and Materials: A total of 58 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy were randomly assigned to usual care, sham swallowing intervention, or active swallowing exercises (pharyngocise). The intervention arms were treated daily during chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was muscle size and composition (determined by T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary outcomes included functional swallowing ability, dietary intake, chemosensory function, salivation, nutritional status, and the occurrence of dysphagia-related complications. Results: The swallowing musculature (genioglossus, hyoglossuss, and mylohyoid) demonstrated less structural deterioration in the active treatment arm. The functional swallowing, mouth opening, chemosensory acuity, and salivation rate deteriorated less in the pharyngocise group. Conclusion: Patients completing a program of swallowing exercises during cancer treatment demonstrated superior muscle maintenance and functional swallowing ability.

  1. Feasibility assessment of a tunnel-ventilated, water-padded barn on alleviation of heat stress for lactating Holstein cows in a humid area.

    PubMed

    Shiao, T F; Chen, J C; Yang, D W; Lee, S N; Lee, C F; Cheng, W T K

    2011-11-01

    The use of evaporative cooling for mitigating heat stress in lactating cows in humid areas is controversial. In Taiwan, Holstein cow performance is significantly restricted by hot and humid weather. This study investigated the efficacy of using a tunnel-ventilated, water-padded freestall (TP) barn for reducing heat stress in lactating cows. From August to October 2006, 36 cows allocated in a 3×3 Latin square were raised in 3 barn cooling treatments: a conventional freestall barn with fans and sprinklers in the feed line (Fan+SP, control), a TP barn, and a TP barn with sprinkler cooling (TP+SP). Daytime air speeds in the 3 barns were 1.23, 2.38, and 2.06 m/s, respectively. Both TP barns were more efficient than the control in reducing the daytime temperature and temperature-humidity index. The barn temperature was <26°C for an extra 4.2h per day, but the relative humidity was >96% in both TP barns. Cows in both TP barns had higher respiration rates and skin temperatures at 0300 h than cows in the Fan+SP barn. The TP environment increased the cows' serum cholesterol level and the activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase, but blood partial pressure of CO(2) was not affected. Vaginal temperature was persistently high in cows in the TP barn; in the 2 SP barns, it decreased 0.4 to 0.6°C following sprinkling and milking. The intake activity and rumen digestion of cows raised in the 3 environments were similar. Cows in both TP barns ingested more dry matter. Cows in the TP+SP barn tended to produce more milk than those in the Fan+SP barn (25.4 vs. 24.7 kg). Although heat stress was not completely alleviated in these 3 barns, the TP+SP treatment resolved the negative effect of a previous TP barn built in 2004 on intake and milk yield by increasing air speed and using sprinkler cooling. Thus, it is expected that TP+SP barns will be beneficial in regions with high humidity. Adequate air speed and sprinkler cooling are likely to be key factors for

  2. Swallowing Disorders in Sjögren's Syndrome: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jenny L; Tanner, Kristine; Merrill, Ray M; Miller, Karla L; Kendall, Katherine A; Roy, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    This epidemiological investigation examined the prevalence, risk factors, and quality-of-life effects of swallowing disorders in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). One hundred and one individuals with primary or secondary SS (94 females, 7 males; mean age 59.4, SD = 14.1) were interviewed regarding the presence, nature, and impact of swallowing disorders and symptoms. Associations among swallowing disorders and symptoms, select medical and social history factors, SS disease severity, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were examined. The prevalence of a current self-reported swallowing disorder was 64.4 %. SS disease severity was the strongest predictor of swallowing disorders, including significant associations with the following swallow symptoms: taking smaller bites, thick mucus in the throat, difficulty placing food in the mouth, and wheezing while eating (p < .05). Additional swallowing disorder risk factors included the presence of a self-reported voice disorder, esophageal reflux, current exposure to secondary tobacco smoke, frequent neck or throat tension, frequent throat clearing, chronic post-nasal drip, and stomach or duodenal ulcers. Swallowing disorders did not differ on the basis of primary or secondary SS. Swallowing disorders and specific swallowing symptoms were uniquely associated with reduced quality of life. Among those with swallowing disorders, 42 % sought treatment, with approximately half reporting improvement. Patient-perceived swallowing disorders are relatively common in SS and increase with disease severity. Specific swallowing symptoms uniquely and significantly reduce swallow and health-related quality of life, indicating the need for increased identification and management of dysphagia in this population.

  3. Semi-annual monitoring report for Barnes, Kansas, for July-December 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-27

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility at Barnes, Kansas, during most of the interval 1949-1974. Carbon tetrachloride contamination was initially detected in 1986 in the town's public water supply wells. In 2006-2007, the CCC/USDA conducted a comprehensive targeted investigation at and near its former property in Barnes to characterize this contamination. Those results were reported previously (Argonne 2008a). In November 2007, the CCC/USDA began quarterly groundwater monitoring at Barnes. The monitoring is being conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, in accord with the recommendations made in the report for the 2006-2007 targeted investigation (Argonne 2008a). The objective is to monitor the carbon tetrachloride contamination identified in the groundwater at Barnes. The sampling is presently conducted in a network of 28 individual monitoring wells (at 19 distinct locations), 2 public water supply wells, and 1 private well (Figure 1.1). The results of the 2006-2007 targeted investigation and the subsequent monitoring events (Argonne 2008a-d, 2009a,b) demonstrated the presence of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater at levels exceeding the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The contaminant plume appears to extend from the former CCC/USDA property northwestward, toward the Barnes public water supply wells. Information obtained during the 2006-2007 investigation indicates that at least one other potential source might have contributed to the groundwater contaminant plume (Argonne 2008a). The former agriculture building owned by the local school district, located immediately east of well PWS3, is also a potential source of the contamination. This current report presents the results of the seventh quarterly monitoring event, conducted in September-October, and

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 141-C Large Animal Barn and Biology Laboratory (Hog Barn), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-027

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-05-24

    The 141-C waste site is a former large animal barn and biology laboratory within the 100-F Area experimental animal farm. Strontium-90, arsenic, and multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected within residual demolition debris at concentrations exceeding cleanup criteria. The site has been remediated by removing approximately 900 bank cubic meters of soil and debris within the former building footprint to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Swallows as a sentinel species for contaminant exposure and effect studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Elliott, John G.; Bishop, Christine Annette; Morrissey, Christy A.

    2011-01-01

    Tree swallows are an important model species to study the effects of contaminants in wild bird populations and have been used extensively in studies across North America. The advantages of swallows compared to other avian species are detailed. Three case histories are provided where swallows have been successfully used in Natural Resource Damage and Ecological Risk Assessments. The final two sections of this chapter are for individuals who want more in-depth information and include a summary of the chemical classes for which there are swallow data, including effect levels when known. Information provided in this section can be used to put exposure to most classes of contaminants into context with other sites across North America. Finally, commonly used endpoints, ranging from population-level down to cellular and genetic endpoints, are discussed including considerations and pitfalls, and when further work is needed to more fully understand the role of environmental and biological variation in interpreting these endpoints.

  6. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  7. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Echols, Kathy R; Tillitt, Donald E; Nichols, John W; Secord, Anne L; McCarty, John P

    2004-12-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25,000 ng/g and accumulated to 32,000 and 96,000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d(-1) based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  8. Using the gugging swallowing screen (GUSS) for dysphagia screening in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    John, Jennilee St; Berger, Linley

    2015-03-01

    Aspiration pneumonia from dysphagia following stroke presents significant morbidity and mortality in that population. Dysphagia screening before oral intake has been a standard of care for years, but there is a lack of consensus on the best screening tool. The Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) is presented as a potentially better alternative to other dysphagia screens due to its safer progression of oral intake, more thorough evaluation of swallowing, and ability to enable earlier nutrition.

  9. Modulation of activity in swallowing motor cortex following esophageal acidification: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Paine, Peter A; Hamdy, Shaheen; Chitnis, Xavier; Gregory, Lloyd J; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; Williams, Steve; Aziz, Qasim

    2008-06-01

    Esophageal acid exposure induces sensory and motility changes in the upper gastrointestinal tract; however, the mechanisms involved and the effects on activity in the brain regions that control swallowing are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine functional changes in the cortical swallowing network as a result of esophageal acidification using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seven healthy volunteers (3 female, age range=20-30 years) were randomized to receive either a 0.1 M hydrochloric acid or (control) saline infusion for 30 min into the distal esophagus. Postinfusion, subjects underwent four 8 min blocks of fMRI over 1 h. These alternated between 1 min swallowing water boluses and 1 min rest. Three-dimensional cluster analysis for group brain activation during swallowing was performed together with repeated-measures ANOVA for differences between acid and saline. After acid infusion, swallowing-induced activation was seen predominantly in postcentral gyrus (p<0.004). ANOVA comparison of acid with saline showed a significant relative reduction in activation during swallowing of the precentral gyrus (M1) BA 4 (p<0.008) in response to acid infusion. No areas of increased cortical activation were identified with acid vs. saline during swallowing. Esophageal acidification inhibits motor and association cortical areas during a swallowing task, probably via changes in vagal afferent or nociceptive input from the esophagus. This mechanism may play a protective role, facilitating acid clearance by reduced descending central motor inhibition of enteric/spinal reflexes, or by preventing further ingestion of injurious agents.

  10. Endoscopic removal of throat-packing gauze swallowed during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Goto, Takahisa; Matsui, Yoshiro; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Throat packing is commonly placed in the pharynx before starting oral and maxillofacial surgery under general anesthesia to protect the airway from aspiration of blood and surgical debris. Complications such as airway obstruction may arise if any of the throat packing is retained after extubation, and less commonly, swallowing of the throat packing has been reported. We report endoscopic removal of throat packing gauze swallowed during general anesthesia.

  11. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Warburton, D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Extremely high concentrations of cadmium (3.5 ug/g dry wgt.) and elevated concentrations of chromium (>10 ug/g dry wgt.) and mercury (1.6 ug/g dry wgt.) were reported in waterbird tissues at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota in 1994. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied during 1998-2001 at three drainages into the Refuge, two pools on the Refuge, and at a nearby reference location to document whether high levels of contaminants were still present, and if so to quantify the source and severity of the contamination. Trace elements were measured in tree swallow eggs, livers, and diet. Reproductive success and bioindicator responses were monitored. In 2000, water was drawn down on Agassiz Pool, one of the main pools on the Refuge. This presented an opportunity to evaluate the response of trace element concentrations in the diet and tissues of tree swallows after reflooding. High concentrations of trace elements were not detected in swallow tissues, nor were there differences among locations. Less than 20% of swallow samples had detectable concentrations of cadmium or chromium. Mercury concentrations were low and averaged <0.25 ug/g dry wgt. in swallow tissues. Trace elements, including mercury, did not increase in tree swallows following the 2000 drawdown at Agassiz Pool. Hatching success and survival of nestlings to 12 days-of-age for tree swallows on the Refuge were similar to the national average and consistent with background trace element concentrations. Bioindicator measurements were within the normal ranges as well.

  12. Learning about the dynamic swallowing process using an interactive multimedia program.

    PubMed

    Scholten, I; Russell, A

    2000-01-01

    The management of dysphagia is the largest recognized subspecialty in the field of speech-language pathology. Practicing speech-language pathologists require a comprehensive theoretical and functional knowledge base to underpin the safe and effective management of people with dysphagia. Students need to develop an understanding of the normal integrated swallow and how it can be affected to appreciate the assessment or treatment of dysphagia. Although students are well motivated to learn this material, assimilating knowledge of the dynamic nature of the swallow has typically been problematic because of its complex character. The limitations of currently available teaching resources have been addressed by the production of an interactive multimedia program that includes integrated presentation of text, graphics, voice-overs, and video and animation sequences to highlight various aspects of the swallowing process. Students can selectively manipulate parts of this process to understand the normal swallow and to simulate different aspects of dysfunction and the consequent effects on swallow safety and efficiency. Feedback from students, faculty, and experts has demonstrated that The Dynamic Swallow would be a valued tool in the teaching of dysphagia.

  13. Relationships Among Rheological, Sensory Texture, and Swallowing Pressure Measurements of Hydrocolloid-Thickened Fluids.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Z; Damodhar, H; Grummer, C; Mendenhall, H; Banaszynski, K; Hartel, R; Hind, J; Joyce, A; Kaufman, A; Robbins, J

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among three categories of measurements (rheological, sensory texture, and swallowing pressure) from fluids thickened to two different viscosities with 15 different hydrocolloids. Fluids at viscosities of 300 and 1500 cP (at 30 s(-1)) were targeted because these are the viscosities corresponding to the barium standards used in radiographic dysphagia diagnosis. Within the low viscosity (nectar) fluids (300 cP), the sensory properties thickness, stickiness, adhesiveness, mouth coating, and number of swallows were highly positively correlated with each other and highly positively correlated with the flow behavior index, n value (an indicator of shear-thinning behavior). Within the higher viscosity (thin honey) fluids (1500 cP), the sensory textures of adhesiveness, stickiness, mouth coating, and number of swallows correlated positively with rheological measures of n value. Swallowing pressures measured in the anterior oral cavity correlated negatively with the consistency coefficient k [shear stress/(shear rate) (n) ]. Samples that were more shear thinning (lower n values, higher k values) were generally perceived as less thick, with less adhesive properties (stickiness, adhesiveness, mouthcoating, and number of swallows). This information can be useful for selecting thickeners for people with dysphagia. A desirable thickener for many dysphagic patients would be one that allowed for a safe swallow by being viscous enough to reduce airway penetration, yet pleasant to drink, having the minimal perceived thickness and mouthcoating associated with greater shear thinning.

  14. Effects of mercury exposure on the reproductive success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    PubMed

    Brasso, Rebecka L; Cristol, Daniel A

    2008-02-01

    An experimental tree swallow population was established in the headwaters of the Shenandoah River, Virginia, USA to assess the accumulation and effects of mercury contamination on birds that eat emergent aquatic insects. One tributary, the South River, was contaminated with mercury before 1950. Reproductive success of swallows nesting within 50 m of this river was compared to that of three uncontaminated reference tributaries in 2005 and 2006. Female swallows on the contaminated stretch of river had significantly elevated blood and feather total mercury (blood: 3.56 +/- 2.41 ppm ww vs. 0.17 +/- 0.15 ppm reference; feather: 13.55 +/- 6.94 ppm vs. 2.34 +/- 0.87 ppm reference), possibly the highest ever reported for an insectivorous songbird. Insects collected by the swallows to be fed to nestlings averaged 0.97 +/- 1.11 ppm dw total mercury, significantly higher than on reference sites. Swallows in the contaminated area produced fewer fledglings than those in reference areas. The effect of mercury contamination on productivity was detectable only for young females in the contaminated area that were breeding for the first time in 2006, a segment of the population that may already have been stressed by inexperience. Tree swallows served as practical and effective biomonitors for mercury levels and effects and have great potential as proxy biomonitors for more logistically challenging birds such as loons or eagles.

  15. Voice and swallowing disorders: functional results and quality of life following supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.

    PubMed

    Portas, Juliana Godoy; Queija, Débora dos Santos; Arine, Leonora Pereira; Ferreira, Alessandra Sampaio; Dedivitis, Rogério A; Lehn, Carlos Neutzling; Barros, Ana Paula Brandão

    2009-10-01

    We conducted a prospective study of 11 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. Our goal was to evaluate their postoperative voice and swallowing function and to ascertain the impact that surgery had on patient-perceived quality of life. Postoperative assessments were made by auditory perception analyses, objective voice analyses, the Voice Handicap Index questionnaire, the Quality of Life in Swallowing Disorders questionnaire, and videofluoroscopy. Following surgery, 8 patients experienced severe dysphonia and 3 experienced moderate dysphonia. Also, 5 patients experienced mild to severe dysphagia whereas 6 patients experienced normal or near-normal swallowing function. Postoperative acoustic measurements were higher than expected, and spectrographic evaluation revealed the presence of high-grade noise without predominant concentration over the spectrum. Some association with the grade of dysphonia and self-perception of voice handicap was observed. With regard to swallowing, 5 patients (45.5%) showed a decrease in laryngeal remnant elevation and a slight or moderate degree of stasis in the oropharynx. Overall, patients reported good quality of life regarding both voice and swallowing. No relationship between the functional swallowing and the number of preserved arytenoid cartilages was observed.

  16. Thyroid Resection Improves Perception of Swallowing Function in Patients with Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, David Yü; Sippel, Rebecca; Leverson, Glen; Frydman, James; Schaefer, Sarah; Chen, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with thyroid disease frequently complain of dysphagia. To date, there have been no prospective studies evaluating swallowing function before and after thyroid surgery. We used the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) validated outcomes assessment tool to measure changes in swallowing-related quality-of-life in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Methods Patients undergoing thyroid surgery from May 2002 to December 2004 completed the SWAL-QOL questionnaire before and one year after surgery. Data were collected on demographic and clinicopathologic variables, and comparisons were made to determine the effect of surgery on patients’ perceptions of swallowing function. Results Of 146 eligible patients, 116 (79%) completed the study. The mean patient age was 49 years, and 81% were female. Sixty-four patients (55%) underwent total thyroidectomy and the remainder received thyroid lobectomy. Thirty patients (26%) had thyroid cancer. The most frequent benign thyroid conditions were multinodular goiter (28%) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (27%). Mean pre-operative SWAL-QOL scores were below 90 for nine of the eleven domains, indicating the perception of impaired swallowing and imperfect quality of life. After surgery, significant improvements were seen in eight SWAL-QOL domains. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was associated with dramatic score decreases in multiple domains. Conclusions In patients with thyroid disease, uncomplicated thyroidectomy leads to significant improvements in many aspects of patient-reported swallowing-related quality-of-life measured by the SWAL-QOL instrument. PMID:19034567

  17. Physiology of oropharyngeal swallow in the cat: a videofluoroscopic and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Kobara-Mates, M; Logemann, J A; Larson, C; Kahrilas, P J

    1995-02-01

    The majority of animal studies of deglutition have examined electrically stimulated swallows in sedated animals. This present investigation examined oropharyngeal and cervical esophageal swallow physiology in three awake normal domestic cats using concurrent electromyography (EMG) and videofluorography (VFG). Hooked wire electrodes were surgically implanted into six oropharyngeal muscles in each cat. During collection of VFG and EMG data, each cat ate barium-impregnated cat food while the fluorography tube focused on a lateral view of the oral cavity, pharynx, and cervical esophagus. A number of significant differences in the physiology of swallowing were found between the cat and human adult. The oral stage of swallow is much longer in the cat with bolus accumulation in the valleculae. Duration and components of the pharyngeal stage of swallow are much faster, and the pharyngeal stage occurs earlier in relation to bolus passage through the cricopharyngeus. In addition, the cat exhibits a marked superior constrictor bulge at the onset of the pharyngeal contractile wave and summation of the peristaltic waves in the esophagus, whereas the human adult does not. Feline swallow physiology is more similar to that of the human infant than that of human adults.

  18. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abysique, Anne; Tardivel, Catherine; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Félix, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. PMID:26192767

  19. Effect of aging on cough and swallowing reflexes: implications for preventing aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Satoru; Ebihara, Takae; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    The impairment of airway protective reflexes, i.e., swallowing and cough reflexes, is thought to be one of the major causes for aspiration pneumonia in older people. Restoration of cough and swallowing reflexes in the elderly is key to preventing aspiration pneumonia in the elderly. Although, the medical literature has asserted that cough and swallowing are controlled primarily by the brainstem, recent advances in human brain imaging has provided evidence that cortical and subcortical structures play critical roles in cough and swallowing control. Because of their nature, reflexive cough and swallowing activate both sensory and motor areas in the cortex. In both protective reflexes, the sensory component, including sensory cortex in reflexive circuits, seems to be more vulnerable to aging than the motor component, including the motor cortex. Therefore, the strategy to restore cough and swallowing reflexes should be focused on compensations of sensory components in these reflexive circuits. Remedies to enhance sensory nerve terminals and sensory cortical areas related to these reflexes might be useful to prevent aspiration pneumonia in the elderly.

  20. Swallowing disorder and inhibition of cough reflex induced by atropine sulfate in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Tadashi; Tsujimoto, Shinji; Sugimoto, Shinichi; Katsura, Yasunori; Mino, Terumasa; Seki, Takaki

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the effects of atropine sulfate (atropine) on swallowing and cough reflex were evaluated in the two experimental models in conscious dogs. To evaluate the effects of atropine on swallowing, 1 mL of marker (contrast medium) was injected into the pharynx under X-ray exposure to induce swallowing. Baclofen, used as a positive control, caused marker congestion in the upper esophagus. In our experimental model, atropine (0.02 and 0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently increased not only the number of marker congestions but also that of the swallows. In addition, atropine significantly shortened the onset of first swallowing. In the evaluation of atropine effects on electrically evoked cough reflex induced by two electrodes implanted into the trachea, atropine strongly inhibited the number of coughs at 0.01 or 0.05 mg/kg accompanied with 0.01 or 0.05 mg/kg per hour (i.v.), respectively. These findings indicate that atropine has the potential of causing aspiration pneumonia through induction of swallowing disorder and inhibition of the cough reflex.

  1. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Muller, Sara H; Pameijer, Frank A; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures. Thirty-four cine MRIs were made in 23 patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer, consisting of an MR image every 800 ms during swallowing which is compared to videofluoroscopy and quality of life questionnaires. A scoring system was applied to assess mobility on cine MR and videofluoroscopy leading to a score ranging from 9 to 17. Cine MRI of the swallowing in a midsagittal plane visualized the tumor (if located in the same plane), important anatomic structures and surgical reconstructions. Posttreatment mobility on cine MRI and videofluoroscopy was significantly diminished compared to pretreatment, mean pretreatment cine MRI score was 10.8 and posttreatment 12.4 (p = 0.017). Impaired mobility on cine MRI was significantly correlated to more swallowing problems (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.73, p = 0.04), on videofluoroscopy not. Cine MRI is a promising new technique as an adjunct to standard examinations for evaluation of swallowing in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cine MRI directly visualizes the dynamics of swallowing and allows evaluation of pre- and posttreatment differences. Abnormal findings are significantly correlated with subjective swallowing complaints of patients.

  2. Embryonic and posthatching development of the barn owl (Tyto alba): reference data for age determination.

    PubMed

    Köppl, Christine; Futterer, Eva; Nieder, Bärbel; Sistermann, Ralf; Wagner, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    The normal development of the barn owl was documented with the intent of providing a guideline for determining the maturational stage of embryos and posthatching individuals. Embryonic development up to stage 39 could be well described using the well-known developmental atlas for the chicken (Hamburger and Hamilton [1951] J. Morphol. 88:49-92). For later stages, limb size was established as a suitable indicator. In addition, measuring the egg's vascularized area through candling was found to be a useful, noninvasive method for staging very early embryos, up to stage 25. An average relationship between incubation period and embryonic stage was derived, which showed that development in the barn owl initially lags that in the chicken. For posthatching individuals, skeletal measures (tarsal and ulnar length, skull width and length) were the most reliable parameters for judging maturation, up to 1 month. For older individuals, feather development (e.g., length of primary wing feathers) provided the only cue.

  3. Trends in North American small mammals found in common barn-owl (Tyto alba) dietary studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Bunck, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Data on mammals were compiled from published studies of common barn-owl (Tyto alba) pellets. Mammalian composition of pellet samples was analyzed within geographic regions in regard to year, mean annual precipitation, latitude, and number of individual mammals in the sample. Percentages of individuals in pellets that were shrews increased whereas the percentages of rodents decreased with greater mean annual precipitation, especially in northern and western areas of North America. From the 1920s through 1980s, in northern and eastern areas the percentage of species that was shrews decreased, and in northern and central areas the percentage of individuals that was murid rats and mice increased. Human alterations of habitats during these seven decades are postulated to have caused changes in available small mammals, leading to changes in the barn-owl diet.

  4. Numerical integration of massive two-loop Mellin-Barnes integrals in Minkowskian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovyk, I.; Gluza, J.; Riemann, T.; Usovitsch, J.

    Mellin-Barnes (MB) techniques applied to integrals emerging in particle physics perturbative calculations are summarized. New versions of AMBRE packages which construct planar and nonplanar MB representations are shortly discussed. The numerical package MBnumerics.m is presented for the first time which is able to calculate with a high precision multidimensional MB integrals in Minkowskian regions. Examples are given for massive vertex integrals which include threshold effects and several scale parameters.

  5. Archeological Testing at 32BA414, Lake Ashtabula, Barnes County, North Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    and Block 1967:44). Thick glacial drift (as deep as 95 m) blankets Barnes County (Kelly and Block 1967:17). Glacial till is dense east of 32BA414 in the...many roots) North Wail Profile Sa1ndy LearN 10YR 312 SandY Loarn lOf 311 (fewrn oot*) Sandy Sit Lesrn lOY" 312 Toat Unit 6 Sand 16O1M 313 West Wall

  6. Environmental Assessment for Lake Ashtabula Winter Drawdown, Barnes County, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-31

    CEMVP-PD-C August 5, 2013 MEMORANDUM POR: District Commander SUBJECT: Environmental Assessment for Lake Ashtabula Winter Orawdown, Oarnes County...intake in Lake Ashtabula. The proposed plan would not lower the water elevation below the intake. U.S. FWS did not have other comments. The NO...Assessment for Lake Ashtabula Winter Drawdown, Barnes County, North Dakota 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  7. Swallowable fluorometric capsule for wireless triage of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Nemiroski, A; Ryou, M; Thompson, C C; Westervelt, R M

    2015-12-07

    Real-time detection of gastrointestinal bleeding remains a major challenge because there does not yet exist a minimally invasive technology that can both i) monitor for blood from an active hemorrhage and ii) uniquely distinguish it from blood left over from an inactive hemorrhage. Such a device would be an important tool for clinical triage. One promising solution, which we have proposed previously, is to inject a fluorescent dye into the blood stream and to use it as a distinctive marker of active bleeding by monitoring leakage into the gastrointestinal tract with a wireless fluorometer. This paper reports, for the first time to our knowledge, the development of a swallowable, wireless capsule with a built-in fluorometer capable of detecting fluorescein in blood, and intended for monitoring gastrointestinal bleeding in the stomach. The embedded, compact fluorometer uses pinholes to define a microliter sensing volume and to eliminate bulky optical components. The proof-of-concept capsule integrates optics, low-noise analog sensing electronics, a microcontroller, battery, and low power Zigbee radio, all into a cylindrical package measuring 11 mm × 27 mm and weighing 10 g. Bench-top experiments demonstrate wireless fluorometry with a limit-of-detection of 20 nM aqueous fluorescein. This device represents a major step towards a technology that would enable simple, rapid detection of active gastrointestinal bleeding, a capability that would save precious time and resources and, ultimately, reduce complications in patients.

  8. Swallowing performance after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, I.C.; Tiver, K.; Bull, C.; Gebski, V.; Langlands, A.O.

    1988-05-15

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to tabulate the incidence and etiologic factors of importance in the development of strictures after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus and to analyze the outcome of patients who develop such strictures. Eighty patients were treated with radiotherapy, 50 having radical and 30 having palliative treatment. Sixty-nine patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had adenocarcinoma, one had sarcoma, one had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and five had undifferentiated tumors. Forty percent developed no stricture, 30% had benign fibrotic stricture, and 28% developed malignant stricture. The etiologic factors analysed included age, pretreatment swallowing score, histology and length (size) of tumor; stage of disease, dose of radiotherapy, and use of chemotherapy. None of these factors were shown to be of etiologic importance. The survival of patients who developed benign strictures was found to be significantly longer (1-year survival 88%) than those who developed no stricture (50%) or malignant stricture (19%). Using a success score for palliation of dysphagia, it was found that the majority of patients (71%) who developed a benign stricture had a moderately successful outcome--they were able to tolerate a full or soft diet and required dilatation with a median duration between dilatations of 5 months. Patients who developed a malignant stricture were palliated poorly by dilatation alone, and most required esophageal intubation.

  9. Odor characterization from barns and slurry treatment facilities at a commercial swine facility in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won; Cho, Sung-Back; Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, emission characteristics of major odorants in pig confinement facilities were investigated through comparative analysis between odorant composition and odor intensity. Odorant samples in ambient air were collected from five different paired sampling sites: (1) in- and outside of windowless pig barn, (2) in- and outside of open pig barn, (3) before/after slurry treatment (via liquid fertilization), (4) before/after composting, and (5) two reference background sites on a pig confinement facility. A total of 47 compounds consisting of key offensive odorants (such as reduced sulfur and volatile organic compounds) were measured from each selected site. When the results are compared in terms of odor intensity, a list of odorants (sulfur compounds, volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles) were generally seen at enhanced levels on most sites. In two types of pig barn facilities (windowless ('W') and open ('O')), butyric and valeric acid were the predominant species. The removal efficiency of odorants was quite different between the two slurry treatment approaches of composting and liquid fertilization. Although the efficiencies of odor removal in the former were not sufficient, that of the latter was fairly significant in terms of odor intensity. However, some odorants like hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, p-cresol, and butyric acid were still retained above the odor threshold level. Accordingly, odorant emissions from animal housing facilities can be characterized most effectively by key odorants such as volatile fatty acids and reduced sulfur species.

  10. Evolutionary conservation of Kv3.1 in the barn owl Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Lars; Schlüter, Tina; Wagner, Hermann; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2013-01-01

    For prey capture in the dark, the barn owl Tyto alba has evolved into an auditory specialist with an exquisite capability of sound localization. Adaptations include asymmetrical ears, enlarged auditory processing centers, the utilization of minute interaural time differences, and phase locking along the entire hearing range up to 10 kHz. Adaptations on the molecular level have not yet been investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that divergence in the amino acid sequence of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 contributes to the accuracy and high firing rates of auditory neurons in the barn owl. We therefore cloned both splice variants of Kcnc1, the gene encoding Kv3.1. Both splice variants, Kcnc1a and Kcnc1b, encode amino acids identical to those of the chicken, an auditory generalist. Expression analyses confirmed neural-restricted expression of the channel. In summary, our data reveal strong evolutionary conservation of Kcnc1 in the barn owl and point to other genes involved in auditory specializations of this animal. The data also demonstrate the feasibility to address neuroethological questions in organisms with no reference genome by molecular approaches. This will open new avenues for neuroethologists working in these organisms.

  11. Is a new version of philosophical pragmatism necessary? A reply to Barnes-Holmes

    PubMed Central

    Leigland, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Barnes-Holmes (2000) discussed certain issues regarding philosophy, pragmatism, and behavior analysis, and offered a “behavioral pragmatism” based on or derived from behavior-analytic perspectives. In a comparison of certain philosophical views, Quine's concept of observation sentences was employed for representing pragmatism, but this concept is not sufficiently representative of the literature of philosophical pragmatism to warrant the broad conclusions drawn by Barnes-Holmes. Further, although the extensive and diverse literature of philosophical pragmatism has been shown by a number of writers to have various themes and perspectives in common with Skinner's radical behaviorism, it is unnecessary to extract a limited, generic version of pragmatism because (a) the latter cannot match the range and depth of the various extant versions and (b) the problems raised by Barnes-Holmes in justification for the new version yield readily to the current versions in philosophy. A set of philosophical views may provide additional verbal support for a given system of science, and the science of behavior analysis may eventually contribute to philosophical discourse. The latter, however, will not be achieved by proposing new versions of old philosophy, but rather by approaching established philosophical issues in new ways. PMID:22478409

  12. Properties of low-frequency head-related transfer functions in the barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Laura; von Campenhausen, Mark; Wagner, Hermann

    2010-09-01

    The barn owl (Tyto alba) possesses several specializations regarding auditory processing. The most conspicuous features are the directionally sensitive facial ruff and the asymmetrically arranged ears. The frequency-specific influence of these features on sound has consequences for sound localization that might differ between low and high frequencies. Whereas the high-frequency range (>3 kHz) is well investigated, less is known about the characteristics of head-related transfer functions for frequencies below 3 kHz. In the present study, we compared 1/3 octaveband-filtered transfer functions of barn owls with center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 9 kHz. The range of interaural time differences was 600 micros at frequencies above 4 kHz, decreased to 505 micros at 3 kHz and increased again to about 615 micros at lower frequencies. The ranges for very low (0.5-1 kHz) and high frequencies (5-9 kHz) were not statistically different. Interaural level differences and monaural gains increased monotonically with increasing frequency. No systematic influence of the body temperature on the measured localization cues was observed. These data have implications for the mechanism underlying sound localization and we suggest that the barn owl's ears work as pressure receivers both in the high- and low-frequency ranges.

  13. Visual-auditory integration for visual search: a behavioral study in barn owls.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Yael; Kra, Yonatan; Yarin, Inna; Wagner, Hermann; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Barn owls are nocturnal predators that rely on both vision and hearing for survival. The optic tectum of barn owls, a midbrain structure involved in selective attention, has been used as a model for studying visual-auditory integration at the neuronal level. However, behavioral data on visual-auditory integration in barn owls are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine if the integration of visual and auditory signals contributes to the process of guiding attention toward salient stimuli. We attached miniature wireless video cameras on barn owls' heads (OwlCam) to track their target of gaze. We first provide evidence that the area centralis (a retinal area with a maximal density of photoreceptors) is used as a functional fovea in barn owls. Thus, by mapping the projection of the area centralis on the OwlCam's video frame, it is possible to extract the target of gaze. For the experiment, owls were positioned on a high perch and four food items were scattered in a large arena on the floor. In addition, a hidden loudspeaker was positioned in the arena. The positions of the food items and speaker were changed every session. Video sequences from the OwlCam were saved for offline analysis while the owls spontaneously scanned the room and the food items with abrupt gaze shifts (head saccades). From time to time during the experiment, a brief sound was emitted from the speaker. The fixation points immediately following the sounds were extracted and the distances between the gaze position and the nearest items and loudspeaker were measured. The head saccades were rarely toward the location of the sound source but to salient visual features in the room, such as the door knob or the food items. However, among the food items, the one closest to the loudspeaker had the highest probability of attracting a gaze shift. This result supports the notion that auditory signals are integrated with visual information for the selection of the next visual search target.

  14. Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

  15. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  16. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  17. Effects of coal fly ash on tree swallow reproduction in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Walls, Suzanne J; Meyer, Carolyn B; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Schlekat, Tamar H

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fly ash was released in unprecedented amounts (4.1 × 10(6) m(3) ) into the Emory River from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. Tree swallows were exposed to ash-related constituents at the ash release via their diet of emergent aquatic insects, whose larval forms can accumulate constituents from submerged river sediments. Reproduction of tree swallow colonies was assessed over a 2-year period by evaluating whether 1) ash constituent concentrations were elevated in egg, eggshell, and nestling tissues at colonies near ash-impacted river reaches compared to reference colonies, 2) production of fledglings per nesting female was significantly lower in ash-impacted colonies versus reference colonies, and 3) ash constituent concentrations or diet concentrations were correlated with nest productivity measures (clutch size, hatching success, and nestling survival, and fledglings produced per nest). Of the 26 ash constituents evaluated, 4 (Se, Sr, Cu, and Hg) were significantly elevated in tissues potentially from the ash, and 3 (Se, Sr, and Cu) in tissues or in swallow diet items were weakly correlated to at least one nest-productivity measure or egg weight. Tree swallow hatching success was significantly reduced by 12%, but fledgling production per nest was unaffected due to larger clutch sizes in the impacted than reference colonies. Bioconcentration from the ash to insects in the diet to tree swallow eggs appears to be low. Overall, adverse impacts of the ash on tree swallow reproduction were not observed, but monitoring is continuing to further ensure Se from the residual ash does not adversely affect tree swallow reproduction over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:56-66. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. [Cervicogenic dysphagia: swallowing difficulties caused by functional and organic disorders of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine disorders which can cause swallowing difficulties (cervicogenic dysphagia; CD) are: chronic multisegmental/MS dysfunction (dysfunction=functional blockade) of the facet joints, changes in physiological curvature of the cervical spine, degenerative changes (anterior osteophytes, anterior disc herniation, osteochondrosis, osteoarthritis), inflammatory rheumatic diseases, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, injuries, conditions after anterior cervical spine surgery, congenital malformations and tumors. According to our clinical observations, degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints and chronic MS dysfunction of the cervical spine facet joints are disorders which can cause swallowing difficulties. However, these disorders have not been recognized enough as the causes of dysphagia and they are not even mentioned in differential diagnosis. Because of the close anatomical relationship of cervical spine with the pharynx and cervical part of esophagus, the consequences of the degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints and chronic MS dysfunction of the cervical spine facet joints such as the changes in the physiological curvature of the cervical spine, changes in elasticity and contractility in the neck muscles and decreased mobility of the cervical spine, adversely affect the dimensions of the pharynx and cervical part of esophagus, that is, swallowing capacity which can result in dysphagia. Degenerative changes in the cervical discs and facet joints are common additional cause of dysphagia in elderly people with disorders of the central control of swallowing (stroke, Parkinson's disease, senile dementia etc). The most important therapeutic options in patients with CD are: medicamentous therapy, physical therapy, manual therapy, kinesiotherapy and surgical treatment. The aim of the conservative therapy in patients with CD is to improve the swallowing capacity (for example, soft tissue techniques, stretching of the

  19. The evaluation of swallowing in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia and oropharyngeal dysphagia: A comparison study of videofluoroscopic and sonar doppler

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmassih, Edna Márcia da Silva; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Santos, Rosane Sampaio

    2013-01-01

    Sumarry Introduction: Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a degenerative disease that can cause loss of coordination of voluntary muscle movement such as that required for swallowing. Aims: The purposes of this cross-sectional and comparative case study were: (1) to assess the severity of dysphagia through a videofluoroscopic swallow study, and (2) to compare differences in frequency, intensity, and duration of sound waves produced during swallowing in normal and SCA patients by using sonar Doppler. Method: During swallow evaluation using videofluoroscopy, a sonar Doppler transducer was placed on the right side of the neck, at the lateral edge of the trachea, just below the cricoid cartilage to capture the sounds of swallowing in 30 SCA patients and 30 controls. Result: The prevalence in the dynamic evaluation of swallowing videofluoroscopy was by changes in the oral phase of swallowing. The analysis of variance of the averages found in each variable - frequency, intensity and duration of swallowing - shows there was a significant correlation when compared to the healthy individual curve. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the prevalence of oral dysphagia observed in dynamic videofluoroscopic swallow evaluation. In patients with SCA, the mean initial frequency (IF), initial intensity (II), and final intensity (FI) were higher and the time (T) and peak frequency (PF) were lower, demonstrating a pattern of cricopharyngeal opening very close to that found in normal populations. PMID:26038680

  20. Measuring Competency Development in Objective Evaluation of Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Studies.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Natrah Ahmad; Miles, Anna; Allen, Jacqui

    2017-01-11

    Clinical interpretation of videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) has often been criticized for its poor objectivity and inter-rater agreement. In order to address this, objective VFSS measures have been developed, reported and demonstrated to be valid and reliable. However, widespread clinical implementation is lacking. Reasons cited include lack of training and excessive time taken to perform measures. This study investigated competency development in selected standardized objective VFSS measures among speech-language pathologists (SLPs) naive to quantitative measurement. Six novice (no VFSS experience) and four experienced (2-10 years of VFSS experience) SLPs participated in 4 h of training in how to perform selected objective VFSS measures including pharyngeal constriction ratio, maximum pharyngoesophageal opening, pharyngoesophageal opening duration, airway closure duration and total pharyngeal transit time. Each week for eight weeks, participants were asked to independently measure and report three VFSS of patients affected by stroke. By week 8, all SLPs, irrespective of prior experience level, were able to achieve 80% accuracy in measures in comparison to the consensus of three expert clinicians. SLPs' mean time for completion reduced from 50 min in week 1-25 min in week 8. Inter-rater agreement for measures improved across the eight-week period (range ICC = -31.05 to .60 in week 1 to ICC = .71 to .98 in week 8). There was high agreement in location of impairment and consequent management recommendations by week 8. In conclusion, SLPs can reliably learn and incorporate objective VFSS measures within a reasonable time frame. Level of experience has limited influence on the learning curve.

  1. Use of Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study in Patients with Aspiration Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seunglee; Lee, Jin-Youn; Jung, Heeyoune; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Seung Ah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of dysphagic elderly Korean patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia as well as to examine the necessity of performing a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia in such patients. Method The medical records of dysphagic elderly Korean subjects diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics as well as for VFSS findings. Results In total, medical records of 105 elderly patients (81 men and 24 women) were reviewed in this study. Of the 105 patients, 82.9% (n=87) were admitted via the emergency department, and 41.0% (n=43) were confined to a bed. Eighty percent (n=84) of the 105 patients were diagnosed with brain disorders, and 68.6% (n=72) involved more than one systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus, cancers, chronic cardiopulmonary disorders, chronic renal disorders, and chronic liver disorders. Only 66.7% (n=70) of the 105 patients underwent VFSS, all of which showed abnormal findings during the oral or pharyngeal phase, or both. Conclusion In this study, among 105 dysphagic elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia, only 66.7% (n=70) underwent VFSS in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia. As observed in this study, the evaluation of dysphagia is essential in order to consider elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia, particularly in patients with poor functional status, brain disorders, or more than one systemic disease. A greater awareness of dysphagia in the elderly, as well as the diagnostic procedures thereof, particularly VFSS, is needed among medical professionals in Korea. PMID:23342310

  2. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Dália; Reis, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes. Methods The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST). For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test. Results The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age, education, the Geriatric Depression Scale score, 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, and diagnosed conditions (such as neurological disorder, dementia, and cardiorespiratory problems) as explaining variables. Conclusion Results showed a

  3. MBS measurement tool for swallow impairment--MBSImp: establishing a standard.

    PubMed

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B; Michel, Yvonne; Castell, Donald O; Schleicher, Melanie; Sandidge, John; Maxwell, Rebekah; Blair, Julie

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliability, content, construct, and external validity of a new modified barium swallowing study (MBSS) tool (MBSImp) that is used to quantify swallowing impairment. Multiple regression, confirmatory factor, and correlation analyses were used to analyze 300 in- and outpatients with heterogeneous medical and surgical diagnoses who were sequentially referred for MBS exams at a university medical center and private tertiary care community hospital. Main outcome measures were the MBSImp and index scores of aspiration, health status, and quality of life. Inter- and intrarater concordance were 80% or greater for blinded scoring of MBSSs. Regression analysis revealed contributions of eight of nine swallow types to impressions of overall swallowing impairment (p < or = 0.05). Factor analysis revealed 13 significant components (loadings >/= 0.5) that formed two impairment groupings (oral and pharyngeal). Significant correlations were found between Oral and Pharyngeal Impairment scores and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores, and indexes of intake status, nutrition, health status, and quality of life. The MBSImp demonstrated clinical practicality, favorable inter- and intrarater reliability following standardized training, content, and external validity. This study reflects potential for establishment of a new standard for quantification and comparison of oropharyngeal swallowing impairment across patient diagnoses as measured on MBSS.

  4. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Reliability for Identification of a Select Set of Temporal and Physiologic Features of Infant Swallows.

    PubMed

    Gosa, Memorie M; Suiter, Debra M; Kahane, Joel C

    2015-06-01

    There is little reported evidence regarding the reliability of temporal and physiologic features of infant swallowing from videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine a reliable set of temporal and physiologic features from infant swallowing that can be measured from analysis of VFSS. Temporal and physiologic features for testing were determined from review of previously reported features of infant VFSS in the literature. Two novel analysts underwent three training sessions to learn and practice visual recognition of the proposed features. The two analysts then assessed 25 swallows from 10 total subjects' VFSS. To establish inter- and intra-rater reliability, calculation of Pearson's r was used for features that met criteria for parametric analysis and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for the non-continuous features. Percent agreement was used to report on the reliability of the dichotomous features due to insufficient variability for Spearman's rho analyses. Fifteen of the 16 tested features were found to have acceptable inter- and intra-rater reliability measures, with each analyst achieving a correlation of 0.75 or higher. This project identifies 15 variables that can be reliably measured from infant VFSS. This information can be used to assist with determination of normal versus abnormal swallow features and in developing and testing therapeutic strategies for infants with dysphagia.

  6. MBS Measurement Tool for Swallow Impairment—MBSImp: Establishing a Standard

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Brodsky, Martin B.; Michel, Yvonne; Castell, Donald O.; Schleicher, Melanie; Sandidge, John; Maxwell, Rebekah; Blair, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliability, content, construct, and external validity of a new modified barium swallowing study (MBSS) tool (MBSImp) that is used to quantify swallowing impairment. Multiple regression, confirmatory factor, and correlation analyses were used to analyze 300 in- and outpatients with heterogeneous medical and surgical diagnoses who were sequentially referred for MBS exams at a university medical center and private tertiary care community hospital. Main outcome measures were the MBSImp and index scores of aspiration, health status, and quality of life. Inter- and intrarater concordance were 80% or greater for blinded scoring of MBSSs. Regression analysis revealed contributions of eight of nine swallow types to impressions of overall swallowing impairment (p ≤ 0.05). Factor analysis revealed 13 significant components (loadings ≥ 0.5) that formed two impairment groupings (oral and pharyngeal). Significant correlations were found between Oral and Pharyngeal Impairment scores and Penetration-Aspiration Scale scores, and indexes of intake status, nutrition, health status, and quality of life. The MBSImp demonstrated clinical practicality, favorable inter- and intrarater reliability following standardized training, content, and external validity. This study reflects potential for establishment of a new standard for quantification and comparison of oropharyngeal swallowing impairment across patient diagnoses as measured on MBSS. PMID:18855050

  7. Swallowing rehabilitation of dysphagic tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation in intensive care units: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Katia Alonso; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Rosseti, Heloísa Baccaro; Lorenzon, Paula; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of the early implementation of a swallowing rehabilitation program in tracheostomized patients under mechanical ventilation with dysphagia. Methods This prospective study was conducted in the intensive care units of a university hospital. We included hemodynamically stable patients under mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours following 48 hours of tracheostomy and with an appropriate level of consciousness. The exclusion criteria were previous surgery in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and/or esophagus, the presence of degenerative diseases or a past history of oropharyngeal dysphagia. All patients were submitted to a swallowing rehabilitation program. An oropharyngeal structural score, a swallowing functional score and an otorhinolaryngological structural and functional score were determined before and after swallowing therapy. Results We included 14 patients. The mean duration of the rehabilitation program was 12.4 ± 9.4 days, with 5.0 ± 5.2 days under mechanical ventilation. Eleven patients could receive oral feeding while still in the intensive care unit after 4 (2 - 13) days of therapy. All scores significantly improved after therapy. Conclusion In this small group of patients, we demonstrated that the early implementation of a swallowing rehabilitation program is feasible even in patients under mechanical ventilation. PMID:25909315

  8. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Roger L; Trejo, Bonnie S; Bauer, Marissa L; Crayon, John J

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 microg/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 microg/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg.

  9. Multisensor Classification System for Triggering FES in Order to Support Voluntary Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Riebold, Benjamin; Nahrstaedt, Holger; Schultheiss, Corinna; Seidl, Rainer O.; Schauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In dysphagia the ability of elevating the larynx and hyoid is usually impaired. Electromyography (EMG) and Bioimpedance (BI) measurements at the neck can be used to trigger functional electrical stimulation (FES) of swallowing related muscles. Nahrstaedt et al.1 introduced an algorithm to trigger the stimulation in phase with the voluntary swallowing to improve the airway closure and elevation speed of the larynx and hyoid. However, due to non-swallow related movements like speaking, chewing or head turning, stimulations might be unintentionally triggered. So far a switch was used to enable the BI/EMG-triggering of FES when the subject was ready to swallow, which is inconvenient for practical use. In this contribution, a range image camera system is introduced to obtain data of head, mouth, and jaw movements. This data is used to apply a second classification step to reduce the number of false stimulations. In experiments with healthy subjects, the amount of potential false stimulations could be reduced by 47% while 83% of swallowing intentions would have been correctely supported by FES. PMID:28078072

  10. Multifunctional laryngeal premotor neurons: their activities during breathing, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Ken; Ono, Kenichi; Umezaki, Toshiro

    2007-05-09

    To examine whether motor commands of two or more distinct laryngeal motor patterns converge onto a common premotor network, we conducted dual recordings from the laryngeal adductor motoneuron and its premotor neuron within the brainstem respiratory circuitry during fictive breathing, coughing, sneezing, and swallowing in decerebrate paralyzed cats. Expiratory neurons with an augmenting firing pattern (EAUG), whose action potentials evoked monosynaptic IPSPs in the adductor motoneurons, sharply fired during the expulsive phases of fictive coughing and sneezing, during which the adductor motoneurons transiently repolarized. In contrast, these premotor neurons were silent during the swallow-related hyperpolarization in adductor motoneurons. These results show that one class of medullary respiratory neuron, EAUG, is multifunctional and shared among the central pattern generators (CPGs) for breathing, coughing, and sneezing. In addition, although the CPGs underlying these three behaviors and the swallowing CPG do overlap, EAUG neurons are not part of the swallowing CPG and, in contrast to the other three behaviors, are not a source of inhibitory input to adductor motoneurons during swallowing.

  11. Automatic Detection of Swallowing Events by Acoustical Means for Applications of Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward S.; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of etiology of obesity and overweight is incomplete due to lack of objective and accurate methods for Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior (MIB) in the free living population. Our research has shown that frequency of swallowing may serve as a predictor for detecting food intake, differentiating liquids and solids, and estimating ingested mass. This paper proposes and compares two methods of acoustical swallowing detection from sounds contaminated by motion artifacts, speech and external noise. Methods based on mel-scale Fourier spectrum, wavelet packets, and support vector machines are studied considering the effects of epoch size, level of decomposition and lagging on classification accuracy. The methodology was tested on a large dataset (64.5 hours with a total of 9,966 swallows) collected from 20 human subjects with various degrees of adiposity. Average weighted epoch recognition accuracy for intra-visit individual models was 96.8% which resulted in 84.7% average weighted accuracy in detection of swallowing events. These results suggest high efficiency of the proposed methodology in separation of swallowing sounds from artifacts that originate from respiration, intrinsic speech, head movements, food ingestion, and ambient noise. The recognition accuracy was not related to body mass index, suggesting that the methodology is suitable for obese individuals. PMID:19789095

  12. Swallowing appliance: intraoral reshaping prosthesis for dysphagia secondary to oral floor cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Yuji; Ota, Yoshihide; Sakaizumi, Kazuo; Simoda, Naoshi; Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Toyokura, Minoru; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2014-11-01

    Patients with oral floor cancer often have difficulty swallowing solid foods. The aim of this study was to improve the propulsion of solid foods using a swallowing appliance (SW-A). Subjects comprised three patients with oral floor cancer who had undergone curative surgery. Each participant was asked to swallow gelatin under three conditions: without an SW-A, with a maxillary SW-A, and with both maxillary and mandibular SW-As. This procedure was repeated thrice with three volumes of gelatin (2.5, 5, and 7.5 ml), with videofluorographic swallowing study. Swallowing was assessed on the basis of whether the participant could propel the gelatin from the oral cavity to the pharynx. No subject could propel 2.5 ml of gelatin to the pharynx without an SW-A or with only a maxillary SW-A in place. When both SW-As were used, all subjects could propel all three volumes of gelatin. The mandibular SW-A complemented the compensatory effects of the maxillary SW-A.

  13. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  14. Sensory and instrumental analysis for slipperiness and compliance of food during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Seo, H-S; Hwang, I K; Han, T R; Kim, I S

    2007-11-01

    In spite of its importance, there have been few attempts to evaluate the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing. In the current study, the slipperiness, the degree of slide for the food bolus through the mucosal surface of the oro-pharynx, and the compliance, how easily the shape of a food bolus can be transformed for automatic and comfortable swallowing, were derived among several sensory attributes related to the swallowing. Therefore, the study aims were twofold: (1) to develop the methods of sensory and instrumental analyses for determining the slipperiness and compliance of the food bolus during swallowing and (2) to examine the appropriateness of the newly designed devices by correlating the data between the sensory and instrumental analyses. Six commercial food products were evaluated by 10 trained panelists for each attribute. The devices for assessing each attribute were developed in consideration of the oro-pharyngeal movements. The sensory and instrumental analyses showed high correlation and regression coefficients as well as intensity differences of the 6 samples for each attribute. In conclusion, the slipperiness and the compliance were suitable for acquiring a better understanding of the sensory attributes of the food bolus during swallowing, and the newly developed devices showed a high potential for determining those attributes.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from swine barns of various production stages in suburban Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhu, Z.; Shang, B.; Kang, G.; Zhu, H.; Xin, H.

    Gaseous emissions from animal feeding operations may be influenced by production stage, genetics, dietary type and nutritional plan, housing type, manure handling schemes, and climatic conditions. This study was conducted to quantify annual emission rates (ERs) of greenhouse gases (GHGs)—methane (CH 4), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrous oxide (N 2O) from naturally ventilated swine gestation (GE), farrowing (FA), nursery (NU) and growing-finishing (GF) barns under typical operational conditions in suburban Beijing, China. Variables relative to the GHG ERs were measured every two months for a one-year period, with each measurement episode lasting 72 h. Air exchange rate of the naturally ventilated barns was estimated using CO 2 balance method. The annual mean daily GHG ERs (mean ± SD), expressed in gd-1AU-1(AU=animal unit=500 live body weight), for the GE, FA, NU, and GF barns were, respectively, 5920±440,7490±110,29670±1090 and 16730±1060 for CO 2; 9.6±1.9,9.6±3.6,58.4±21.8 and 32.1±11.7 for CH 4; and 0.75±0.56,0.54±0.15,1.29±0.37 and 0.86±0.75 for N 2O. The GHG ER values from the current study paralleled those reported in the literature in some cases but differed considerably in other cases. This outcome of similarity and disparity confirms the need to exercise caution when applying literature data to estimation of GHG emissions under various production systems. Results of this study are expected to contribute to the global GHG inventory.

  16. In-flight corrections in free-flying barn owls (Tyto alba) during sound localization tasks.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Laura; Plachta, Dennis T T; Singheiser, Martin; Brill, Sandra; Wagner, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    Barn owls localize a stationary auditory target with high accuracy. They might also be able to hit a target that is intermittently moving while the owl is approaching. If so, there should be a critical delay before strike initiation, up to which the owl can adapt its flight path to a new stimulus position. In this study, this critical stimulus delay was determined in a three-dimensional free-flight paradigm. Barn owls localized a pulsed broadband noise while sitting on a perch in total darkness. This initial signal stopped with the owl's take-off and an in-flight stimulus (target sound), lasting 200 ms, was introduced at variable time delays (300-1200 ms) during the approximate flight time of 1300 ms. The owls responded to the in-flight signal with a corrective head and body turn. The percentage of trials in which correction turns occurred (40-80%) depended upon the individual bird, but was independent of the stimulus delay within a range of 800 ms after take-off. Correction turns strongly decreased at delays >or=800 ms. The landing precision of the owls, defined as their distance to the in-flight speaker, did not decrease with increasing stimulus delay, but decreased if the owl failed to perform a correction turn towards that speaker. Landing precision was higher for a short (50 cm) than for a large (100 cm) distance between the initial and the new target. Thus, the ability of barn owls to adapt their flight path to a new sound target depends on the in-flight stimulus delay, as well as on the distance between initial and novel targets.

  17. The Binaural Interaction Component in Barn Owl (Tyto alba) Presents few Differences to Mammalian Data.

    PubMed

    Palanca-Castan, Nicolas; Laumen, Geneviève; Reed, Darrin; Köppl, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an evoked potential that reflects the responses to sound by brainstem neural centers. The binaural interaction component (BIC) is obtained by subtracting the sum of the monaural ABR responses from the binaural response. Its latency and amplitude change in response to variations in binaural cues. The BIC is thus thought to reflect the activity of binaural nuclei and is used to non-invasively test binaural processing. However, any conclusions are limited by a lack of knowledge of the relevant processes at the level of individual neurons. The aim of this study was to characterize the ABR and BIC in the barn owl, an animal where the ITD-processing neural circuits are known in great detail. We recorded ABR responses to chirps and to 1 and 4 kHz tones from anesthetized barn owls. General characteristics of the barn owl ABR were similar to those observed in other bird species. The most prominent peak of the BIC was associated with nucleus laminaris and is thus likely to reflect the known processes of ITD computation in this nucleus. However, the properties of the BIC were very similar to previously published mammalian data and did not reveal any specific diagnostic features. For example, the polarity of the BIC was negative, which indicates a smaller response to binaural stimulation than predicted by the sum of monaural responses. This is contrary to previous predictions for an excitatory-excitatory system such as nucleus laminaris. Similarly, the change in BIC latency with varying ITD was not distinguishable from mammalian data. Contrary to previous predictions, this behavior appears unrelated to the known underlying neural delay-line circuitry. In conclusion, the generation of the BIC is currently inadequately understood and common assumptions about the BIC need to be reconsidered when interpreting such measurements.

  18. Influence of bill and foot morphology on the ectoparasites of barn owls.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Villa, Scott M; Boves, Than J; Brewer, Dallas; Belthoff, James R

    2012-04-01

    Preening is the principle behavioral defense used by birds to combat ectoparasites. Most birds have a small overhang at the tip of their bills that is used to shear through the tough cuticle of ectoparasitic arthropods, making preening much more efficient. Birds may also scratch with their feet to defend against ectoparasites. This is particularly important for removing ectoparasites on the head, which birds cannot preen. Scratching may be enhanced by the comb-like serrations that are found on the claws of birds in many avian families. We examined the prevalence and intensity of ectoparasites of barn owls (Tyto alba pratincola) in southern Idaho in relation to bill hook length and morphological characteristics of the pectinate claw. The barn owls in our study were infested with 3 species of lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera): Colpocephalum turbinatum , Kurodaia subpachygaster, and Strigiphilus aitkeni . Bill hook length was associated with the prevalence of these lice. Owls with longer hooks were more likely to be infested with lice. Conventional wisdom suggests that the bill morphology of raptors has been shaped by selection for efficient foraging; our data suggest that hook morphology may also play a role in ectoparasite defense. The number of teeth on the pectinate claw was also associated with the prevalence of lice. Owls that had claws with more teeth were less likely to be infested with lice, which suggests that larger pectinate claws may offer relatively more protection against ectoparasitic lice. Experiments that manipulate the bill hook and pectinate claw are needed to confirm whether these host characters are involved in ectoparasite defense. Finally, we recovered mammalian ectoparasites from 4 barn owls. We recovered species of mammalian lice (Phthiraptera:Anoplura) and fleas (Siphonaptera) that are commonly found on microtine rodents. The owls probably acquired these parasites from recently eaten prey. This represents 1 of the few documented cases of

  19. Effect of scraping frequency in a freestall barn on volatile nitrogen loss from dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V R; Satter, L D

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of scraping frequency (2x vs. 6x daily) on N volatilization from manure on the floor of a dairy free-stall barn. Three trials (crossover design) were conducted in the summers of 2001 and 2002, and in the winter of 2003. Nitrogen volatilization was estimated from the change in the N:P ratio in excreta at the time of excretion to the time when manure was scraped from the barn. Total N loss was considered a maximum estimate of NH3-N loss, because small amounts of nonammonia N may be volatilized. Nitrogen was determined after manure subsamples were lyophilized; P content was measured by direct current emission spectroscopy of ashed subsamples of manure. Lactating dairy cows were fed high-protein (18.5 to 19.3% crude protein), alfalfa-based diets. Average milk yield was 31.9 (SD = 7.4) kg/d. Scraping frequency had no effect on N loss in summer 2001. An average of 41% of excreted N, or 238 +/- 19.0 g of N/d per cow, was volatilized. For the trial in summer 2002, nitrogen volatilization was reduced from 50% of the excreted N with 2x to 46.7% with 6x, equivalent to 265 and 248 g of N lost/d per cow, respectively. Scraping had no effect on N volatilization during the winter trial. An average of 17.7% of excreted N was volatilized during the winter, equivalent to 109 +/- 11.0 g of N lost/d per cow. Scraping frequency of manure had little or no effect on N loss from manure in a freestall barn. Nitrogen loss during the winter was less than half of the loss during the summer.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination and minisatellite DNA mutation rates of tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, M; Dunn, P O; McCarty, J; Secord, A; Whittingham, L A

    2001-10-01

    The evidence that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to mutations is equivocal and controversial. Using multilocus DNA fingerprinting, we compared the mutation rate of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting at sites with high and low levels of contamination with PCBs. The upper Hudson River, USA, is highly contaminated with PCBs as a result of releases from two capacitor manufacturing plants in Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, New York, USA. Tree swallows nesting nearby have some of the highest known concentrations of PCBs in their tissues of any contemporary bird population (up to 114,000 ng PCB/g tissue). We found no difference in mutation rates between sites in New York with high PCB contamination and reference sites in Wisconsin, USA, and Ontario and Alberta, Canada, with known or presumably low levels of contamination. Thus, the mechanism behind altered reproductive behavior of tree swallows along the upper Hudson River is most likely physiological impairment, such as endocrine disruption, rather than mutation.

  1. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  2. Cricothyroid approximation for voice and swallowing rehabilitation of high vagal paralysis secondary to skull base neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Alok; Sikka, Kapil; Verma, Rohit; Preetam, C

    2011-11-01

    This study documents the speech and swallowing outcomes of isolated ipsilateral cricothyroid approximation (aka tensioning thyroplasty; Type IV thyroplasty) for the treatment of high vagal paralysis (combined superior laryngeal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis). This is a pilot study of five cases with high vagal paralysis consequent to skull base neoplasms. Unilateral cricothyroid tensioning sutures were used. In all cases, vocal fold tensioning and vertical realignment of lax vocal folds were achieved. A partial, but acceptable medialization of vocal cord position was achieved. In all cases, aspiration was minimized and normal swallow function was restored by 6 weeks. The voice outcome was excellent in four cases and acceptable in one. Cricothyroid approximation restores vocal fold tension; in addition, it restores vertical vocal fold position and partially restores horizontal vocal fold position. Good voice and swallowing outcomes have been achieved. The procedure is quick, safe, and convenient when combined with a skull-base excision procedure. Further evaluation is merited.

  3. Climate change has affected the breeding date of tree swallows throughout North America

    PubMed

    Dunn; Winkler

    1999-12-22

    Increasing evidence suggests that climate change has affected the breeding and distribution of wildlife. If such changes are due to global warming, then we should expect to see large-scale effects. To explore for such effects on avian reproduction, we examined 3450 nest records of tree swallows from across North America. The egg-laying date in tree swallows advanced by up to nine days during 1959-1991. This advance in phenology was associated with increasing surface air temperatures at the time of breeding. Our analysis controlled for several potentially confounding variables such as latitude, longitude, breeding density and elevation. We conclude that tree swallows across North America are breeding earlier and that the most likely cause is a long-term increase in spring temperature.

  4. Measurement of hyoid and laryngeal displacement in video fluoroscopic swallowing studies: variability, reliability, and measurement error.

    PubMed

    Sia, Isaac; Carvajal, Pamela; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Video fluoroscopy is commonly used in the study of swallowing kinematics. However, various procedures used in linear measurements obtained from video fluoroscopy may contribute to increased variability or measurement error. This study evaluated the influence of calibration referent and image rotation on measurement variability for hyoid and laryngeal displacement during swallowing. Inter- and intrarater reliabilities were also estimated for hyoid and laryngeal displacement measurements across conditions. The use of different calibration referents did not contribute significantly to variability in measures of hyoid and laryngeal displacement but image rotation affected horizontal measures for both structures. Inter- and intrarater reliabilities were high. Using the 95% confidence interval as the error index, measurement error was estimated to range from 2.48 to 3.06 mm. These results address procedural decisions for measuring hyoid and laryngeal displacement in video fluoroscopic swallowing studies.

  5. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  6. Contingency interim measure for the public water supply at Barnes, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-07-09

    This document presents a conceptual design for a contingency interim measure (IM) for treatment of the public water supply system at Barnes, Kansas, should this become necessary. The aquifer that serves the public water supply system at Barnes has been affected by trace to low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and its degradation product, chloroform. Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2008a) have demonstrated that groundwater at the Barnes site is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride at concentrations exceeding the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) formerly operated a grain storage facility in Barnes, approximately 800 ft east-southeast of the public water supply wells. Carbon tetrachloride was used in the treatment of grain. Another potential source identified in an investigation conducted for the KDHE (PRC 1996) is the site of a former agriculture building owned by the local school district (USD 223). This building is located immediately east of well PWS3. The potential contingency IM options evaluated in this report include the treatment of groundwater at the public water supply wellheads and the provision of an alternate water supply via Washington County Rural Water District No.2 (RWD 2). This document was developed in accordance with KDHE Bureau of Environmental Remediation (BER) Policy No.BER-RS-029 (Revised) (KDHE 2006a), supplemented by guidance from the KDHE project manager. Upon the approval of this contingency IM conceptual design by the KDHE, the CCC/USDA will prepare a treatment system design document that will contain the following elements: (1) Description of the approved contingency IM treatment method; (2) Drawings and/or schematics provided by the contractor and/or manufacturer of the approved technology; (3) A

  7. Closely spaced SiGe barns as stressor structures for strain-enhancement in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hrauda, N.; Zhang, J. J.; Groiss, H.; Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Gerharz, J. C.; Holy, V.; Deiter, C.; Seeck, O. H.

    2013-01-21

    We present tensile and compressive strains realized within the same Si capping layer on an array of SiGe islands grown on pit-patterned (001) Si substrates. The strain distributions are obtained from synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies in combination with three-dimensional finite element calculations and simulations of the diffracted intensities. For barn-shaped islands grown at 720 Degree-Sign C with average Ge contents of 30%, the Si cap layer is misfit- and threading-dislocation free and exhibits compressive strains as high as 0.8% in positions between the islands and tensile strains of up to 1% on top of the islands.

  8. BOREAS RSS-3 Reflectance Measured from a Helicopter-Mounted Barnes MMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Walthall, Charles L.; Loechel, Sara; deColstoun, Eric Brown

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-3 team acquired helicopter-based radiometric measurements of forested sites with a Barnes MMR. The data were collected in 1994 during the three BOREAS IFCs at numerous tower and auxiliary sites in both the NSA and SSA. The 15-degree FOV of the MMR yielded approximately 79-m ground resolution from an altitude of 300 m. The MMR has seven spectral bands that are similar to the Landsat TM bands, ranging from the blue region to the thermal. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  9. Simulation of swallowing dysfunction and mechanical ventilation after a Montgomery T-tube insertion.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, O; Malvè, M; Mena Tobar, A; Doblaré, M

    2015-01-01

    The Montgomery T-tube is used as a combined tracheal stent and airway after laryngotracheoplasty, to keep the lumen open and prevent mucosal laceration from scarring. It is valuable in the management of upper and mid-tracheal lesions, while invaluable in long and multisegmental stenting lesions. Numerical simulations based on real-patient-tracheal geometry, experimental tissue characterization, and previous numerical estimation of the physiological swallowing force are performed to estimate the consequences of Montgomery T-tube implantation on swallowing and assisted ventilation: structural analysis of swallowing is performed to evaluate patient swallowing capacity, and computational fluid dynamics simulation is carried out to analyze related mechanical ventilation. With an inserted Montgomery T-tube, vertical displacement (Z-axis) reaches 8.01 mm, whereas in the Y-axis, it reaches 6.63 mm. The maximal principal stress obtained during swallowing was 1.6 MPa surrounding the hole and in the upper contact with the tracheal wall. Fluid flow simulation of the mechanical ventilation revealed positive pressure for both inhalation and exhalation, being higher for inspiration. The muscular deflections, considerable during normal breathing, are nonphysiological, and this aspect results in a constant overload of the tracheal muscle. During swallowing, the trachea ascends producing a nonhomogeneous elongation. This movement can be compromised when prosthesis is inserted, which explains the high incidence of glottis close inefficiency. Fluid simulations showed that nonphysiological pressure is established inside the trachea due to mechanical ventilation. This may lead to an overload of the tracheal muscle, explaining several related problems as muscle thinning or decrease in contractile function.

  10. A Novel Imaging Analysis Method for Capturing Pharyngeal Constriction During Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Schwertner, Ryan W.; Garand, Kendrea L.; Pearson, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Videofluoroscopic imaging of swallowing known as the Modified Barium Study (MBS) is the standard of care for assessing swallowing difficulty. While the clinical purpose of this radiographic imaging is to primarily assess aspiration risk, valuable biomechanical data is embedded in these studies. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is an established research methodology for assessing multiple interactions of swallowing mechanics based on coordinates mapping muscle function including hyolaryngeal movement, pharyngeal shortening, tongue base retraction, and extension of the head and neck, however coordinates characterizing pharyngeal constriction is undeveloped. The aim of this study was to establish a method for locating the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors using hard landmarks as guides on MBS videofluoroscopic imaging, and to test the reliability of this new method. Twenty de-identified, normal, MBS videos were randomly selected from a database. Two raters annotated landmarks for the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors frame-by-frame using a semi-automated MATLAB tracker tool at two time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess test-retest reliability between two raters with an ICC = 0.99 or greater for all coordinates for the retest measurement. MorphoJ integrated software was used to perform a discriminate function analysis to visualize how all 12 coordinates interact with each other in normal swallowing. The addition of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor coordinates to CASM allows for a robust analysis of the multiple components of swallowing mechanics interacting with a wide range of variables in both patient specific and cohort studies derived from common use imaging data.

  11. A Novel Imaging Analysis Method for Capturing Pharyngeal Constriction During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Schwertner, Ryan W; Garand, Kendrea L; Pearson, William G

    2016-01-01

    Videofluoroscopic imaging of swallowing known as the Modified Barium Study (MBS) is the standard of care for assessing swallowing difficulty. While the clinical purpose of this radiographic imaging is to primarily assess aspiration risk, valuable biomechanical data is embedded in these studies. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is an established research methodology for assessing multiple interactions of swallowing mechanics based on coordinates mapping muscle function including hyolaryngeal movement, pharyngeal shortening, tongue base retraction, and extension of the head and neck, however coordinates characterizing pharyngeal constriction is undeveloped. The aim of this study was to establish a method for locating the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors using hard landmarks as guides on MBS videofluoroscopic imaging, and to test the reliability of this new method. Twenty de-identified, normal, MBS videos were randomly selected from a database. Two raters annotated landmarks for the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors frame-by-frame using a semi-automated MATLAB tracker tool at two time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess test-retest reliability between two raters with an ICC = 0.99 or greater for all coordinates for the retest measurement. MorphoJ integrated software was used to perform a discriminate function analysis to visualize how all 12 coordinates interact with each other in normal swallowing. The addition of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor coordinates to CASM allows for a robust analysis of the multiple components of swallowing mechanics interacting with a wide range of variables in both patient specific and cohort studies derived from common use imaging data.

  12. Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Teresa E.; Braun, Sabrina M.; Brooks, Ryan T.; Harris, Rebecca A.; Littrell, Loren L.; Neff, Ryan M.; Hinkel, Cameron J.; Allen, Mitchell J.; Ulsas, Mollie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research. Successful outcomes are dependent upon three critical components: test chambers that permit self-feeding while standing unrestrained in a confined space, recipes that mask the aversive taste/odor of commercially-available oral contrast agents, and a step-by-step test protocol that permits quantification of swallow physiology. Elimination of one or more of these components will have a detrimental impact on the study results. Moreover, the energy level capability of the fluoroscopy system will determine which swallow parameters can be investigated. Most research centers have high energy fluoroscopes designed for use with people and larger animals, which results in exceptionally poor image quality when testing mice and other small rodents. Despite this limitation, we have identified seven VFSS parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice when using a high energy fluoroscope in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol. We recently obtained a low energy fluoroscopy system with exceptionally high imaging resolution and magnification capabilities that was designed for use with mice and other small rodents. Preliminary work using this new system, in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol, has identified 13 swallow parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice, which is nearly double the number obtained using conventional (i.e., high energy) fluoroscopes. Identification of additional swallow parameters is expected as we optimize the capabilities of this new system. Results thus far demonstrate the utility of using a low energy fluoroscopy system to detect and quantify subtle changes in swallow physiology that may otherwise be overlooked when using high energy fluoroscopes to investigate murine disease models. PMID:25866882

  13. Speech and swallow rehabilitation in head and neck cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P; Radford, K; Coffey, M; Stewart, M

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. The disease itself and the treatment can have far reaching effects on speech and swallow function, which are consistently prioritised by survivors as an area of concern. This paper provides recommendations on the assessments and interventions for speech and swallow rehabilitation in this patient group. Recommendations • All multidisciplinary teams should have rehabilitation patient pathways covering all stages of the patient's journey including multidisciplinary and pre-treatment clinics. (G) • Clinicians treating head and neck cancer patients should consult the National Cancer Rehabilitation Pathway for head and neck cancers. (G) • All head and neck cancer patients should have a pre-treatment assessment of speech and swallowing. (G) • A programme of prophylactic exercises and the teaching of swallowing manoeuvres can reduce impairments, maintain function and enable a speedier recovery. (R) • Continued speech and language therapist input is important in maintaining voice and safe and effective swallow function following head and neck cancer treatment. (R) • Disease recurrence must be ruled out in the management of stricture and/or stenosis. (R) • Continuous radial expansion balloons offer a safe, effective dilation method with advantages over gum elastic bougies. (R) • Site, length and completeness of strictures as well as whether they are in the presence of the larynx or not, need to be assessed when establishing the likelihood of surgically improved outcome. (G) • Primary surgical voice restoration should be offered to all patients undergoing laryngectomy. (R) • Attention to surgical detail and long-term speech and language therapist input is required to optimise speech and swallowing after laryngectomy. (G) • Patients should commence wearing heat and moisture exchange devices as soon as possible after

  14. The theoretical, discrete, and actual response of the Barnes objective analysis scheme for one- and two-dimensional fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauley, Patricia M.; Wu, Xiaohua

    1990-01-01

    The response of the Barnes objective analysis scheme is studied as a function of wavenumber or wavelength. The first- and second-pass theoretical response functions for continuous two-dimensional fields are derived using Fourier transforms. The results are compared with Barnes' (1973) responses for one-dimensional waves. The continuous theoretical response for one- and two-dimensional waves is compared with the response for discrete applications using uniformly spaced observations for the case where interpolation points and observation points are coincident and for the case where interpolation points are midway between observation points. The actual response of an idealized discrete application of the Barnes scheme is examined, confirming the results of the analysis of the discrete theoretical response.

  15. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  16. Auditory verbal cues alter the perceived flavor of beverages and ease of swallowing: a psychometric and electrophysiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Aya; Imaizumi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass) juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant's anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology.

  17. Multi-year survival, growth and maturation of invasive swallow-wort juveniles (Vincetoxicum spp.) across a habitat gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum, pale swallow-wort [PSW], and V. nigrum, black swallow-wort [BSW] are two non-native perennial vines that are increasingly problematic in many regions of the northeastern US and southern Canada. The two species can grow in full sun or shaded forest understories, and infest a v...

  18. Metal accumulation and metallothionein concentrations in tree swallow nestlings near acidified lakes

    SciTech Connect

    St. Louis, V.; Breebaart, L. . Dept. of Zoology); Barlow, J.C. . Dept. of Zoology Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario . Dept. of Ornithology); Klaverkamp, J.F. . Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans)

    1993-07-01

    The authors studied metal accumulation in hepatic and renal tissues of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at acidified and nonacid reference lakes in northwestern Ontario. Hepatic concentrations of metallothionein (metal-binding proteins, MT) in tree swallow nestlings were negatively correlated with pH of the nest-site lake. Combined concentrations of Cu and Zn in the liver were correlated with liver MT concentrations, but Cd was not. Although no overt signs of metal toxicity were observed in nestlings near acid lakes, the results clearly provided evidence that metals are transferred from acid lakes to birds and that these metals are correlated with increases in hepatic MT production.

  19. Incoordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing as an etiology for breastfeeding difficulty.

    PubMed

    Glass, R P; Wolf, L S

    1994-09-01

    This case report describes an infant who presented with coughing and choking during breastfeeding. Comprehensive clinical evaluation of these difficulties included assessment of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. Stridor and difficulty interspersing breaths during sucking bursts were observed, although sucking mechanics were normal. Further evaluation of airway structure revealed asymmetric laryngomalacia. This structural problem, exacerbated by the breastfeeding position, impeded respiration and resulted in poor coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing. This case underscores the need to include respiratory function and coordination in the evaluation of breastfeeding difficulties.

  20. Comprehensive swallowing exercises to treat complicated dysphagia caused by esophageal replacement with colon

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Wang, Yujue; Li, Na; Qiu, Weihong; Wu, Huixiang; Huo, Jianshan; Dai, Meng; Yu, Yong; Wan, Guifang; Dou, Zulin; Guo, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Surgical procedures for colonic replacement of the esophagus are most commonly associated with anastomotic stricture which cause dysphagia. In this report, we describe a rare case of a patient who demonstrated dysphagia resulting from an anastomotic stricture following esophageal replacement with the colon. All the treatments to dilate the anastomotic stricture were ineffective. To investigate the new treatment strategy for a case with complicated dysphagia, clinical dysphagia evaluations, functional oral intake scale (FOIS), videofluoroscopic swallowing study as well as high-resolution manometry were used to evaluate the swallowing function of the patient before and after treatments. Interventions: Comprehensive swallowing exercises included the protective airway maneuver, tongue pressure resistance feedback exercise, Masako Maneuver swallowing exercise, and the effortful swallowing exercise. Outcomes: Comprehensive swallowing exercises showed good effect in the patient. The FOIS score increased from level 1 to level 7. The videofluoroscopy digital analysis showed that the pharynx constriction rate was 23% and 50%, before and after treatment, respectively. The data from the high-resolution manometry displayed that: the value of the velopharyngeal pressure peak was 82.8 mmHg before treatment and 156.9 mmHg after treatment; the velopharyngeal contraction duration time was 310 milliseconds before treatment and 525 milliseconds after treatment; the value of the hypopharynx pressure peak was 53.7 mmHg before treatment and 103.2 mmHg after treatment; and the hypopharynx contraction duration time was 390 milliseconds before treatment and 1030 milliseconds after treatment. The swallowing visualization illustrated that a bolus could normally pass through the anastomotic stoma, and the bolus leakage was no longer present. The patient was able to eat various consistencies of food independently, and we were able to remove the jejunum nutrient

  1. Duodenal perforation because of swallowed ballpoint pen and its laparoscopic management: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Golffier, Claudio; Holguin, Francia; Kobayashi, Akihiko

    2009-03-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign objects by teenagers or young adults without mental impairment is a rare event. We present a case of a patient who unintentionally swallowed a ballpoint pen several days before seeking medical attention. She concealed the event until abdominal radiographs revealed the foreign object. Because swallowed foreign objects can be potentially harmful, they should be removed endoscopically as soon as possible to prevent development of complications. At times, they need to be removed operatively. This report describes the laparoscopic removal of a ballpoint pen that perforated the duodenum.

  2. Honesty in Religious Education: Some Further Remarks on the Legacy of Ninian Smart and Related Issues, in Reply to L. Philip Barnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author makes some further remarks on the legacy of Ninian Smart and related issues in reply to L. Philip Barnes. In his judgement, the exchange between them is worth following up. Substantial issues are raised that are not resolved. In the Editorial of the issue of this journal in which Barnes' response appears, Vivienne…

  3. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  4. A videofluoroscopic study comparing severe swallowing disorders in patients treated surgically or with radiation for oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Robert, D; Lagier, A; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P; Fakhry, N

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the causal mechanisms of severe swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-six patients with severe swallowing disorders at ≥12 months after treatment for oropharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively using videofluoroscopy. Fourteen patients (54%) had been treated with surgery (±postoperative radiotherapy), while 12 patients (46%) had been treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy analysis showed a localized alteration in the surgical excision area resulting in impaired tongue root retraction in the surgical group (P=0.012), while general impairment of the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and upper oesophagus sphincter was found in the non-surgical group. Aspirations in the surgical group most often occurred after swallowing, while in the non-surgical group, they occurred during and after swallowing (P=0.039). This analysis by videofluoroscopy provides important insights into the mechanisms giving rise to swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.

  5. SU-E-J-193: Application of Surface Mapping in Detecting Swallowing for Head-&-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Mehta, V; Shepard, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent evidence is emerging that long term swallowing function may be improved after radiotherapy for head-&-neck cancer if doses are limited to certain swallowing structures. Immobilization of patients with head-&-neck cancer is typically done with a mask. This mask, however, doesn’t limit patient swallowing. Patient voluntary or involuntary swallowing may introduce significant tumor motion, which can lead to suboptimal delivery. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using surface mapping technology to detect patient swallowing during treatment and evaluated its magnitude. Methods: The C-RAD Catalyst system was used to detect the patient surface map. A volunteer lying on the couch was used to simulate the patient under treatment. A virtual marker was placed near the throat and was used to monitor the swallowing action. The target motion calculated by the Catalyst system through deformable registration was also collected. Two treatment isocenters, one placed close to the throat and the other placed posterior to the base-of-tongue, were used to check the sensitivity of surface mapping technique. Results: When the patient’s throat is not in the shadow of the patient’s chest, the Catalyst system can clearly identify the swallowing motion. In our tests, the vertical motion of the skin can reach to about 5mm. The calculated target motion can reach up to 1 cm. The magnitude of this calculated target motion is more dramatic when the plan isocenter is closer to the skin surface, which suggests that the Catalyst motion tracking technique is more sensitive to the swallowing motion with a shallower isocenter. Conclusion: Surface mapping can clearly identify patient swallowing during radiation treatment. This information can be used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the involuntary swallowing. It may also be used to potentially gate head-&-neck radiation treatments. A prospective IRB approved study is currently enrolling patients in our

  6. Local adaptation and matching habitat choice in female barn owls with respect to melanic coloration.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, A N; Antoniazza, S; Burri, R; Fumagalli, L; Sonnay, C; Frey, C; Goudet, J; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Local adaptation is a major mechanism underlying the maintenance of phenotypic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), dark and pale reddish-pheomelanic individuals are adapted to conditions prevailing in northern and southern Europe, respectively. Using a long-term dataset from Central Europe, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that the different pheomelanic phenotypes are adapted to specific local conditions in females, but not in males. Compared to whitish females, reddish females bred in sites surrounded by more arable fields and less forests. Colour-dependent habitat choice was apparently beneficial. First, whitish females produced more fledglings when breeding in wooded areas, whereas reddish females when breeding in sites with more arable fields. Second, cross-fostering experiments showed that female nestlings grew wings more rapidly when both their foster and biological mothers were of similar colour. The latter result suggests that mothers should particularly produce daughters in environments that best match their own coloration. Accordingly, whiter females produced fewer daughters in territories with more arable fields. In conclusion, females displaying alternative melanic phenotypes bred in habitats providing them with the highest fitness benefits. Although small in magnitude, matching habitat selection and local adaptation may help maintain variation in pheomelanin coloration in the barn owl.

  7. How barn owls (Tyto alba) visually follow moving voles (Microtus socialis) before attacking them.

    PubMed

    Fux, Michal; Eilam, David

    2009-09-07

    The present study focused on the movements that owls perform before they swoop down on their prey. The working hypothesis was that owl head movements reflect the capacity to efficiently follow visually and auditory a moving prey. To test this hypothesis, five tame barn owls (Tyto alba) were each exposed 10 times to a live vole in a laboratory setting that enabled us to simultaneously record the behavior of both owl and vole. Bi-dimensional analysis of the horizontal and vertical projections of movements revealed that owl head movements increased in amplitude parallel to the vole's direction of movement (sideways or away from/toward the owl). However, the owls also performed relatively large repetitive horizontal head movements when the voles were progressing in any direction, suggesting that these movements were critical for the owl to accurately locate the prey, independent of prey behavior. From the pattern of head movements we conclude that owls orient toward the prospective clash point, and then return to the target itself (the vole) - a pattern that fits an interception rather than a tracking mode of following a moving target. The large horizontal component of head movement in following live prey may indicate that barn owls either have a horizontally narrow fovea or that these movements serve in forming a motion parallax along with preserving image acuity on a horizontally wide fovea.

  8. Visual pop-out in barn owls: Human-like behavior in the avian brain.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Julius; Beissel, Christian; Rohn, Friederike; Adato, Yair; Wagner, Hermann; Ben-Shahar, Ohad

    2015-01-01

    Visual pop-out is a phenomenon by which the latency to detect a target in a scene is independent of the number of other elements, the distractors. Pop-out is an effective visual-search guidance that occurs typically when the target is distinct in one feature from the distractors, thus facilitating fast detection of predators or prey. However, apart from studies on primates, pop-out has been examined in few species and demonstrated thus far in rats, archer fish, and pigeons only. To fill this gap, here we study pop-out in barn owls. These birds are a unique model system for such exploration because their lack of eye movements dictates visual behavior dominated by head movements. Head saccades and interspersed fixation periods can therefore be tracked and analyzed with a head-mounted wireless microcamera--the OwlCam. Using this methodology we confronted two owls with scenes containing search arrays of one target among varying numbers (15-63) of similar looking distractors. We tested targets distinct either by orientation (Experiment 1) or luminance contrast (Experiment 2). Search time and the number of saccades until the target was fixated remained largely independent of the number of distractors in both experiments. This suggests that barn owls can exhibit pop-out during visual search, thus expanding the group of species and brain structures that can cope with this fundamental visual behavior. The utility of our automatic analysis method is further discussed for other species and scientific questions.

  9. An n-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Diet Affects Mouse Spatial Learning in the Barnes Circular Maze

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, Irina; Hussein, Nahed; Di Martino, Carmine; Moriguchi, Toru; Hoshiba, Junji; Majchrzak, Sharon; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Deficiency in n-3 fatty acids has been accomplished through the use of an artificial rearing method in which ICR mouse pups were hand fed a deficient diet starting from the second day of life. There was a 51% loss of total brain DHA in mice with an n-3 fatty acid deficient diet relative to those with a diet sufficient in n-3 fatty acids. N-3 fatty acid adequate and deficient mice did not differ in terms of locomotor activity in the open field test or in anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze. The n-3 fatty acid deficient mice demonstrated impaired learning in the reference-memory version of the Barnes circular maze as they spent more time and made more errors in search of an escape tunnel. No difference in performance between all dietary groups in the cued and working memory version of the Barnes maze was observed. This indicated that motivational, motor and sensory factors did not contribute to the reference memory impairment. PMID:18037280

  10. The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence.

  11. Organochlorine residues, eggshell thickness, and nest success in barn owls from the Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaas, E.E.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Eggs of barn owls (Tyto alba) were collected from 18 nests in offshore duck blinds on the Maryland side of the lower Potomac River estuary in 1972 and 1973 and analyzed for organochlorine residues. DDE was found in 100% of the clutches, PCBs in 89%, and dieldrin in 78%. Eggshell thickness was inversely correlated with concentrations of DDE, DDD, and dieldrin residues. Six of the 18 clutches had mean DDE residues above 5 ppm, and eggshell thickness in these six clutches was significantly less (P < 0.001) than in the other 12 clutches. The owls produced 1.7 young per active nest in 1973. This rate is slightly below the reproductive rate needed to maintain a stable population. An estimated 15% of the population carried concentrations of organochlorine residues that may have been detrimental to their reproduction. Passerine birds, taken extensively as food by a small proportion of the population, are believed to have been the source of elevated concentrations of organochlorines in these barn owls.

  12. Effects of vole fluctuations on the population dynamics of the barn owl Tyto alba.

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris; de Roos, Andre M

    2007-01-01

    Many predator species feed on prey that fluctuates in abundance from year to year. Birds of prey can face large fluctuations in food abundance i.e. small mammals, especially voles. These annual changes in prey abundance strongly affect the reproductive success and mortality of the individual predators and thus can be expected to influence their population dynamics and persistence. The barn owl, for example, shows large fluctuations in breeding success that correlate with the dynamics in voles, their main prey species. Analysis of the impact of fluctuations in vole abundance (their amplitude, peaks and lows, cycle length and regularity) with a simple predator prey model parameterized with literature data indicates population persistence is especially affected by years with low vole abundance. In these years the population can decline to low owl numbers such that the ensuing peak vole years cannot be exploited. This result is independent of the length and regularity of vole fluctuations. The relevance of this result for conservation of the barn owl and other birds of prey that show a numerical response to fluctuating prey species is discussed.

  13. Neuroethology of prey capture in the barn owl (Tyto alba L.).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Hermann; Kettler, Lutz; Orlowski, Julius; Tellers, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Barn owls are a model system for studying prey capture. These animals can catch mice by hearing alone, but use vision whenever light conditions allow this. The silent flight, the frontally oriented eyes, and the facial ruffs are specializations that evolved to optimize prey capture. The auditory system is characterized by high absolute sensitivity, a use of interaural time difference for azimuthal sound-localization over almost the total hearing range up to at least 9 kHz, and the use of interaural level difference for elevational sound localization in the upper frequency range. Response latencies towards auditory targets were shortened by covert attention, while overt attention helped to orient towards salient visual objects. However, only 20% of the fixation movements could be explained by the saliency of the fixated objects, suggesting a top-down control of attention. In a visual-search experiment the birds turned earlier and more often towards and spent more time at salient objects. The visual system also exhibits high absolute sensitivity, while the spatial resolution is not particularly high. Last but not least, head movements may be classified as fixations, translations, and rotations combined with translations. These motion primitives may be combined to complex head-movement patterns. With the expected easy availability of genetic techniques for specialists in the near future and the possibility to apply the findings in biomimetic devices prey capture in barn owls will remain an exciting field in the future.

  14. Nestling barn owls assess short-term variation in the amount of vocally competing siblings.

    PubMed

    Ruppli, Charlène A; Dreiss, Amélie N; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the amount of rivals is crucial to optimally adjust investment into a contest. If laboratory animals show numerical abilities, little is known about the ecological implications particularly in young animals. The two to nine barn owl (Tyto alba) siblings vocally compete for priority of access to food resources before parents actually deliver them. In dyads, the individual that vocalizes at the highest rate in the absence of parents deters its siblings from competing for next delivered prey. We tested the novel hypothesis that to optimally adjust vocal investment, barn owl nestlings assess how many of their siblings are currently competing. To singleton owlets, we broadcasted a fixed global number of calls emitted by one, two or four pre-recorded unfamiliar nestlings. We could thus distinguish the independent effect on singletons' vocal behavior of the global number of calls produced by a brood from the number of competitors that produced these calls. Overall, nestlings retreated more from vocal contest when facing more competitors. However, in front of one highly motivated competitor, nestlings refrained from vocalizing to a larger extent than when competing against more but less motivated individuals. Therefore, young animals assess variation in the number of currently competing siblings based on individual-specific vocal cues.

  15. Characterizing spatial extinction in an abbreviated version of the Barnes maze.

    PubMed

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were trained to find an escape box in the Barnes maze in order to characterize the extinction process of a learned spatial preference. To do so, once they had fully acquired the spatial task, they were repeatedly exposed to the maze without the escape box. Multiple behavioral measurements (grouped into motor skill and spatial preference indicators) were followed up throughout the complete training process. Animals gained efficiency in finding the escape box during acquisition, as indicated by the reduction in the time spent escaping from the maze, the number of errors, the length of the traveled path, and by the increase in exploration accuracy and execution speed. When their retention and preference were tested 24h later, all the subjects retained their enhanced performance efficiency and accuracy and displayed a clear-cut preference for the escape hole and its adjacent holes. Almost all motor skill indicators followed an inverse, though not monotonic, pattern during the extinction training, returning to basal levels after three trials without escape box, displaying a transient relapse during the fifth extinction trial. Preference indicators also followed a reverse pattern; however, it took seven trials for them to return to basal levels, relapsing during the eighth extinction trial. The abbreviated Barnes maze acquisition, evaluation, and extinction procedures described herein are useful tools for evaluating the effects of behavioral and/or pharmacological treatment on different stages of spatial memory, and could also be used for studying the neurophysiological and neurobiological underpinnings of this kind of memory.

  16. Longitudinal study of the contamination of air and of soil surfaces in the vicinity of pig barns by livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Friese, Anika; Klees, Sylvia; Tenhagen, Bernd A; Fetsch, Alexandra; Rösler, Uwe; Hartung, Jörg

    2012-08-01

    During 1 year, samples were taken on 4 days, one sample in each season, from pigs, the floor, and the air inside pig barns and from the ambient air and soil at different distances outside six commercial livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA)-positive pig barns in the north and east of Germany. LA-MRSA was isolated from animals, floor, and air samples in the barn, showing a range of airborne LA-MRSA between 6 and 3,619 CFU/m(3) (median, 151 CFU/m(3)). Downwind of the barns, LA-MRSA was detected in low concentrations (11 to 14 CFU/m(3)) at distances of 50 and 150 m; all upwind air samples were negative. In contrast, LA-MRSA was found on soil surfaces at distances of 50, 150, and 300 m downwind from all barns, but no statistical differences could be observed between the proportions of positive soil surface samples at the three different distances. Upwind of the barns, positive soil surface samples were found only sporadically. Significantly more positive LA-MRSA samples were found in summer than in the other seasons both in air and soil samples upwind and downwind of the pig barns. spa typing was used to confirm the identity of LA-MRSA types found inside and outside the barns. The results show that there is regular airborne LA-MRSA transmission and deposition, which are strongly influenced by wind direction and season, of up to at least 300 m around positive pig barns. The described boot sampling method seems suitable to characterize the contamination of the vicinity of LA-MRSA-positive pig barns by the airborne route.

  17. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  18. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  19. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shune, Samantha E.; Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults.…

  20. Perception of Wet Vocal Quality in Identifying Penetration/Aspiration during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves-Wright, Kathy Jean; Boyce, Suzanne; Kelchner, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated the association between wet vocal quality (WVQ) and prandial material in the larynx during phonation. The presence of such material is indicative of oropharyngeal dysphagia and results from entry of material into the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing. The primary aim of the study was to…