Science.gov

Sample records for barnacle megabalanus rosa

  1. Isolation and characterization of agglutinins from the hemolymph of an acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Muramoto, K; Goto, R

    1987-01-01

    Two agglutinins, MVA-1 and MVA-2, were isolated from the hemolymph of the acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano. They agglutinated human erythrocytes irrespective of the ABO blood group and also rabbit and sheep blood cells. Lactose and fetuin strongly inhibited the hemagglutinating activity. D-galactose, D-arabinose and N-acetylneuraminic acid were also moderate inhibitors. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both MVA-1 and MVA-2 gave a single band corresponding to 38,000 daltons. It split into one major band with a molecular weight of 23,000 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The two agglutinins showed the same apparent molecular weight of 116,000 by gel filtration. In isoelectric focusing MVA-1 showed one band at pH 4.8, whereas MVA-2 gave a main band at pH 4.4 with few faint ones in the range between pH 4.0 and 4.8. The agglutinins were glycoproteins containing D-mannose and L-fucose as carbohydrate components. No precipitation reaction was observed in Ouchterlony immuno-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera against the agglutinins from the phylogenetically related Megabalanus rosa.

  2. PCR-cloning of cadmium-inducible peptides in the barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Togi, Akiko; Kamino, Kei; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

    2002-04-01

    A 340 bp DNA fragment was amplified from barnacle (Megabalanus volcano) cDNA by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed based on the amino acid sequences of barnacle cadmium-inducible peptides CdlP1 and CdlP2. The whole sequence was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding 71 amino acid residues and the sequences for CdlP1 and CdlP2 were found to be located in the center of this coding region. Although CdlP1 and CdlP2 had been detected only in the cadmium-exposed barnacles, their mRNA was present both in cadmium-exposed barnacles and in unexposed barnacles. These results suggest that posttranslational proteolytic processing may be induced in the presence of cadmium.

  3. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916)

    PubMed Central

    González, José A.; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  4. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916).

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Javier; Manent, Pablo; Pérez-Diéguez, Lois; González, José A; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; González-Henríquez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  5. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916).

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Javier; Manent, Pablo; Pérez-Diéguez, Lois; González, José A; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P; Rey-Méndez, Manuel; González-Henríquez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fire coral-inhabiting barnacle Megabalanus ajax (Sessilia: Balanidae): gene rearrangements and atypical gene content.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Megabalanus ajax Darwin, 1854 (Sessilia: Balanidae) is reported. Compared to typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, duplication of one tRNA gene (trnL2) and absence of another tRNA gene (trnS1) are identified in M. ajax mitochondrial genome. There is a replacement of one tRNA (trnS1) by another tRNA (trnL2) in M. ajax mitochondrial genome compared to Megabalanus volcano mitochondrial genome. Inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) is found between M. ajax/M. volcano and Tetraclita japonica mitochondrial genomes. With reference to the pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, there is an inversion of a large gene block from the light strand to heavy strand in the two Megabalanus mitochondrial genomes, including three PCGs and two tRNAs (nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF). Furthermore, four tRNAs (trnA, trnE, trnQ and trnC) exhibit translocation, while translocation and inversion occur in three tRNAs (trnP, trnY and trnK). PMID:25050875

  7. A description of the larval development of Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionísio, Maria; Rodrigues, Armindo; Costa, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This study provides the first description of the larval development of the commercially exploited barnacle Megabalanus azoricus. It describes the changes in larval size and shape as well as the general morphology and duration of each larval stage. Embryos were obtained from gravid specimens collected at São Miguel Island and reared through six naupliar stages to the cypris stage in laboratory conditions. The planktotrophic nauplii reached the cypris stage after 14 days of hatching in individual cultures at 20 °C under natural illumination and fed with phytoplankton ( Chaetoceros gracilis, Isochrysis sp., and Tetraselmis sp.). The nauplius of M. azoricus has a normal size compared with nauplii of other congeneric species, ranging between the 261 μm (nauplius I) and 912 μm (nauplius VI). This work provides the first description of larvae of the genus Megabalanus for the Portuguese oceanic islands and provides comparisons with congeneric species in other parts of the world.

  8. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  9. A checklist of the barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica) of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman with nine new records.

    PubMed

    Shahdadi, Adnan; Sari, Alireza; Naderloo, Reza

    2014-03-28

    The present annotated checklist contains 43 species of thoracican barnacles known to date from the area, 33 and 26 from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, respectively. Nine species are new records for the area including Amphibalunus subalbidus (Henry, 1973), Armatobalanus allium (Darwin, 1854), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818), Conchoderma hunteri (Owen, 1830), Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, Lithotrya valentiana Reinhardt, 1850, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854), Megabalanus occator (Darwin, 1854) and Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798), of which A. subalbidus and M. coccopoma are reported as alien species from the region.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in edible barnacles exposed to natural contamination.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, M; Costa, A; Rodrigues, A

    2013-04-01

    The giant barnacle Megabalanus azoricus is a popular seafood in the Azores. It is mainly caught in coastal environments and sold for domestic human consumption. This species is a filter feeder and can be used as a biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities. To investigate consumption safety, the concentrations of 10 trace metals - As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn - were evaluated in 3 body tissues of M. azoricus from 3 sites on 2 islands. There were no significant differences between the metal loads of the barnacles from the different sites. However, the concentrations of the total trace metal loads revealed significant differences among the tissues (cirrus, muscles and ovaries). The concentrations of some metals in the body were not within the safety levels for consumers, based on the allowable standard levels for crustaceans issued by the European Union and of legislations in several countries. Alarming levels of As and Cd were found. Considering the absence of heavy industry in the region, a non-anthropogenic volcanic source was assumed to be the reason for the observed metal levels. Barnacles, in particular M. azoricus, seem to be useful as bioindicators in this peculiar environment.

  11. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, & Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was taken on Sol 3. Barnacle Bill, the small rock at left, and Yogi, the large rock at upper right, have been examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument and the rover's cameras. Barnacle Bill has the chemical composition of an andesitic volcanic rock, but may have been produced by sedimentation processes or meteorite impact. The lander's rear ramp which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface is at lower left, and a portion of deflated airbag is at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  13. Barnacle removal process and product

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, T.L.

    1984-07-24

    Barnacles from marine vessels are removed by spraying the surfaces thereof with a mixture the active ingredients of which are a hydrocarbon liquid oil; a surfactant; alcohol; a metal hypochlorite; and an alkyl, dialkyl benzyl ammonium salt. After the solution has been applied to the surfaces for about 20 minutes, the barnacles are removed by power spraying the surfaces with water.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of common fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Sessilia: Balanidae) reveals gene rearrangements compared to pancrustacean ground pattern.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Sessilia: Balanidae). Refer to pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, seven conserved genes blocks are found in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnA, trnE/trnS2, trnP/trnT, trnK, trnQ and trnC) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnY). Comparison among the acorn barnacle mitogenomes reveals inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) between A. amphitrite and Megabalanus. Volcano (Balanidae), suggesting non-conserved gene order even at intrafamilial level. The three species share three conserved genes blocks, of which the two are derived from the pancrustacean ground pattern and represent synapomorphies of acorn barnacles. In sum, large-scale gene rearrangements are observed in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern and other barnacle species.

  15. Barnacles and biofouling.

    PubMed

    Holm, Eric R

    2012-09-01

    Biofouling, the attachment and growth of organisms on submerged, man-made surfaces, has plagued ship operators for at least 2500 years. Accumulation of biofouling, including barnacles and other sessile marine invertebrates, increases the frictional resistance of ships' hulls, resulting in an increase in power and in fuel consumption required to make speed. Scientists and engineers recognized over 100 years ago that in order to solve the biofouling problem, a deeper understanding of the biology of the organisms involved, particularly with regard to larval settlement and metamorphosis and adhesives and adhesion, would be required. Barnacles have served as an important tool in pursuing this research. Over the past 20 years, the pace of these studies has accelerated, likely driven by the introduction of environmental regulations banning the most effective biofouling control products from the market. Research has largely focused on larval settlement and metamorphosis, the development of new biocides, and materials/surface science. Increased research has so far, however, failed to result in commercial applications. Two recent successes (medetomidine/Selektope(®), surface-bound noradrenaline) build on our improving understanding of the role of the larval nervous system in mediating settlement and metamorphosis. New findings with regard to the curing of barnacle adhesives may pave the way to additional successes. Although the development of most current biofouling control technologies remains largely uninfluenced by basic research on, for example, the ability of settling larvae to perceive surface cues, or the nature of the interaction between organismal adhesives and the substrate, newly-developed materials can serve as useful probes to further our understanding of these processes.

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification. PMID:25907711

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification.

  18. Darwin and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Jean

    2010-02-01

    In this essay, I discuss the origin of Charles Darwin's interest in cirripedes (barnacles). Indeed, he worked intensively on cirripedes during the years in which he was developing the theory that eventually led to the publication of The Origin of Species. In the light of our present knowledge, I present Darwin's achievements in the morphology, systematics and biology of these small marine invertebrates, and also his mistakes. I suggest that the word that sheds the most light here is homology, and that his mistakes were due to following Richard Owen's method of determining homologies by reference to an ideal archetype. I discuss the ways in which his studies on cirripedes influenced the writing of The Origin. PMID:20338525

  19. Darwin and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Jean

    2010-02-01

    In this essay, I discuss the origin of Charles Darwin's interest in cirripedes (barnacles). Indeed, he worked intensively on cirripedes during the years in which he was developing the theory that eventually led to the publication of The Origin of Species. In the light of our present knowledge, I present Darwin's achievements in the morphology, systematics and biology of these small marine invertebrates, and also his mistakes. I suggest that the word that sheds the most light here is homology, and that his mistakes were due to following Richard Owen's method of determining homologies by reference to an ideal archetype. I discuss the ways in which his studies on cirripedes influenced the writing of The Origin.

  20. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro).

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro). PMID:24397766

  3. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering.

  4. Metamorphosis in balanomorphan, pedunculated, and parasitic barnacles: a video-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Maruzzo, Diego; Okano, Keiju; Glenner, Henrik; Chan, Benny K K

    2012-09-01

    Cypris metamorphosis was followed using video microscopy in four species of cirripeds representing the suspension-feeding pedunculated and sessile Thoracica and the parasitic Rhizocephala. Cirripede metamorphosis involves one or more highly complex molts that mark the change from a free cypris larva to an attached suspension feeder (Thoracica) or an endoparasite (Rhizocephala). The cyprids and juveniles are so different in morphology that they are functionally incompatible. The drastic reorganization of the body implicated in the process can therefore only commence after the cyprid has irreversibly cemented itself to a substratum. In both Megabalanus rosa and Lepas, the settled cyprid first passes through a quiescent period of tissue reorganization, in which the body is raised into a position vertical to the substratum. In Lepas, this is followed by extension of the peduncle. In both Lepas and M. rosa, the juvenile must free itself from the cypris cuticle by an active process before it can extend the cirri for suspension feeding. In M. rosa, the juvenile performs intensely pulsating movements that result in shedding of the cypris carapace ~8 h after settlement. Lepas sp. sheds the cypris cuticle ~2 days after settlement due to contractile movements of the peduncle. In Lepas anserifera, the juvenile actively breaks through the cypris carapace, which can thereafter remain for several days without impeding cirral feeding. Formation of the shell plates begins after 1-2 days under the cyprid carapace in Lepas. In M. rosa, the free juvenile retains its very thin cuticle and flexible shape for some time, and shell plates do not appear until sometime after shedding of the cypris cuticles. In Sacculina carcini, the cypris settles at the base of a seta on the host crab and remains quiescent and aligned at an angle of ~60° to the crab's cuticle. The metamorphosis involves two molts, resulting in the formation of an elongated kentrogon stage with a hollow injection stylet

  5. APXS on Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The image was taken by a camera aboard the Sojourner rover on Sol 4. Portions of the rover's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are visible studying Barnacle Bill.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  6. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this color image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. [Larvae of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) in the White sea plankton].

    PubMed

    Poltarukha, O P

    2003-01-01

    The barnacle fauna in the White Sea is briefly described. The morphology of barnacle larvae in this water body is comparatively analyzed. The characters important for the larvae identification are given particular attention. A classification key was developed for the nauplius and cyprid larvae of barnacles in the White Sea.

  8. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. Sojourner's APXS studies Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner's first analysis of a rock on Mars began on Sol 3 with the study of Barnacle Bill, a nearby rock named for its rough surface. The Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be used to determine the elements that make up the rocks and soil on Mars. A full study using the APXS takes approximately ten hours, and can measure all elements except hydrogen at any time of the Martian day or night. The APXS will conduct its studies by bombarding rocks and soil samples with alpha particle radiation -- charged particles equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  10. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J; Everett, Richard K

    2011-06-01

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism.

  11. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J.; Everett, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism. PMID:21208968

  12. The tempo and mode of barnacle evolution.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Harp, Margaret; Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Watanabe, Hiromi; Crandall, Keith A

    2008-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic attempts at resolving barnacle evolutionary relationships are few and have relied on limited taxon sampling. Here we combine DNA sequences from three nuclear genes (18S, 28S and H3) and 44 morphological characters collected from 76 thoracican (ingroup) and 15 rhizocephalan (outgroup) species representing almost all the Thoracica families to assess the tempo and mode of barnacle evolution. Using phylogenetic methods of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference and 14 fossil calibrations, we found that: (1) Iblomorpha form a monophyletic group; (2) pedunculated barnacles without shell plates (Heteralepadomorpha) are not ancestral, but have evolved, at least twice, from plated forms; (3) the ontogenetic pattern with 5-->6-->8-->12+ plates does not reflect Thoracica shell evolution; (4) the traditional asymmetric barnacles (Verrucidae) and the Balanomorpha are each monophyletic and together they form a monophyletic group; (5) asymmetry and loss of a peduncle have evolved twice in the Thoracica, resulting in neither the Verrucomorpha nor the Sessilia forming monophyletic groups in their present definitions; (6) the Scalpellomorpha are not monophyletic; (7) the Thoracica suborders evolved since the Early Carboniferous (340mya) with the final radiation of the Sessilia in the Upper Jurassic (147mya). These results, therefore, reject many of the underlying hypotheses about character evolution in the Cirripedia Thoracica, stimulate a variety of new thoughts on thoracican radiation, and suggest the need for a major rearrangement in thoracican classification based on estimated phylogenetic relationships.

  13. For the Classroom: Filter Feeding in Barnacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Provided is a high school activity in which students observe the filter feeding of barnacles and the effects of a variety of changing parameters upon their feeding process. Includes list of materials needed and procedures necessary to accomplish the activity. (JN)

  14. Super Resolution Anaglyph of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image and [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  16. Predaceous Feeding in Two Common Gooseneck Barnacles.

    PubMed

    Howard, G K; Scott, H C

    1959-03-13

    Lepas anatifera and Mitella polymerus, while relatively unselective omnivores, behave at times like predatory macrophagous carnivores. Observations suggest a greater range of food size for gooseneck barnacles than is generally suspected and clearly indicate that large organisms, when available, are effectively captured and handled.

  17. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS television…

  18. Some insights into how barnacles survive as sessile organisms.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Reeves, Jessica M

    2009-12-01

    During routine chemical analyses of the stalked ibliform barnacle Chaetolepas calcitergum Buckeridge & Newman 2006, peaks of more than 7% (by dry mass) of bromine were detected. Although bromine ions occur in seawater (up to 66 ppm), this level of accumulation, in the soft tissue of the barnacle, is extraordinary. Organic concentration of bromine compounds occurs in a number of invertebrates, such as algae and sponges, but this is the first record of elevated bromine in goose barnacles. The high accumulation of bromine compound(s) is most likely a defense mechanism. The present paper includes a review of the mechanisms deployed by barnacles to repel predators.

  19. Biomineral Structure and Strength of Barnacle Exoskeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Studying the construction of organic-inorganic compound structures through biomineralization is potentially very useful. During biomineral formation, organisms restructure naturally occurring minerals in conjunction with their own organically produced minerals to create new structures. While there is extensive knowledge about material properties and structure of the raw minerals themselves, insight into how specific biomineral structures and compounds contribute to an object's mechanical properties is lacking. In this study, the exoskeletons of barnacles from the genus Balanus were examined, both for their physical structure (how they're put together) and for their mechanical properties (strength, hardness, and elasticity). Scanning electron microscopy produced close-up, detailed images of the inner shell structure to determine what type of structure barnacles build during exoskeleton formation. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to map the elemental components of the shells. Nanoindentation tested the mechanical properties of these mapped structures to determine how certain characteristics of the exoskeleton contribute to its mechanical properties.

  20. Darwin's "beloved barnacles": tough lessons in variation.

    PubMed

    Mannouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    In 1846, burdened by insecurity and self-doubt, and having been convinced that he needed to study some group of organisms closely, Darwin embarked on an eight-year odyssey in the protean and perplexing world of barnacles. At the time, he was searching for evidence in support of his theory of evolution by natural selection. In the course of his long study of barnacles, however, he was not just validating his preexisting theoretical system, but was also modifying his views on such fundamental aspects as the universality of individual variation, which is the focus of this paper. According to this notion, the members of any population of living things are expected to exhibit sufficient differences from one another for natural selection to operate. By emphasizing the theoretical value of the barnacle project, my analysis contributes to the historiographic tradition which highlights the significance of the period between the first comprehensive formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1844 and its urgent publication in the late 1850s. In the course of these years, Darwin's theory was not just accumulating empirical laurels, but was also expected to adapt to a changing conceptual landscape. PMID:21789955

  1. Darwin's "beloved barnacles": tough lessons in variation.

    PubMed

    Mannouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    In 1846, burdened by insecurity and self-doubt, and having been convinced that he needed to study some group of organisms closely, Darwin embarked on an eight-year odyssey in the protean and perplexing world of barnacles. At the time, he was searching for evidence in support of his theory of evolution by natural selection. In the course of his long study of barnacles, however, he was not just validating his preexisting theoretical system, but was also modifying his views on such fundamental aspects as the universality of individual variation, which is the focus of this paper. According to this notion, the members of any population of living things are expected to exhibit sufficient differences from one another for natural selection to operate. By emphasizing the theoretical value of the barnacle project, my analysis contributes to the historiographic tradition which highlights the significance of the period between the first comprehensive formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1844 and its urgent publication in the late 1850s. In the course of these years, Darwin's theory was not just accumulating empirical laurels, but was also expected to adapt to a changing conceptual landscape.

  2. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  3. Barnacle-induced corrosion of high-alloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Koryakova, M.D.; Filonenko, N.Yu.; Kaplin, Yu.M.

    1995-03-01

    Local corrosion of two sorts of high-alloyed steels under the action of acorn barnacles (Balanuses) has been studied. It has been shown that in natural seawater at anaerobic conditions beneath living and dead barnacles, metabolic activity of bacteria may be considered as a primary cause for local surface depassivation.

  4. Trace metals in barnacles: the significance of trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2005-05-01

    Barnacles have very high accumulated trace metal body concentrations that vary with local trace metal bioavailabilities and represent integrated measures of the supply of bioavailable metals. Pioneering work in Chinese waters in Hong Kong highlighted the potential value of barnacles (particularly Balanus amphitrite) as trace metal biomonitors in coastal waters, identifying differences in local trace metal bioavailabilities over space and time. Work in Hong Kong has also shown that although barnacles have very high rates of trace metal uptake from solution, they also have very high trace metal assimilation efficiencies from the diet. High assimilation efficiencies coupled with high ingestion rates ensure that trophic uptake is by far the dominant trace metal uptake route in barnacles, as verified for cadmium and zinc. Kinetic modelling has shown that low efflux rate constants and high uptake rates from the diet combine to bring about accumulated trace metal concentrations in barnacles that are amongst the highest known in marine invertebrates.

  5. Flow over Barnacles-Characterization of Barnacle Geometry and Some Initial Flow Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Schultz, Michael; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Macrobiofouling is a serious concern for the marine industry, costing billions in preventive and control measures. Accurate modelling of flows over surfaces with such complex geometry and wide range of length scales is still a huge challenge. Such simulations are required in predicting the effects of fouling, like surface drag and also forces experienced by individual barnacles. DNS or wall resolved LES are impractical due to constraints imposed by the nature of the geometry. We aim to develop and test a computational tool for accurate simulation of such flows. The method being proposed incorporates generalized dynamic wall models along with sharp-interface Immersed Boundary Methods. The results from these simulations will help us understand the effects on surface drag caused by variations in parameters like roughness density, roughness heights, spatial heterogeneity etc. Along with this, detailed studies on a single barnacle will help us in understanding flow structures in the presence of boundary layers. In this talk we will give a brief overview of the problem and some results from our investigation on the characterization of Barnacle geometries and on the characteristics of flow over a single barnacle. This research is supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research.

  6. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to

  7. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At right, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill and the rear ramp is to the left of Sojourner.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  8. Imaging Active Surface Processes in Barnacle Adhesive Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Burden, Daniel K; Fears, Kenan P; Barlow, Daniel E; So, Christopher R; Burns, Justin; Miltenberg, Benjamin; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittshof, Daniel; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J; Tender, Leonard M

    2016-01-19

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) and voltammetry were used simultaneously to monitor Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite barnacles reattached and grown on gold-coated glass slides in artificial seawater. Upon reattachment, SPRI revealed rapid surface adsorption of material with a higher refractive index than seawater at the barnacle/gold interface. Over longer time periods, SPRI also revealed secretory activity around the perimeter of the barnacle along the seawater/gold interface extending many millimeters beyond the barnacle and varying in shape and region with time. Ex situ experiments using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that reattachment of barnacles was accompanied by adsorption of protein to surfaces on similar time scales as those in the SPRI experiments. Barnacles were grown through multiple molting cycles. While the initial reattachment region remained largely unchanged, SPRI revealed the formation of sets of paired concentric rings having alternately darker/lighter appearance (corresponding to lower and higher refractive indices, respectively) at the barnacle/gold interface beneath the region of new growth. Ex situ experiments coupling the SPRI imaging with optical and FTIR microscopy revealed that the paired rings coincide with molt cycles, with the brighter rings associated with regions enriched in amide moieties. The brighter rings were located just beyond orifices of cement ducts, consistent with delivery of amide-rich chemistry from the ducts. The darker rings were associated with newly expanded cuticle. In situ voltammetry using the SPRI gold substrate as the working electrode revealed presence of redox active compounds (oxidation potential approx 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl) after barnacles were reattached on surfaces. Redox activity persisted during the reattachment period. The results reveal surface adsorption processes coupled to the complex secretory and chemical activity under barnacles as they construct

  9. Imaging Active Surface Processes in Barnacle Adhesive Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Burden, Daniel K; Fears, Kenan P; Barlow, Daniel E; So, Christopher R; Burns, Justin; Miltenberg, Benjamin; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittshof, Daniel; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J; Tender, Leonard M

    2016-01-19

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) and voltammetry were used simultaneously to monitor Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite barnacles reattached and grown on gold-coated glass slides in artificial seawater. Upon reattachment, SPRI revealed rapid surface adsorption of material with a higher refractive index than seawater at the barnacle/gold interface. Over longer time periods, SPRI also revealed secretory activity around the perimeter of the barnacle along the seawater/gold interface extending many millimeters beyond the barnacle and varying in shape and region with time. Ex situ experiments using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that reattachment of barnacles was accompanied by adsorption of protein to surfaces on similar time scales as those in the SPRI experiments. Barnacles were grown through multiple molting cycles. While the initial reattachment region remained largely unchanged, SPRI revealed the formation of sets of paired concentric rings having alternately darker/lighter appearance (corresponding to lower and higher refractive indices, respectively) at the barnacle/gold interface beneath the region of new growth. Ex situ experiments coupling the SPRI imaging with optical and FTIR microscopy revealed that the paired rings coincide with molt cycles, with the brighter rings associated with regions enriched in amide moieties. The brighter rings were located just beyond orifices of cement ducts, consistent with delivery of amide-rich chemistry from the ducts. The darker rings were associated with newly expanded cuticle. In situ voltammetry using the SPRI gold substrate as the working electrode revealed presence of redox active compounds (oxidation potential approx 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl) after barnacles were reattached on surfaces. Redox activity persisted during the reattachment period. The results reveal surface adsorption processes coupled to the complex secretory and chemical activity under barnacles as they construct

  10. Ion and neuropharmacological studies of barnacle settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittschof, Dan; Maki, James; Mitchell, Ralph; Costlow, John D.

    Experiments tested effects of altering ion concentrations and the effects of additions of biologically active substances in the media surrounding settling stage barnacle larvae. Alteration of ionic concentrations did not result in induction of metamorphosis. Excess potassium ion, magnesium ion and calcium ion inhibited settlement. Potassium ion affected young cyprids while other cations had more pronounced effects on older cyprids. Replacement of one cation by another reduced the inhibitory effects of all but calcium. Excess magnesium was routinely inhibitory while lowered magnesium had little effect. Calcium ion could be increased 50% by lowering magnesium concentrations without affecting settlement. However, low calcium ion concentrations inhibited settlement. Of the biologically active substances tested, only soluble barnacle settlement factor and dibuteryl cAMP induced metamorphosis. SITS, a calcium channel blocker, inhibited settlement and negated the effects SF +. Most of the other compounds inhibited settlement at millimolar concentrations and had no effect when tested at lower concentrations. Picrotoxin, a compound that interferes with chloride ion movement (and membrane depolarization) strongly inhibited metamorphosis with an EC 50 of 10 -6 mol.

  11. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  12. Biochemical biomarkers in barnacles Balanus improvisus: pollution and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; Monserrat, José Maria; Bianchini, Adalto

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. During winter, higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was recorded in the barnacles from the polluted sites, indicating environmental exposure to contaminants. Relatively low lipid peroxide levels (LPO) were also observed in barnacles from polluted sites, indicating that oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation was not a major threat in barnacles from those sites. Seasonal differences in the GST and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) could have contributed to the low LPO levels in the summer relative to the levels in the winter. Catalase activity and metallothionein levels were not affected by contamination or seasonality. The seasonal changes observed in biomarker responses were paralleled by the differences in temperature, which could have affected physiological responses, including the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants. PMID:25460064

  13. Biochemical biomarkers in barnacles Balanus improvisus: pollution and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; Monserrat, José Maria; Bianchini, Adalto

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. During winter, higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was recorded in the barnacles from the polluted sites, indicating environmental exposure to contaminants. Relatively low lipid peroxide levels (LPO) were also observed in barnacles from polluted sites, indicating that oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation was not a major threat in barnacles from those sites. Seasonal differences in the GST and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) could have contributed to the low LPO levels in the summer relative to the levels in the winter. Catalase activity and metallothionein levels were not affected by contamination or seasonality. The seasonal changes observed in biomarker responses were paralleled by the differences in temperature, which could have affected physiological responses, including the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants.

  14. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

  15. Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Rebecca L; Dudgeon, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid

  16. Localization of Phosphoproteins within the Barnacle Adhesive Interface.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Yang, Xu; Wu, Fanghui; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Beniash, Elia

    2016-06-01

    Barnacles permanently adhere to nearly any inert substrate using proteinaceous glue. The glue consists of at least ten major proteins, some of which have been isolated and sequenced. Questions still remain about the chemical mechanisms involved in adhesion and the potential of the glue to serve as a platform for mineralization of the calcified base plate. We tested the hypothesis that barnacle glue contains phosphoproteins, which have the potential to play a role in both adhesion and mineralization. Using a combination of phosphoprotein-specific gel staining and Western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibody, we identified multiple phosphorylated proteins in uncured glue secretions from the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite The protein composition of the glue and the quantity and abundance of phosphoproteins varied distinctly among individual barnacles, possibly due to cyclical changes in the glue secretion over time. We assessed the location of the phosphoproteins within the barnacle glue layer using decalcified barnacle base plates and residual glue deposited by reattached barnacles. Phosphoproteins were found throughout the organic matrix of the base plate and within the residual glue. Staining within the residual glue appeared most intensely in regions where capillary glue ducts, which are involved in cyclical release of glue, had been laid down. Lastly, mineralization studies of glue proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that proteins identified as phosphorylated possibly induce mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These results contribute to our understanding of the protein composition of barnacle glue, and provide new insights into the potential roles of phosphoproteins in underwater bioadhesives. PMID:27365418

  17. Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid

  18. The invasive barnacle species, Austrominius modestus: Its status and competition with indigenous barnacles on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mary Catherine; Davenport, John; Gregory, Susan; McAllen, Rob; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The invasive barnacle Austrominius (= Elminius) modestus has been present in Europe since the 1940s, and has recently been recorded to outnumber native barnacle species at some locations, including an Irish marine nature reserve. It has been suggested that these increases in abundance following a lag phase since establishment, represent the awakening of an 'ecological sleeper', due to changes in environmental conditions. Austrominius modestus was first recorded on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland in 1955, and was reported to be well established on the island by 2007. Since this location is close to the northern limit of the invaded range of A. modestus, it has been chosen as a site for the long term monitoring of this species. Quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys of the abundance of A. modestus, together with the native barnacle species Chthamalus montagui and Semibalanus balanoides, have been made on the island on a biannual basis since 2009. This study examined changes in the abundances of these three species from 2009 to 2013, and reports on the present status of this invasive species on the island. Austrominius modestus was found at all sites surveyed, but did not outnumber native barnacle species at any site. Semibalanus balanoides, a cold water boreal species, was the most abundant barnacle species at most sites from 2009 to 2013. All three barnacle species underwent a decline in 2011, but had increased in abundance by 2013. Despite undergoing the smallest increase in abundance between 2011 and 2013, S. balanoides remains the dominant barnacle species on the Isle of Cumbrae. Nearly sixty years after its initial discovery on the island, A. modestus is widespread, however it has not outnumbered native species, which continue to recruit at high densities. This competitive pressure makes it unlikely that A. modestus will outnumber native barnacle species at this location, close to its northern limit, in the near future.

  19. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  20. Diverse, continuous, and plastic sexual systems in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Yoichi; Takemura, Mayuko; Sawada, Kota; Yamaguchi, Sachi

    2013-10-01

    Barnacles (Crustacea: Thoracica) show diverse sexual systems, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites + males), and dioecy (females + males). When males occur, they are always much smaller (called dwarf males) than conspecific hermaphrodites or females. Ever since Darwin made this discovery, many scientists have been fascinated by such diversity. In this study, we provide an overview of (1) the diversity of sexual systems in barnacles, (2) the continuity between different sexual systems in some genera or species, and (3) the plasticity in sexual expression in several species. First, although most barnacles are hermaphroditic, both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that females and dwarf males tend to occur in species with small mating groups. Low sperm competition among hermaphrodites and little chance to act as a male are both associated with small group sizes and identified as the forces promoting the evolution of dwarf males and pure females, respectively. Second, in some groups of barnacles, the distinction between hermaphrodites and dwarf males is unclear because of the potential of dwarf males to become hermaphrodites. As many barnacle species tend toward protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (develop male function first and then add female function without discarding male function), the dwarf males in such cases are best described as potential hermaphrodites that arrest growth and emphasize male function much earlier because of attachment to conspecifics. This is presumably advantageous in fertilizing the eggs of the host individuals. The distinction between hermaphrodites and females may also be obscured in some species. Third, sex allocation and penial morphology are plastic in some species. We also report the results of a transplanting experiment on small individuals of the pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis angulata, which suggests that individuals transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer and broader penises than

  1. Australian barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica), distributions and biogeographical affinities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana S

    2012-09-01

    Currently, 279 barnacle species are recognized in Australia waters. The barnacle fauna of tropical Australia exhibits high species diversity (221), with a high incidence of tropical species (87 Indo-west Pacific [IWP], 16 West Pacific and 65 Indo-Malayan), a low species endemicity (8), and 44 cosmopolitan and 1 Australasian species. Conversely, that of temperate Australia shows lower species diversity (129), with a lower incidence of tropical species (26 IWP, 10 West Pacific and 25 Indo-Malayan), higher species endemicity (23), 37 cosmopolitan, 6 Australasian species, and 3 Australasian/Antarctic species. Distributions corroborate the general patterns demonstrated by the shallow-water biota of northern tropical and southern temperate Australian biogeographic provinces. Tropical and temperate provinces grade into each other in a broad overlap zone along both the western and eastern Australian coasts. This overlap zone is essentially a transitional region, with the gradual replacement of a tropical barnacle fauna in the north by a predominantly temperate barnacle fauna in the south. Both western and eastern Australian coasts are bounded by major poleward-flowing warm currents that have considerable influence on the marine flora and fauna, distributing tropical species of many taxa much farther south than could be predicted by latitude. Currently, 16 barnacle species introduced into Australian waters are identified, although this number may increase in the future due to new port developments and increased shipping arrivals.

  2. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Rosa Anita Hagin (1921-2014).

    PubMed

    Fagan, Thomas K; Manguno, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    This article memorializes Rosa Anita Hagin (1921-2014). Rosa's involvement with the American Psychological Association (APA) included associate member (1953), member (1958), fellow of Division 16 (School Psychology) and Division 37 (Child, Youth, and Family Services), and Division 16 secretary (1967-1970), Council Representative (1968-1971), and president (1971-1972). Rosa was a licensed psychologist, a diplomate in school psychology from the America Board of Professional Psychology, and served as president of the American Academy of School Psychology (1996-1997). Rosa received Division 16's Distinguished Service Award (1979), the Distinguished Achievement Award of the Learning Disabilities Association of American (1992), and the Orton Award from the International Dyslexia Association (1993). She was chosen to present the 2000 Legends Address for the National Association of School Psychologists. A professor with Fordham University-Lincoln Center's school psychology program since 1979, Rosa established the School Consultation Center, which was named in her honor after she retired and became professor emeritus in 1990. She continued her independent practice, researching the neuropsychology of learning disabilities, disseminating the Search and Teach (a program for the prevention of learning disabilities and their emotional consequences), consulting at a residential school for emotionally disturbed children, and serving as an expert witness in litigation on behalf of adults with learning disabilities.

  4. Calcium Efflux from Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J. M.; Blaustein, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Calcium-45 was injected into single giant barnacle muscle fibers, and the rate of efflux was measured under a variety of conditions. The rate constant (k) for 45Ca efflux into standard seawater averaged 17 x 10–4 min–1 which corresponds to an efflux of about 1–2 pmol/cm2·s. Removal of external Ca (Cao) reduced the efflux by 50%. In most fibers about 40% of the 45Ca efflux into Ca-free seawater was dependent on external Na (Nao); treatment with 3.5 mM caffeine increased the magnitude of the Nao-dependent efflux. In a few fibers removal of Nao, in the absence of Cao, either had no effect or increased k; caffeine (2–3.5 mM) unmasked an Nao-dependent efflux in these fibers. The Nao-dependent Ca efflux had a Q10 of about 3.7. The data are consistent with the idea that a large fraction of the Ca efflux may be carrier-mediated, and may involve both Ca-Ca and Na-Ca counterflow. The relation between the Nao-dependent Ca efflux and the external Na concentration is sigmoid, and suggests that two, or more likely three, external Na+ ions may activate the efflux of one Ca+2. With a three-for-one Na-Ca exchange, the Na electrochemical gradient may be able to supply sufficient energy to maintain the Ca gradient in these fibers. Other, more complex models are not excluded, however, and may be required to explain some puzzling features of the Ca efflux such as the variable Nao-dependence. PMID:4812633

  5. Reduced oxide soldering activation (ROSA) PWB solderability testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Reed, J.; Tench, D.M.; White, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of ROSA pretreatment on the solderability of environmentally stressed PWB test coupons was investigated. The PWB surface finish was an electroplated, reflowed solder. Test results demonstrated the ability to recover plated-through-hole fill of steam aged samples with solder after ROSA processing. ROSA offers an alternative method for restoring the solderability of aged PWB surfaces.

  6. Sexual systems and life history of barnacles: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Charnov, Eric L; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    Thoracican barnacles show one of the most diverse sexual systems in animals: hermaphroditism, dioecy (males and females), and androdioecy (males and hermaphrodites). In addition, when present, male barnacles are very small and are called "dwarf males". The diverse sexual systems and male dwarfism in this taxon have attracted both theoretical and empirical biologists. In this article, we review the theoretical studies on barnacles' sexual systems in the context of sex allocation and life history theories. We first introduce the sex allocation models by Charnov, especially in relation to the mating group size, and a new expansion of his models is also proposed. We then explain three studies by Yamaguchi et al., who have studied the interaction between sex allocation and life history in barnacles. These studies consistently showed that limited mating opportunity favors androdioecy and dioecy over hermaphroditism. In addition, other factors, such as rates of survival and availability of food, are also important. We discuss the importance of empirical studies testing these predictions and how empirical studies interact with theoretical constructs.

  7. Modelling boundary layer flow over barnacle-fouled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Macro-biofouling is a critical concern for the marine industry. However, there is little data on flow and drag over such surfaces. Accurate modelling of such multi-scale flows remains a big challenge. Such simulations are vital in providing insights into the fundamental flow physics, and they can be used to estimate the timing, need and effectiveness of measures used to counteract bio-fouling. This talk focuses on the use of a sharp-interface immersed boundary method coupled with a wall model and large-eddy simulations to carry out accurate simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over macro-fouled surfaces. For the current study, high resolution scans of barnacles were used to create simple geometrical representations. Simulations were then carried out to test how well these simpler geometric models mimic the flow over actual barnacles. Simulations of array of modeled barnacles, with different barnacle densities have also been carried out and we present results on the effect distribution density on the flow physics and drag on the surfaces. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582.

  8. Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M S; Arias, J I; Neira-Carrillo, A; Arias, J L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analyzes of biomineralization models have being crucial for the understanding of the functional properties of biominerals and the elucidation of the processes through which biomacromolecules control the synthesis and structural organization of inorganic mineral-based biomaterials. Among calcium carbonate-containing bioceramics, egg, mollusk and echinoderm shells, and crustacean carapaces, have being fairly well characterized. However, Thoraceca barnacles, although being crustacea, showing molting cycle, build a quite stable and heavily mineralized shell that completely surround the animal, which is for life firmly cemented to the substratum. This makes barnacles an interesting model for studying processes of biomineralization. Here we studied the main microstructural and ultrastructural features of Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell, characterize the occurrence of specific proteoglycans (keratan-, dermatan- and chondroitin-6-sulfate proteoglycans) in different soluble and insoluble organic fractions extracted from the shell, and tested them for their ability to crystallize calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results indicate that, in the barnacle model, proteoglycans are good candidates for the modification of the calcite crystal morphology, although the cooperative effect of some additional proteins in the shell could not be excluded.

  9. Effects of barnacle epibionts on the periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, C.; Reise, K.

    1999-08-01

    In a sandy bay with mussel beds in the Wadden Sea (Island of Sylt, eastern North Sea), periwinkles Littorina littorea (L.) were often strongly overgrown with the barnacle Balanus crenatus Bruguière in the lower intertidal zone. Consequences of this epibiosis on mobility, reproduction and mortalityof the snail were examined. B. crenatus growing on L. littorea increased snail volume up to 4-fold and weight up to 3.5-fold and crawling speed of fouled L. littorea was significantly slowed down. The epibiotic structure also caused a decrease in reproductive output. In laboratory experiments, egg production of fouled L. littorea was significantly lower than in snails free of barnacles. Presumably, copulation of the periwinkles is hampered by the voluminous and prickly cover of barnacles. Field studies demonstrated an increased mortality of overgrown L. littorea. A decrease in reproductive output and a lower survival of snails with a cover of barnacles suggest that B. crenatus epibionts may have a significant impact on the population of L. littorea.

  10. Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell structure and proteoglycan localization and functionality.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M S; Arias, J I; Neira-Carrillo, A; Arias, J L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative analyzes of biomineralization models have being crucial for the understanding of the functional properties of biominerals and the elucidation of the processes through which biomacromolecules control the synthesis and structural organization of inorganic mineral-based biomaterials. Among calcium carbonate-containing bioceramics, egg, mollusk and echinoderm shells, and crustacean carapaces, have being fairly well characterized. However, Thoraceca barnacles, although being crustacea, showing molting cycle, build a quite stable and heavily mineralized shell that completely surround the animal, which is for life firmly cemented to the substratum. This makes barnacles an interesting model for studying processes of biomineralization. Here we studied the main microstructural and ultrastructural features of Austromegabalanus psittacus barnacle shell, characterize the occurrence of specific proteoglycans (keratan-, dermatan- and chondroitin-6-sulfate proteoglycans) in different soluble and insoluble organic fractions extracted from the shell, and tested them for their ability to crystallize calcium carbonate in vitro. Our results indicate that, in the barnacle model, proteoglycans are good candidates for the modification of the calcite crystal morphology, although the cooperative effect of some additional proteins in the shell could not be excluded. PMID:26276577

  11. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P.; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein–metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S–S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives. PMID:25657841

  12. Santa Rosa, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Santa Rosa, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  13. Memristive Model of the Barnacle Giant Muscle Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, Maheshwar Pd.; Kim, Hyongsuk; Eroglu, Abdullah; Chua, Leon

    The generation of action potentials (oscillations) in biological systems is a complex, yet poorly understood nonlinear dynamical phenomenon involving ions. This paper reveals that the time-varying calcium ion and the time-varying potassium ion, which are essential for generating action potentials in Barnacle giant muscle fibers are in fact generic memristors in the perspective of electrical circuit theory. We will show that these two ions exhibit all the fingerprints of memristors from the equations of the Morris-Lecar model of the Barnacle giant muscle fibers. This paper also gives a textbook reference to understand the difference between memristor and nonlinear resistor via analysis of the potassium ion-channel memristor and calcium ion-channel nonlinear resistor. We will also present a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the generation of action potentials (oscillations) in memristive Morris-Lecar model using small-signal circuit model and the Hopf bifurcation theorem.

  14. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun; Kawane, Masako; Ozaki, Yuki; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Høeg, Jens T

    2012-03-01

    How and why diverse sexual systems evolve are fascinating evolutionary questions, but few empirical studies have dealt with these questions in animals. Pedunculate (gooseneck) barnacles show such diversity, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, coexistence of dwarf males and hermaphrodites (androdioecy), and coexistence of dwarf males and females (dioecy). Here, we report the first phylogenetically controlled test of the hypothesis that the ultimate cause of the diverse sexual systems and presence of dwarf males in this group is limited mating opportunities for non-dwarf individuals, owing to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin.

  15. Effect of ultrasound on cyprids and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi Feng; Lee, Heow Pueh; Chaw, Kuan Chun; Miklas, Jason; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Dickinson, Gary H; Birch, William R; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2011-02-01

    Settlement inhibition of barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) cypris larvae resulting from exposure to ultrasound was measured at three frequencies (23, 63, and 102 kHz), applied at three acoustic pressure levels (9, 15, and 22 kPa) for exposure times of 30, 150, and 300 s. The lowest settlement was observed for 23 kHz, which also induced the highest cyprid mortality. Cyprid settlement following exposure to 23 kHz at 22 kPa for 30 s was reduced by a factor of two. Observing surface exploration by the cyprids revealed an altered behaviour following exposure to ultrasound: step length was increased, while step duration, walking pace, and the fraction of cyprids exploring the surface were significantly reduced with respect to control cyprids. The basal area of juvenile barnacles, metamorphosed from ultrasound-treated cyprids was initially smaller than unexposed individuals, but normalised over two weeks' growth. Thus, ultrasound exposure effectively reduced cyprid settlement, yet metamorphosed barnacles grew normally.

  16. Precise tuning of barnacle leg length to coastal wave action.

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, D. J.; Marchinko, K. B.; Palmer, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    Both spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions can favour intraspecific plasticity in animal form. But how precise is such environmental modulation? Individual Balanus glandula Darwin, a common northeastern Pacific barnacle, produce longer feeding legs in still water than in moving water. We report here that, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, the magnitude and the precision of this phenotypic variation is impressive. First, the feeding legs of barnacles from protected bays were nearly twice as long (for the same body mass) as those from open ocean shores. Second, leg length varied surprisingly precisely with wave exposure: the average maximum velocities of breaking waves recorded in situ explained 95.6-99.5% of the variation in average leg length observed over a threefold range of wave exposure. The decline in leg length with increasing wave action was less than predicted due to simple scaling, perhaps due to changes in leg shape or material properties. Nonetheless, the precision of this relationship reveals a remarkably close coupling between growth environment and adult form, and suggests that between-population differences in barnacle leg length may be used for estimating differences in average wave exposure easily and accurately in studies of coastal ecology. PMID:11600079

  17. The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2013-09-01

    The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles was documented using high speed photography. Using spark generated bubbles, the interaction between barnacle and cavitation bubble was examined in detail. The liquid jet generated by the bubble collapse was observed to be directed towards barnacle at different impact intensities, which is related to the dimensionless distance H' (H'=H/Rm), where H is the distance between bubble formation point and the top of barnacle, and Rm is the maximum bubble radius. At lower values of H', higher speed liquid jet was produced; consequently a larger impact pressure was generated. In general, barnacles are more easily removed at a younger stage. In older barnacles, the liquid jet impact was only able to remove the barnacle shells, leaving the base plate attached to the surface. This study indicates that cavitation can be used to remove attached barnacles, and it would be more efficient if it is applied during early stages of fouling, before the formation of hard calcareous structures.

  18. ESR dating pleistocene barnacles from BC and Maine: a new method for tracking sea level change.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Gong, J J J; Skinner, Anne R; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Nelson, Robert E; Blickstein, Joel I B

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles have never been successfully dated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Living mainly in the intertidal zone, barnacles die when sea level changes cause their permanent exposure. Thus, dating the barnacles dates past sea level changes. From this, we can measure apparent sea level changes that occur due to ocean volume changes, crustal isostasy, and tectonics. ESR can date aragonitic mollusc shells ranging in age from 5 ka to at least 500 ka. By modifying the standard ESR method for molluscs to chemically dissolve 20 microm from off the shells, six barnacle samples from Norridgewock, Maine, and Khyex River, British Columbia, were tested for suitability for ESR dating. Due to Mn2+ interference peaks, the four Maine barnacle samples were not datable by ESR. Two barnacles from BC, which lacked Mn2+ interference, yielded a mean ESR age of 15.1 +/- 1.0 ka. These ages agree well with 14C dates on the barnacles themselves and wood in the overlying glaciomarine sediment. Although stability tests to calculate the mean dating signal lifetime and more ESR calibration tests against other barnacles of known age are needed to ensure the method's accuracy, ESR can indeed date Balanus, and thus, sea level changes.

  19. Loggerhead turtle movements reconstructed from 18O and 13C profiles from commensal barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killingley, John S.; Lutcavage, Molly

    1983-03-01

    Commensal barnacles, Chelonibia testudinaria, from logger-head turtles have 18O and 13C variations in their calcitic shells that record the environments in which the turtles live. Isotopic profiles from the barnacle shells can thus be interpreted to reconstruct movements of the host turtle between open ocean and brackish-water regimes.

  20. Comparative analysis of barnacle tropomyosin: divergence from decapod tropomyosins and role as a potential allergen.

    PubMed

    Suma, Yota; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-06-01

    Tropomyosin, a myofibrillar protein of 35-38 kDa, represents a major and cross-reactive allergen in decapod crustaceans. This study was initiated to clarify whether decapod-allergic patients also recognize tropomyosins of barnacles, crustaceans phylogenetically remote from decapods, which are locally consumed as a delicacy. On SDS-PAGE, a 37 kDa protein was observed in all the heated extracts prepared from two species of decapods (American lobster Homarus americanus and black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon) and two species of barnacles (acorn barnacle Balanus rostratus and goose barnacle Capitulum mitella). In immunoblotting, the 37 kDa protein was found to react with monoclonal antibodies against American lobster tropomyosin and hence identified as tropomyosin. The patient sera reacted to tropomyosins from both decapods and barnacles and the reactivity was abolished by preincubation with American lobster tropomyosin, demonstrating that barnacle tropomyosins are allergens cross-reactive with decapod tropomyosins. However, the amino acid sequence of acorn barnacle tropomyosin, deduced by cDNA cloning experiments, shares higher sequence identity with abalone tropomyosins than with decapod tropomyosins. In accordance with this, the phylogenetic tree made for tropomyosins from various animals showed that the acorn barnacle tropomyosin is evolutionally classified not into the decapod tropomyosin family but into the molluscan tropomyosin family.

  1. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa).

  2. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  3. The Myth of "Rosa Parks the Tired." Teaching about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    Retells the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery (Alabama) bus boycott to reflect more accurately the cultural and historical background of the boycott and the conscious decision made by Mrs. Parks. Accurate examination of the story actually enhances a child's ability to identify with the issues and the protagonists. (SLD)

  4. Barnacle Bill and Surrounding from Super-Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an image from the super-pan sequence. Of importance are some of the features around the rock nicknamed Barnacle Bill in the left foreground. The rock shows a 'streamlined tail' composed of particles deposited by wind on the leeward (downwind) side of the rock. Also seen is a 'moat' around the opposite (windward) side of the rock where either erosion (or non-deposition) of fine sediment has occurred. Mars Pathfinder scientist believe that the wind blowing over and around rocks like Barnacle Bill creates an airflow pattern wherein a buffer zone is formed immediately upwind of the rock and airflow patterns keep sediment from being deposited directly upwind of Barnacle Bill. On the downwind side, however, the airflow is complex and a small wake and tapered 'dead air zone' form. Sediment can be deposited within this region, the shape of the formed deposit corresponds to the airflow patterns that exist behind the rock. Similar features have been observed at the Viking landing sites, and are thought to form under high wind conditions during the autumn and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. This image mosaic was processed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the NASA/JPL Mars Pathfinder Mars Mission.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND MONITORING STUDY, 1997 - PRESENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in May 1997 water samples have been collected quarterly from 37 stations in Santa Rosa Sound, from the Pensacola Beach Bridge eastward to Ft. Walton Beach. Quarterly averages for Santa Rosa Sound showing quarterly and annual variations in concentrations of dissolved ni...

  7. Mitochondrial evolution across lineages of the vampire barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus.

    PubMed

    Wares, John P

    2015-02-01

    Eight whole mitochondrial genomes from the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus, with one from the northern lineage and seven from the divergent southern lineage, are presented. The annotated and aligned data were analyzed for signals of non-neutral evolution. Overall, these data are consistent with purifying selection operating on the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrion. However, a notable region of nonsynonymous substitution at the 3' end of the ND2 gene region, along with unusual site frequency spectra in two other gene regions, was identified.

  8. Antifouling Block Copolymer Surfaces that Resist Settlement of Barnacle Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Weinman,C.; Krishnan, S.; Park, D.; Paik, M.; Wong, K.; Fischer, D.; Handlin, D.; Kowalke, G.; Wendt, D.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Marine biofouling is a serious problem caused by the accumulation and settlement of barnacles, macroalgae, and microbial slimes on the hulls of seafaring vessels. Biofouling can significantly increase drag, leading to startling consequences with regards to fuel consumption. Environmentally compatible solutions to biofouling are being sought as traditional metal-based systems of fouling control are being phased out due to their inherent toxicity. Further exasperating the problem of biofouling is the vast range of fouling organisms and environmental conditions experienced throughout the world. This renders the development of a universal biofouling coating a significant challenge.

  9. The impact of desiccation on the adhesion of barnacles attached to non-stick coatings.

    PubMed

    Wiegemann, Maja; Watermann, Burkard

    2004-06-01

    Fouling-release coatings prevent fouling of ships' hulls through hydrodynamic forces generated as the ship moves through the water. The effectiveness of such coatings may be evaluated by measuring the adhesion strength of settled organisms, e.g. barnacles. The influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive on such measurements was investigated. Shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Balanus increased during the course of desiccation up to the point when the barnacles suddenly self-detached. The increase was thought to be due to the rising cohesive strength of the adhesive. Growing tensile forces within the weakly cross-linked adhesive, however, are suggested to have led to self-detachment. The shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Elminius were generally low and did not differ significantly during the course of desiccation. The different results may be attributed to specific base morphologies. It was concluded that measuring the adhesion strength of members of the Balanidae on non-stick surfaces in air could produce flawed results due to the influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive. The investigations have also provided new insights into the characteristics of barnacle adhesive.

  10. Introduction to the symposium--barnacle biology: essential aspects and contemporary approaches.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D

    2012-09-01

    Barnacles have evolved a number of specialized features peculiar for crustaceans: they produce a calcified, external shell; they exhibit sexual strategies involving dioecy and androdioecy; and some have become internal parasites of other Crustacea. The thoroughly sessile habit of adults also belies the highly mobile and complex nature of their larval stages. Given these and other remarkable innovations in their natural history, it is perhaps not surprising that barnacles present a spectrum of opportunities for study. This symposium integrates research on barnacles in the areas of larval biology, biofouling, reproduction, biogeography, speciation, population genetics, ecological genomics, and phylogenetics. Pioneering comparisons are presented of metamorphosis among barnacles from three major lineages. Biofouling is investigated from the perspectives of biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms. Tradeoffs in reproductive specializations are scrutinized through theoretical modeling and empirical validation. Patterns of endemism and diversity are delineated in Australia and intricate species boundaries in the genus Chthamalus are elucidated for the Indo-Pacific. General methodological concerns with population expansion studies in crustaceans are highlighted using barnacle models. Data from the first, draft barnacle genome are employed to examine location-specific selection. Lastly, barnacle evolution is framed in a deep phylogenetic context and hypothetical origins of defined characters are outlined and tested.

  11. Effect of ultrasound on cyprid footprint and juvenile barnacle adhesion on a fouling release material.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Zhong, Shaoping; Lim, Chwee Teck; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-03-01

    In our earlier studies, we have demonstrated that low and high intensity ultrasound can prevent barnacle cyprid settlement. In this study, we found that ultrasound treatment reduced the adhesion of newly metamorphosed barnacles up to 2 days' old. This was observed in the reduction of adhesion strength of the newly settled barnacles from ultrasound treated cyprids on silicone substrate compared to the adhesion strength of barnacles metamorphosed from cyprids not exposed to ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the effect of ultrasound on barnacle cyprid footprints (FPs), which are protein adhesives secreted when the larvae explore surfaces. The ultrasound treated cyprids were found to secrete less FPs, which appeared to spread a larger area than those generated by untreated cyprids. The evidence from this study suggests that ultrasound treatment results in a reduced cyprid settlement and footprint secretion, and may affect the subsequent recruitment of barnacles onto fouling release surfaces by reducing the ability of early settlement stage of barnacles (up to 2 days' old) from firmly adhering to the substrates. Ultrasound therefore can be used in combination with fouling release coatings to offer a more efficient antifouling strategy.

  12. On the origin of a novel parasitic-feeding mode within suspension-feeding barnacles.

    PubMed

    Rees, David John; Noever, Christoph; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Ommundsen, Anders; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-06-16

    In his monograph on Cirripedia from 1851, Darwin pointed to a highly unusual, plateless, and most likely parasitic barnacle of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. Darwin's barnacle was Anelasma squalicola, found on deep-water sharks of the family Etmopteridae, or lantern sharks. The barnacle is uncommon and is therefore rarely studied. Recent observations by us have shown that they occur at an unusually high prevalence on the velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax, in restricted fjord areas of western Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal DNA data (16S, 18S, and 28S) from 99 selected barnacle species, including all available pedunculate barnacle sequences from GenBank, shows that A. squalicola is most closely related (sister taxon) to the pedunculate barnacle Capitulum mitella. Both C. mitella and species of Pollicipes, situated one node higher in the tree, are conventional suspension feeders from the rocky intertidal. Our phylogenetic analysis now makes it possible to establish morphological homologies between A. squalicola and its sister taxon and provides the evolutionary framework to explain the unprecedented transition from a filter-feeding barnacle to a parasitic mode of life.

  13. Incorporation of silicone oil into elastomers enhances barnacle detachment by active surface strain.

    PubMed

    Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Cao, Changyong; Orihuela, Beatriz; Levering, Vrad; Zhao, Xuanhe; Rittschof, Daniel; López, Gabriel P

    2016-10-01

    Silicone-oil additives are often used in fouling-release silicone coatings to reduce the adhesion strength of barnacles and other biofouling organisms. This study follows on from a recently reported active approach to detach barnacles, which was based on the surface strain of elastomeric materials, by investigating a new, dual-action approach to barnacle detachment using Ecoflex®-based elastomers incorporated with poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based oil additives. The experimental results support the hypothesis that silicone-oil additives reduce the amount of substratum strain required to detach barnacles. The study also de-coupled the two effects of silicone oils (ie surface-activity and alteration of the bulk modulus) and examined their contributions in reducing barnacle adhesion strength. Further, a finite element model based on fracture mechanics was employed to qualitatively understand the effects of surface strain and substratum modulus on barnacle adhesion strength. The study demonstrates that dynamic substratum deformation of elastomers with silicone-oil additives provides a bifunctional approach towards management of biofouling by barnacles. PMID:27560712

  14. Antifouling properties of tough gels against barnacles in a long-term marine environment experiment.

    PubMed

    Murosaki, T; Noguchi, T; Hashimoto, K; Kakugo, A; Kurokawa, T; Saito, J; Chen, Y M; Furukawa, H; Gong, J P

    2009-10-01

    In the marine environment, the antifouling (AF) properties of various kinds of hydrogels against sessile marine organisms (algae, sea squirts, barnacles) were tested in a long-term experiment. The results demonstrate that most hydrogels can endure at least 2 months in the marine environment. In particular, mechanically tough PAMPS/PAAm DN and PVA gels exhibited AF activity against marine sessile organisms, especially barnacles, for as long as 330 days. The AF ability of hydrogels toward barnacles is explained in terms of an 'easy-release' mechanism in which the high water content and the elastic modulus of the gel are two important parameters.

  15. How do coral barnacles start their life in their hosts?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennie Chien Wen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-06-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates are the most significant contributors to the diversity of reef ecosystems, but no studies have examined how larvae manage to settle and grow in their coral hosts. Video recordings were used to document this process in the coral barnacle Darwiniella angularis associated with the coral Cyphastrea chalcidicum Settlement and metamorphosis in feeding juveniles lasted 8-11 days and comprised six phases. The settling cyprid starts by poking its antennules into the tissue of the prospective host (I: probing stage). The coral releases digestive filaments for defence, but tolerating such attack the cyprid penetrates further (II: battling stage). Ecdysis is completed 2 days after settlement (III: carapace detachment). The barnacle becomes embedded deep in the coral tissue while completing metamorphosis between 4 and 6 days (IV: embedding stage), but reappears as a feeding juvenile 8-11 days after settlement (V: emerging stage; VI: feeding stage). Cyprids preferably settle in areas between the coral polyps, where they have a much higher survival rate than on the polyp surfaces.

  16. Accumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd by crabs and barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.

    1985-11-01

    The crab Carcinus maenas (L.) and the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin were exposed to a range of dissolved concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd for 21 days in artificial seawater. Accumulation of Zn and Cu by crabs has been interpreted in terms of the presence of a regulation mechanism to maintain constant body concentrations (83·2 ± 19·4 μg Zn g -1 dry wt.; 39·8 ± 9·8 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.) under varying external dissolved metal levels, until a threshold dissolved metal concentration ( c. 400 μg Zn l -1; c. 170 μg Cu l -1) beyond which net accumulation of metal begins. Cadium appears to be accumulated by C. maenas at all exposures with no evidence for regulation of body cadmium concentrations. Exposure of E. modestus to Zn, Cu or Cd caused net accumulation of the respective metal in the bodies of the barnacles, with no evidence for regulation of body metal concentrations.

  17. How do coral barnacles start their life in their hosts?

    PubMed

    Liu, Jennie Chien Wen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-06-01

    Coral-associated invertebrates are the most significant contributors to the diversity of reef ecosystems, but no studies have examined how larvae manage to settle and grow in their coral hosts. Video recordings were used to document this process in the coral barnacle Darwiniella angularis associated with the coral Cyphastrea chalcidicum Settlement and metamorphosis in feeding juveniles lasted 8-11 days and comprised six phases. The settling cyprid starts by poking its antennules into the tissue of the prospective host (I: probing stage). The coral releases digestive filaments for defence, but tolerating such attack the cyprid penetrates further (II: battling stage). Ecdysis is completed 2 days after settlement (III: carapace detachment). The barnacle becomes embedded deep in the coral tissue while completing metamorphosis between 4 and 6 days (IV: embedding stage), but reappears as a feeding juvenile 8-11 days after settlement (V: emerging stage; VI: feeding stage). Cyprids preferably settle in areas between the coral polyps, where they have a much higher survival rate than on the polyp surfaces. PMID:27330170

  18. Barnacle reproductive hotspots linked to nearshore ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Heather M; Breck, Erin N; Chan, Francis; Lubchenco, Jane; Menge, Bruce A

    2005-07-26

    Coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services to human populations worldwide. Understanding the contexts in which a species has markedly higher reproductive output is vital for effective management and conservation of these valuable and highly impacted systems. We documented reproductive hotspots along the Oregon coast for an ecologically significant marine invertebrate, the intertidal barnacle Balanus glandula. Greater larval production in both natural and experimental populations was associated with higher primary productivity in the adjacent nearshore ocean, providing strong evidence for bottom-up forcing. Mean cumulative larval production per 100 cm2 in natural barnacle populations in the region of higher primary productivity was almost 5x that of populations in the less productive region. Mean estimated larval production per individual in experimental populations in the region of higher primary productivity was >2x that of populations in the region of lower productivity, and mean larval production per 100 cm2 was >120x greater in the region of higher productivity. Our results highlight the importance of spatial heterogeneity in reproduction and other ecological processes in the marine environment and provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the relative contributions of different sites when designing marine reserves and other protected areas. Our findings also advance the understanding of the role of bottom-up influences on population and community dynamics and contribute data for the next generation of models of marine community dynamics.

  19. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun; Kawane, Masako; Ozaki, Yuki; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Høeg, Jens T.

    2012-01-01

    How and why diverse sexual systems evolve are fascinating evolutionary questions, but few empirical studies have dealt with these questions in animals. Pedunculate (gooseneck) barnacles show such diversity, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, coexistence of dwarf males and hermaphrodites (androdioecy), and coexistence of dwarf males and females (dioecy). Here, we report the first phylogenetically controlled test of the hypothesis that the ultimate cause of the diverse sexual systems and presence of dwarf males in this group is limited mating opportunities for non-dwarf individuals, owing to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin. PMID:21881138

  20. Phenolic antioxidants from Rosa soulieana flowers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Fu; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Zhiqiong; Wang, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    Rosa soulieana has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disorders. In this study, antioxidant activity-guided fractionation and purification of the methanol extract from the flowers of R. soulieana has led to the isolation of nine phenolic antioxidants, which were identified as catechin (1), tiliroside (2), astragalin (3), isoquercitrin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eugenol 4-O-β-d-(6'-O-galloyl) glucoside (6), michehedyosides D (7), citrusin C (8) and strictinin (9), respectively. Among them, compounds 5-9 were reported from the genus Rosa for the first time. All the compounds were also assayed by in vitro ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] radical cation scavenging activity. Among these bioactive isolates (1-9), compounds 1, 6, 7 and 9 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS (SC50 = 10.17, 7.38, 8.60, 4.72 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (SC50 = 15.97 μmol/L).

  1. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances.

  2. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances. PMID:26715248

  3. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa.

  4. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal.

    PubMed

    Gil, Michael A; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai'i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  5. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal.

    PubMed

    Gil, Michael A; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2016-01-27

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai'i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris.

  6. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  7. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  8. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Michael A.; Pfaller, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai’i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  9. Migrations of california gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles.

    PubMed

    Killingley, J S

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships. PMID:17796007

  10. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  11. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Insurance Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the 'Insurance Pan' frames taken while the IMP camera was still in its stowed position on sol2. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The right eye composite consists of 5 frames, taken with different color filters, the left eye consists of only 1 frame. The resultant image from each eye was enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

    The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument.

  12. Prawns, barnacles, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effect modifiers or diagnostic confounders [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; González-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M

    2007-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with no history of atopy reported several episodes of generalized urticaria and shortness of breath after eating shellfish (prawns and barnacles) but with good tolerance of the same foods between episodes. Skin prick tests (SPTs), serum enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST) for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, Western blot and inhibition assays, and oral challenge tests with prawns, barnacles, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and alcohol as potential effect modifiers were performed. Specific IgE to both barnacle and prawn were detected by SPTs and EAST. Results from a Western blot of raw prawn revealed an IgE binding band of 37 kDa and IgE binding bands of 143, 83, 38, 32, and 20 kDa appeared in the raw barnacle assay. Oral challenge tests were positive with prawns and prawn extract only if preceded by NSAIDs. Oral challenges with NSAIDs alone, prawns alone, barnacles with or without NSAIDs and alcohol led to no reaction. A synergistic effect of NSAIDs in inducing anaphylaxis after prawn intake was confirmed. No similar effect was achieved with barnacles despite the presence of specific IgE. Additional factors needed to elicit a clinical reaction in food allergy may not be obvious and several oral challenge protocols are mandatory in such cases.

  13. The identification and role of a novel eicosanoid in the reproductive behaviour of barnacles (Balanus balanus).

    PubMed

    Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2006-02-01

    Post-copulatory behaviour in barnacles involves a violent rocking movement of the opercular valves, which is thought to contribute to the expulsion of oocytes through the oviduct into the mantle cavity where they are fertilised. We demonstrate in this study that the seminal vesicles/testis of the subtidal barnacle Balanus balanus produce a biologically active factor, barnacle muscle stimulatory factor (BMSF), which causes a significant increase in cirral and body muscular activity. BMSF was identified using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry as a novel eicosanoid/oxylipin, 8,13-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. This is rapidly inactivated under mild acid conditions to form a complex range of triene and pentaene chromophore-containing products that have only been partially identified. Injection of purified BMSF into the mantle cavity of barnacles caused the rocking movements of the opercular valves as reported following fertilisation. In excised barnacles, it also caused muscular contractions of the whole body mass. The breakdown products of BMSF, however, were without such activities. The function of BMSF in facilitating fertilisation in barnacles is comparable to the role of other eicosanoids in human reproduction, reinforcing the view that these compounds have conserved activities in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  14. Prolonged morphometric study of barnacles grown on soft substrata of hydrogels and elastomers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nafees; Murosaki, Takayuki; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Kakugo, Akira; Yashima, Shintaro; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    A long-term investigation of the shell shape and the basal morphology of barnacles grown on tough, double-network (DN) hydrogels and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was conducted in a laboratory environment. The elastic modulus of these soft substrata varied between 0.01 and 0.47 MPa. Polystyrene (PS) (elastic modulus, 3 GPa) was used as a hard substratum control. It was found that the shell shape and the basal plate morphology of barnacles were different on the rigid PS substratum compared to the soft substrata of PDMS and DN hydrogels. Barnacles on the PS substratum had a truncated cone shape with a flat basal plate while on soft PDMS and DN gels, barnacles had a pseudo-cylindrical shape and their basal plates showed curvature. In addition, a large adhesive layer was observed under barnacles on PDMS, but not on DN gels. The effect of substratum stiffness is discussed in terms of barnacle muscle contraction, whereby the relative stiffness of the substratum compared to that of the muscle is considered as the key parameter.

  15. 'Flying barnacles': implications for the spread of non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-07-01

    The presence of adult barnacles of Fistulobalanus pallidus (Darwin) and Fistulobalanus albicostatus (Pilsbry) attached to field-readable plastic leg rings on the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus in Northern Europe is reported. L. fuscus is a long-distance palaearctic migrant, breeding in temperate areas spreading widely over inland and marine habitats outside the breeding season. The species is known to perform long-distance migration to Africa and the Middle East. Combining present knowledge on the birds' migratory pattern and the home range of the barnacle species, it is concluded that the cypris larvae of F. pallidus must have settled in African waters, whereas the area where F. albicostatus settled on the bird leg rings is less certain. The barnacles were of adult size and must thus have been attached for a period of no less than 2 months. More than 30 individual barnacles could occur together on a single field-readable plastic leg ring. The barnacles could therefore, if ported alive to a new area, reproduce successfully and thus either introduce the species or genetically affect other native populations. This may pose a new and wholly unexpected transportation pathway for barnacles as invasive species.

  16. Larval vision contributes to gregarious settlement in barnacles: adult red fluorescence as a possible visual signal.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Gregarious settlement, an essential behavior for many barnacle species that can only reproduce by mating with a nearby barnacle, has long been thought to rely on larval ability to recognize chemical signals from conspecifics during settlement. However, the cyprid, the settlement stage larva in barnacles, has one pair of compound eyes that appear only at the late nauplius VI and cyprid stages, but the function(s) of these eyes remains unknown. Here we show that cyprids of the intertidal barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite can locate adult barnacles even in the absence of chemical cues, and prefer to settle around them probably via larval sense of vision. We also show that the cyprids can discriminate color and preferred to settle on red surfaces. Moreover, we found that shells of adult B. amphitrite emit red auto-fluorescence and the adult extracts with the fluorescence as a visual signal attracted cyprid larvae to settle around it. We propose that the perception of specific visual signals can be involved in behavior of zooplankton including marine invertebrate larvae, and that barnacle auto-fluorescence may be a specific signal involved in gregarious larval settlement.

  17. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  18. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the parasitic barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Glenner, Henrik; Hebsgaard, Martin Bay

    2006-12-01

    The barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia) consist of three well-defined orders: the conventional filter-feeding barnacles (Thoracica), the burrowing barnacles (Acrothoracica), and the parasitic barnacles (Rhizocephala). Thoracica and Acrothoracica feed by catching food particles from the surrounding seawater using their thoracic appendages while members of Rhizocephala are exclusively parasitic. The parasite consists of a sac-shaped, external reproductive organ situated on the abdomen of its crustacean host and a nutrient-absorbing root system embedded into the heamolymph of the host. In order to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of the order Rhizocephala and elucidate the evolution of the different life history strategies found within the Rhizocephala, we have performed the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group. Our results indicate that Rhizocephala is monophyletic with a filter-feeding barnacle-like ancestor. The host-infective stage, the kentrogon larva, inserted in the lifecycle of the rhizocephalan suborder, Kentrogonida, is shown to be ancestral and most likely a homologue of the juvenile stage of a conventional thoracican barnacle. The mode of host inoculation found in the suborder Akentrogonida, where the last pelagic larval stage directly injects the parasitic material into the heamolymph of the host is derived, and has evolved only once within the Rhizocephala. Lastly, our results show that the ancestral host for extant rhizocephalans appears to be the anomuran crustaceans (Anomura), which includes hermit crabs and squat lobsters.

  19. Significance of trophic transfer in predicting the high concentration of zinc in barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Qui, J.W.; Qian, P.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. The authors determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98% for the zooplankton preys. These AEs were the highest measured among aquatic invertebrates. Varying distribution in the soft tissues of zooplankton did not account for the variability of Zn AE observed among different zooplankton preys. Most Zn was distributed in the guts of the animals, presumably associated with the numerous granules beneath the gut epithelium. The efflux rate constant was 0.003 d{sup {minus}1}, and the calculated biological retention half-time was about 230 days. Using a simple bioenergetic-based kinetic model, the authors demonstrated that trophic transfer can account for such a high Zn concentration in barnacles. The predicted Zn concentrations in barnacles were directly comparable to the concentrations measured in Hong Kong coastal waters {micro}g. The high Zn concentration is related to its very efficient assimilation in barnacles coupled with a very low efflux rate. Biological variability must be fully appreciated before barnacles can be designated as an appropriate biomonitor of Zn contamination in coastal waters. The authors study suggests that metal concentration in aquatic animals can be predicted only when both physiological and geochemical processes are considered.

  20. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  1. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  2. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one...

  4. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one...

  5. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  7. Antifouling activity of synthetic alkylpyridinium polymers using the barnacle model.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC₅₀) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC₅₀: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC₅₀ of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  8. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under the McMurdo Ice Shelf using Antarctic barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential of barnacles for paleoceanographic reconstruction and, in particular, of the Antarctic species Bathylasma corolliforme to reconstruct past conditions under ice shelves. Like other barnacle species, this Antarctic barnacle secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth over a number of years (30-50 in samples studied here). The Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and became entrained at the grounding line of a coastal ice shelf in McMurdo Sound, offering potential as an archive of changing conditions in this difficult to access environment under the McMurdo ice shelf. Nine barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ 18O and δ 13C analysis. These samples were dated with 14C and U-Th techniques, although the later did not yield useful age information due to open-system behaviour of barnacle calcite. Measured δ 18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater. One older sample (≈ 200 ka) has similar δ 18O and δ 13C values as the eight Holocene samples, suggesting that barnacle calcite is not prone to significant diagenesis in this setting. Apparent isotope equilibrium and lack of diagenesis make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Cycles of δ 18O observed within each sample sometimes correlate with the external growth ridges, but not always, and have amplitudes of typically 0.6‰. This magnitude of variation suggests shell growth during a significant portion of the year, although it remains unclear whether growth continues throughout the year. However, the prominent growth bands suggest at least a signficant seasonal slowing in growth rate. Variations in barnacle δ 18O within each plate and between plates are too large to be caused by temperature, and instead reflect changes in δ 18O of the seawater, allowing some assessment of seawater

  9. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification. PMID:24636895

  10. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification.

  11. Something Darwin didn't know about barnacles: spermcast mating in a common stalked species.

    PubMed

    Barazandeh, Marjan; Davis, Corey S; Neufeld, Christopher J; Coltman, David W; Palmer, A Richard

    2013-03-01

    Most free-living barnacles are hermaphroditic, and eggs are presumed to be fertilized either by pseudo-copulation or self-fertilization. Although the common northeast Pacific intertidal gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes polymerus, is believed only to cross-fertilize, some isolated individuals well outside penis range nonetheless bear fertilized eggs. They must therefore either self-fertilize or-contrary to all prior expectations about barnacle mating-obtain sperm from the water. To test these alternative hypotheses, we collected isolated individuals bearing egg masses, as well as isolated pairs where at least one parent carried egg masses. Using 16 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we confirmed that a high percentage of eggs were fertilized with sperm captured from the water. Sperm capture occurred in 100 per cent of isolated individuals and, remarkably, even in 24 per cent of individuals that had an adjacent partner. Replicate subsamples of individual egg masses confirmed that eggs fertilized by captured sperm occurred throughout the egg mass. Sperm capture may therefore be a common supplement to pseudo-copulation in this species. These observations (i) overturn over a century of beliefs about what barnacles can (or cannot) do in terms of sperm transfer, (ii) raise doubts about prior claims of self-fertilization in barnacles, (iii) raise interesting questions about the capacity for sperm capture in other species (particularly those with short penises), and (iv) show, we believe for the first time, that spermcast mating can occur in an aquatic arthropod.

  12. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A Richard

    2008-05-01

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification--female choice, sexual conflict and male-male competition--can influence genital form.

  13. Mating group size and evolutionarily stable pattern of sexuality in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Urano, Satoru; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2008-07-01

    Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have various patterns of sexuality depending on species including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites and dwarf males), and dioecy (females and dwarf males). We develop a model that predicts the pattern of sexuality in barnacles by two key environmental factors: (i) food availability and (ii) the fraction of larvae that settle on the sea floor. Populations in the model consist of small individuals and large ones. We calculate the optimal resource allocation toward male function, female function and growth for small and large barnacles that maximizes each barnacle's lifetime reproductive success using dynamic programming. The pattern of sexuality is defined by the combination of the optimal resource allocations. In our model, the mating group size is a dependent variable and we found that sexuality pattern changes with the food availability through the mating group size: simultaneous hermaphroditism appears in food-rich environments, where the mating group size is large, protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism appears in intermediate food environments, where the mating group size also takes intermediate value, the other sexuality patterns, androdioecy, dioecy, and sex change are observed in food-poor environments, where the mating group size is small. Our model is the first one where small males can control their growth to large individuals, and hence has ability to explain a rich spectrum of sexual patterns found in barnacles.

  14. Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles (critical removal stress) using the new automated system was comparable to that obtained with ASTM D5618 (1994) (0.19 and 0.28 MPa compared with 0.18 and 0.27 MPa for two batches of barnacles). The automated method showed a faster rate of force development compared with the manual spring force gauge used for ASTM D5618 (1994). The new instrument was as accurate and precise at determining surface area as manual delineation used with ASTM D5618 (1994). The method provided significant advantages such as higher throughput speed, the ability to test smaller barnacles (which took less time to grow) and to control the force application angle and speed. The variability in measurements was lower than previously reported, suggesting an improved ability to compare the results obtained by different researchers.

  15. The unexpected mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Hope, Neva B; Wares, John P

    2016-05-01

    Androdioecy was first described by Darwin in his seminal work on barnacle diversity; he identified males and hermaphrodites in the same reproductive population. Today, we realize that many androdioecious plants and animals share astonishing similarities, particularly with regard to their evolutionary history and mating system. Notably, these species were ancestrally dioecious, and their mating system has the following characteristics: hermaphrodites self-fertilize frequently, males are more successful in large mating groups, and males have a mating advantage. A male mating advantage makes androdioecy more likely to persist over evolutionary times. Androdioecious barnacles, however, appear to persist as an outlier with a different evolutionary trajectory: they originate from hermaphroditic species. Although sexual systems of androdioecious barnacles are known, no information on the mating system of androdioecious barnacles is available. This study assessed the mating system of the androdioecious barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria. In contrast to other androdioecious species, C. testudinaria does not self-fertilize, males do not have a mating advantage over hermaphrodites, and the average mating group is quite small, averaging only three individuals. Mating success is increased by proximity to the mate and penis length. Taken together, the mating system of C. testudinaria is unusual in comparison with other androdioecious plants and animals, and the lack of a male mating advantage suggests that the mating system alone does not provide an explanation for the maintenance of androdioecy in this species. Instead, we propose that sex-specific life history equalizes male and hermaphroditic overall fitness. PMID:26923636

  16. Dietary Rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) oil prevents high diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Espessailles, Amanda; Dossi, Camila G; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys S

    2015-09-01

    The effects of dietary Rosa mosqueta (RM, Rosa rubiginosa) oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in the prevention of liver steatosis were studied in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6j mice were fed either a control diet or HFD with or without RM oil for 12 weeks. The results indicate that RM oil supplementation decreases fat infiltration of the liver from 43.8% to 6.2%, improving the hepatic oxidative state, insulin levels, HOMA index, and both body weight and adipose tissue weight of HFD plus RM treated animals compared to HFD without supplementation. In addition, the DHA concentration in the liver was significantly increased in HFD fed mice with RM oil compared to HFD (3 vs. 1.6 g per 100 g FAME). The n-6/n-3 ratio was not significantly modified by treatment with RM. Our findings suggest that RM oil supplementation prevents the development of hepatic steatosis and the obese phenotype observed in HFD fed mice.

  17. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate.

    PubMed

    Burden, Daniel K; Spillmann, Christopher M; Everett, Richard K; Barlow, Daniel E; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Fears, Kenan P; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery.

  18. Chloride Fluxes in Isolated Dialyzed Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    DiPolo, R.

    1972-01-01

    Chloride outflux and influx has been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle under constant internal composition by means of a dialysis perfusion technique. Membrane potential was continually recorded. The chloride outfluxes and influxes were 143 and 144 pmoles/cm2-sec (mean resting potential: 58 mv, temperature: 22°–24°C) with internal and external chloride concentrations of 30 and 541 mM, respectively. The chloride conductance calculated from tracer measurements using constant field assumptions is about fourfold greater than that calculated from published electrical data. Replacing 97% of the external chloride ions by propionate reduces the chloride efflux by 51%. Nitrate ions applied either to the internal or external surface of the membrane slows the chloride efflux. The external pH dependence of the chloride efflux follows the external pH dependence of the membrane conductance, in the range pH 3.9–4.7, increasing with decreasing pH. In the range pH 5–9, the chloride efflux increased with increasing pH, in a manner similar to that observed in frog muscle fibers. The titration curve for internal pH changes in the range 4.0–7.0 was quantitatively much different from that for external pH change, indicating significant asymmetry in the internal and external pH dependence of the chloride efflux. PMID:5074810

  19. Genetic diversity of hydrothermal-vent barnacles in Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouviez, Sophie; Schultz, Thomas F.; McGinnis, Gwendolyn; Minshall, Halle; Rudder, Meghan; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I genetic diversity of two barnacle species (Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis, Vulcanolepas cf. parensis) at three sites in Manus Basin (Solwara 1, South Su, Solwara 8). There was no evidence for within-site or between-site genetic differentiation for either species. While E. ohtai manusensis showed limited genetic variation, V. cf. parensis showed greater variation, with sequences distributed between two divergent groups. Assuming the cytochrome oxidase I gene is not under selection, significantly negative Tajima's D in E. ohtai manusensis is consistent with a recent population expansion due to a bottleneck or founder effect, whereas V. cf. parensis (combined groups) did not depart from a stable effective population size. Considering the groups separately, V. cf. parensis Group 1 (but not Group 2) showed a negative Tajima's D, indicating these groups may have encountered different historical demographic conditions. Data reported here are part of a baseline study against which recovery of genetic diversity following mineral extraction at Solwara 1 can be measured.

  20. A potassium contribution to the response of the barnacle photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hanani, M; Shaw, C

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular recording from photoreceptors in the lateral eye of the barnacle show a brief negative-going 'dip' shortly after the onset of the late receptor potential. This phase can sometimes result in a hyperpolarization relative to the resting membrane potential. 2. The dip is prominent in light-adapted cells and is reduced by dark-adaptation. Low extracellular Ca2+ also reduces it. 3. The amplitude of the dip changes inversely with the K+ concentration in the saline. 4. The amplitude of the dip depends on the membrane potential, with a reversal potential near - 80 mV. 5. K+ blocking agents such as quinine and quinidine reduce or abolish the dip. 6. These observations indicate that the dip is due to a brief increase in K+ conductance which may be dependent on an influx of Ca ions. The fast decay of this phase may be brought about by a rapid uptake of Ca2+ by an intracellular mechanism. PMID:915767

  1. Sodium and Potassium Fluxes in Isolated Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brinley, F. J.

    1968-01-01

    Sodium and potassium influxes and outfluxes have been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle both by microinjection and by external loading. The sodium influxes and outfluxes were 49 and 39 pmoles /cm2-sec (temperature = 15–16°C) respectively. The potassium influxes and outfluxes were 28 and 60 pmoles/cm2-sec (temperature = 13–16°C) respectively. Replacement of external sodium by lithium reduced sodium outflux by 67% but had no effect on potassium outflux. Removal of external potassum reduced the sodium outflux by 51% but had no effect on potassium outflux. External strophanthidin (10–30 µM) reduced sodium outflux by 80–90% and increased potassium outflux by 40% in normal fibers. The time constant for sodium exchange increased linearly with internal sodium concentration, as did the fraction of sodium outflux insensitive to a maximally inhibitory concentration of external strophanthidin in the range of 10 tO 80 mM internal sodium. The strophanthidin-sensitive component of sodium outflux could be related to the internal sodium concentration by the following empirical formula: See PDF for Equation PMID:5651768

  2. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under ice in the Ross Sea and in the Southern Ocean using barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimate archives that capture annual and subannual resolution marine conditions outside the tropics are not common but would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates the potential of barnacles for such purposes and applies them to paleoceanographic reconstruction under the McMurdo ice shelf and in the Southern Ocean. Most of the Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and range in age between modern samples (used for calibration) and Holocene samples which were collected on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, having been entrained at the grounding line and moved through the ice by surface ablation and further basal freezing. Like other barnacles, this species secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth durations of several decades. Barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ18O and δ13C analysis and dated by 14C. Measured δ18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater and those of old (>200kyr) samples suggest little or no diagenesis. These features make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Variations in barnacle δ18O within each plate and between plates reflect changes in δ18O of the seawater, and allow some assessment of the salinity under the ice shelf. Salinities are lowered by addition of meltwaters, but the barnacle data suggest this lowering does not go below 33‰. Salinity near the grounding line shows both temporal and spatial variability. These data indicate that Bathylasma can provide valuable paleoclimate information at subannual resolution for shallow/intermediate water depths and regions such as Antarctica that play an important role in the climate system. We are now exploring this potential to investigate intermediate water conditions in the South Pacific during the last glacial using samples from seamounts on the Macquarie Ridge and south of

  3. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  4. Reversible antifouling effect of the cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles.

    PubMed

    Göransson, Ulf; Sjögren, Martin; Svangård, Erika; Claeson, Per; Bohlin, Lars

    2004-08-01

    Cycloviolacin O2, a plant peptide of the cyclotide family, is shown to have potent effects against fouling barnacles (Balanus improvisus), with complete inhibition of settlement at a concentration of 0.25 microM. The effect of cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles is reversible and nontoxic in the bioassay employed in these studies. Cycloviolacin O2 was isolated from the terrestrial plant Viola odorata by strong cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry following aminoethylation and enzymatic cleavage.

  5. Decremental conduction of the visual signal in barnacle lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Stephen R.

    1972-01-01

    1. There are problems associated with the notion that slow potentials alone are used to transmit information in the early stages of some visual systems. This idea and alternatives have been tested on the barnacle lateral ocellus, a simple eye with only three photoreceptors, each with its own axon about 1 cm long. 2. All of the receptors have very similar properties including spectral sensitivity, and are also electrically coupled together. Impulses cannot be recorded from any of the cell bodies, all of which have been impaled as shown by dye marking. 3. No impulses can be recorded externally from most of the ocellar nerve or intracellularly from the receptor axon terminals. Impulses driven by light, sometimes recorded in the final part of the nerve, are believed to originate in other axons. 4. During illumination of the eye, current enters the receptor soma and leaves via the rest of the axon. This is consistent with the idea that the axon acts as a purely passive cable. The passive behaviour was also demonstrated in a comparison of the relative attenuation down the axon, of hyperpolarizations and depolarizations. 5. Calculations based on the supposed electrical constants of the somas showed that the slow potential itself was unlikely to be the visual signal, since it would be enormously attenuated by passive spread down the long thin axons. To check this, the axon terminals in the supraoesophageal ganglion were penetrated and identified by electrical and dye-marking criteria. In fact, the slow potential was attenuated in the most favourable case only by a factor of about three, indicating an axon membrane resistance in the range of 105 Ω. cm2. 6. This resistance may be substantially higher than that of the soma surface membrane, corrected for increased surface area. The sheath around each axon probably does not influence the electrical properties, judged by its permeability to the small molecule of Procion Yellow. 7. The minimal loss of voltage in the axon and

  6. Analysis of the Behaviours Mediating Barnacle Cyprid Reversible Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Nick; Høeg, Jens T.; Maruzzo, Diego; Clare, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic ‘walking’ behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as ‘footprints’ on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic ‘suction cup’. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous ‘temporary adhesive’, ‘dry’ adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface – presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond – seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion

  7. The Rosa Parks "Myth": A Third Grade Historical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary; Lowenstein, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how, by comparing multiple perspectives of the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, students can experience first-hand how different published accounts of the same event may contain different information. The author relates the lesson plan of Jennifer Morrow, a third-grade teacher at Coral Ridge Elementary…

  8. The impact of coating hardness on the anti-barnacle efficacy of an embedded antifouling biocide.

    PubMed

    Pinori, Emiliano; Elwing, Hans; Berglin, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of antifouling coatings designed to minimise the release of biocide, either by embedded (non-covalent) or tethered (covalently bonded) biocides, relies on sufficient bioavailability of the active compound upon contact between the organism and the coating. This investigation is focused on whether coating hardness affects the efficacy of embedded coating systems. Two experimental, non-eroding and waterborne latex paint formulations composed mainly of polystyrene (PS) or polyvinyl versatate (PV) were chosen for their difference in mechanical properties measured in terms of Buchholz indentation resistance. Ivermectin was added to both formulations to a final concentration of 0.1% (w/v) and the steady state release rate was measured according to ISO 15181 at between 34 and 70 ng cm(-2) day(-1) for both formulations. Field trials conducted over 3 months showed significant differences in anti-barnacle efficacy between the formulations despite their similar release profiles. The softer PV coating showed complete anti-barnacle efficacy, ie no barnacles were detected, while the harder PS coating showed no efficacy against barnacle colonisation during the same time period. The results indicate a new antifouling strategy whereby a route of intoxication is triggered by the organism itself upon interaction with the coating and its embedded biocide. This finding opens new possibilities in controlling macrofouling by low emission antifouling coatings.

  9. Characterization of metalloproteinase-like activities in barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) nauplii.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Canesi, Laura; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Gallo, Gabriella; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-05-01

    The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes was investigated in naupliar stages of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin. The results of substrate gel-zymography and quantitative assays demonstrated that naupliar extracts contain several protease activities that are specific towards gelatin substrates; some caseinolytic activity was also detected. Substrate specificity was observed in all naupliar stages (II-VI). The gelatinolytic activities showed dependence on both Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) and inhibition by EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Also Mg(2+) partially activated the enzymes, whereas Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were inhibitory. The thermal denaturation profile was significantly different in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Overall, the results indicate that the Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent gelatinase activities in barnacle nauplii belong to the subfamily of matrix metalloproteases. Barnacle larvae MMPs showed biochemical characteristics different from those of vertebrate MMPs but common to other gelatinases from marine invertebrates: they were unaffected by several protease inhibitors and insensitive to specific activators/inhibitors of vertebrate MMPs. The presence of MMP-like activities in different naupliar stages suggests a constitutive role for these enzymes in ECM remodeling during barnacle larvae growth and development. PMID:12781969

  10. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan M; Overstreet, Robin M; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration.

  11. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Goodwin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed "microplastic," have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the "rafting assemblage," are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem.

  12. Sexual systems and dwarf males in barnacles: integrating life history and sex allocation theories.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Sawada, Kota; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2013-03-01

    Barnacles, which are sedentary marine crustaceans, have diverse sexual systems that include simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (coexistence of hermaphrodites and males) and dioecy (females and males). In dioecious and androdioecious species, the males are very small and are thus called dwarf males. These sexual systems are defined by two factors: sex allocation of non-dwarf individuals and the presence or absence of dwarf males. We constructed an ESS model treating sex allocation and life history simultaneously to explain sexual systems in barnacles. We analyzed the evolutionarily stable size-dependent resource allocation strategy to male reproductive function, female reproductive function and growth in non-dwarf barnacles, and the ESS proportion of dwarf males, under conditions of varying mortality and food availability. Sex allocation in non-dwarf individuals (hermaphrodites or females) is affected by mate availability and the proportion of dwarf males. When hermaphrodites appear, all hermaphrodites become protandric simultaneous hermaphrodites. Furthermore, high mortality and poor resource availability favor dwarf males because of their early maturation and weakened sperm competition. In conclusion, we showed that combining sex allocation and life history theories is a useful way to understand various sexual systems in barnacles and perhaps in other organisms as well.

  13. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Robin M.; Raga, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  14. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Goodwin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed "microplastic," have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the "rafting assemblage," are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  15. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan M; Overstreet, Robin M; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  16. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  17. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:25602032

  18. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems.

  19. Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D; Hadfield, Michael G

    2005-10-01

    Chthamalus proteus, a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic, was introduced to the Pacific within the last few decades. Using direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (COI), we characterized genetic variation in native and introduced populations and searched for genetic matches between regions to determine if there were multiple geographical sources and introduction points for this barnacle. In the native range, we found great genetic differences among populations (max. F(ST) = 0.613) encompassing four lineages: one endemic to Panama, one endemic to Brazil, and two occurring Caribbean-wide. All four lineages were represented in the Pacific, but not equally; the Brazilian lineage was most prevalent and the Panamanian least common. Twenty-one individuals spread among nearly every island from where the barnacle is known in the Pacific, exactly matched six haplotypes scattered among Curaçao, the Netherlands Antilles; St John, US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; and Brazil, confirming a multigeographical origin for the Pacific populations. Significant genetic differences were also found in introduced populations from the Hawaiian Islands (F(CT) = 0.043, P < 0.001), indicating introduction events have occurred at more than one locality. However, the sequence, timing and number of arrival events remains unknown. Possible reasons for limited transport of this barnacle through the Panama Canal are discussed. This and a preponderance of Brazilian-type individuals in the Pacific suggest an unexpected route of entry from around Cape Horn, South America. Unification in the Pacific of historically divergent lineages of this barnacle raises the possibility for selection of 'hybrids' with novel ecological adaptations in its new environment. PMID:16202091

  20. Chemical Analysis of Dietary Constituents in Rosa roxburghii and Rosa sterilis Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-He; Lu, Xian-Yuan; Fu, Wei-Ming; He, Jing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Both Rosa roxburghii and R. sterilis, belonging to the Rosaceae, are endemic species in Guizhou Province, China. The fruits of these two species are mixed-used as functional food in the region. Aiming to elucidate the phytochemical characteristics of R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits, the essential oils and constituents in a methanol extract have been analyzed and compared by GC-MS and UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. As a result, a total of 135 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and 91 components were different between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits; a total of 59 compounds in methanol extracts were identified by UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, including 13 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 11 triterpenes, nine amino acids, five phenylpropanoid derivatives, four condensed tannins, two stilbenes, two benzaldehyde derivatives and one benzoic acid derivative; and nine characteristic compounds were found between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits. This systematic study plays an important role for R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits in the product development. PMID:27618004

  1. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  2. Transformation of signals by interneurones in the barnacle's visual pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Donata; Stuart, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    1. The photoreceptors of the median eye of the giant barnacle drive decrementally-conducting neurones in the supraoesophageal ganglion termed `inverting cells' (I-cells) which in turn drive impulse-producing neurones termed `amplifying cells' (A-cells). Using intracellular recording techniques we have studied the role of I-cells in visual processing. 2. Horseradish peroxidase injections show that I-cells are interneurones whose processes are confined to the regions of the photoreceptor terminals on both sides of the bilaterally symmetrical ganglion. 3. In the dark, I-cell membrane potentials (-45 mV) are considerably less negative than those of other ganglion cells (-60 to -70 mV). At the onset of a maintained light, I-cells undergo a transient peak hyperpolarization which declines to a steady-state response. Both response components are graded with light intensity. 4. The reversal potential of the peak of the I-cell light response depends on the external K+ concentration more strongly than does the dark resting potential (3-30 mm-K+). This evidence indicates that the hyperpolarization results from an increase in the cell's permeability to K+ ions. 5. At the offset of light an I-cell undergoes a transient depolarization that overshoots the dark membrane potential. Dimming of a background light can also cause the I-cell membrane potential to overshoot its dark resting value. This overshoot is associated with a large depolarizing synaptic potential in A-cells. 6. An overshoot of the dark resting potential can also be elicited by the break of a hyperpolarizing pulse of current injected into an I-cell. The amplitude of this overshoot increases with pulse duration over a time course of seconds. 7. In the presence of external tetraethylammonium ion (TEA) and tetrodotoxin, (TTX), the break of a hyperpolarizing pulse or the onset of a depolarizing pulse can evoke in an I-cell an action potential whose rate of rise and amplitude depend on the external Ca concentration. This

  3. Identification and authentication of Rosa species through development of species-specific SCAR marker(s).

    PubMed

    Bashir, K M I; Awan, F S; Khan, I A; Khan, A I; Usman, M

    2014-05-30

    Roses (Rosa indica) belong to one of the most crucial groups of plants in the floriculture industry. Rosa species have special fragrances of interest to the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The genetic diversity of plants based on morphological characteristics is difficult to measure under natural conditions due to the influence of environmental factors, which is why a reliable fingerprinting method was developed to overcome this problem. The development of molecular markers will enable the identification of Rosa species. In the present study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on four Rosa species, Rosa gruss-an-teplitz (Surkha), Rosa bourboniana, Rosa centifolia, and Rosa damascena. A polymorphic RAPD fragment of 391 bp was detected in R. bourboniana, which was cloned, purified, sequenced, and used to design a pair of species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (forward and reverse). These SCAR primers were used to amplify the specific regions of the rose genome. These PCR amplifications with specific primers are less sensitive to reaction conditions, and due to their high reproducibility, these species-specific SCAR primers can be used for marker-assisted selection and identification of Rosa species.

  4. 75 FR 71787 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvator Rosa: Bandits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... and Magic'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority... ``Salvator Rosa: Bandits, Wilderness and Magic'', imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  5. Predation on barnacles of intertidal and subtidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Balanids are the numerically dominant epibionts on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), Semibalanus balanoides dominated intertidally and Balanus crenatus subtidally. Field experiments were conducted to test the effects of predation on the density of barnacle recruits. Subtidally, predator exclusion resulted in significantly increased abundances of B. crenatus, while predator exclusion had no significant effects on the density of S. balanoides intertidally. It is suggested that recruitment of B. crenatus to subtidal mussel beds is strongly affected by adult shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and juvenile starfish ( Asterias rubens), whereas recruits of S. balanoides in the intertidal zone are mainly influenced by grazing and bulldozing of the very abundant periwinkle Littorina littorea, which is rare subtidally. Thus, not only do the barnacle species differ between intertidal and subtidal mussel beds, but the biotic control factors do so as well.

  6. Synergistic roles for lipids and proteins in the permanent adhesive of barnacle larvae.

    PubMed

    Gohad, Neeraj V; Aldred, Nick; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Jong Lee, Young; Cicerone, Marcus T; Orihuela, Beatriz; Clare, Anthony S; Rittschof, Dan; Mount, Andrew S

    2014-07-11

    Thoracian barnacles rely heavily upon their ability to adhere to surfaces and are environmentally and economically important as biofouling pests. Their adhesives have unique attributes that define them as targets for bio-inspired adhesive development. With the aid of multi-photon and broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies, we report that the larval adhesive of barnacle cyprids is a bi-phasic system containing lipids and phosphoproteins, working synergistically to maximize adhesion to diverse surfaces under hostile conditions. Lipids, secreted first, possibly displace water from the surface interface creating a conducive environment for introduction of phosphoproteins while simultaneously modulating the spreading of the protein phase and protecting the nascent adhesive plaque from bacterial biodegradation. The two distinct phases are contained within two different granules in the cyprid cement glands, implying far greater complexity than previously recognized. Knowledge of the lipidic contribution will hopefully inspire development of novel synthetic bioadhesives and environmentally benign antifouling coatings.

  7. New alien barnacles in the Azores and some remarks on the invasive potential of Balanidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Costa, Ana Cristina; Dionísio, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    Global homogenization of biota is underway through worldwide introduction and establishment of non-indigenous (exotic) species. Organisms fouling ship hulls are continually in transit and can affect communities through biodiversity loss and serious damage to economy and public health. In the Azores, for the first time, underwater alien species prospection was conducted in marinas and recreational harbours, at São Miguel Island. Populations of three locally previously unknown barnacle species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus eburneus and Perforatus perforatus. These species account for the more than 50% of alien barnacles worldwide that belong to Balanidae family. Hence, some considerations about morphology and life cycle of this family are advanced, discussed and related to their invasive potential.

  8. The effect of boldness on decision-making in barnacle geese is group-size-dependent.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Adamczyk, Vena M A P; van Wieren, Sipke E; Prins, Herbert H T

    2011-07-01

    In group-living species, decisions made by individuals may result in collective behaviours. A central question in understanding collective behaviours is how individual variation in phenotype affects collective behaviours. However, how the personality of individuals affects collective decisions in groups remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of boldness on the decision-making process in different-sized groups of barnacle geese. Naive barnacle geese, differing in boldness score, were introduced in a labyrinth in groups with either one or three informed demonstrators. The demonstrators possessed information about the route through the labyrinth. In pairs, the probability of choosing a route prior to the informed demonstrator increased with increasing boldness score: bolder individuals decided more often for themselves where to go compared with shyer individuals, whereas shyer individuals waited more often for the demonstrators to decide and followed this information. In groups of four individuals, however, there was no effect of boldness on decision-making, suggesting that individual differences were less important with increasing group size. Our experimental results show that personality is important in collective decisions in pairs of barnacle geese, and suggest that bolder individuals have a greater influence over the outcome of decisions in groups.

  9. The origins and evolution of dwarf males and habitat use in thoracican barnacles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Høeg, Jens T; Yusa, Yoichi; Chan, Benny K K

    2015-10-01

    Barnacles are exceptional in having various sexual systems (androdioecy, hermaphroditism, dioecy) and with a high morphological diversity of males, though these are always minute (dwarf) compared to their female or hermaphrodite partners. For the first time, we use a multiple DNA marker-based phylogeny to elucidate the ancestral states and evolution of (1) dwarf males, (2) their morphology when present, (3) their attachment site on the partner, and (4) habitat use in thoracican barnacles. Our taxon sampling was especially rich in rare deep-sea Scalpelliformes and comprised species with diverse sexual systems and dwarf male morphologies. Within the thoracican barnacles dwarf male evolution is subject to extensive convergence, but always correlated to similar ecological conditions. Males evolved convergently at least four times from purely hermaphroditic ancestors, in each case correlated with the invasion into habitats with low mating group sizes. The independent evolution of dwarf males in these lineages dovetails with the males having different morphologies and occurring in several different locations on their sexual partner.

  10. Ecology and Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity in the Penis and Cirri of Barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, J Matthew; Schneck, Daniel T; Neufeld, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Most barnacles are sessile, simultaneous hermaphrodites that reproduce by copulation. This is achieved through the extension of a muscular penis, famous for being the proportionally largest in the animal kingdom. The penis is a long cylindrical or conical organ, composed of a series of folded rings, allowing it to stretch to great lengths. The penises are covered with chemosensory setae allowing them to seek out receptive neighbors. For many species, the condition of the penis changes seasonally. In the most extreme circumstances, it degenerates and is shed during the first post-mating molt and is re-grown for the next mating season. Barnacle penises have been shown to exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to many different challenges. When exposed to heavy waves, diameter is increased by thickening both the cuticle and muscles. When mates are far, length increases by adding ringed annulations. Experiments have shown that these plastic traits are modular, capable of changing independently from each other and that they improve mating ability. Alternate strategies to increase reproductive ability by barnacles include the production of dwarf and complemental males, sperm casting and sperm leakage, and aerial copulation. All of these mating strategies may have important implications for the study of reproductive biology, life history, and sex allocation theory.

  11. Quantitative proteomics study of larval settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite.

  12. Bivalve and barnacle larvae distribution driven by water temperature in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ziadi, Boutheina; Dhib, Amel; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between the distribution of some meroplanktonic species and water temperature. Meroplankton larvae abundance of bivalves, and barnacles and water temperature fluctuations were studied from February 2011 to January 2012 at five stations in Ghar El Melh lagoon (GML) Mediterranean Sea, northern Tunisia). According to redundancy analysis (RDA), a significant difference was found in the distribution of larvae among the seasons (F = 10.28, p < 0.001); summer and autumn appear to be the period of bivalve larvae development, whereas the arrival of barnacle larvae coincided with winter and spring. The generalized additive models (GAMs) show strong correlation of bivalve larvae with high temperature (F = 23.2; p < 0.001) and the affinity of barnacle larvae to low temperature values (F = 8.41; p = 0.004). This environmental parameter accounted for 26 % of the deviance in variability in larvae abundance. The development process of many generations of larvae may therefore have been predetermined by temperature.

  13. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  14. The origins and evolution of dwarf males and habitat use in thoracican barnacles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Høeg, Jens T; Yusa, Yoichi; Chan, Benny K K

    2015-10-01

    Barnacles are exceptional in having various sexual systems (androdioecy, hermaphroditism, dioecy) and with a high morphological diversity of males, though these are always minute (dwarf) compared to their female or hermaphrodite partners. For the first time, we use a multiple DNA marker-based phylogeny to elucidate the ancestral states and evolution of (1) dwarf males, (2) their morphology when present, (3) their attachment site on the partner, and (4) habitat use in thoracican barnacles. Our taxon sampling was especially rich in rare deep-sea Scalpelliformes and comprised species with diverse sexual systems and dwarf male morphologies. Within the thoracican barnacles dwarf male evolution is subject to extensive convergence, but always correlated to similar ecological conditions. Males evolved convergently at least four times from purely hermaphroditic ancestors, in each case correlated with the invasion into habitats with low mating group sizes. The independent evolution of dwarf males in these lineages dovetails with the males having different morphologies and occurring in several different locations on their sexual partner. PMID:25979758

  15. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations. PMID:25237772

  16. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  17. Biochemical analyses of the cement float of the goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; von Byern, Janek; Bogner, Fabian Robert; Thiel, Karsten; Kowalik, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    The goose barnacle Dosima fascicularis produces an excessive amount of adhesive (cement), which has a double function, being used for attachment to various substrata and also as a float (buoy). This paper focuses on the chemical composition of the cement, which has a water content of 92%. Scanning electron microscopy with EDX was used to measure the organic elements C, O and N in the foam-like cement. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman) provided further information about the overall secondary structure, which tended towards a β-sheet. Disulphide bonds could not be detected by Raman spectroscopy. The cystine, methionine, histidine and tryptophan contents were each below 1% in the cement. Analyses of the cement revealed a protein content of 84% and a total carbohydrate content of 1.5% in the dry cement. The amino acid composition, 1D/2D-PAGE and MS/MS sequence analysis revealed a de novo set of peptides/proteins with low homologies with other proteins such as the barnacle cement proteins, largely with an acidic pI between 3.5 and 6.0. The biochemical composition of the cement of D. fascicularis is similar to that of other barnacles, but it shows interesting variations.

  18. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-06-13

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling.

  19. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E.; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M.

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual’s origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma−Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  20. Compounds from Silicones Alter Enzyme Activity in Curing Barnacle Glue and Model Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Daniel; Orihuela, Beatriz; Harder, Tilmann; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Dickinson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity. Methodology/Principal Findings GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents. Conclusions/Significance Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management. PMID:21379573

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S S; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the acorn barnacle family Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Tetraclitoidea): validity of shell morphology and arthropodal characteristics in the systematics of Tetraclitid barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, RPII, H3, and 18S rRNA) to test two traditional phylogenetic hypothesis: (1) Tetraclitid barnacles are divided into two major lineages, which are distinguished according to monometric and diametric shell growth patterns, and (2) the evolutionary trend in shell parietal development began with a solid shell, which developed into a single tubiferous shell, which then developed into multitubiferous shells. The results indicated that Tetraclitinae and Newmanellinae are not monophyletic, but that Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitellinae are. The phylogram based on the genetic data suggested that Bathylasmatidae is nested within the Tetraclitidae, forming a sister relationship with the Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade. Within the Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade, the genera Tetraclita (multitubiferous shell), Tesseropora (single tubiferous shell), and Yamaguchiella (multitubiferous shell) are polyphyletic. The results suggested that shell morphology and growth patterns do not reflect the evolutionary history of Tetraclitidae, whereas the arthropodal characteristics are informative. PMID:25263422

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the acorn barnacle family Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Tetraclitoidea): validity of shell morphology and arthropodal characteristics in the systematics of Tetraclitid barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, RPII, H3, and 18S rRNA) to test two traditional phylogenetic hypothesis: (1) Tetraclitid barnacles are divided into two major lineages, which are distinguished according to monometric and diametric shell growth patterns, and (2) the evolutionary trend in shell parietal development began with a solid shell, which developed into a single tubiferous shell, which then developed into multitubiferous shells. The results indicated that Tetraclitinae and Newmanellinae are not monophyletic, but that Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitellinae are. The phylogram based on the genetic data suggested that Bathylasmatidae is nested within the Tetraclitidae, forming a sister relationship with the Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade. Within the Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade, the genera Tetraclita (multitubiferous shell), Tesseropora (single tubiferous shell), and Yamaguchiella (multitubiferous shell) are polyphyletic. The results suggested that shell morphology and growth patterns do not reflect the evolutionary history of Tetraclitidae, whereas the arthropodal characteristics are informative.

  5. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  6. 76 FR 53695 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory Committee Act of... Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument...

  7. 75 FR 57496 - Notice of Public Meeting, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory Committee; California AGENCIES: Bureau of Land... the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Act of 2000 and the Federal Advisory.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Forest Service) Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains...

  8. Rosa's Law and the Language of Disability: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Terciano, Jacylou

    2011-01-01

    National campaigns promoting the use of the term intellectual disability (ID) have culminated in the recent U.S. congressional passing of Rosa's Law. Rosa's Law changes how ID is referred to in federal disability programs by removing all references to the term, "mental retardation" (U.S Government Printing Office, October, 2010). Little is known…

  9. 75 FR 34481 - Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...) have reestablished the charter of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...). Certification Statement I hereby certify that the reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto...

  10. Identification and characterization of rabbit ROSA26 for gene knock-in and stable reporter gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongshan; Song, Jun; Zhang, Jifeng; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Wang, Zhong; Lai, Liangxue; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory rabbit has been a valuable model system for human disease studies. To make the rabbit model more amendable to targeted gene knockin and stable gene over-expression, we identified a rabbit orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus through genomic sequence homology analysis. Real-time PCR and 5′ RACE and 3′ RACE experiments revealed that this locus encodes two transcript variants of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) (rbRosaV1 and rbRosaV2). Both variants are expressed ubiquitously and stably in different tissues. We next targeted the rabbit Rosa26 (rbRosa26) locus using CRISPR/Cas9 and produced two lines of knock-in rabbits (rbRosa26-EGFP, and rbRosa26-Cre-reporter). In both lines, all the founders and their offspring appear healthy and reproduce normally. In F1 generation animals, the rbRosa26-EGFP rabbits express EGFP, and the rbRosa26-Cre-reporter rabbits express tdTomato ubiquitously in all the tissues examined. Furthermore, disruption of rbRosa26 locus does not adversely impact the animal health and reproduction. Therefore, our work establishes rbRosa26 as a safe harbor suitable for nuclease mediated gene targeting. The addition of rbRosa26 to the tool box of transgenic research is expected to allow diverse genetic manipulations, including gain-of function, conditional knock out and lineage-tracing studies in rabbits. PMID:27117226

  11. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Daniel K.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Everett, Richard K.; Barlow, Daniel E.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery. PMID:25115515

  12. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal. PMID:21392330

  13. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal.

  14. [Phenylpropanoids and phenylethanol from flowers of Rosa rugosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Liu, Gui-you; Li, Li-mei; Lou, Jie; Hu, Qiu-fen; Ye, Yan-qing; Zhou, Min

    2015-10-01

    A new phenylpropanoid (1), together with seven known ones (2-8), has been isolated from the flowers of Rosa rugosa collected from Shanxi province by using various chromatographic techniques. Compound 1 is a new compound, and it displayed cytotoxicity against NB4, SH-SY5Y, PC3, A549 and MCF7 cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 8.2, 6.2, 4.3, 2.8, and 9.6 µmol · L⁻¹ respectively. PMID:27062816

  15. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  16. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  17. [Phenylpropanoids and phenylethanol from flowers of Rosa rugosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Liu, Gui-you; Li, Li-mei; Lou, Jie; Hu, Qiu-fen; Ye, Yan-qing; Zhou, Min

    2015-10-01

    A new phenylpropanoid (1), together with seven known ones (2-8), has been isolated from the flowers of Rosa rugosa collected from Shanxi province by using various chromatographic techniques. Compound 1 is a new compound, and it displayed cytotoxicity against NB4, SH-SY5Y, PC3, A549 and MCF7 cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 8.2, 6.2, 4.3, 2.8, and 9.6 µmol · L⁻¹ respectively.

  18. Basin structure beneath the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California: Implications for damage caused by the 1969 Santa Rosa and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hartzell, S.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Aagaard, B.T.; Jachens, R.C.; McCabe, C.

    2007-01-01

    Regional gravity data in the northern San Francisco Bay region reflect a complex basin configuration beneath the Santa Rosa plain that likely contributed to the significant damage to the city of Santa Rosa caused by the 1969 M 5.6, 5.7 Santa Rosa earthquakes and the 1906 M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Inversion of these data indicates that the Santa Rosa plain is underlain by two sedimentary basins about 2 km deep separated by the Trenton Ridge, a shallow west-northwest-striking bedrock ridge west of Santa Rosa. The city of Santa Rosa is situated above the 2- km-wide protruding northeast corner of the southern basin where damage from both the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes was concentrated. Ground-motion simulations of the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes, two events with opposing azimuths, using the gravity- defined basin surface, show enhanced ground motions along the northeastern edge of this corner, suggesting that basin-edge effects contributed to the concentration of shaking damage in this area in the past and may also contribute to strong shaking during future earthquakes.

  19. Amyloid-like conformation and interaction for the self-assembly in barnacle underwater cement.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Kamino, Kei

    2015-01-27

    Barnacles are unique marine sessile crustaceans and permanently attach to various foreign surfaces during most of their lifespan. The protein complex secreted from their body and used to attach their calcareous shell to almost all surfaces in water has long fascinated us because we have limited technology with which to attach materials in water. Unraveling the mechanism of underwater attachment by barnacles is thus important for interface science, for the understanding of the biology and physiology of barnacles, and for the development of technology to prevent fouling. Previous studies have indicated that the intermolecular interactions optimized by conformations of the adhesive proteins are crucial in the self-assembly and/or curing of the adhesive. This study aimed to identify the possible structural determinants responsible for the self-assembly. Thioflavin T binding screening of peptides designed on the basis of the primary structure of a bulk 52 kDa cement protein indicated the presence of some amyloidogenic motifs in the protein. The conformation of the peptide was transformed to a β-sheet by an increase in either pH or ionic strength, resulting in its self-assembly. Thioflavin T binding was inhibited by small polyphenolic molecules, suggesting the contribution of aromatic interactions during self-assembly. The occurrence of amyloid-like units in the protein implies that the protein conformation is an important factor contributing to the self-assembly of the cement, the first event of the curing, as the adhesive material is secreted into the seawater out of the animal's body.

  20. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle

    PubMed Central

    Granhag, Lena M.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9–2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  1. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Granhag, Lena M; Jonsson, Per R

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9-2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  2. Cytoplasmic Solvent Structure of Single Barnacle Muscle Cells Studied by Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Fred; Latorre, Ramon

    1974-01-01

    A free radical probe was introduced into single barnacle muscle cells, and its freedom of motion inferred from the spin resonance spectra. The probe reported an average local viscosity of 5-10 cp compared with 1 cp for pure water. From a comparison of the temperature dependence of the probe's tumbling rate in model aqueous systems and in the muscle we concluded that in the muscle the probe was undergoing fast exchange between sites of different mobility. Thus 10 cp must be taken as an upper limit for the viscosity of most cell water. PMID:4364470

  3. Photoreception in a barnacle: electrophysiology of the shadow reflex pathway in Balanus cariosus.

    PubMed

    Millecchia, R; Gwilliam, G F

    1972-08-01

    The photoreceptors in the median ocellus of the rock barnacle depolarize when illuminated. This depolarization spreads passively to the axon terminals in the supraesophageal ganglion. A small number of cells in the supraesophageal ganglion hyperpolarize when the median ocellus is illuminated and depolarize when it is shadowed. Nerve impulses are superimposed on the slow depolarization of the ganglion cells. Impulse activity in response to shadowing the median ocellus is recorded in a few fibers of the circumesophageal connectives. Picrotoxin blocks this shadow-induced activity. A model of the shadow reflex pathway is presented. PMID:4339616

  4. [Structural organization of 5S ribosomal DNA of Rosa rugosa].

    PubMed

    Tynkevych, Iu O; Volkov, R A

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify molecular organization of the genomic region encoding 5S rRNA in diploid species Rosa rugosa several 5S rDNA repeated units were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that only one length variant of 5S rDNA repeated units, which contains intact promoter elements in the intergenic spacer region (IGS) and appears to be transcriptionally active is present in the genome. Additionally, a limited number of 5S rDNA pseudogenes lacking a portion of coding sequence and the complete IGS was detected. A high level of sequence similarity (from 93.7 to 97.5%) between the IGS of major 5S rDNA variants of East Asian R. rugosa and North American R. nitida was found indicating comparatively recent divergence of these species.

  5. Morphology of the cement apparatus and the cement of the buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Von Byern, Janek; Kerbl, Alexandra; Leisch, Nikolaus; Staedler, Yannick; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie; Klepal, Waltraud

    2012-10-01

    Barnacles produce a proteinaceous adhesive called cement to attach permanently to rocks or to other hard substrata. The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis is of special interest as it produces a large amount of foam-like cement that can be used as a float. The morphology of the cement apparatus and of the polymerized cement of this species is almost unknown. The current study aims at filling these gaps in our knowledge using light and electron microscopy as well as x-ray microtomography. The shape of the cement gland cells changes from round to ovoid during barnacle development. The cytoplasm of the gland cells, unlike that of some other barnacles, does not have distinct secretory and storage regions. The cement canals, which transport the cement from the gland cells to the base of the stalk, end at different positions in juvenile and mature animals. With increasing size of the cement float, the exit of the cement canals shift from the centrally positioned attachment disk of the vestigial antennules to more lateral positions on the stalk. The bubbles enclosed in the foam-like float are most likely filled with CO(2) that diffuses from the hemolymph into the cement canal system and from there into the cement.

  6. Intraspecific variation in the turtle barnacle, Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Coronuloidea), with brief notes on habitat selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens of the turtle barnacle Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 were collected from sea turtles in Japanese waters. The specimens were hexagonal in shape and were found burrowing into the sea turtle plastron. Specimens were dissected and the hard and soft parts were compared with the original description. PMID:24167420

  7. The dark brown integumentary pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus). A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barden, H; Koulish, S

    1983-01-01

    A histochemical analysis involving tinctorial and solubility tests was pursued in conjunction with electron microscopy for the purpose of identifying the dark brown epidermal pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus) as melanin and/or ommochrome. Histochemically, comparisons were made with other brown pigments located in the subcarapal epidermis of another crustacean, the fiddler crab (Uca pugilator), the dorsal skin of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), the liver and testis of a slider turtle (Chrysemys sp.) and the substantia nigra of human brain. The solubility properties of the pigment of the two crustacean invertebrates were in general similar to one another and markedly different from the pigment of the three vertebrates. Insolubility in appropriate solvents classified the vertebrate pigment as melanin. The invertebrate pigment, however, which was soluble in the ommochrome solvents, concentrated sulfuric and formic acids and 2-chloroethanol, remained insoluble in the ommochrome solvents, dilute aqueous and methanolic hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid. On the basis of these solubilities, an unequivocal classification of the invertebrate pigment as either melanin or ommochrome did not appear possible. The tinctorial and electron microscopic properties of the barnacle pigment were also equally ambiguous in regard to its specific classification.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance.

  9. Evolution of sex determination and sexually dimorphic larval sizes in parasitic barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Høeg, Jens T; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-04-21

    The parasitic (rhizocephalan) barnacles include species of which larval sex is determined by the mother (genetic sex determination, GSD), male larvae are larger than female larvae, and a female accepts only two dwarf males who sire all the eggs laid by her. In contrast, other species of parasitic barnacles exhibit monomorphic larvae that choose to become male or female depending on the condition of the host they settle (environmental sex determination, or ESD), and a female accepts numerous dwarf males. Here, we ask why these set of traits are observed together, by examining the evolution of sex determination and the larval size. ESD has an advantage over GSD because each larva has a higher chance of encountering a suitable host. On the other hand, GSD has two advantages over ESD: the larval size can be chosen differently between sexes, and their larvae can avoid spending time for sex determination on the host. We conclude that, in species whose female accepts only two males, the male larvae engage in intense contest competition for reproductive opportunities, and male's success-size relation is very different from female's. Then, larvae with predetermined sex (GSD) with sexually dimorphic larvae is more advantageous than ESD. In contrast, in species whose females accept many dwarf males, the competition among males is less intense, and producing larvae with undetermined sex should evolve. We also discuss the condition for females to evolve receptacles to limit the number of males she accepts.

  10. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  11. Opportunism and the resilience of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2012-06-01

    Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most marine environments. That they survived both the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to rapidly adapt to opportunities. The wide habitat distribution of balanomorphs in particular is unparalleled; they are known from the upper littoral (Chthamalus) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this attached to rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in this diversity, distribution and biomass. All cirripedes are, nonetheless, at risk, from rapid habitat change, competition, pollution and, especially in light of their sessile habit, from predation. This paper assesses the viability of a number of cirripedes and concludes that the Lepadiformes, Scalpelliformes and Balanomorpha are the most resilient, and will most quickly adapt to occupy new niches when opportunities arise.

  12. Phylogenetic position and evolutionary history of the turtle and whale barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Coronuloidea).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryota; Chan, Benny K K; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Levy, Yaniv; Shuto, Takuho; Achituv, Yair

    2013-04-01

    Barnacles of the superfamily Coronuloidea are obligate epibionts of various marine mammals, marine reptiles and large crustaceans. We used five molecular markers: 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and Histone 3 to infer phylogenetic relationships among sixteen coronuloids, representing most of the recent genera of barnacles of this superfamily. Our analyses confirm the monophyly of Coronuloidea and that this superfamily and Tetraclitoidea are sister groups. The six-plated Austrobalanus clusters with these two superfamilies. Based on BEAST and ML trees, Austrobalanus is basal and sister to the Coronuloidea, but the NJ tree places Austrobalanus within the Tetraclitoidae, and in the MP tree it is sister to both Coronuloidea and Tetraclitoidae. Hence the position of Austrobalanus remains unresolved. Within the Coronuloidea we identified four clades. Chelonibia occupies a basal position within the Coronuloidea which is in agreement with previous studies. The grouping of the other clades does not conform to previous studies. Divergence time analyses show that some of the time estimates are congruent with the fossil record while some others are older, suggesting the possibility of gaps in the fossil record.

  13. Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Aldred, Nick; Emami, Kaveh; Enander, Karin; Ederth, Thomas; Clare, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested. PMID:25657832

  14. Barnacle: detecting and characterizing tandem duplications and fusions in transcriptome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chimeric transcripts, including partial and internal tandem duplications (PTDs, ITDs) and gene fusions, are important in the detection, prognosis, and treatment of human cancers. Results We describe Barnacle, a production-grade analysis tool that detects such chimeras in de novo assemblies of RNA-seq data, and supports prioritizing them for review and validation by reporting the relative coverage of co-occurring chimeric and wild-type transcripts. We demonstrate applications in large-scale disease studies, by identifying PTDs in MLL, ITDs in FLT3, and reciprocal fusions between PML and RARA, in two deeply sequenced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) RNA-seq datasets. Conclusions Our analyses of real and simulated data sets show that, with appropriate filter settings, Barnacle makes highly specific predictions for three types of chimeric transcripts that are important in a range of cancers: PTDs, ITDs, and fusions. High specificity makes manual review and validation efficient, which is necessary in large-scale disease studies. Characterizing an extended range of chimera types will help generate insights into progression, treatment, and outcomes for complex diseases. PMID:23941359

  15. Plastic Sexual Expression in the Androdioecious Barnacle Octolasmis warwickii (Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Wijayanti, Hendry; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Most barnacles are simultaneous hermaphrodites, but dwarf males are also found attached to hermaphrodites in several species. This biologically rare phenomenon of the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites is termed androdioecy. To test whether the hermaphrodite and male sexes are fixed or plastic in the androdioecious pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis warwickii, we conducted a series of 22-day-long transplanting experiments to evaluate the effects of a) the original site (attached to the conspecific vs. attached directly to the substrate) and b) the transplanting site (conspecific-attached vs. substrate-attached). Penis length (as an index of male function), the presence or absence of egg mass (female function), and growth rate were investigated. As with natural dwarf males, individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer penises than did those that were transplanted onto the substrate. The original site of attachment also affected penis length. However, no significant effects of the original site or the transplanting were detected in egg-laying activities, as only one experimental individual laid eggs. Individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics grew less than those that were attached to the substrate. These results indicate that individual sexual expression is affected by the environment in O. warwickii. PMID:26896177

  16. Chemistry-specific surface adsorption of the barnacle settlement-inducing protein complex.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Aldred, Nick; Emami, Kaveh; Enander, Karin; Ederth, Thomas; Clare, Anthony S

    2015-02-01

    Gregarious settlement in barnacle larvae (cyprids) is induced by a contact pheromone, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC). The SIPC has been identified both in the cuticle of adult barnacles and in the temporary adhesive secretion (footprint) of cyprids. Besides acting as a settlement inducer, the presence of the SIPC in footprints points to its additional involvement in the adhesion process. SIPC adsorption behaviour was therefore investigated on a series of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by surface plasmon resonance at the pH of seawater (8.3). Fibrinogen and α2-macroglobulin (A2M) (blood complement protease inhibitors with which the SIPC shares 29% sequence homology) were used in the adsorption experiments as positive and negative standards, respectively. The mass uptake of the SIPC was comparable to that of fibrinogen, with adsorption observed even on the protein-resistant oligo(ethylene glycol) surface. Notably, on the positively charged SAM the SIPC showed a kinetic overshoot, indicating a metastable configuration causing the amount of adsorbed protein to temporarily exceed its equilibrium value. A2M adsorption was low or negligible on all SAMs tested, except for the positively charged surface, indicating that A2M adsorption is mainly driven by electrostatics. Evaluation of SIPC non-specific adsorption kinetics revealed that it adsorbed irreversibly and non-cooperatively on all surfaces tested. PMID:25657832

  17. Characterization of Arginine Kinase in the Barnacle Amphibalanus Amphitrite and Its Role in the Larval Settlement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; Yan, Guo-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Wong, Yue-Him; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Energy metabolism is a key process in larval settlement of barnacles, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ambiguous. Arginine kinase (AK) mainly participates in energy metabolism in invertebrates. So far, its roles in barnacles have not been studied. In the present study, we raised an antibody against AK from Amphibalanus amphitrite Darwin to characterize the roles of AK in the larval settlement process. Among the developmental stages, AK was highly expressed during the cypris stage. Along with the aging process in cyprids, the level of AK decreased. The immunostaining results showed that AK was localized to muscular tissues in cyprids, including antennules, antennular muscles, and thoracic limbs. The larval settlement rate decreased and larval movement was inhibited in response to treatments with high concentrations of AK inhibitors (rutin and quercetin). These results demonstrated that AK was involved in the larval settlement of A. amphitrite through mediating energy supply in muscle tissues. Moreover, further analysis indicated that both the p38 MAPK and NO/cGMP pathways positively mediated the expression of AK in cyprids. PMID:27245369

  18. Significance of the conformation of building blocks in curing of barnacle underwater adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei; Nakano, Masahiro; Kanai, Satoru

    2012-05-01

    Barnacles are a unique sessile crustacean that attach irreversibly and firmly to foreign underwater surfaces. Its biological underwater adhesive is a peculiar extracellular multi-protein complex. Here we characterize one of the two major proteins, a 52 kDa protein found in the barnacle cement complex. Cloning of the cDNA revealed that the protein has no homolog in the nonredundant database. The primary structure consists of four long sequence repeats. The process of dissolving the protein at the adhesive joint of the animal by various treatments was monitored in order to obtain insight into the molecular mechanism involved in curing of the adhesive bulk. Treatments with protein denaturant, reducing agents and/or chemical-specific proteolysis in combination with 2D diagonal PAGE indicated no involvement of the protein in intermolecular cross-linkage/polymerization, including formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds. As solubilization of the proteins required high concentrations of denaturing agents, it appears that both the conformation of the protein as building blocks and non-covalent molecular interactions between the building blocks, possibly hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds, are crucial for curing of the cement. It was also suggested that the protein contributes to surface coupling by an anchoring effect to micro- to nanoscopic roughness of surfaces.

  19. Opportunism and the resilience of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2012-06-01

    Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most marine environments. That they survived both the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to rapidly adapt to opportunities. The wide habitat distribution of balanomorphs in particular is unparalleled; they are known from the upper littoral (Chthamalus) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this attached to rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in this diversity, distribution and biomass. All cirripedes are, nonetheless, at risk, from rapid habitat change, competition, pollution and, especially in light of their sessile habit, from predation. This paper assesses the viability of a number of cirripedes and concludes that the Lepadiformes, Scalpelliformes and Balanomorpha are the most resilient, and will most quickly adapt to occupy new niches when opportunities arise. PMID:22691197

  20. The Dmp1-SOST Transgene Interacts With and Downregulates the Dmp1-Cre Transgene and the Rosa(Notch) Allele.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Stefano; Canalis, Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    Activation of Notch1 in osteocytes of Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette and the Nicd coding sequence were targeted to the reverse orientation splice acceptor (Rosa)26 locus, causes osteopetrosis associated with suppressed Sost expression and enhanced Wnt signaling. To determine whether Sost downregulation mediates the effects of Notch activation in osteocytes, Rosa(Notch) mice were crossed with transgenics expressing Cre recombinase or SOST under the control of the dentin matrix protein (Dmp)1 promoter. Dmp1-SOST transgenics displayed vertebral osteopenia and a modest femoral cancellous and cortical bone phenotype, whereas hemizygous Dmp1-Cre transgenics heterozygous for the Rosa(Notch) allele (Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch)) exhibited osteopetrosis. The phenotype of Notch activation in osteocytes was prevented in Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice hemizygous for the Dmp1-SOST transgene. The effect was associated with downregulated Notch signaling and suppressed Dmp1 and Rosa26 expression. To test whether SOST regulates Notch expression in osteocytes, cortical bone cultures from Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) mice or from Rosa(Notch) control littermates were exposed to recombinant human SOST. The addition of SOST had only modest effects on Notch target gene mRNA levels and suppressed Dmp1, but not Cre or Rosa26, expression. These findings suggest that prevention of the Dmp1-Cre;Rosa(Notch) skeletal phenotype by Dmp1-SOST is not secondary to SOST expression but to interactions among the Dmp1-SOST and Dmp1-Cre transgenes and the Rosa26 locus. In conclusion, the Dmp1-SOST transgene suppresses the expression of the Dmp1-Cre transgene and of Rosa26. PMID:26456319

  1. A new species of eriophyoid mite (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Rosa sp. from Israel.

    PubMed

    Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    A new species of eriophyoid mite from a hybrid of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) found in Israel is described and illustrated. Eriophyes eremus n. sp. is a refuge-seeking type mite, inhabiting flower buds and petiole bases, causing no apparent damage to the host plant. Eighteen eriophyoid species are known to inhabit Rosa sp. and those are listed here along with type localities, damage they cause and host plant details. PMID:27395555

  2. Barnacles, limpets and periwinkles: the effects of direct and indirect interactions on cyprid settlement and success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Sebastian P.; Walker, Graham; van der Meer, Jaap

    2005-02-01

    Conventionally, direct interactions between species are considered to be the most important biological factors determining community composition, structure and stability. However, it has been suggested that the indirect interactions occurring between species may be as important. One area of ecology where the direct effects of one species on another have been well studied is in the rocky intertidal. Examination of the effect of the presence of P. vulgata (limpets) and L. littorea (periwinkles) on the settlement and development of S. balanoides (cyprids/barnacles), over a cyprid settlement season and some six months later, in four different treatments (limpets only, limpets and periwinkles combined, periwinkles only and control (no animals)) revealed the following: (1) that the presence of limpets increased cyprid settlement and recruitment success above treatments containing no limpets; (2) that cyprid settlement and success were greatest on the limpets-only treatment, followed by the limpets-and-periwinkles treatment, then by the control treatment and then by the periwinkles-only treatment; (3) that the initial effects observed in the treatments were reflected in the long-term community structure; (4) that the effects of the treatments were independent of variations in algal biomass between treatments, i.e. the effects were not indirectly mediated through a second species (host); (5) that cyprid mortality was greatest on the periwinkles-only treatment; (6) that the source of the effect of limpets on cyprid settlement appeared to originate indirectly through the action of their residual pedal mucus trails. It is concluded that periwinkles can affect the settlement and success of barnacles directly through biological disturbance (i.e. surface ablation). However, although limpets may have a direct negative effect on barnacle settlement and success, at low to medium densities, limpets can positively indirectly influence the cyprid settlement and success. This effect

  3. Asymmetric coexistence: bidirectional abiotic and biotic effects between goose barnacles and mussels.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takashi; Tokeshi, Mutsunori

    2006-07-01

    1. Species coexistence depends on the net effect of interacting species, representing the sum of multiple interaction components that may act simultaneously and vary independently depending on ambient environmental conditions. Consequently, for a comprehensive understanding of the compound nature of species interactions and coexistence, a mechanistic approach that allows a separate evaluation of each interaction component is required. 2. Two sessile filter-feeders, the goose barnacle Capitulum mitella and the mussel Septifer virgatus, coexist on moderately wave-exposed rocky shores in south-western Japan. In the upper intertidal, Capitulum positively influenced Septifer survivorship and growth through amelioration of thermal stress and of physical disturbance. On the other hand, these species are potential competitors as they have similar body sizes and modes of resource utilization. These opposite processes, facilitation and competition, are based on abiotic characteristics and biotic functions of the two species, respectively. 3. In order to quantify the bidirectional abiotic, biotic and net effects, a series of experimental manipulations was conducted involving the use of living neighbours with both abiotic and biotic effects, and artificial mimics to simulate abiotic effects without biotic effects. 4. Capitulum had strong positive abiotic effects on the mussel survivorship in most experimental periods, while the biotic effect was negligible or weakly negative, suggesting that the net effect of Capitulum on mussel survival was largely attributable to the abiotic effect. In contrast, a significantly negative biotic effect on the mussel growth rate was always present, though this was cancelled out by the larger, positive abiotic effect. In the case of Septifer, its abiotic and biotic effects on the survivorship of goose barnacles were negligible, while those on the growth rate showed temporal variation. 5. With respect to the relationship between species

  4. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters.

  5. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  6. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  7. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny K. K.; Chen, H. -N.; Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  8. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  9. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  10. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K; Chan, Karen; Jensen, Peter Gram; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe cypris morphology in species of the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas, both of which are pivotal in understanding cirripede evolution. In Ibla, we also studied late naupliar stages with video and SEM. Special emphasis was put on the lattice organs, the antennules and the thorax and telson. In Paralepas we had settled specimens only and could therefore only investigate the carapace with the lattice organs. Cyprids of Ibla quadrivalvis and Paralepas dannevigi have five sets of lattice organs, grouped as two anterior and three posterior pairs. The organs are of the pore-field type and the terminal pore is situated anteriorly in the first pair, just as in the Rhizocephala and the Thoracica. In Ibla the armament of antennular sensilla resembles that found in the Thoracica but differs from the Rhizocephala. The absence of setules on the A and B setae sited terminally on the fourth antennular segment is a similarity with the Acrothoracica. The attachment disc is angled rather than facing distally and is encircled by a low cuticular velum. The thoracopods have two-segmented endopods and exopods as in the Thoracica, but the number, shape, and position of thoracopodal setae differ somewhat from other species of that superorder. Both Ibla and Paralepas cyprids have a deeply cleaved telson, but no independent abdominal part. In cypris morphology, Ibla and Paralepas show several synapomorphies with the clade comprising Rhizocephala and Thoracica and there are no specific apomorphies with either the Acrothoracica, the Rhizocephala or any particular subgroup within the Thoracica. This is in agreement with recent molecular evidence that Ibla (Ibliformes) is the sister taxon to all other Thoracica and the ibliforms therefore become the outgroup of choice for studying character evolution within the superorder. Paralepas, and other pedunculated barnacles without shell plates, are apparently not primitive but are secondarily evolved

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance. PMID:26988415

  12. Spatial properties of the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential in barnacle photoreceptors. I. The induction process

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In invertebrate photoreceptors, when the light stimulus results in substantial net transfer of the visual pigment from the rhodopsin (R) to the metarhodopsin (M) state, the ordinary late receptor potential (LRP) is followed by a prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA). The dependence of the amplitude of the PDA on the amount of pigment conversion is strongly supralinear, and the PDA duration also depends on this amount. These observations indicate an interaction among the elements of the PDA induction process and also make possible a test of the range of this interaction. The test consists of a comparison of the PDA after localized pigment conversion, obtained by strong spot illumination, to that after weaker diffuse illumination converting a comparable total amount of pigment. The experiment was performed on the barnacle lateral eye. The effective spot size was measured by the early receptor potential (ERP), in seawater saturated with CO2, which considerably reduced the electrical coupling between the photoreceptors. The ERP was also used to determine whether there is diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot. The spot illumination induced a PDA with small amplitude and long duration, while no detectable PDA was induced by the diffuse light. This indicates that the range of the PDA interaction is much smaller than the entire cell. In addition, the ERP results showed that there was no detectable diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot area over 30 min. This measurement, with a calculated correction for the microvillar geometry of the photoreceptor, enabled us to put an upper limit on the diffusion coefficient of the pigment molecules in the inact, unfixed barnacle photoreceptor of D less than 6 X 10(-9) cm2 s-1. PMID:3958692

  13. Passive signal propagation and membrane properties in median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Poo, Mu Ming; Stuart, Ann E.

    1977-01-01

    1. The light-induced electrical responses of barnacle photoreceptors spread decrementally along the cells' axons. The decay of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the visual signal was studied by recording intracellularly from single receptor axons of the median ocellus of the giant barnacle. 2. The resistance of the photoreceptor neurone decreases markedly when the cell is depolarized with respect to its dark resting potential of -60 mV. This rectification results in differential attenuation of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread down the axon. Consequently, the visual signal entering the synaptic region is conspicuously distorted. 3. Bathing the photoreceptor axons in sodium-free or calcium-free saline or in isotonic sucrose does not significantly affect the spread of the visual signal to the terminals. Thus the signal is not amplified by an ionic mechanism along the axon. 4. Membrane characteristics of the photoreceptor for hyperpolarizing voltage changes were estimated from (a) the ratio of the amplitudes of the visual signals recorded simultaneously in the axon and in the soma, (b) the time constant, and (c) the input resistance of the cell. All three independent measurements are consistent with a length constant 1 to 2 times the total length of the cell (λ = 10-18 mm) and an unusually high membrane resistivity of about 300 kΩ cm2. This resistivity enables the receptor potential to spread passively to the terminal region. 5. Electron microscopic examination of receptor axons reveals an investment of glial lamellae, but demonstrates neither unusual structures which would lead to a high apparent membrane resistivity, nor junctions between cells which would seal off the extracellular space. Thus the observed high resistivity appears to be an intrinsic property of the receptor membrane. ImagesABCD PMID:592129

  14. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it

  15. Fullerene-based symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid's "Elements" book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process.

  16. Holocene paleoecology of an estuary on Santa Rosa Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Liu, Gaisheng

    1994-01-01

    The middle to late Holocene history and early Anglo-European settlement impacts on Santa Rosa Island, California, were studied through the analysis of sediments in a small estuarine marsh. A 5.4-m-long sediment core produced a stratigraphic and pollen record spanning the last 5200 yr. Three major zones are distinguishable in the core. The lowermost zone (5200 to 3250 yr B.P.) represents a time of arid climate with predominantly marine sediment input and high Chenopodiaceae and Ambrosia pollen values. The intermediate zone (3250 yr B.P. to 1800 A.D.) is characterized by greater fresh water input and high values for Asteraceae and Cyperaceae pollen and charcoal particles. The uppermost zone (1800 A.D. to present) documents the unprecedented erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation change that resulted from the introduction of large exotic herbivores and exotic plants to the island during Anglo-European settlement. The identification of pollen grains of Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana) documents the persistence of this endemic species on the island throughout the middle to late Holocene.

  17. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  18. In vivo antiarthritic activity of Rosa centifolia L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Nair, Vinod; Singh, Surender; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rosa centifolia L. (Rosaceae) have been used for the treatment of joint pain and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the traditional system of medicine. Aim: In this study, the antiarthritic activity of the alcoholic extract from the floral parts of R. centifolia was investigated. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity of R. centifolia alcoholic extract (RCAE: 32, 64, and 128 mg/kg) was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis model. Serum from arthritic rats was collected for the estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Further, the safety of RCAE was evaluated in an acute and sub-acute (28-day) oral toxicity study. Results: RCAE (64 and 128 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1, 3, and 6 h post carrageenan challenge and demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) antiarthritic activity on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 day following CFA immunization. Further, RCAE (128 mg/kg) treatment also produced a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as compared with control. Further, no toxicologically significant treatment-related effects were observed in the oral sub-acute toxicity study conducted with the extract. Conclusion: The result of study demonstrates the antiarthritic activity of R. centifolia and validates its traditional use for the treatment of RA. PMID:27313424

  19. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena as an ornamental plant is commonly known as “Gole Mohammadi” in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet “Mohammad”. R. damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmaceutical investigations on R. damascena. All relevant databases and local books on ethnopharmacology of R. damascena were probed without limitation up to 31st March 2015 and the results of these studies were collected and reviewed. R. damascena has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of R. damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of R. damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities. Overall, R. damascena as holy ancient plant with modern pharmacological investigations should be more investigated as traditional uses in large preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26870673

  20. Relationship between metal and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burden and health risks in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W; Zhang, Xiaohua; Pan, Ke; Guo, Cui; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Wenxiong; Liu, Hongbin; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, we employed the widespread and gregarious barnacle species Balanus amphitrite in a biomonitoring program to evaluate coastal pollution around three piers (i.e., Tso Wo Hang, Sai Kung and Hebe Haven) in Hong Kong. An integrated approach was used herein, combining both the chemical determination of contaminant concentrations, including metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and a suite of biological responses across the entire barnacle lifecycle (i.e., adult, nauplius, cyprid and juvenile). The analytical results revealed a distinct geographical distribution of metals and PBDEs. Adult physiological processes and larval behaviors varied significantly among the three piers. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated a specific suite of biological responses towards metal and PBDE exposure, likely resulting from their distinct modes of action. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the combination of chemical and biological tests provided an integrated measure for the comprehensive assessment of marine pollution. PMID:26320980

  1. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  2. Occurrence and diversity of barnacles on international ships visiting Osaka Bay, Japan, and the risk of their introduction.

    PubMed

    Otani, M; Oumi, T; Uwai, S; Hanyuda, T; Prabowo, R E; Yamaguchi, T; Kawai, H

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and diversity of barnacles attached to the hulls of two intercontinental bulk carriers were studied at the port in Osaka Bay, Japan, to assess the potential risk of introduction of exotic species to the inner part of the bay. Barnacles were sampled from the bulbous bows, near the midship draft marks, and around the propeller posts and rudders. Twenty-two species were found, with 14 of these not previously recorded in Osaka Bay, including four species not previously recorded elsewhere in Japan. From an assessment of environmental similarity between Osaka Bay and native ranges, of the 14 species, Elminius modestus and Amphibalanus variegatus were considered to have the highest risk of introduction to the inner part of the bay.

  3. Accessing transcriptomic data for ecologically important genes in the goose barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes), with particular focus on cement proteins.

    PubMed

    Perina, A; von Reumont, B M; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2014-06-01

    In this study 4310 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to identify potentially useful transcripts for future studies in the gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes (Gmelin, 1789). 119 ESTs were obtained in this work and 4191 were taken from Meusemann et al. (2010). The gooseneck barnacle is a sessile pedunculate cirripede of great economic importance that occurs in dense aggregations, and is harvested for human consumption. The assembly of these ESTs yielded 1805 unigenes (461 contigs and 1344 singlets). The identification of cement proteins in our data is particularly interesting for cirripedes. Only a small part of the assembled unigenes could be functionally annotated. However, our results greatly improve our understanding of the biological features of P. pollicipes. In addition to this, a large number of potentially interesting genes were identified in order to serve as the base for future evolutionary studies in P. pollicipes.

  4. The effect of water temperature and flow on respiration in barnacles: patterns of mass transfer versus kinetic limitation.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2014-06-15

    In aquatic systems, physiological processes such as respiration, photosynthesis and calcification are potentially limited by the exchange of dissolved materials between organisms and their environment. The nature and extent of physiological limitation is, therefore, likely to be dependent on environmental conditions. Here, we assessed the metabolic sensitivity of barnacles under a range of water temperatures and velocities, two factors that influence their distribution. Respiration rates increased in response to changes in temperature and flow, with an interaction where flow had less influence on respiration at low temperatures, and a much larger effect at high temperatures. Model analysis suggested that respiration is mass transfer limited under conditions of low velocity (<7.5 cm (-1)) and high temperature (20-25°C). In contrast, limitation by uptake reaction kinetics, when the biotic capacity of barnacles to absorb and process oxygen is slower than its physical delivery by mass transport, prevailed at high flows (40-150 cm s(-1)) and low temperatures (5-15°C). Moreover, there are intermediate flow-temperature conditions where both mass transfer and kinetic limitation are important. Behavioral monitoring revealed that barnacles fully extend their cirral appendages at low flows and display abbreviated 'testing' behaviors at high flows, suggesting some form of mechanical limitation. In low flow-high temperature treatments, however, barnacles displayed distinct 'pumping' behaviors that may serve to increase ventilation. Our results suggest that in slow-moving waters, respiration may become mass transfer limited as temperatures rise, whereas faster flows may serve to ameliorate the effects of elevated temperatures. Moreover, these results underscore the necessity for approaches that evaluate the combined effects of multiple environmental factors when examining physiological and behavioral performance.

  5. 76 FR 53822 - Safety Zone; Labor Day at the Landing Santa Rosa Sound, Fort Walton Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ..., Florida extending 150 yards around a fireworks barge that will be positioned between Fort Walton Beach... for a portion of the Santa Rosa Sound in Fort Walton Beach, Florida extending 150 yards around a... safety zone: A portion of the Santa Rosa Sound in Fort Walton Beach, FL extending 150 yards around...

  6. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among samples, suggesting a generalist approach in terms of food selection and the haphazard ingestion of plant propagules with foliage. The species composition of plant propagules in dung samples was different from that of the receiving plant communities (in terms of the Sørensen and Czekanowski dissimilarity indices), and dung deposition, especially by muskox, often brought new species to the receiving community. The results suggest that endozoochorous propagule dispersal in the Arctic has a great potential in the generation and maintenance of local species richness, albeit being little specialized. It is further suggested that endozoochory is an important means of long-distance dispersal and, thereby, of plant migration in response to climate change.

  7. Effects of Toxic Leachate from Commercial Plastics on Larval Survival and Settlement of the Barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Plastic pollution represents a major and growing global problem. It is well-known that plastics are a source of chemical contaminants to the aquatic environment and provide novel habitats for marine organisms. The present study quantified the impacts of plastic leachates from the seven categories of recyclable plastics on larval survival and settlement of barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. Leachates from plastics significantly increased barnacle nauplii mortality at the highest tested concentrations (0.10 and 0.50 m(2)/L). Hydrophobicity (measured as surface energy) was positively correlated with mortality indicating that plastic surface chemistry may be an important factor in the effects of plastics on sessile organisms. Plastic leachates significantly inhibited barnacle cyprids settlement on glass at all tested concentrations. Settlement on plastic surfaces was significantly inhibited after 24 and 48 h, but settlement was not significantly inhibited compared to the controls for some plastics after 72-96 h. In 24 h exposure to seawater, we found larval toxicity and inhibition of settlement with all seven categories of recyclable commercial plastics. Chemical analysis revealed a complex mixture of substances released in plastic leachates. Leaching of toxic compounds from all plastics should be considered when assessing the risks of plastic pollution.

  8. Multidecadal signals within co-occurring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieszkowska, N.; Burrows, M. T.; Pannacciulli, F. G.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    Few links have been established between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and long-term dynamics of marine systems due to the scarcity of sustained biological time-series with sufficient multi-decadal coverage. The abundances of co-occurring boreal and Lusitanian species of barnacle have been recorded annually at a rocky shore in Devon, southwest England since 1953. Multidecadal cycles in relative abundances of the cold-water Semibalanus balanoides and warm-water Chthamalus spp. are strongly correlated with both local sea surface temperatures, and a ‘Warm Index' of barnacle abundance shows strong links to the basin-scale Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. In contrast there are weak or no observed relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation for either species. The shorter lifecycle of S. balanoides compared to the chthamalids and the increase in spring and summer temperatures to which newly settled S. balanoides recruits have been exposed during the last decade are likely mechanisms by which barnacle densities are responding to low-frequency temperature variability expressed in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  9. A protective coat of microorganisms on macroalgae: inhibitory effects of bacterial biofilms and epibiotic microbial assemblages on barnacle attachment.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Stratil, Stephanie B; Jacob, Katharina J; Wahl, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Effects of epibiotic bacteria associated with macroalgae on barnacle larval attachment were investigated. Eight bacterial isolates obtained from samples of three macroalga species were cultured as monospecies bacterial films and tested for their activity against barnacle (Amphibalanus improvisus) attachment in field experiments (Western Baltic Sea). Furthermore, natural biofilm communities associated with the surface of the local brown alga, Fucus vesiculosus, which were exposed to different temperatures (5, 15 and 20 °C), were harvested and subsequently tested. Generally, monospecies bacterial biofilms, as well as natural microbial assemblages, inhibited barnacle attachment by 20-67%. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints showed that temperature treatment shifted the bacterial community composition and weakened the repellent effects at 20 °C. Repellent effects were absent when settlement pressure of cyprids was high. Nonviable bacteria tended to repel cyprids when compared to the unfilmed surfaces. We conclude that biofilms can have a repellent effect benefiting the host by preventing heavy fouling on its surface. However, severe settlement pressure, as well as stressful temperature, may reduce the protective effects of the alga's biofilm. Our results add to the notion that the performance of F. vesiculosus may be reduced by multiple stressors in the course of global warming.

  10. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  11. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-03-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the Central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  12. Enhancement of local species richness in tundra by seed dispersal through guts of muskox and barnacle goose.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Lundgren, Rebekka; Philipp, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    The potential contribution of vertebrate-mediated seed rain to the maintenance of plant community richness in a High Arctic ecosystem was investigated. We analyzed viable seed content in dung of the four numerically most important terrestrial vertebrates in Northeast Greenland - muskox (Ovibos moschatus), barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis), Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus). High numbers of plant propagules were found in the dung of muskox and barnacle goose. Seeds of many plant species were found in the faeces of one vertebrate species only. Propagule composition in barnacle goose droppings was relatively uniform over samples, with a high abundance of the nutritious bulbils of Polygonum viviparum (Bistorta vivipara), suggesting that geese have a narrow habitat preference and feed selectively. Propagule composition in muskox dung was diverse and heterogeneous among samples, suggesting a generalist approach in terms of food selection and the haphazard ingestion of plant propagules with foliage. The species composition of plant propagules in dung samples was different from that of the receiving plant communities (in terms of the Sørensen and Czekanowski dissimilarity indices), and dung deposition, especially by muskox, often brought new species to the receiving community. The results suggest that endozoochorous propagule dispersal in the Arctic has a great potential in the generation and maintenance of local species richness, albeit being little specialized. It is further suggested that endozoochory is an important means of long-distance dispersal and, thereby, of plant migration in response to climate change. PMID:17990003

  13. Multi-seasonal barnacle (Balanus improvisus) protection achieved by trace amounts of a macrocyclic lactone (ivermectin) included in rosin-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Pinori, Emiliano; Berglin, Mattias; Brive, Lena M; Hulander, Mats; Dahlström, Mia; Elwing, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Rosin-based coatings loaded with 0.1% (w/v) ivermectin were found to be effective in preventing colonization by barnacles (Balanus improvisus) both on test panels as well as on yachts for at least two fouling seasons. The leaching rate of ivermectin was determined by mass-spectroscopy (LC/MS-MS) to be 0.7 ng cm(-2) day(-1). This low leaching rate, as deduced from the Higuchi model, is a result of the low loading, low water solubility, high affinity to the matrix and high molar volume of the model biocide. Comparison of ivermectin and control areas of panels immersed in the field showed undisturbed colonisation of barnacles after immersion for 35 days. After 73 days the mean barnacle base plate area on the controls was 13 mm(2), while on the ivermectin coating it was 3 mm(2). After 388 days, no barnacles were observed on the ivermectin coating while the barnacles on the control coating had reached a mean of 60 mm(2). In another series of coated panels, ivermectin was dissolved in a cosolvent mixture of propylene glycol and glycerol formal prior to the addition to the paint base. This method further improved the anti-barnacle performance of the coatings. An increased release rate (3 ng cm(-2) day(-1)) and dispersion of ivermectin, determined by fluorescence microscopy, and decreased hardness of the coatings were the consequences of the cosolvent mixture in the paint. The antifouling mechanism of macrocyclic lactones, such as avermectins, needs to be clarified in further studies. Beside chronic intoxication as ivermectin is slowly released from the paint film even contact intoxication occurring inside the coatings, triggered by penetration of the coating by barnacles, is a possible explanation for the mode of action and this is under investigation.

  14. Antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolics-based fingerprinting of Rose species: Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Bari, Shamsher S

    2009-02-01

    Roses are one of the most important groups of ornamental plants and their fruits and flowers are used in a wide variety of food, nutritional products and different traditional medicines. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from fresh flowers of three rose species (Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii) was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical method. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical was measured by the discoloration of the solution. The methanolic extract from R. brunonii exhibited maximum free-radical-scavenging activity (64.5+/-0.38%) followed by R. bourboniana (51.8+/-0.46%) and R. damascena (43.6+/-0.25%) at 100 microg/ml. Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study phenolic composition in the methanolic extracts from the fresh flowers of rose species. The phenolic constituents were further investigated by direct infusion-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS in negative ion mode. Characteristic Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) spectra with other diagnostic fragment ions generated by retro Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation pathways were recorded for the flavonoids. Distinct similarities were observed in the relative distribution of polyphenolic compounds among the three species. The dominance of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides was observed in all the three species.

  15. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil. PMID:27451748

  16. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil.

  17. Patterns of distribution and abundance of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) in the central and southwest coast of continental Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alina; Jacinto, David; Penteado, Nélia; Martins, Pedro; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J.; Cruz, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is a cirriped crustacean that lives on very exposed rocky shores. This barnacle is the most important economical resource on intertidal rocky shores of continental Portugal. It is highly prized as food and heavily exploited (professional and recreational fishery), but fishery data are scarce and do not estimate the real pressure upon this resource. Despite its socio-economic interest, specific regulations on this fishery are recent and different along the Portuguese coast. Four regions with different regulation can be identified: the marine reserve “Reserva Natural das Berlengas” (RNB) and the marine park “Parque Marinho Prof. Luiz Saldanha” (PMLS) (both in central Portugal); the natural park located in SW Portugal (“Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina”, PNSACV); and the rest of the coast. The main objective of the present study was to study the spatial patterns of percentage cover, biomass, density and size structure of P. pollicipes in areas with different exploitation regimes, including harvested areas and no-take areas. Additionally, variability between mid shore and low shore barnacles was also analysed. Seven areas were sampled with a variable number of sites (a total of 24) randomly sampled in each area during 2011. Photographs and image analysis (percentage cover) and destructive sampling (density, biomass and size) were used. In general, percentage cover, biomass and density were higher in mid shore when compared to low shore, namely in harvested areas. Low shore barnacles had a higher proportion of adults with moderate and high commercial value, while juveniles were relatively more abundant at mid shore. There were no consistent differences in the patterns of distribution and abundance of P. pollicipes among areas subject to different exploitation regimes. The most different area was the harvested area by professional fishers in RNB, where the highest biomass within the study was

  18. Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular shell plates, with large areas of general cuticle in between. The external integument grows by means of a system of narrow growth zones, one encircling the peduncle and a Y-shaped system on either side of the capitulum. Growth is by a regular series of molts, but shedding of old cuticle and production of new layers is entirely restricted to the growth zones. Just prior to ecdysis, the new cuticle lies in a highly folded fashion beneath the old cuticle that is about to be shed. At ecdysis, the old cuticle breaks along the margins of the growth zones and the resulting scars remain as a system of "ecdysial lines" along either side of the zone. Once exposed after ecdysis, the new cuticle remains as a part of the permanent external integument. The growth zones divide the externa into five cuticular areas, two on the peduncle and three on the capitulum. The calcareous shell plates (carina, paired scuta, and, when present, paired terga) all lie within the capitular regions and the ecdysial lines pass across, not around, these mineralized areas. The number, relative spacing, and topology of the ecdysial lines form a record of the growth history of the specimen. These and other growth patterns demonstrate that size increase is due to the formation of new cuticle by molting in the growth zones, while expansion of the shell plates by mineralization follows only after production of the new cuticle. Thus, although specialized, growth in Octolasmis still complies with the general crustacean model, complicated only by the mineralization of parts of the capitular cuticle into shell plates. The results are compared with the very scarce information on molting in other barnacles. We argue that

  19. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Chrysantus M.; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A.; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15–35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20–30 °C (87–95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61–76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  20. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanga, Chrysantus M; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15-35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20-30 °C (87-95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61-76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  1. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits.

  2. Drosophila rosA gene, which when mutant causes aberrant photoreceptor oscillation, encodes a novel neurotransmitter transporter homologue.

    PubMed

    Burg, M G; Geng, C; Guan, Y; Koliantz, G; Pak, W L

    1996-12-01

    The Drosophila receptor oscillation A (rosA) mutations, which cause electroretinogram (ERG) defects, including oscillations, were localized to the 24F4-25A2 region of chromosome 2L. Genomic fragments from this region, isolated from bacteriophage P1 clones, included those that detect transcriptional defects in rosA mutants in RNA blot experiments. One of these genomic fragments was used to screen a head cDNA library. The largest cDNA clone (3.6 kb) isolated was shown to rescue a rosA mutant in P element-germline transformation experiments. The ROSA protein deduced from the open reading frame in the 3.6 kb rosA cDNA is 943 amino acids long and is 36-41% identical to members of the superfamily of Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters, with no indication of higher sequence identity to any one subgroup within the superfamily. RNA blot experiments revealed multiple transcripts in various developmental stages, the most abundant one being a 3.7 kb transcript, particularly in the adult head. Tissue in situ experiments identified the rosA transcript to be localized to many tissues, with higher levels of hybridization in the nervous system and digestive tract. The results demonstrate that the rosA gene encodes a novel Na+/Cl(-)-dependent transporter important for normal response properties of the photoreceptor.

  3. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  4. Modulation of barnacle (Balanus amphitrite Darwin) cyprid settlement behavior by sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine methacrylate polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Nick; Li, Guozhu; Gao, Ye; Clare, Anthony S; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2010-08-01

    Zwitterionic polymers such as poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) and poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (polyCBMA) have demonstrated impressive fouling-resistance against proteins and mammalian cells. In this paper, the effects of these surface chemistries on the settlement and behavior of an ubiquitous fouling organism, the cypris larva of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite), were studied in the laboratory. Conventional settlement assays and behavioral analysis of cyprids using Noldus Ethovision 3.1 demonstrated significant differences in settlement and behavior on different surfaces. Cyprids did not settle on the polySBMA or polyCBMA surfaces over the course of the assay, whereas settlement on glass occurred within expected limits. Individual components of cyprid behavior were shown to differ significantly between glass, polySBMA and polyCBMA. Cyprids also responded differently to the two zwitterionic surfaces. On polySBMA, cyprids were unwilling or unable to settle, whereas on polyCBMA cyprids did not attempt exploration and left the surface quickly. In neither case was toxicity observed. It is concluded that a zwitterionic approach to fouling-resistant surface development has considerable potential in marine applications. PMID:20658383

  5. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles. PMID:17681431

  6. Effect of temperature on membrane potential and ionic fluxes in intact and dialysed barnacle muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Dipolo, Reinaldo; Latorre, Ramón

    1972-01-01

    1. The temperature-dependent component of the resting potential in intact, cannulated and dialysed fibres from the muscle of the barnacle Balanus nubilus was studied under a variety of different experimental conditions. A decrease in temperature from 22 to 12° C produced a mean depolarization of 10 mV. 2. Neither addition of strophanthidin, nor replacement of external sodium by lithium affect the voltage shift induced by temperature. However, the magnitude of the voltage shift depends on the external chloride and potassium concentration. 3. The dialysis technique was applied to measure the potassium, chloride and sodium fluxes as a function of temperature. The Q10 for the passive fluxes of these ions was 1·9, 1·7, and 1·4 respectively. 4. The temperature-dependent changes in the passive ionic fluxes combined with the inability of inhibitors of the sodium pump to alter the temperature dependence of the resting potential suggest that the change induced by temperature on the resting potential is primarily caused by a change in the passive permeability ratios, and is not related to active ion transport. PMID:5074384

  7. Phylogeographic structure and northward range expansion in the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Bukša, Filip; Bockrath, Katherine; Wares, John P.; Pineda, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle Chthamalus fragilis is found along the US Atlantic seaboard historically from the Chesapeake Bay southward, and in the Gulf of Mexico. It appeared in New England circa 1900 coincident with warming temperatures, and is now a conspicuous member of rocky intertidal communities extending through the northern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The origin of northern C. fragilis is debated. It may have spread to New England from the northern end of its historic range through larval transport by ocean currents, possibly mediated by the construction of piers, marinas, and other anthropogenic structures that provided new hard substrate habitat. Alternatively, it may have been introduced by fouling on ships originating farther south in its historic distribution. Here we examine mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence diversity and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of C. fragilis from 11 localities ranging from Cape Cod, to Tampa Bay, Florida. We found significant genetic structure between northern and southern populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three well-supported reciprocally monophyletic haplogroups, including one haplogroup that is restricted to New England and Virginia populations. While the distances between clades do not suggest cryptic speciation, selection and dispersal barriers may be driving the observed structure. Our data are consistent with an expansion of C. fragilis from the northern end of its mid-19th century range into Massachusetts. PMID:25945315

  8. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  9. Speciation and the establishment of zonation in an intertidal barnacle: specific settlement vs. selection.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L; Achituv, Y; Mokady, O

    2002-09-01

    The tropical barnacle Tetraclita forms a belt on hard substrates in the intertidal zone of the Red Sea. Based on morphological data, three distinct species were suggested to exist, occupying different vertical levels - T. barnesorum, T. rufotincta and T. achituvi. In this study we used molecular (12S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA) and ecological data to examine whether this morphological variability reflects genetic differences, or is a result of environmental factors. Adults and spats, collected from settlement plates, were censused and screened genotypically using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and settlement dynamics was recorded. We provide evidence for the existence of only two distinct species, and point out both phenotypic plasticity and convergence within and between the proposed species. Cyprids of T. achituvi settle specifically at the lower part of the Tetraclita belt, and feature one phenotype. In contrast, T. rufotincta, occupying the upper and middle portions of the Tetraclita belt, settles throughout the range, shows phenotypic plasticity (three variants), and presumably undergoes selection at the lower part. Thus, the vertical zonation of Tetraclita is produced by the combination of pre-settlement and post-settlement factors, in T. achituvi and T. rufotincta, respectively. The examined system may offer a model in which to study the mechanisms underlying sympatric speciation.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A; Achituv, Yair

    2012-10-01

    The Chthamaloidea (Balanomorpha) present the most plesiomorphic characters in shell plates and cirri, mouthparts, and oral cone within the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia). Due to their importance in understanding both the origin and diversification of the Balanomorpha, the evolution of the Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8→6→4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates surrounded by whorls of small imbricating plates; but this hypothesis has never been subjected to a rigorous phylogenetic test. Here we used multilocus sequence data and extensive taxon sampling to build a comprehensive phylogeny of the Chthamaloidea as a basis for understanding their morphological evolution. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses separate the Catophragmidae (eight shell plates and imbricating plates) from the Chthamalidae (8-4 shell plates and no imbricating plates), but do no support a gradual reduction in shell plates (8→6→4). This suggests that evolution at the base of the Balanomorpha involved a considerable amount of homoplasy.

  11. Can body burden in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite indicate seasonal variation in cadmium concentrations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2005-10-01

    Two three-month sampling programs measuring Cd in the environment and a biomonitor ( Balanus amphitrite) were undertaken in the austral winter of 2002 and summer of 2004 in Ross Creek, North Queensland, Australia. The objective was to test whether the burden of Cd in the biomonitor responded to any variation in the dissolved and particulate phase Cd concentrations in Ross Creek, caused by rainfall variation. The barnacles from the most Cd contaminated site were exposed to a total Cd concentration twice that in winter (93.6 ng L -1) than in summer (45.6 ng L -1). However, no significant variation was identified for the Cd concentration in the biomonitor between winter (8.4 mg kg -1) and summer (7.4 mg kg -1). A budget analysis based on a bioenergetic kinetic model indicated that Cd flux from food contributes >80% to the Cd concentration in B. amphitrite. A sensitivity analysis showed that physiological characteristics of the biomonitor are the key parameters controlling Cd accumulation in B. amphitrite, rather than the metal concentration in the dissolved or particulate phases. These two model's outcomes suggest that a tight coupling between Cd in the biomonitor and its availability in the environment does not occur.

  12. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted.

  13. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles.

  14. Water and electrolyte content of the myofilament phase in the chemically skinned barnacle fiber

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, were placed inside the lumen of a porous glass capillary and equilibrated for 48 h in an electrolyte solution containing 2% Tween. The glass capillary prevented the chemically "skinned" fiber from swelling with a water content beyond 80%. Isotope exchange studies using 22Na, 42K, and 36Cl indicated the existence of an intermediate rate constant and compartment which varied with pH. This intermediate rate was attributed to counter-ions and co-ions in the myofilament phase. Analysis of the electrolyte composition of the fiber at pH 8 predicts that the myofilaments contain about 0.3 of the fiber water, and that a -15 mV Donnan potential exists at the myofilament surface. An open-tipped (1- micrometer) microelectrode in the skinned fiber measured a potential (similar in magnitude to the Donnan potential), which decreased and reversed sign as the pH was lowered. The measured cation contents of the fiber between pH 5 and 8 were found to be similar to the cation contents predicted from the measured Donnan potentials. The net negative charge of the myofilaments at pH 7.5 and at ionic strength 0.56 is estimated to be 41 eq per 10(5) g of dry weight. PMID:7189772

  15. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV.

  16. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity.

  17. siRNA transfection in larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue Him; Yu, Li; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides an efficient and specific technique for functional genomic studies. Yet, no successful application of RNAi has been reported in barnacles. In this study, siRNA against p38 MAPK was synthesized and then transfected into A. amphitrite larvae at either the nauplius or cyprid stage, or at both stages. Effects of siRNA transfection on the p38 MAPK level were hardly detectable in the cyprids when they were transfected at the nauplius stage. In contrast, larvae that were transfected at the cyprid stage showed lower levels of p38 MAPK than the blank and reagent controls. However, significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) and reduced settlement rates were observed only in 'double transfections', in which larvae were exposed to siRNA solution at both the nauplius and cyprid stages. A relatively longer transfection time and more larval cells directly exposed to siRNA might explain the higher efficiency of double transfection experiments.

  18. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. PMID:26507313

  19. siRNA transfection in larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gen; He, Li-Sheng; Wong, Yue Him; Yu, Li; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides an efficient and specific technique for functional genomic studies. Yet, no successful application of RNAi has been reported in barnacles. In this study, siRNA against p38 MAPK was synthesized and then transfected into A. amphitrite larvae at either the nauplius or cyprid stage, or at both stages. Effects of siRNA transfection on the p38 MAPK level were hardly detectable in the cyprids when they were transfected at the nauplius stage. In contrast, larvae that were transfected at the cyprid stage showed lower levels of p38 MAPK than the blank and reagent controls. However, significantly decreased levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) and reduced settlement rates were observed only in 'double transfections', in which larvae were exposed to siRNA solution at both the nauplius and cyprid stages. A relatively longer transfection time and more larval cells directly exposed to siRNA might explain the higher efficiency of double transfection experiments. PMID:26113139

  20. Phylogeographic structure and northward range expansion in the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Bukša, Filip; Bockrath, Katherine; Wares, John P; Pineda, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle Chthamalus fragilis is found along the US Atlantic seaboard historically from the Chesapeake Bay southward, and in the Gulf of Mexico. It appeared in New England circa 1900 coincident with warming temperatures, and is now a conspicuous member of rocky intertidal communities extending through the northern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The origin of northern C. fragilis is debated. It may have spread to New England from the northern end of its historic range through larval transport by ocean currents, possibly mediated by the construction of piers, marinas, and other anthropogenic structures that provided new hard substrate habitat. Alternatively, it may have been introduced by fouling on ships originating farther south in its historic distribution. Here we examine mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence diversity and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of C. fragilis from 11 localities ranging from Cape Cod, to Tampa Bay, Florida. We found significant genetic structure between northern and southern populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three well-supported reciprocally monophyletic haplogroups, including one haplogroup that is restricted to New England and Virginia populations. While the distances between clades do not suggest cryptic speciation, selection and dispersal barriers may be driving the observed structure. Our data are consistent with an expansion of C. fragilis from the northern end of its mid-19th century range into Massachusetts. PMID:25945315

  1. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted. PMID:25261121

  2. Self-assembling peptide inspired by a barnacle underwater adhesive protein.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masahiro; Shen, Jian-Ren; Kamino, Kei

    2007-06-01

    An underwater bioadhesive generally comprises a multiprotein complex that provides a molecular basis for self-assembly. We report here a new class of self-assembling peptide inspired by a 20 kDa barnacle cement protein. Studies on the chemically synthesized 24-residue peptide have revealed that (1) it underwent irreversible self-assembly upon the addition of salt, (2) the self-assembly was started at a salt concentration close to that of seawater with noncovalent intermolecular interactions, (3) the self-assembled material resembled a macroscopic membrane of interwoven nanofilaments, (4) incubation in an alkaline pH range formed the intramolecular disulfide bond of a peptide molecule, thus triggering a conformation change of the molecule, and (5) conformational change of the building block promoted the formation of a nanofiber, resulting in the display of a three-dimensional meshlike mesoscopic structure with defined pores having a diameter of approximately 200 nm. The peptide is likely to provide a suitable basis for further development of peptide-based materials.

  3. Kinetics of oxygen consumption after a flash of light in the lateral ocellus of the barnacle.

    PubMed

    Poitry, S; Widmer, H

    1988-10-01

    Until recently, polarographic methods for measuring the time course of transient changes in the rate of oxygen consumption (DeltaQO(2)) have been applied only to tissue preparations containing thousands of cells. Here, we describe DeltaQO(2) measurements on the lateral ocellus of the barnacle (Balanus eburneus) which contains only three photoreceptor cells. The decrement of partial pressure of oxygen (DeltaPO(2)) elicited by an 80 ms flash of light was measured near the cells with a microelectrode and the DeltaQO(2) was calculated from the DeltaPO(2) using a model of diffusion with spherical symmetry. As shown by mathematical simulation, the exact shape of the preparation is not crucial for our measurements of the time course of the DeltaQO(2). For a given DeltaQO(2), the model describes correctly the attenuation of the DeltaPO(2) measured at increased distances from the preparation. To know more about the mechanisms controlling the DeltaQO(2), we compared it with the electrical response of the photoreceptor cells: both responses have a similar spectral dependence, but only the DeltaQO(2) was abolished by a 10-min exposure to 50 muM dinitrophenol or to 3 mM amytal. We conclude that the DeltaQO(2) reflects an increase in mitochondrial respiration and that it is initiated by the phototransformation of rhodopsin, as was already found in the honeybee drone retina (Dimitracos and Tsacopoulos, 1985; Jones and Tsacopoulos, 1987).

  4. "Ishica, de quien sos tu?": Nostalgia for a Mother Tongue in Rosa Nissan's Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhard, Tabea Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Judeo-Spanish in the Rosa Nissan's novels "Novia que te vea" (1992) and "Hisho que te nazca" (1996) and reveals the ways in which the presence of this language interrupts the otherwise linear coming-of-age narrative. An analysis of the main character's relationship with Judeo-Spanish establishes a critical dialogue…

  5. First report about pharmaceutical properties and phytochemicals analysis of Rosa abyssinica R. Br. ex Lindl. (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of seven solvent extracts from leaves and hips of Saudi Arabian weed Rosa abyssinica against a variety of human pathogenic bacteria and Candida species have been evaluated using well diffusion methods. Phytochemicals present in the leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica has been characterized using Gas Chromatogram Mass spectrometry analysis. The extracts comparative efficacy against tested microbes gained from the fresh and dry leaves exhibited more prominent activity than fresh and dry hips. The methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone and diethyl ether extracts have a greater lethal effect on pathogenic microbes than hot water extracts, while cold-water extracts showed no activity. Twenty-four phytochemicals have been characterized from ethanol extract of the leaves of Rosa abyssinica and fifteen from hips by GC-MS. The major compounds detected in the leaves were squalene (38.21%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy- (9.65%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.55%), furfural (5.50%) and 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (5.19%). The major compounds in the hips were 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (51.27%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.18%), 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (7.42%), 2,5-furandione, dihydro-3-methylene- (6.79%) and furfural (5.99%). Current findings indicate that extract from leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica and the bioactive components present could be used as pharmaceutical agents.

  6. Estimating the population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California’s Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Because of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, there was an urgent need to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on the Islands. In 2009 and 2010, biologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers, where units were selected under a stratified random sampling design. Shrike abundance was estimated to be 169 in 2009 and 240 in 2010 for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 and 42 in 2010 for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of non-native herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies. In view of this circumstance and the still-low numbers of shrikes, additional intensive demographic and habitat-use studies are critical for obtaining information vital for the perpetuation of this subspecies.

  7. 77 FR 56772 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... History and Information The Coast Guard published a NPRM in the Federal Register on July 10, 2012 (77 FR...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  8. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ekesi, Sunday; Meyer, Marc De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and morphology of two Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, putatively belonging to two cryptic taxa, were analysed. The chemical profiles were characterised by two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. CHs of Ceratitis rosa that originated from the lowlands and highlands of Kenya comprised of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the range of the carbon backbone from C14 to C37. Hydrocarbons containing C29, C31, C33 and C35 carbon atoms predominated in these two populations. 2-Methyltriacontane was the predominant compound in both populations. Quantitative differences in the distribution of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths, mainly the C22, C32, C33 and C34 compounds of these two populations, were observed despite indistinct qualitative differences in these hydrocarbons. Morphological analyses of male legs confirmed that the flies belong to different morphotypes of Ceratitis rosa previously labelled as R1 and R2 for lowland and highland populations, respectively. A statistical analysis of the CH compositions of the putative R1 and R2 species showed distinct interspecific identities, with several CHs specific for each of the lowland and highland populations. This study supports a hypothesis that the taxon Ceratitis rosa consists of at least two biological species. PMID:26798275

  9. The Politics of Children's Literature: The Story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    As commonly told to and read by children, the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott fails to indicate Mrs. Parks' activist role or the degree of community organization and participation in the boycott. Telling what actually occurred allows children identify with people who make justice happen. (SLD)

  10. SEDIMENT AND PLANT PHOSPHORUS IN TWO THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BEDS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND, NW FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated phosphorus concentrations in the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, and the supporting quartz sediments of two meadows in Santa Rosa Sound. One meadow was sampled during 2002, and the other during 2003. Triplicate sediment and biomass cores were obtained from beneath...

  11. Photograph-based ergonomic evaluations using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA).

    PubMed

    Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. PMID:26360224

  12. Changes and variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in fish, barnacles and crabs following an oil spill in a mangrove of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Neves, Roberta L; Aucélio, Ricardo; Van Der Ven, Paulo H; Pitombo, Fábio B; Mendes, Carla L T; Ziolli, Roberta L

    2010-08-01

    On April 26th, 2005, an accident caused a leak of 60,000L of Diesel Oil Type "B", freighted by train wagons upstream on a mangrove area within Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. After the accident, samples from animals with different biological requirements were collected in order to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations for the following 12months. Sessile, mobile, carnivorous, omnivorous, organic detritus feeders, planktivorous and suspension feeders were some of the attributes compared. Concentrations of PAHs did not vary in relation to different dietary habits and the best response was from the sessile suspensivorous barnacles. A background level of <50microgkg(-1) was suggested based on the reference site and on values observed in the following months after the accident. The highest values of PAH concentrations were observed in barnacles in the first month immediately after the spill, decreasing to background levels after few months. Barnacles are suggested as a sentinel species.

  13. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-06-22

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic.

  14. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic. PMID:26249902

  15. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  16. Population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California's Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands (USA). This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. The combination of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, prompted us to undertake a study to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. During the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons, we surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers to estimate joint detection probabilities (p), where we selected units under a stratified random sampling design. We estimated shrike abundance to be 169 in 2009 (p = 0.476) and 240 in 2010 (p = 0.825) for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 (p = 0.816) and 42 in 2010 (p = 0.710) for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of nonnative herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies and, therefore, we suggest that intensive demographic and habitat use research be initiated immediately to obtain additional information vital for the management of this subspecies. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Geologic and Geophysical Framework of the Santa Rosa 7.5' Quadrangle, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.; McPhee, D.K.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; Wan, Elmira

    2008-01-01

    The geologic and geophysical maps of Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and accompanying structure sections portray the sedimentary and volcanic stratigraphy and crustal structure of the Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and provide a context for interpreting the evolution of volcanism and active faulting in this region. The quadrangle is located in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay and is traversed by the active Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Maacama Fault Zones. The geologic and geophysical data presented in this report, are substantial improvements over previous geologic and geophysical maps of the Santa Rosa area, allowing us to address important geologic issues. First, the geologic mapping is integrated with gravity and magnetic data, allowing us to depict the thicknesses of Cenozoic deposits, the depth and configuration of the Mesozoic basement surface, and the geometry of fault structures beneath this region to depths of several kilometers. This information has important implications for constraining the geometries of major active faults and for understanding and predicting the distribution and intensity of damage from ground shaking during earthquakes. Secondly, the geologic map and the accompanying description of the area describe in detail the distribution, geometry and complexity of faulting associated with the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Bennett Valley Fault Zones and associated faults in the Santa Rosa quadrangle. The timing of fault movements is constrained by new 40Ar/39Ar ages and tephrochronologic correlations. These new data provide a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the extensive sedimentary and volcanic cover in the area and, in particular, clarify the formational affinities of Pliocene and Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary units in the map area. Thirdly, the geophysics, particularly gravity data, indicate the locations of thick sections of sedimentary and volcanic fill within ground water basins of the Santa Rosa plain and

  18. Unraveling the evolutionary radiation of the thoracican barnacles using molecular and morphological evidence: a comparison of several divergence time estimation approaches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A

    2004-04-01

    The Thoracica includes the ordinary barnacles found along the sea shore and is the most diverse and well-studied superorder of Cirripedia. However, although the literature abounds with scenarios explaining the evolution of these barnacles, very few studies have attempted to test these hypotheses in a phylogenetic context. The few attempts at phylogenetic analyses have suffered from a lack of phylogenetic signal and small numbers of taxa. We collected DNA sequences from the nuclear 18S, 28S, and histone H3 genes and the mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes (4,871 bp total) and data for 37 adult and 53 larval morphological characters from 43 taxa representing all the extant thoracican suborders (except the monospecific Brachylepadomorpha). Four Rhizocephala (highly modified parasitic barnacles) taxa and a Rhizocephala + Acrothoracica (burrowing barnacles) hypothetical ancestor were used as the outgroup for the molecular and morphological analyses, respectively. We analyzed these data separately and combined using maximum likelihood (ML) under "hill-climbing" and genetic algorithm heuristic searches, maximum parsimony procedures, and Bayesian inference coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under mixed and homogeneous models of nucleotide substitution. The resulting phylogenetic trees answered key questions in barnacle evolution. The four-plated Iblomorpha were shown as the most primitive thoracican, and the plateless Heteralepadomorpha were placed as the sister group of the Lepadomorpha. These relationships suggest for the first time in an invertebrate that exoskeleton biomineralization may have evolved from phosphatic to calcitic. Sessilia (nonpedunculate) barnacles were depicted as monophyletic and appear to have evolved from a stalked (pedunculate) multiplated (5+) scalpelloidlike ancestor rather than a five-plated lepadomorphan ancestor. The Balanomorpha (symmetric sessile barnacles) appear to have the following relationship: (Chthamaloidea

  19. Hepoxilins and trioxilins in barnacles: an analysis of their potential roles in egg hatching and larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Vogan, Claire L; Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Henry, Sheelagh; Pace-Asciak, Cecil R; Clare, Anthony S; Rowley, Andrew F

    2003-09-01

    The barnacle life cycle has two key stages at which eicosanoids are believed to be involved in cellular communication pathways, namely the hatching of nauplii and the settlement of cypris larvae. Barnacle egg-hatching activity has previously been reported to reside in a variety of eicosanoids, including 8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and a number of tri-hydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives, the trioxilins. The production of the eicosapentaenoic acid metabolite trioxilin A4 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid) by the barnacles Balanus amphitrite and Elminius modestus was confirmed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, both linked to mass spectrometry. In addition, both species also generated trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14-eicosatrienoic acid; an arachidonic acid-derived product), 8,11,12-trihydroxy-9,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (a omega3 analogue of trioxilin A3; derived from omega3 arachidonic acid) and 10,13,14-trihydroxy-4,7,11,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (a docosahexaenoic acid-derived product). In contrast to earlier reports, trioxilin A3 had no E. modestus egg-hatching activity at any of the concentrations tested (10(-9)-10(-6) mol l(-1)). The unstable epoxide precursor hepoxilin A3, however, caused significant levels of hatching at 10(-6) mol l(-1). Furthermore, the stable hepoxilin B3 analogue PBT-3 stimulated hatching at 10(-7) mol l(-1). Neither trioxilin A3, hepoxilin A3 or PBT-3 at 0.25-30 micromol l(-1) served as settlement cues for B. amphitrite cypris larvae.

  20. Role of Upwelling on Larval Dispersal and Productivity of Gooseneck Barnacle Populations in the Cantabrian Sea: Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Antonella; Weidberg, Nicolás; Pardiñas, Antonio F.; González-Gil, Ricardo; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coastal upwelling on the recruitment and connectivity of coastal marine populations has rarely been characterized to a level of detail to be included into sound fishery management strategies. The gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) fishery at the Cantabrian Coast (Northern Spain) is located at the fringes of the NW Spanish Upwelling system. This fishery is being co-managed through a fine-scale, interspersed set of protected rocks where each rock receives a distinct level of protection. Such interspersion is potentially beneficial, but the extent to which such spacing is consistent with mean larval dispersal distances is as yet unknown. We have simulated the spread of gooseneck barnacle larvae in the Central Cantabrian Coast using a high-resolution time-series of current profiles measured at a nearshore location. During a year of high upwelling activity (2009), theoretical recruitment success was 94% with peak recruitment predicted 56 km west of the emission point. However, for a year of low upwelling activity (2011) theoretical recruitment success dropped to 15.4% and peak recruitment was expected 13 km east of the emission point. This is consistent with a positive correlation between catch rates and the Integrated Upwelling Index, using a 4-year lag to allow recruits to reach commercial size. Furthermore, a net long-term westward larval transport was estimated by means of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for five populations in the Cantabrian Sea. Our results call into question the role of long distance dispersal, driven by the mesoscale processes in the area, in gooseneck barnacle populations and point to the prevalent role of small-scale, asymmetric connectivity more consistent with the typical scale of the co-management process in this fishery. PMID:24236020

  1. The effect of water temperature and velocity on barnacle growth: Quantifying the impact of multiple environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Organisms employ a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to endure stressful environmental conditions. For many marine invertebrates, physiological and/or behavioral performance is dependent on physical conditions in the fluid environment. Although factors such as water temperature and velocity can elicit changes in respiration and feeding, the manner in which these processes integrate to shape growth remains unclear. In a growth experiment, juvenile barnacles (Balanus glandula) were raised in dockside, once-through flow chambers at water velocities of 2 versus 19 cm s(-1) and temperatures of 11.5 versus 14 °C. Over 37 days, growth rates (i.e., shell basal area) increased with faster water velocities and higher temperatures. Barnacles at high flows had shorter feeding appendages (i.e., cirri), suggesting that growth patterns are unlikely related to plastic responses in cirral length. A separate experiment in the field confirmed patterns of temperature- and flow-dependent growth over 41 days. Outplanted juvenile barnacles exposed to the faster water velocities (32±1 and 34±1 cm s(-1); mean±SE) and warm temperatures (16.81±0.05 °C) experienced higher growth compared to individuals at low velocities (1±1 cm s(-1)) and temperatures (13.67±0.02 °C). Growth data were consistent with estimates from a simple energy budget model based on previously measured feeding and respiration response curves that predicted peak growth at moderate temperatures (15 °C) and velocities (20-30 cm s(-1)). Low growth is expected at both low and high velocities due to lower encounter rates with suspended food particles and lower capture efficiencies respectively. At high temperatures, growth is likely limited by high metabolic costs, whereas slow growth at low temperatures may be a consequence of low oxygen availability and/or slow cirral beating and low feeding rates. Moreover, these results advocate for approaches that consider the combined effects of

  2. The effect of water temperature and velocity on barnacle growth: Quantifying the impact of multiple environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Organisms employ a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to endure stressful environmental conditions. For many marine invertebrates, physiological and/or behavioral performance is dependent on physical conditions in the fluid environment. Although factors such as water temperature and velocity can elicit changes in respiration and feeding, the manner in which these processes integrate to shape growth remains unclear. In a growth experiment, juvenile barnacles (Balanus glandula) were raised in dockside, once-through flow chambers at water velocities of 2 versus 19 cm s(-1) and temperatures of 11.5 versus 14 °C. Over 37 days, growth rates (i.e., shell basal area) increased with faster water velocities and higher temperatures. Barnacles at high flows had shorter feeding appendages (i.e., cirri), suggesting that growth patterns are unlikely related to plastic responses in cirral length. A separate experiment in the field confirmed patterns of temperature- and flow-dependent growth over 41 days. Outplanted juvenile barnacles exposed to the faster water velocities (32±1 and 34±1 cm s(-1); mean±SE) and warm temperatures (16.81±0.05 °C) experienced higher growth compared to individuals at low velocities (1±1 cm s(-1)) and temperatures (13.67±0.02 °C). Growth data were consistent with estimates from a simple energy budget model based on previously measured feeding and respiration response curves that predicted peak growth at moderate temperatures (15 °C) and velocities (20-30 cm s(-1)). Low growth is expected at both low and high velocities due to lower encounter rates with suspended food particles and lower capture efficiencies respectively. At high temperatures, growth is likely limited by high metabolic costs, whereas slow growth at low temperatures may be a consequence of low oxygen availability and/or slow cirral beating and low feeding rates. Moreover, these results advocate for approaches that consider the combined effects of

  3. Recruitment density can determine adult morphology and fecundity in the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Hills, Jeremy M; Thomason, Jeremy C

    2003-06-01

    Although consequences of the settlement preference of larvae have been well documented, the consequence of these settlement choices on subsequent mortality, morphology and fecundity has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between recruit and adult density and to determine the effect of recruitment on adult morphology and egg tissue mass. This study follows 48,718 barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) from recruitment at the end of the settling season to reproductively mature adults at a field site in the Clyde Sea (UK). Overall survivorship of the recruits to adulthood was 8.5%, although survivorship was up to 42% on low density settlement panels. In low density colonies (< 10 recruits cm-2), recruitment density was related to adult density (P < 0.001), whereas no relationship was found for higher density colonies. A shell morphology index measured at adulthood was related to recruitment density for low density recruited colonies (P < 0.001) but not high density colonies. Using ANCOVA, variations between the colonies in shell and egg tissue mass were not explained by mass of somatic tissue. However, egg mass was explained by recruitment density (P < 0.01). These results show that adult density is not a reliable indicator of the previous population density of the colony. Moreover, there are marked differences in population development between colonies with high and low recruit densities in terms of impact upon shell morphology and egg production. The dynamics that operate between recruits at the end of the settlement season and sexually mature adults to create the patterns elucidated in this paper, and other literature, remain unclear.

  4. Genetic and Morphological Differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific Intertidal Barnacle Chthamalus malayensis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A.; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  5. Temporal changes in the strength of density-dependent mortality and growth in intertidal barnacles.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stuart R; Murua, Jefferson; Burrows, Michael T

    2008-05-01

    1. In demographically open marine systems, the extent to which density-dependent processes in the benthic adult phase are required for population persistence is unclear. At one extreme, represented by the recruitment limitation hypothesis, larval supply may be insufficient for the total population size to reach a carrying capacity and density-independent mortality predominates. At the opposite extreme, populations are saturated and density-dependent mortality is sufficiently strong to reshape patterns established at settlement. 2. We examined temporal variation in the way density-independent and density-dependent mortality interact in a typical sessile marine benthic invertebrate, the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.), over a 2-year period. 3. Recruitment was manipulated at two high recruitment sites in north Wales, UK to produce recruit densities covering the range naturally found in this species. Following manipulation, fixed quadrats were monitored using digital photography and temporal changes in mortality and growth rate were examined. 4. Over a 2-year period there was a clear, spatially consistent, over-compensatory relationship between the density of recruits and adult abundance indicating strong density-dependent mortality. The strength of density dependence intensified with increasing recruitment. 5. Density-dependent mortality did not operate consistently over the study period. It only operated in the early part of the benthic phase, but the pattern of adult abundance generated was maintained throughout the whole 2-year period. Thus, early life-history processes dictated adult population abundance and dynamics. 6. Examination of the natural recruitment regime in the area of study indicated that both positive and negative effects of recruitment will occur over scales varying from kilometres to metres.

  6. Calcium channels in the high resistivity axonal membrane of photoreceptors of the giant barnacle.

    PubMed Central

    Edgington, D R; Stuart, A E

    1979-01-01

    1. The distribution of calcium channels in the cell membrane of the photoreceptor neurone of the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, was studied by recording intracellularly in or near the soma, in the axon, and near the presynaptic terminals. The membrane properties of these different regions of the cell could be studied by separately superfusing each region with test salines or by cutting the axon between two regions. 2. In the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 3-aminopyridine (3-AP), but not in their absence, Ca dependent action potentials could be evoked with depolarizing current pulses in the somatic, axonal, and terminal regions. Consequently, voltage-sensitive Ca channels and TEA-sensitive channels are present in all three regions of the cell. 3. The action potentials recorded from the three regions were similar in their slow times-to-peak (30-300 msec), long durations (0.2-2 sec in 100 mM-TEA), and long-lasting (0.2-10 sec) undershoots. The action potentials were inhibited by extracellular Co. 4. Clear differences were consistently observed between terminal action potentials and axonal or somatic action potentials in TEA. Terminal action potentials displayed a lower voltage threshold, faster rate of rise, and were less sensitive to inhibition by extracellular cobalt, suggesting that the Ca current is greater in the terminal region. 5. Bathing the receptor axon in low Ca or Co solutions led to a greater attenuation of large depolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread to the presynaptic terminals. PMID:512951

  7. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  8. Genetic and morphological differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific intertidal barnacle Chthamalus malayensis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K K

    2012-09-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  9. Goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes as biomonitor of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to assess the potential use of goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes as biomonitor of metal contamination in northwest (NW) coast of Portugal. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in coastal seawaters and tissues of P. pollicipes, which allowed establishing correlations between metals in coastal seawaters and P. pollicipes and calculating metal bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). The results of this study showed that P. pollicipes soft tissues can be used for monitoring metal contamination in these coastal seawaters: (1) there were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between metals in soft tissues and their concentrations in seawaters, except for Zn (p > 0.05); (2) soft tissues were sensitive to spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and their concentrations ranged 0.70-2.22 mg Cd kg(-1), 0.49-1.40 mg Cr kg(-1), 1.37-2.07 mg Ni kg(-1), 2.4-3.3 mg Cu kg(-1), 5-59 mg Mn kg(-1), 134-578 mg Fe kg(-1)and 728-1,854 mg Zn kg(-1); (3) mean logarithmic bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) of Fe, Cd and Zn were higher, 5.57, 5.47 and 4.41, respectively, than mean log BAFs of Cr, Mn, Cu and Ni, 4.18, 4.14, 3.98 and 3.51, respectively. In contrary, P. pollicipes shell plates were not considered ideal material to monitor metal bioavailabilities in these coastal seawaters. Regarding the very high concentrations of Zn obtained in the coastal seawaters and P. pollicipes soft tissues, the NW coast of Portugal should be classified as "Class III/IV - Remarkably/Highly Polluted".

  10. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic

  11. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  12. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  13. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria.

  14. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water resources of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Water managers in the Santa Rosa Plain face the challenge of meeting increasing water demand with a combination of Russian River water, which has uncertainties in its future availability; local groundwater resources; and ongoing and expanding recycled water and water from other conservation programs. To address this challenge, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, the cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, the town of Windsor, the California American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma, undertook development of a fully coupled groundwater and surface-water model to better understand and to help manage the hydrologic resources in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed. The purpose of this report is to (1) describe the construction and calibration of the fully coupled groundwater and surface-water flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, referred to as the Santa Rosa Plain hydrologic model; (2) present results from simulation of the Santa Rosa Plain hydrologic model, including water budgets, recharge distributions, streamflow, and the effect of pumping on water-budget components; and (3) present the results from using the model to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of climate change and variability without pumpage for water years 2011-99 and with projected pumpage for water years 2011-40.

  15. First study on gene expression of cement proteins and potential adhesion-related genes of a membranous-based barnacle as revealed from Next-Generation Sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Wong, Yue Him; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-01

    This is the first study applying Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to survey the kinds, expression location, and pattern of adhesion-related genes in a membranous-based barnacle. A total of 77,528,326 and 59,244,468 raw sequence reads of total RNA were generated from the prosoma and the basis of Tetraclita japonica formosana, respectively. In addition, 55,441 and 67,774 genes were further assembled and analyzed. The combined sequence data from both body parts generates a total of 79,833 genes of which 47.7% were shared. Homologues of barnacle cement proteins - CP-19K, -52K, and -100K - were found and all were dominantly expressed at the basis where the cement gland complex is located. This is the main area where transcripts of cement proteins and other potential adhesion-related genes were detected. The absence of another common barnacle cement protein, CP-20K, in the adult transcriptome suggested a possible life-stage restricted gene function and/or a different mechanism in adhesion between membranous-based and calcareous-based barnacles.

  16. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  17. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  18. Fluorinated/siloxane copolymer blends for fouling release: chemical characterisation and biological evaluation with algae and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Marabotti, Ilaria; Morelli, Andrea; Orsini, Lorenzo M; Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo; Chiellini, Emo; Lien, Einar M; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Clare, Anthony S; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Donik, Crtomir; Jenko, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Fouling-release coatings were prepared from blends of a fluorinated/siloxane copolymer with a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix in order to couple the low modulus character of PDMS with the low surface tension typical for fluorinated polymers. The content of the surface-active copolymer was varied in the blend over a broad range (0.15-10 wt % with respect to PDMS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analyses were performed on the coatings to establish the distribution of specific chemical constituents throughout the coatings, and proved enrichment in fluorine of the outermost layers of the coating surface. Addition of the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer to the PDMS matrix resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in settlement of barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, cyprids. The release of young plants of Ulva, a soft fouling species, and young barnacles showed that adhesion strength on the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer was significantly lower than the siloxane control. However, differences in adhesion strength were not directly correlated with the concentration of copolymer in the blends.

  19. Do tiny males grow up? Sperm competition and optimal resource allocation schedule of dwarf males of barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Ozaki, Yuki; Yusa, Yoichi; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2007-03-21

    Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have three sexual patterns: simultaneous hermaphroditism, dioecy and androdioecy. In dioecy and androdioecy, large individuals (females and hermaphrodites, respectively) are attached by dwarf males. Depending on species, some dwarf males grow up, others do not in their life time. To investigate which environmental conditions affect growth patterns of dwarf males of barnacles, we investigate the evolutionarily stable life history strategy of dwarf males using Pontryagin's maximum principle. Sperm competition among dwarf males and that among dwarf males and large hermaphrodites is taken into account. Dwarf males grow up in food-rich environments, while they do not grow at all in food-poor environments. ESS of the resource allocation schedule between reproduction and growth follows an "intermediate growth strategy" (simultaneous growth and reproduction) for dioecious species, in which sperm competition is not severe. On the other hand, it approaches "bang-bang control" (switching from allocating all resources toward growth then to reproduction), as sperm competition against surrounding large hermaphrodites becomes severe in androdioecious species.

  20. Metabolic effects of parasitization by the barnacle Polyascus plana (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala: Sacculinidae) on a grapsid host, Metopograpsus thukuhar.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chia-Jen; Wu, Yen-I; Tung, Tzu-An; Wang, Guan-Yi; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Liu, Shih-Ting; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2016-05-26

    Pathophysiological studies of rhizocephalan infections are rare. We describe differences in the levels of tissue and hemolymph metabolites between Polyascus plana-parasitized and unparasitized individuals of Metopograpsus thukuhar. Crabs were assigned to either a parasitized (carrying at least 1 externa, i.e. a protruding reproductive body) or an unparasitized (not carrying externae and determined to be rootlet-free by a barnacle 18S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction) group. Quantification of metabolites showed that muscle glycogen levels were significantly lower and hepatopancreas levels were significantly higher in parasitized crabs compared to unparasitized crabs; hepatopancreas triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher and hemolymph levels significantly lower in parasitized hosts, and there was no significant difference in muscle triacylglycerol levels between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose levels in the hepatopancreas, muscle, and hemolymph were all significantly higher in parasitized hosts. Significant levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, and glycogen were present in the barnacle externae. In addition, levels of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the sinus glands were not significantly different between unparasitized and parasitized animals. Glucose mobilized from the muscle is likely converted to glycogen and triacylglycerol in the rootlet-infiltrated hepatopancreas of parasitized hosts, and the eyestalk neuroendocrine system appears not to be significantly impaired, in terms of hormone production and storage, by parasitization. PMID:27225203

  1. iTRAQ-based proteomic profiling of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite in response to the antifouling compound meleagrin.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuang; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Fei; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; He, Li-Sheng; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Marine biofouling refers to the unwanted accumulation of fouling organisms, such as barnacles, on artificial surfaces, resulting in severe consequences for marine industries. Meleagrin is a potential nontoxic antifoulant that is isolated from the fungus Penicillium sp.; however, its mechanistic effect mode of action on larval settlement remains unknown. Here, we applied iTRAQ coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis to investigate the effect of meleagrin on the proteomic expression profile of cyprid development and aging in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite . Fifty proteins were differentially expressed in response to treatment with meleagrin, among which 26 proteins were associated with cyprid development/aging and 24 were specifically associated with the meleagrin treatment. The 66 proteins that were associated with aging only remained unaltered during exposure to meleagrin. Using KEGG analysis, those proteins were assigned to several groups, including metabolic pathways, ECM-receptor interactions, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Among the 24 proteins that were not related to the development/aging process, expression of the cyprid major protein (CMP), a vitellogenin-like protein, increased after the meleagrin treatment, which suggested that meleagrin might affect the endocrine system and prevent the larval molting cycle. With the exception of the chitin binding protein that mediates the molting process and ATPase-mediated energy processes, the majority of proteins with significant effects in previous studies in response to cyprid treatment with butenolide and polyether B remained unchanged in the present study, suggesting that meleagrin may exhibit a different mechanism.

  2. Botanical origin of mei-gui hua (petal of a Rosa species).

    PubMed

    Ochir, Sarangowa; Ishii, Kouta; Park, ByoungJae; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Nishizawa, Makoto; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Funaki, Minoru; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    Mei-gui hua has been used as a crude drug in traditional medicine and as herbal tea in China. The scientific name of Mei-gui is Rosa rugosa thunb. However, the morphological characteristics and botanical ecology of Mei-gui were different from those of R. rugosa. Since the botanical origins of Mei-gui cultivated in China have not yet been clarified, we compared Mei-gui and R. rugosa in terms of their morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, and phytochemical studies. Our research suggested that Mei-gui cultivated around Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Province showed homology to Rosa gallica, while those cultivated in the northeastern parts of China are considered to be hybrids of R. rugosa. PMID:20467822

  3. Outdated Language: Use of "Mental Retardation" in Medicaid HCBS Waivers Post-Rosa's Law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carli

    2016-10-01

    Rosa's Law, which changed references of "mental retardation" to "intellectual disability" within federal legislation, marked recognition by the federal government that the term "mental retardation" is outdated and pejorative. However, Rosa's Law did not apply to many notable federal programs related to disability, such as Medicaid. This article explores if and how the term "mental retardation" was used within Medicaid Home and Community Based Services 1915(c) waivers, as they are the most prevalent provider of long-term services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Waivers provide some of the most advanced community services and the language used in them should reflect this. Although an overwhelming majority of waivers used "mental retardation," we found that the term was used less for later benchmark dates. PMID:27673735

  4. Botanical origin of mei-gui hua (petal of a Rosa species).

    PubMed

    Ochir, Sarangowa; Ishii, Kouta; Park, ByoungJae; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Nishizawa, Makoto; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Funaki, Minoru; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    Mei-gui hua has been used as a crude drug in traditional medicine and as herbal tea in China. The scientific name of Mei-gui is Rosa rugosa thunb. However, the morphological characteristics and botanical ecology of Mei-gui were different from those of R. rugosa. Since the botanical origins of Mei-gui cultivated in China have not yet been clarified, we compared Mei-gui and R. rugosa in terms of their morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, and phytochemical studies. Our research suggested that Mei-gui cultivated around Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Province showed homology to Rosa gallica, while those cultivated in the northeastern parts of China are considered to be hybrids of R. rugosa.

  5. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  6. Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project: GEO-98-001. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, Edwin Jr.; Carlson, Daniel C.

    2002-10-01

    The Geysers steamfields in northern Sonoma County have produced reliable ''green'' power for many years. An impediment to long-term continued production has been the ability to provide a reliable source of injection water to replace water extracted and lost in the form of steam. The steamfield operators have historcially used cooling towers to recycle a small portion of the steam and have collected water during the winter months using stream extraction. These two sources, however, could not by themselves sustain the steamfield in the long term. The Lake County Reclaimed Water Project (SEGEP) was inititated in 1997 and provides another source of steamfield replenishment water. The Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project provides another significant step in replenishing the steamfield. In addition, the Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project has been built with capacity to potentially meet virtually all injection water requirements, when combined with these other sources. Figure 2.1 graphically depicts the combination of injection sources.

  7. First report about pharmaceutical properties and phytochemicals analysis of Rosa abyssinica R. Br. ex Lindl. (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of seven solvent extracts from leaves and hips of Saudi Arabian weed Rosa abyssinica against a variety of human pathogenic bacteria and Candida species have been evaluated using well diffusion methods. Phytochemicals present in the leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica has been characterized using Gas Chromatogram Mass spectrometry analysis. The extracts comparative efficacy against tested microbes gained from the fresh and dry leaves exhibited more prominent activity than fresh and dry hips. The methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone and diethyl ether extracts have a greater lethal effect on pathogenic microbes than hot water extracts, while cold-water extracts showed no activity. Twenty-four phytochemicals have been characterized from ethanol extract of the leaves of Rosa abyssinica and fifteen from hips by GC-MS. The major compounds detected in the leaves were squalene (38.21%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy- (9.65%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.55%), furfural (5.50%) and 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (5.19%). The major compounds in the hips were 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (51.27%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.18%), 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (7.42%), 2,5-furandione, dihydro-3-methylene- (6.79%) and furfural (5.99%). Current findings indicate that extract from leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica and the bioactive components present could be used as pharmaceutical agents. PMID:26639478

  8. Flavonol glycosides in the petal of Rosa species as chemotaxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Sarangowa, Ochir; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Makoto; Myoda, Takao; Bai, Changxi; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Thirteen flavonol glycosides were isolated from the petals of Rosa species belonging to the section Gallicanae, and their structures were identified from their spectroscopic data. These flavonol glycosides, along with two flavonol glycosides isolated from Rosa rugosa, in the petals of 31 Rosa species belonging to sections Gallicanae, Cinnamomeae, Caninae, and Synstylae were quantitatively analyzed by UPLC. The results indicated that the species belonging to these sections could be classified into four types (Type A, B, C and D) based on the pattern of flavonol glycoside contents, whereas the R. rugosa flavonol glycosides were detected only in section Cinnamomeae. A principal components analysis (PCA) calculated from the 15 flavonol glycosides contained in these samples supported the presence of four types. The distribution of the species in Type D (a group of Cinnamomeae) was shown to reflect close interrelationships, but species in Type B (one group of Gallicanae) could be subdivided into two groups, one of which contained species in section Synstylae. Moreover, the flavonol glycosides were grouped by sugar moieties: a disaccharide composed of two hexoses (S1), a hexose (S2), including a hexose with galloyl group, a pentose (S3), and a disaccharide composed of a hexose and a pentose (S4). The ratios of the amounts of S1-S4 to total flavonol glycoside content indicated that differences among the four sections were more distinctive than the amounts of the 15 flavonol glycosides. The 31 samples were divided into Type B, composed of one type of Gallicanae and Synstylae, Type A+C, composed of another type of Gallicanae and Caninae, and Type D, composed of Cinnamomeae. The R. rugosa flavonol glycosides were shown to be important chemotaxonomic markers for the classification of species in Cinnamomeae, and this method of using flavonol glycosides as chemotaxonomic markers could be useful for the identification of Rosa species belonging to sections Gallicanae, Cinnamomeae

  9. The work of Rosa von Praunheim: tackling AIDS in Germany through film.

    PubMed

    Judell, B

    1996-10-01

    Rosa von Praunheim, a film maker, and the most famous (or infamous) homosexual in Germany, has spurred the creation of gay rights groups from Bavaria to Schleswig-Holstein. His AIDS comedy, A Virus Has No Morals, was one of the first films to confront the disease internationally. Other works, in both fictional and documentary formats, address AIDS activism, living with AIDS, and other social issues concerning AIDS and the gay community. PMID:11363912

  10. Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?

    PubMed

    Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E

    2014-11-01

    Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans.

  11. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005–2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm−2) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm−2). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm−2 (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm−2 (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5–6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration –Chl-a–) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March–April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance. PMID:27812421

  12. Rosa canina Extracts Have Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects on Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Sandra; Gascón, Sonia; Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano; Ancin-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of different fractions of Rosa canina hips on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) was studied. The compounds tested were total extract (fraction 1), vitamin C (fraction 2), neutral polyphenols (fraction 3) and acidic polyphenols (fraction 4). All the extracts showed high cytotoxicity after 72 h, both low and high concentrations. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the fractions produce disturbances in the cell cycle resulting in a concomitant cell death by an apoptotic pathway. Changes in the redox status of Caco-2 cells in response to Rosa canina hips were determined. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide in presence of plant fractions and the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was significantly decreased. Therefore, our data demonstrate that rosehip extracts are a powerful antioxidant that produces an antiproliferative effect in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, these results predict a promising future for Rosa canina as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this natural plant could be an effective component of functional foods addressed towards colorectal carcinoma. PMID:27467555

  13. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis during flower blooming in Rosa chinensis 'Pallida'.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Min; Jian, Hongying; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Li, Shubin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Ningning; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Qigang; Tang, Kaixue

    2014-04-25

    Rosa chinensis 'Pallida' (Rosa L.) is one of the most important ancient rose cultivars originating from China. It contributed the 'tea scent' trait to modern roses. However, little information is available on the gene regulatory networks involved in scent biosynthesis and metabolism in Rosa. In this study, the transcriptome of R. chinensis 'Pallida' petals at different developmental stages, from flower buds to senescent flowers, was investigated using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo assembly generated 89,614 clusters with an average length of 428bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, 62.9% of total clusters were annotated. Out of these annotated transcripts, 25,705 and 37,159 sequences were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. The dataset provides information on transcripts putatively associated with known scent metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression (DGE) was obtained using RNA samples from flower bud, open flower and senescent flower stages. Comparative DGE and quantitative real time PCR permitted the identification of five transcripts encoding proteins putatively associated with scent biosynthesis in roses. The study provides a foundation for scent-related gene discovery in roses.

  14. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables. PMID:19886442

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

  16. Survey of Ungulate Abundance on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Paul C.; Schoenecker, Kate A.; Gogan, Peter J.P.; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable estimates of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) abundance on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, are required to assess the success of management actions directed at these species. We conducted a double-observer aerial survey of elk on a large portion of Santa Rosa Island on March 19, 2009. All four persons on the helicopter were treated as observers. We used two analytical approaches: (1) with three capture occasions corresponding to three possible observers, pooling the observations from the two rear-seat observers, and (2) with four capture occasions treating each observer separately. Approach 1 resulted in an estimate of 483 elk in the survey zone with a 95-percent confidence interval of 479 to 524 elk. Approach 2 resulted in an estimate of 489 elk in the survey zone with a 95-percent confidence interval of 471 to 535 elk. Approximately 5 percent of the elk groups that were estimated to have been present in the survey area were not seen by any observer. Fog prevented us from collecting double-observer observations for deer as intended on March 20. However, we did count 434 deer during the double-observer counts of elk on March 19. Both the calculated number of elk and the observed number of deer are minimal estimates of numbers of each ungulate species on Santa Rosa Island as weather conditions precluded us from surveying the entire island.

  17. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers.

    PubMed

    Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Mbora, Lovina O; Adu, Matthew E; Adeyi, Ameh A

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Okoduwa, Stanley I. R.; Mbora, Lovina O.; Adu, Matthew E.; Adeyi, Ameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly. PMID:26819757

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers.

    PubMed

    Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Mbora, Lovina O; Adu, Matthew E; Adeyi, Ameh A

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly. PMID:26819757

  1. Biogeography, Competition, and Microclimate: The Barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England.

    PubMed

    Wethey, David S

    2002-08-01

    Geographic limits of species are commonly associated with climatic or physical boundaries, but the mechanisms of exclusion at the limits of distribution are poorly understood. In some intertidal populations, the strengths of interactions with natural enemies are mediated by microclimate, and determine geographic limits. The northern limit of the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England is the south side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. South of the cape, Chthamalus has a refuge from competition in the high intertidal, which is too hot for survival of its superior competitor Semibalanus balanoides. North of the cape, the high intertidal is cooler, and Semibalanus survives, so Chthamalus has no refuge. Thus, geographic variation in the strength of competition may determine the geographic limit of Chthamalus. Intolerance of cold by Chthamalus cannot account for the geographic limit: transplants of Chthamalus 80 km beyond its northern limit survived up to 8 yr in the absence of competition with Semibalanus. At the geographic limit of Chthamalus in the Cape Cod Canal there are two bridges, 5 km apart. On the southern bridge, Chthamalus is abundant and occupies a refuge above Semibalanus. On the northern bridge in 2001, only 7 individual Chthamalus were present. Despite the proximity of the bridges, their microclimates are very different. The southern bridge, where Chthamalus is abundant, is up to 8°C hotter than the northern bridge. This higher temperature creates a refuge in the high intertidal for Chthamalus. On the cooler northern bridge, there is no refuge for Chthamalus. Because of the difference in temperatures of the water masses that meet in the canal, heat storage in the rock of the bridge piers causes the temperatures to differ between the bridges. Thus, geographic change in microclimate alters the strength of competition, and determines the geographic limit."When we travel from south to north, or from a damp region to a dry, we invariably see some species

  2. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  3. Membrane properties of a barnacle photoreceptor examined by the voltage clamp technique

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Mack; Hagiwara, S.; Koike, H.; Meech, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. Electrical properties of the membrane of photoreceptor cells in the lateral ocelli of barnacles, Balanus amphitrite and B. eburneus were investigated by intracellular recording, polarization and voltage-clamp techniques. 2. The resting potential of a dark adapted cell was 36·3 ± 6·6 mV (S.D.) and depended mainly on the external K+ concentration. 3. Current—voltage relations obtained from voltage—clamp experiments in the absence of light were non-linear and varied with time after the onset of a step change in membrane potential; the steady state was reached after about 0·5 sec. 4. Illumination resulted in a membrane potential change under current clamp and in a change of membrane current (light-initiated membrane current (L.I.C.): total membrane current with illumination minus current without illumination) under voltage—clamp conditions. Amplitudes and time course of L.I.C. depended on the light intensity as well as membrane potential. 5. The L.I.C.-voltage relation was non-linear and corresponded with a slope conductance increase with increasing positive membrane potential. 6. The reversal potential of L.I.C. was independent of the light intensity and the time after onset of illumination; the average value obtained in normal saline was +26·9 ± 5·0 mV. 7. The membrane conductance estimated from instantaneous L.I.C.-voltage relations agreed with the chord conductance of the non-linear L.I.C.-voltage relation. 8. Decreasing external Na+ concentration decreased the inward component of L.I.C. but not the outward component. 9. Decreasing external Ca2+ concentration increased the inward as well as the outward component of L.I.C. 10. The reversal potential shifted in the negative direction with decreasing external Na+ concentration (the rate was 10-15 mV for a tenfold change in concentration) and the rate was augmented in the absence of Ca2+ but did not exceed 21 mV. 11. The change of reversal potential with changes of external Ca2+ concentration was

  4. Adaptation in the input-output relation of the synapse made by the barnacle's photoreceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, J H; Moore, J W; Stuart, A E

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of synaptic transmission between the four median photoreceptors of the giant barnacle (Balanus nubilus) and their post-synaptic cells (I-cells). Simultaneous intracellular recordings were made from the presynaptic terminal region of a photoreceptor and from the soma of an I-cell. The photoreceptor's membrane potential provided feed-back to bath electrodes that passed current into the receptors' axons, permitting the voltage to be controlled at the point of arborization of their presynaptic terminals. Simultaneous recordings from a second photoreceptor showed that its voltage tracked the first. Step depolarizations of the receptors from their dark resting potential (about -60 mV) caused hyperpolarizations of the I-cell that reached a peak, then decayed to a plateau value. The amplitude of the I-cell's response grew with presynaptic depolarizations, saturating at presynaptic values 10-20 mV depolarized from dark rest. Step hyperpolarizations of the receptors from dark rest evoked depolarizations of the I-cell consisting of an initial peak, which varied greatly in amplitude and wave form from preparation to preparation, followed by a plateau. The presence of this post-synaptic response indicates that transmitter is released continuously from the receptors at their dark resting potential. An input-output relation of the synapse was obtained by presenting step depolarizations from a holding potential of -80 mV, where steady-state transmitter release is shut off. The relation is sigmoidal; in the exponentially rising phase of the curve, a 5-11 mV presynaptic change produces a 10-fold change in post-synaptic response. When the presynaptic holding potential was set at values ranging from -80 to -40 mV, the relation between the I-cell's response and the absolute potential to which the receptor was stepped shifted along the presynaptic voltage axis. The slopes of the input-output relations were roughly parallel or increased as the photoreceptors were held

  5. Biogeography, Competition, and Microclimate: The Barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England.

    PubMed

    Wethey, David S

    2002-08-01

    Geographic limits of species are commonly associated with climatic or physical boundaries, but the mechanisms of exclusion at the limits of distribution are poorly understood. In some intertidal populations, the strengths of interactions with natural enemies are mediated by microclimate, and determine geographic limits. The northern limit of the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England is the south side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. South of the cape, Chthamalus has a refuge from competition in the high intertidal, which is too hot for survival of its superior competitor Semibalanus balanoides. North of the cape, the high intertidal is cooler, and Semibalanus survives, so Chthamalus has no refuge. Thus, geographic variation in the strength of competition may determine the geographic limit of Chthamalus. Intolerance of cold by Chthamalus cannot account for the geographic limit: transplants of Chthamalus 80 km beyond its northern limit survived up to 8 yr in the absence of competition with Semibalanus. At the geographic limit of Chthamalus in the Cape Cod Canal there are two bridges, 5 km apart. On the southern bridge, Chthamalus is abundant and occupies a refuge above Semibalanus. On the northern bridge in 2001, only 7 individual Chthamalus were present. Despite the proximity of the bridges, their microclimates are very different. The southern bridge, where Chthamalus is abundant, is up to 8°C hotter than the northern bridge. This higher temperature creates a refuge in the high intertidal for Chthamalus. On the cooler northern bridge, there is no refuge for Chthamalus. Because of the difference in temperatures of the water masses that meet in the canal, heat storage in the rock of the bridge piers causes the temperatures to differ between the bridges. Thus, geographic change in microclimate alters the strength of competition, and determines the geographic limit."When we travel from south to north, or from a damp region to a dry, we invariably see some species

  6. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Zardus, John D; Wares, John P

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  7. Biomonitoring of trace metal bioavailabilities to the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite along the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, A; Smith, B D; Ehsanpour, M; Afkhami, M; Rainbow, P S

    2014-10-01

    The fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite is a cosmopolitan biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities, with an international comparative data set of body metal concentrations. Bioavailabilities of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, V and Zn to A. amphitrite were investigated at 19 sites along the Iranian coast of the understudied Persian Gulf. Commercial and fishing ports showed extremely high Cu bioavailabilities, associated with high Zn bioavailabilities, possibly from antifouling paints and procedures. V availability was raised at one port, perhaps associated with fuel leakage. Cd bioavailabilities were raised at sites near the Strait of Hormuz, perhaps affected by adjacent upwelling off Oman. The As data allow a reinterpretation of the typical range of accumulated As concentrations in A. amphitrite. The Persian Gulf data add a new region to the A. amphitrite database, confirming its importance in assessing the ecotoxicologically significant trace metal contamination of coastal waters across the world.

  8. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity. PMID:26204856

  9. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  10. Genetic divergence between subpopulations of the eastern Pacific goose barnacle Pollicipes elegans: mitochondrial cytochrome c subunit 1 nucleotide sequences.

    PubMed

    Van Syoc, R J

    1994-12-01

    Nucleotide sequence data derived from polymerase chain reaction products from the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA provide evidence for interrupted gene flow and subsequent genetic divergence between geographically separate subpopulations of the edible goose barnacle, Pollicipes elegans, with a 4400-km latitudinal distribution in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The amphitropical subpopulations of Pollicipes elegans have a net nucleotide sequence divergence of about 1.2%. A range of mutation rates are applied to calculate estimates for the timing of this divergence. The earliest estimated time of divergence agrees with a Pliocene time of general warming in the eastern Pacific. The latest estimated times coincide with the Pleistocene epoch and periods of cooling and warming that could have allowed for a series of expansions and contractions of P. elegans populations in the eastern tropical Pacific. These expansions and contractions may, therefore, represent alternating periods of genetic exchange and isolation of the two populations.

  11. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity.

  12. Genetic differentiation, hybridization and adaptive divergence in two subspecies of the acorn barnacle Tetraclita japonica in the northwestern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Benny K K; Ma, Ka Yan; Chu, Ka Hou

    2008-09-01

    Two acorn barnacles, Tetraclita japonica japonica and Tetraclita japonica formosana, have been recently reclassified as two subspecies, because they are morphologically similar and genetically indistinguishable in mitochondrial DNA sequences. The two barnacles are distinguishable by parietes colour and exhibit parapatric distributions, coexisting in Japan, where T. j. formosana is very low in abundance. Here we investigated the genetic differentiation between the subspecies using 209 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and 341 individuals from 12 locations. The subspecies are genetically highly differentiated (phi(CT) = 0.267). Bayesian analysis and principal component analysis indicate the presence of hybrids in T. j.formosana samples from Japan. Strong differentiation between the northern and southern populations of T. j. japonica was revealed, and a break between Taiwan and Okinawa was also found in T. j. formosana. The differentiation between the two taxa at individual loci does not deviate from neutral expectation, suggesting that the oceanographic pattern which restricts larval dispersal is a more important factor than divergent selection in maintaining genetic and phenotypic differentiation. The T. j. formosana in Japan are probably recent migrants from Okinawa, and their presence in Japan may represent a poleward range shift driven by global warming. This promotes hybridization and might lead to a breakdown of the boundary between the subspecies. However, both local adaptation and larval dispersal are crucial in determining the population structure within each subspecies. Our study provides new insights into the interplay of local adaptation and dispersal in determining the distribution and genetic structure of intertidal biota and the biogeography of the northwestern Pacific.

  13. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854.

    PubMed

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Jonsson, Per R; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  14. Barnacle settlement and the adhesion of protein and diatom microfouling to xerogel films with varying surface energy and water wettability.

    PubMed

    Finlay, John A; Bennett, Stephanie M; Brewer, Lenora H; Sokolova, Anastasiya; Clay, Gemma; Gunari, Nikhil; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Wendt, Dean E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Detty, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Previous work has shown that organosilica-based xerogels have the potential to control biofouling. In this study, modifications of chemistry were investigated with respect to their resistance to marine slimes and to settlement of barnacle cyprids. Adhesion force measurements of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips to xerogel surfaces prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl-containing precursors, indicated that adhesion was significantly less on the xerogel surfaces in comparison to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. The strength of adhesion of BSA on the xerogels was highest on surfaces with the highest and the lowest critical surface tensions, gamma(C) and surface energies, gamma(S), and duplicated the 'Baier curve'. The attachment to and removal of cells of the diatom Navicula perminuta from a similar series of xerogel surfaces were examined. Initial attachment of cells was comparable on all of the xerogel surfaces, but the percentage removal of attached cells by hydrodynamic shear stress increased with gamma(C) and increased wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), of the xerogel surfaces. The percentage removal of cells of Navicula was linearly correlated with both properties (R(2) = 0.74 for percentage removal as a function of theta(Ws) and R(2) = 0.69 for percentage removal as a function of gamma(C)). Several of the aminopropylsilyl-containing xerogels showed significantly greater removal of Navicula compared to a PDMSE standard. Cypris larvae of the barnacle B. amphitrite showed preferred settlement on hydrophilic/higher energy surfaces. Settlement was linearly correlated with theta(Ws) (R(2) = 0.84) and gamma(C) (R(2) = 0.84). Hydrophilic xerogels should prove useful as coatings for boats in regions where fouling is dominated by microfouling (protein and diatom slimes). PMID:20645195

  15. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854

    PubMed Central

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  16. Self-Assembly of Protein Nanofibrils Orchestrates Calcite Step Movement through Selective Nonchiral Interactions.

    PubMed

    So, Christopher R; Liu, Jinny; Fears, Kenan P; Leary, Dagmar H; Golden, Joel P; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2015-06-23

    The recognition of atomically distinct surface features by adsorbed biomolecules is central to the formation of surface-templated peptide or protein nanostructures. On mineral surfaces such as calcite, biomolecular recognition of, and self-assembly on, distinct atomic kinks and steps could additionally orchestrate changes to the overall shape and symmetry of a bulk crystal. In this work, we show through in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments that an acidic 20 kDa cement protein from the barnacle Megabalanus rosa (MRCP20) binds specifically to step edge atoms on {101̅4} calcite surfaces, remains bound and further assembles over time to form one-dimensional nanofibrils. Protein nanofibrils are continuous and organized at the nanoscale, exhibiting striations with a period of ca. 45 nm. These fibrils, templated by surface steps of a preferred geometry, in turn selectively dissolve underlying calcite features displaying the same atomic arrangement. To demonstrate this, we expose the protein solution to bare and fibril-associated rhombohedral etch pits to reveal that nanofibrils accelerate only the movement of fibril-forming steps when compared to undecorated steps exposed to the same solution conditions. Calcite mineralized in the presence of MRCP20 results in asymmetric crystals defined by frustrated faces with shared mirror symmetry, suggesting a similar step-selective behavior by MRCP20 in crystal growth. As shown here, selective surface interactions with step edge atoms lead to a cooperative regime of calcite modification, where templated long-range protein nanostructures shape crystals.

  17. Self-Assembly of Protein Nanofibrils Orchestrates Calcite Step Movement through Selective Nonchiral Interactions.

    PubMed

    So, Christopher R; Liu, Jinny; Fears, Kenan P; Leary, Dagmar H; Golden, Joel P; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2015-06-23

    The recognition of atomically distinct surface features by adsorbed biomolecules is central to the formation of surface-templated peptide or protein nanostructures. On mineral surfaces such as calcite, biomolecular recognition of, and self-assembly on, distinct atomic kinks and steps could additionally orchestrate changes to the overall shape and symmetry of a bulk crystal. In this work, we show through in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments that an acidic 20 kDa cement protein from the barnacle Megabalanus rosa (MRCP20) binds specifically to step edge atoms on {101̅4} calcite surfaces, remains bound and further assembles over time to form one-dimensional nanofibrils. Protein nanofibrils are continuous and organized at the nanoscale, exhibiting striations with a period of ca. 45 nm. These fibrils, templated by surface steps of a preferred geometry, in turn selectively dissolve underlying calcite features displaying the same atomic arrangement. To demonstrate this, we expose the protein solution to bare and fibril-associated rhombohedral etch pits to reveal that nanofibrils accelerate only the movement of fibril-forming steps when compared to undecorated steps exposed to the same solution conditions. Calcite mineralized in the presence of MRCP20 results in asymmetric crystals defined by frustrated faces with shared mirror symmetry, suggesting a similar step-selective behavior by MRCP20 in crystal growth. As shown here, selective surface interactions with step edge atoms lead to a cooperative regime of calcite modification, where templated long-range protein nanostructures shape crystals. PMID:25970003

  18. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  19. Chemical Composition of the Epicuticular and Intracuticular Wax Layers on Adaxial Sides of Rosa canina Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Herz, Hubert; Jetter, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The waxy cuticle is the first point of contact for many herbivorous and pathogenic organisms on rose plants. Previous studies have reported the average composition of the combined wax extract from both sides of rose leaves. Recently, the compositions of the waxes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of Rosa canina leaves were determined separately. In this paper, a first report is made on the compositions of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. The methods described enable the determination of which compounds are truly available at the surface for plant–organism interactions. METHOD An adhesive was used to mechanically strip the epicuticular wax from the adaxial leaf surface and the removal was visually confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. After the epicuticular wax had been removed, the intracuticular wax was then isolated using standard chemical extraction. Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify compounds in the separated wax mixtures. Key Results The epicuticular wax contained higher concentrations of alkanes and alkyl esters but lower concentrations of primary alcohols and alkenols when compared to the intracuticular wax. In addition, the average chain lengths of these compound classes were higher in the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols were found only in the epicuticular layer while triterpenoids were restricted mainly to the intracuticular wax. Conclusions A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. This gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. The outer wax layer accessible to the phyllosphere showed a unique composition of wax compounds. The ecological consequences from such a gradient may now be probed. PMID:17933845

  20. Role of the Rosa canina L. leaf extract as an antidiarrheal drug in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mandade, Rajesh J.; Choudhury, Avijit; Harsulkar, Amol; Wakade, Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of the leaf extract of Rosa canina L. against experimental diarrhea induced by castor oil in rodents. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Rosa canina L. (30 and 60 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to two groups of mice (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice. Two other groups received normal saline and diphenoxylate (5 mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on intestinal transit and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) was assessed. The effects of the extract on the isolated rabbit jejunum and on the isolated rat ileum were studied. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaf extract of Rosa Canina L. revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and volatile oil. Intraperitoneal LD50 of the extract was found to be 455.19 ± 23 mg/kg in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the methanolic extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous pendular movement of the isolated rabbit jejunum and inhibited acetylcholine-induced contraction of the rat ileum. A dose-dependent decrease in gastrointestinal transit was observed with extracts (30 and 60 mg/kg), which also protected mice against castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil-induced fluid accumulation, respectively. Conclusions: The presence of some of the phytochemicals in the leaf extract may be responsible for the observed effects, and also the basis for its use in traditional medicine as an antidiarrheal drug. PMID:21713098

  1. The mitochondrial genome of Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 (Cirripedia: Sessilia): the first report from the coral-inhabiting barnacles family Pyrgomatidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the coral-inhabiting barnacle Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 complete mitochondrial genome, which is the first report from the family Pyrgomatidae (Cirripedia: Sessilia). The N. grandis mitochondrial genome is 15,032 bp in length, containing a total of 469 bp of non-coding nucleotides spreading in 11 intergenic regions (with the largest region of 376 bp). Compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the N. grandis mitochondrial genome. Gene overlaps are founded in eight places. Nine PCGs (COX1-3, ATP6, ATP8, CYTB, ND2, ND3 and ND6) are encoded on the heavy strand while the remaining 4 PCGs and the two rRNAs are located on the light strand. As the first representative from the family Pyrgomatidae, the N. grandis mitochondrial genome will help us to explore the evolutionary history and molecular evolution of coral barnacles and Sessilia in future studies.

  2. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae).

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 - Metagovealigiae sp. n. - is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovealigiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  3. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae)

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro P. L.; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family. PMID:25685003

  4. Molecular Characterization of the α-Subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase from the Euryhaline Barnacle Balanus improvisus Reveals Multiple Genes and Differential Expression of Alternative Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Ulrika; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Sundell, Kristina S.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl; Havenhand, Jonathan; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus has one of the broadest salinity tolerances of any barnacle species. It is able to complete its life cycle in salinities close to freshwater (3 PSU) up to fully marine conditions (35 PSU) and is regarded as one of few truly brackish-water species. Na+/K+ ATPase (NAK) has been shown to be important for osmoregulation when marine organisms are challenged by changing salinities, and we therefore cloned and examined the expression of different NAKs from B. improvisus. We found two main gene variants, NAK1 and NAK2, which were approximately 70% identical at the protein level. The NAK1 mRNA existed in a long and short variant with the encoded proteins differing only by 27 N-terminal amino acids. This N-terminal stretch was coded for by a separate exon, and the two variants of NAK1 mRNAs appeared to be created by alternative splicing. We furthermore showed that the two NAK1 isoforms were differentially expressed in different life stages and in various tissues of adult barnacle, i.e the long isoform was predominant in cyprids and in adult cirri. In barnacle cyprid larvae that were exposed to a combination of different salinities and pCO2 levels, the expression of the long NAK1 mRNA increased relative to the short in low salinities. We suggest that the alternatively spliced long variant of the Nak1 protein might be of importance for osmoregulation in B. improvisus in low salinity conditions. PMID:24130836

  5. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates.

  6. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  7. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. PMID:25028258

  8. Mammoths and Humans as Late Pleistocene Contemporaries on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agenbroad, L. D.; Johnson, J.; Morris, D.; Stafford, T. W.

    2007-05-01

    AMS radiocarbon dating of a pygmy mammoth (Mammuthus exilis) thoracic vertebra and associated charcoal has provided evidence for the contemporaneity of the pygmy mammoth and early human remains on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California. Charcoal associated with the vertebra dated 11,010 ±70 RC yr B.P. (B-133594). That date was significantly close to the extinction date for continental mammoths to warrant a date directly on the bone. The vertebral centrum was drilled and submitted for bone collagen dating by Stafford. The resultant date was 11,030 ±50 RC yr. B P (CAMS-71697), only 20 14C years older than the charcoal date. The significance of the dates was immediately apparent, because a date from human remains from the Arlington Springs Site (CA-SRI-173), Santa Rosa Island was 10,960 ±80 RC yr B.P. (CAMS-16810) (Johnson et al., 1999) - a date nearly identical with the M. exilis measurement. The contemporaneity of the mammoth bone date and human bone date indicates that mammoths were still extant on the islands when humans arrived. These data are from only one mammoth and one human ... more research needs to be done on the mammoth and human remains on the island. Was the contemporaneity coincidence, or the prelude to extinction?

  9. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

  10. Phylogeny of Rosa sections Chinenses and Synstylae (Rosaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Gao, Xin-Fen; Fougère-Danezan, Marie

    2015-06-01

    Rosa sections Chinenses and Synstylae contain approximately 39 wild species mainly distributed in East Asia and are closely related according to previous studies. But the specific relationships within these two sections were still obscure due to limited sampling, low genetic variation of molecular markers, and complex evolutionary histories. In this study, we used four chloroplast (ndhC-trnV, ndhF-rpl32, ndhJ-trnF and psbJ-petA) and two nuclear (ribosomal ITS and GAPDH) markers with an extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling to explore their evolutionary history. Our phylogenetic analyses suggested that Rosa sections Chinenses and Synstylae defined in traditional taxonomic system are not monophyletic and close to sections Caninae and Gallicanae. Additionally, our results showed incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, and the patterns of incongruence might be due to ancient hybridization (genetic introgression). One putative hybrid species and three samples identified as interspecific hybrids are further discussed in terms of topological incongruence, biological characters and distribution patterns.

  11. Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.).

    PubMed

    Saaby, Lasse; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-02-01

    A previously published systematic review and a metaanalysis have concluded that the consumption of standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) can reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients. Synovial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and mainly to involve infiltration of the synovial membrane by macrophages. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effect of standardized rose hip powder of Rosa canina L. was investigated and active principles isolated using the Mono Mac 6 cell line as a model for human macrophages. Treatment of Mono Mac 6 cells with the residue of a crude dichloromethane extract of rose hip powder significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release. Through bioassay-guided fractionation the immunomodulatory effect of the dichloromethane extract was correlated to a mixture of three triterpene acids; oleanolic acid, betulinic acid and ursolic acid (IC(50) 21 ± 6 µm). Further studies revealed that only oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, but not betulinic acid, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells when tested separately. Combination of either oleanolic acid or ursolic acid with betulinic acid enhanced the immunomodulatory effect of the two triterpene acids.

  12. In vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and genoprotective activity of Rosa roxburghii fruit extract.

    PubMed

    van der Westhuizen, Francois H; van Rensburg, Catharina S Janse; Rautenbach, George S; Marnewick, Jeanine L; Loots, Du Toit; Huysamen, Cristal; Louw, Roan; Pretorius, Pieter J; Erasmus, Elardus

    2008-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of the fruit of the Rosa roxburghii (RR) plant have been associated with several putative health promoting effects. The possible cytotoxic, mutagenic/antimutagenic and genotoxic effects of RR fruit extract were investigated. The effect on antioxidant status and protection against induced oxidative stress were also investigated using primary rat hepatocytes. A RR fruit extract containing 45 g/L total ascorbic acid and 65 g/L total polyphenols was used in this study. Dilutions up to 0.08% (v/v) increased significantly the antioxidant status in primary rat hepatocytes. The glutathione redox state was decreased with RR treatment but was increased in Chang liver cells and MT-2 lymphoblast. No cyto- or genotoxicity were observed at levels of up to 5% (v/v) of the fruit extract. In addition, a significant protection against t-BHP induced oxidative stress was observed in primary rat hepatocytes. The Ames test revealed no mutagenic activity using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. A significant antimutagenic effect of the extract was observed against the metabolic activated mutagens 2-acetylaminofluorene and aflatoxin B1 and to a lesser extent against methyl methanesulfonate. It is concluded that these results support the associated health promoting potential of Rosa Roxburghii fruit and in particular against oxidative stress.

  13. Unusually low rates of slip on the Santa Rosa Range fault zone, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, S.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Range fault zone (SRRFZ) is one of the most topographically prominent normal fault systems in the northern Basin and Range province of the western United States. It has been assigned high rates of vertical slip by others and has been identified as a possible site of the future extension of the central Nevada seismic belt (CNSB). We use detailed trench mapping and luminescence dating to estimate displacements and timing of the last several large-magnitude paleoearthquakes on the southern part of the SRRFZ at a trench site near Orovada, Nevada. Coseismic vertical displacements ranged from 1 to 2.8 m for each of the last four events. Luminescence ages provide time limits for the last three events of 125-155 ka, 90-108 ka, and 11-16 ka. These data yield recurrence intervals of 17-65 k.y. and 74-97 k.y. and an elapsed time of 11-16 k.y. since the youngest event. Slip-rate determinations at the Orovada site are complicated by multiple fault strands, but rates calculated from a variety of data are surprisingly low (0.01-0.16 mm/yr), given the topographic prominence of the Santa Rosa Range. A lack of compelling patterns in a comparison of paleoseismic parameters indicate that the SRRFZ is no more likely a location for a large-magnitude earthquake than previously identified seismic gaps or along faults that lie directly north of the CNSB.

  14. The main work of astronomer Christoph Scheiner SJ "Rosa Ursina sive Sol" - a summary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, F.

    1996-10-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born on 25 July 1573 or 1575 in Markt Wald near Mindelheim in the Bavarian part of Swabia. He died on 18 July 1650. In Rome he wrote his main work Rosa Ursina sive Sol and had it printed with the help of a patron, Duke Paulus Jordanus II of Bracciano. The ducal family bore a rose, likened to the Sun in Scheiner's book, on its coat of arms. Rosa Ursina is divided into four volumes. In volume I Scheiner tackles the issue of who was first to discover the sunspots; he also proves that Galilei made errors of observation. Volume II shows illustrations of telescopes, projection methods and the helioscope and compares the optics of a telescope with that of the human eye. In volume III, observations on sunspots are illustrated by 70 copper engravings by David Widemann. Volume IV consists of two parts. The first part again deals with the phenomena of the Sun, such as sunspots and prominences, its period of revolution of 27 days, and the tilt of its axis; the second part is a collection of passages and quotations from the Scriptures, from Church Fathers and philosophers, all designed to prove that Scheiner's interpretation of the geocentric system conformed to Catholic doctrine.

  15. Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kasture, V S; Chopde, C T; Deshmukh, V K

    2000-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinesis flowers and acetone soluble part of petroleum ether extract of B. monosperma flowers. The fractions protected animals from maximum electro shock, electrical kindling and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. The fractions also inhibited convulsions induced by lithium-pilocarpine and electrical kindling. However, they failed to protect animals from strychnine-induced convulsions. The fractions antagonised the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep. The fractions raised brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. These fractions were found to be anxiogenic and general depressant of central nervous system. PMID:10904147

  16. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir Zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg(-1)). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5(th) and 10(th) days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats.

  17. 3 CFR 8932 - Proclamation 8932 of February 1, 2013. 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... been planning to make history, but her defiance spurred a movement that advanced our journey toward... protest when ordinary men, women, and children sent the extraordinary message that second-class... desegregation of public transportation systems across our country. Rosa Parks's story did not end with...

  18. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Fourth of July Celebration; Santa Rosa Sound...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Fourth of July Celebration; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort Walton Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Fourth...

  19. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort Walton Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of...

  20. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir Zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg(-1)). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5(th) and 10(th) days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27642329

  1. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg-1). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5th and 10th days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27642329

  2. Effects of spatial structure of population size on the population dynamics of barnacles across their elevational range.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Okuda, Takehiro; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Noda, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for why population dynamics vary across the range of a species reflect two contrasting hypotheses: (i) temporal variability of populations is larger in the centre of the range compared to the margins because overcompensatory density dependence destabilizes population dynamics and (ii) population variability is larger near the margins, where populations are more susceptible to environmental fluctuations. In both of these hypotheses, positions within the range are assumed to affect population variability. In contrast, the fact that population variability is often related to mean population size implies that the spatial structure of the population size within the range of a species may also be a useful predictor of the spatial variation in temporal variability of population size over the range of the species. To explore how population temporal variability varies spatially and the underlying processes responsible for the spatial variation, we focused on the intertidal barnacle Chthamalus dalli and examined differences in its population dynamics along the tidal levels it inhabits. Changes in coverage of barnacle populations were monitored for 10.5 years at 25 plots spanning the elevational range of this species. Data were analysed by fitting a population dynamics model to estimate the effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes on population growth. We also examined the temporal mean-variance relationship of population size with parameters estimated from the population dynamics model. We found that the relative variability of populations tended to increase from the centre of the elevational range towards the margins because of an increase in the magnitude of stochastic fluctuations of growth rates. Thus, our results supported hypothesis (2). We also found that spatial variations in temporal population variability were well characterized by Taylor's power law, the relative population variability being inversely related to the mean

  3. Temporal and spatial variability in the recruitment of barnacles and the local dominance of Elminius modestus Darwin in SW Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Douglas I.; O'Riordan, Ruth M.; Barnes, David K. A.; Cross, Tom

    2005-04-01

    Deployment of processed natural substrata is a common method of investigating early settlement and recruitment processes, but has been under-utilised as a multi-depth method for barnacle study and analysis. Replicate, machined-slate panels (15 cm×15 cm×1 cm) were placed at 0 m (lower portion of the intertidal with ≈2 h emersion per tidal cycle), 6 m and 12 m at two sites of differing flow rate in Lough Hyne, SW Ireland. These panels were replaced serially every 30-60 days for a period of 3 years (2000-2003) to give monthly recruitment rates. Panels were also submersed for 60-120 days (Whirlpool Cliff, two locations) to show seasonal patterns and 370-400 days (Labhra Cliff) to show annual recruitment and survival patterns. The number, percentage cover and identity of all cirripede recruits were recorded. The greatest source of variability was with depth: between the intertidal (with many recruits) and the subtidal zones (few recruits). In general, intertidal recruitment was dominated by the introduced barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin. The high degree of water retention in Lough Hyne, combined with the high reproductive potential of E. modestus, has led to it becoming a self-perpetuating and locally dominant population. Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia dominated the longer immersed panels, highlighting the importance of post-recruitment processes to the survival of E. modestus recruits in the subtidal. Although E. modestus were found on subtidal monthly and seasonal panels, none were present on the subtidal annual panels. Temporally, month, season and time of placement were all found to be significant in explaining recruit number variability. Spatially, depth explained most variability of recruit numbers (6 m spatial separation), whilst site (≈200 m spatial separation) only ever being significant in combination with other factors, as was location (≈50 m spatial separation). The work highlights the importance of examining both temporal and spatial scales

  4. Thidiazuron Triggers Morphogenesis in Rosa canina L. Protocorm-Like Bodies by Changing Incipient Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yaping; Yuan, Cunquan; Zhao, Qingcui; Liu, Guoqin; Nie, Jing; Ma, Zhimin; Cheng, Chenxia; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Zhao, Liangjun

    2016-01-01

    Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) is an artificial plant growth regulator that is widely used in plant tissue culture. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induced by TDZ serve as an efficient and rapid in vitro regeneration system in Rosa species. Despite this, the mechanism of PLB induction remains relatively unclear. TDZ, which can affect the level of endogenous auxins and cytokinins, converts the cell fate of rhizoid tips and triggers PLB formation and plantlet regeneration in Rosa canina L. In callus-rhizoids, which are rhizoids that co-develop from callus, auxin and a Z-type cytokinin accumulated after applying TDZ, and transcription of the auxin transporter gene RcPIN1 was repressed. The expression of RcARF4, RcRR1, RcCKX2, RcCKX3, and RcLOG1 increased in callus-rhizoids and rhizoid tips while the transcription of an auxin response factor (RcARF1) and auxin transport proteins (RcPIN2, RcPIN3) decreased in callus-rhizoids but increased in rhizoid tips. In situ hybridization of rhizoids showed that RcWUS and RcSERK1 were highly expressed in columella cells and root stem cells resulting in the conversion of cell fate into shoot apical meristems or embryogenic callus. In addition, transgenic XVE::RcWUS lines showed repressed RcWUS overexpression while RcWUS had no effect on PLB morphogenesis. Furthermore, higher expression of the root stem cell marker RcWOX5 and root stem cell maintenance regulator genes RcPLT1 and RcPLT2 indicated the presence of a dedifferentiation developmental pathway in the stem cell niche of rhizoids. Viewed together, our results indicate that different cells in rhizoid tips acquired regeneration competence after induction by TDZ. A novel developmental pathway containing different cell types during PLB formation was identified by analyzing the endogenous auxin and cytokinin content. This study also provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying in vitro regeneration in Rosa. PMID:27200031

  5. Thidiazuron Triggers Morphogenesis in Rosa canina L. Protocorm-Like Bodies by Changing Incipient Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yaping; Yuan, Cunquan; Zhao, Qingcui; Liu, Guoqin; Nie, Jing; Ma, Zhimin; Cheng, Chenxia; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zhao, Liangjun

    2016-01-01

    Thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) is an artificial plant growth regulator that is widely used in plant tissue culture. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) induced by TDZ serve as an efficient and rapid in vitro regeneration system in Rosa species. Despite this, the mechanism of PLB induction remains relatively unclear. TDZ, which can affect the level of endogenous auxins and cytokinins, converts the cell fate of rhizoid tips and triggers PLB formation and plantlet regeneration in Rosa canina L. In callus-rhizoids, which are rhizoids that co-develop from callus, auxin and a Z-type cytokinin accumulated after applying TDZ, and transcription of the auxin transporter gene RcPIN1 was repressed. The expression of RcARF4, RcRR1, RcCKX2, RcCKX3, and RcLOG1 increased in callus-rhizoids and rhizoid tips while the transcription of an auxin response factor (RcARF1) and auxin transport proteins (RcPIN2, RcPIN3) decreased in callus-rhizoids but increased in rhizoid tips. In situ hybridization of rhizoids showed that RcWUS and RcSERK1 were highly expressed in columella cells and root stem cells resulting in the conversion of cell fate into shoot apical meristems or embryogenic callus. In addition, transgenic XVE::RcWUS lines showed repressed RcWUS overexpression while RcWUS had no effect on PLB morphogenesis. Furthermore, higher expression of the root stem cell marker RcWOX5 and root stem cell maintenance regulator genes RcPLT1 and RcPLT2 indicated the presence of a dedifferentiation developmental pathway in the stem cell niche of rhizoids. Viewed together, our results indicate that different cells in rhizoid tips acquired regeneration competence after induction by TDZ. A novel developmental pathway containing different cell types during PLB formation was identified by analyzing the endogenous auxin and cytokinin content. This study also provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying in vitro regeneration in Rosa. PMID:27200031

  6. Predicting Free-Space Occupancy on Novel Artificial Structures by an Invasive Intertidal Barnacle Using a Removal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bracewell, Sally A.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Firth, Louise B.; Knights, Antony M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial structures can create novel habitat in the marine environment that has been associated with the spread of invasive species. They are often located in areas of high disturbance and can vary significantly in the area of free space provided for settlement of marine organisms. Whilst correlation between the amount of free space available and recruitment success has been shown in populations of several marine benthic organisms, there has been relatively little focus on invasive species, a group with the potential to reproduce in vast numbers and colonise habitats rapidly. Invasion success following different scales of disturbance was examined in the invasive acorn barnacle, Austrominiusmodestus, on a unique art installation located in Liverpool Bay. Population growth and recruitment success were examined by comparing recruitment rates within disturbance clearings of 4 different sizes and by contrasting population development with early recruitment rates over a 10 week period. Disturbed areas were rapidly recolonised and monocultures of A. modestus formed within 6 weeks. The size of patch created during disturbance had no effect on the rate of recruitment, while a linear relationship between recruit density and patch size was observed. Density-dependent processes mediated initial high recruitment resulting in population stability after 8-10 weeks, but densities continued to greatly exceed those reported in natural habitats. Given that artificial structures are likely to continue to proliferate in light of climate change projections, free-space is likely to become more available more frequently in the future supporting the expansion of fast-colonising species. PMID:24023944

  7. Atomic force microscopy of the morphology and mechanical behaviour of barnacle cyprid footprint proteins at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Phang, In Yee; Aldred, Nick; Ling, Xing Yi; Huskens, Jurriaan; Clare, Anthony S; Vancso, G Julius

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles are a major biofouler of man-made underwater structures. Prior to settlement, cypris larvae explore surfaces by reversible attachment effected by a 'temporary adhesive'. During this exploratory behaviour, cyprids deposit proteinaceous 'footprints' of a putatively adhesive material. In this study, footprints deposited by Balanus amphitrite cyprids were probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in artificial sea water (ASW) on silane-modified glass surfaces. AFM images obtained in air yielded better resolution than in ASW and revealed the fibrillar nature of the secretion, suggesting that the deposits were composed of single proteinaceous nanofibrils, or bundles of fibrils. The force curves generated in pull-off force experiments in sea water consisted of regions of gradually increasing force, separated by sharp drops in extension force manifesting a characteristic saw-tooth appearance. Following the relaxation of fibrils stretched to high strains, force-distance curves in reverse stretching experiments could be described by the entropic elasticity model of a polymer chain. When subjected to relaxation exceeding 500 ms, extended footprint proteins refolded, and again showed saw-tooth unfolding peaks in subsequent force cycles. Observed rupture and hysteresis behaviour were explained by the 'sacrificial bond' model. Longer durations of relaxation (>5 s) allowed more sacrificial bond reformation and contributed to enhanced energy dissipation (higher toughness). The persistence length for the protein chains (L(P)) was obtained. At high elongation, following repeated stretching up to increasing upper strain limits, footprint proteins detached at total stretched length of 10 microm.

  8. Host-Specific Phenotypic Plasticity of the Turtle Barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria: A Widespread Generalist Rather than a Specialist

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ka Hou; Cheng, I-Jiunn; Chan, Benny K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Turtle barnacles are common epibionts on marine organisms. Chelonibia testudinaria is specific on marine turtles whereas C. patula is a host generalist, but rarely found on turtles. It has been questioned why C. patula, being abundant on a variety of live substrata, is almost absent from turtles. We evaluated the genetic (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)) and morphological differentiation of C. testudinaia and C. patula from different hosts, to determine the mode of adaptation exhibited by Chelonibia species on different hosts. The two taxa demonstrate clear differences in shell morphology and length of 4–6th cirri, but very similar in arthropodal characters. Moreover, we detected no genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses. Outlier detection infers insignificant selection across loci investigated. Based on combined morphological and molecular evidence, we proposed that C. testudinaria and C. patula are conspecific, and the two morphs with contrasting shell morphologies and cirral length found on different host are predominantly shaped by developmental plasticity in response to environmental setting on different hosts. Chelonibia testudinaria is, thus, a successful general epibiotic fouler and the phenotypic responses postulated can increase the fitness of the animals when they attach on hosts with contrasting life-styles. PMID:23469208

  9. Claiming Rosa Parks: conservative Catholic bids for 'rights' in contemporary Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    When the Rosa Parks Prize was awarded to a conservative Argentine senator in 2009 for her outspoken opposition to contraception, sterilisation and abortion, it was clear that something odd was happening. This paper documents the appropriation of 'human rights' discourses by conservative Catholics in Latin America, where the recent success of reproductive and sexual rights social movements has generated a significant backlash. It specifically traces an effort by Catholic legal scholars to justify what they term 'a distinctively Latin American approach to human rights' while ignoring decades of human rights activism by others. Opponents of reproductive and sexual rights are deploying rights-talk selectively and strategically, it is argued, using this as secular cover to advance pro-life and pro-family policies. PMID:24592819

  10. Claiming Rosa Parks: conservative Catholic bids for 'rights' in contemporary Latin America.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    When the Rosa Parks Prize was awarded to a conservative Argentine senator in 2009 for her outspoken opposition to contraception, sterilisation and abortion, it was clear that something odd was happening. This paper documents the appropriation of 'human rights' discourses by conservative Catholics in Latin America, where the recent success of reproductive and sexual rights social movements has generated a significant backlash. It specifically traces an effort by Catholic legal scholars to justify what they term 'a distinctively Latin American approach to human rights' while ignoring decades of human rights activism by others. Opponents of reproductive and sexual rights are deploying rights-talk selectively and strategically, it is argued, using this as secular cover to advance pro-life and pro-family policies.

  11. Biosynthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis petals extracts.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-10-01

    Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has lured the world from the chemical and physical approaches owing to its rapid, non-hazardous and economic aspect of production mechanism. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesised using petal extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. The AgNPs displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 421 nm having a mean particle size of 76.25±0.17 nm and carried a charge of -41±0.2 mV. The X-ray diffraction patterns displayed typical peaks of face centred cubic crystalline silver. The surface morphology was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the surface modifications of the functional groups for the synthesis of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised AgNPs displayed proficient antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26435282

  12. Complete genome sequences of a putative new alphapartitivirus detected in Rosa spp.

    PubMed

    Phelan, James; James, Delano

    2016-09-01

    A putative new alphapartitivirus was detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in Rosa spp. and identified as rose partitivirus isolate Phyllis Bide (RoPV-PB). The virus is bipartite with a dsRNA1 fragment (1937 bp) encoding a putative RdRp and a dsRNA2 fragment (1811 bp) encoding the putative CP subunit of the virus. dsRNA1 of RoPV-BP is closely related to Vicia faba partitivirus 1, with identities of 67 % and 72 % for the nucleotide (nt) and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences, respectively. In NGS analysis of RoPV-BP, coverage was uneven across both dsRNA fragments, with GC/AT content appearing to be a major determinant of depth of coverage. PMID:27368993

  13. Dual Fluorescent Reporter Pig for Cre Recombination: Transgene Placement at the ROSA26 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shun; Flisikowska, Tatiana; Kurome, Mayuko; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Kessler, Barbara; Saur, Dieter; Kind, Alexander; Wolf, Eckhard; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Schnieke, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    We are extending the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system to pigs, focussing on conditional and tissue-specific expression of oncogenic mutations to model human cancers. Identifying the location, pattern and extent of Cre recombination in vivo is an important aspect of this technology. Here we report pigs with a dual fluorochrome cassette under the control of the strong CAG promoter that switches expression after Cre-recombination, from membrane-targeted tandem dimer Tomato to membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein. The reporter cassette was placed at the porcine ROSA26 locus by conventional gene targeting using primary mesenchymal stem cells, and animals generated by nuclear transfer. Gene targeting efficiency was high, and analysis of foetal organs and primary cells indicated that the reporter is highly expressed and functional. Cre reporter pigs will provide a multipurpose indicator of Cre recombinase activity, an important new tool for the rapidly expanding field of porcine genetic modification. PMID:25025770

  14. Phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of two rose hip (Rosa canina L.) preparations.

    PubMed

    Wenzig, E M; Widowitz, U; Kunert, O; Chrubasik, S; Bucar, F; Knauder, E; Bauer, R

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare powdered rose hip with and without fruits (Rosae pseudofructus cum/sine fructibus, Rosa canina L., Rosaceae) with regard to their phytochemical profile and their in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging properties. The two powders were subsequently extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) and of 5-LOX-mediated leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) formation as well as for DPPH-radical-scavenging capacity. While the water and methanol extracts were inactive in the COX-1, COX-2 and LTB(4) inhibition assays, the n-hexane and the dichloromethane extracts inhibited all three enzymes. In the active extracts, the triterpenoic acids ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid were identified, although only in minute amounts. Furthermore, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid were identified apart from several saturated fatty acids. Even though unsaturated fatty acids are known to be good inhibitors of COX-1, COX-2 and LT formation, no clear correlation between their concentration in the extracts and their activity was found. We suggest that other, yet unidentified, lipophilic constituents might play a more important role for the observed in vitro inhibitory activity on arachidonic acid metabolism. Some of the extracts also showed considerable DPPH radical scavenging activity, the methanolic extracts being most potent. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts correlated very well with their total phenolic content, while ascorbic acid contributes only little to the radical-scavenging activity due to its low concentration present in the extracts. In summary, extracts derived from powdered rose hip without fruits were more effective in all assays carried out compared with extracts derived from powdered rose hip with fruits.

  15. [Chronology of tropical dry forest regeneration in Santa Rosa, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. I. Edaphic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Leiva, Jorge A; Mata, Rafael; Rocha, Oscar J; Gutiérrez Soto, Marco V

    2009-09-01

    We characterized soil chemical and physical properties in eight tropical dry forest (TDF) successional sites along a time sequence (10, 15, 20, 40, 60 and >100 years) in Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. Seventeen soils were identified, described, and classified in six orders. Most soils were classified as Entisols and Vertisols, but Mollisols, Alfisols, Inceptisols and Ultisols were also present. All soils showed good fertility that did not constrain species richness. High edaphic variation seemed the result of complex interactions among the pyroclastic origin of Santa Rosa ignimbritic plateau (SRIP), the lithological composition and acidity of ignimbritic rocks, the strong seasonality in rainfall, intense hydric and aeolic erosion, topographic variations within the SRIP, and past human intervention. Correlations performed on soils classified as Entisols (<60 cm deep) showed a depletion of soil cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na and CEC) during the first 20 years of forest regeneration, that later recovered in mature TDF sites. Organic matter content did not change significantly along the TDF chrono-sequence. Substantial increments in macro-pores and soil hydraulic conductivity were observed, probably resulting from higher root biomass and turnover in older successional sites. Soil available water and meso-pore abundance were negatively correlated with TDF successional age. Our results indicate that edaphic changes observed along TDF regeneration might have been due to annual fires in pastures and young TDF sites, addition of decaying litter and fine roots as regeneration progressed, milder microclimate conditions during late regeneration in mature TDF sites, increased nutrient cycling, and the predominance of sandy loam textures among the soils examined. These changes in the soil environment with succession may have physiological and phenological consequences on the species appearing at different stages of TDF regeneration. PMID:19928473

  16. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  17. Effects of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...

  18. Determining rates of Quaternary uplift across the Santa Rosa Island Fault, Channel Islands National Park, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyr, A.; Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Channel Islands, southern California, form the southern margin of the western Transverse Ranges. They constitute a roughly east-west trending emergent ridge uplifted as a result of south-vergent shortening and left-lateral slip, mostly on west-striking, north-dipping faults. Late Quaternary uplift of these islands is recorded by two prominent wave-cut platforms, which occur at elevations of ~5-7 and ~6-24 meters above sea level, have been attributed by previous workers to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5a (~80ka) and 5e (~120 ka), and indicate low and somewhat spatially variable, uplift rates of 0.1-0.2 mm/yr. We have documented evidence of older, higher marine features, such as shoreline angles, beveled surfaces buried by aeolian sand, and pholad borings, in the interior of Santa Rosa Island. Our simple steady uplift models indicate that the highest of these paleo shore line markers, which occur at ~275 m, could be anywhere from ~1.2 Ma to ~2.7 Ma. However, despite their importance for understanding longer term uplift rates associated with the Santa Rosa Island fault and/or other faults, their ages remain unknown. As part of a cooperative effort with the National Park Service to complete a new Quaternary geologic map of the northern Channel Islands, we collected samples of quartz-bearing rock and sediment at seven locations on Santa Rosa Island, representative of 6 paleo shorelines spanning elevations between ~65 and ~275 meters above sea level, from both sides of the Santa Rosa Island fault. Rock samples were collected from moderately indurated fossiliferous marine sands that either contain pholad-bored clasts or overlie a beveled bedrock surface in order to determine 10Be exposure ages. Sediments were collected from where they directly overlie shoreline angles for determination of 10Be-26Al burial ages. Ages of these paleo sea level markers will enable us to test previous assumptions of steady island uplift, as well as allow us to test hypotheses

  19. Geometry, Timing, and Rates of Active Northeast Tilting Across the Southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Langenheim, V. E.; McNabb, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Coachella Valley occupies an important transition along the San Andreas fault (SAF) from strong transpression in the north to transtension and lithospheric rupture in the south. The deformation processes and crustal architecture that accommodate this transition are not well understood. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and gravity data support a hypothesis for northeast tilting of a large tilt block in the southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains, between the San Jacinto fault zone on the SW (dated in other studies at ~1.2 Ma) and the SAF on the NE. The Santa Rosa fault (SRF) is a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone that marks the steep SW flank of the Santa Rosa Mts and merges with the Clark fault beneath Clark Valley. The SRF is an active normal fault with well developed triangular facets, steeply SW-dipping fault zone with brittle gouge and microfaults, and narrow footwall canyons that feed steep alluvial fans in the hanging wall (east side of Clark Valley). Pliocene marine deposits have been raised by Quaternary uplift in the footwall of the SRF to ~625 m elevation in the Santa Rosa Mts (King et al., 2002). The subsurface Clark basin is ~4 km deep, and the pre-SRF West Salton detachment fault projects ~1.5 km above the valley floor in the Santa Rosa Mts. A steep linear gravity gradient reveals combined vertical separation of ~5.5 km across the SRF and Clark fault, for an average slip rate of ~4.5 mm/yr across the two faults. The NE side of the Santa Rosa Mts has a gentler surface gradient and no large-offset active faults. The ratio of alluvial fan area to catchment area is 0.5-0.6 for fan-catchment pairs along the SRF, compared to an average of ~1.1-1.2 on the NE slope of the Santa Rosa Mts. The different ratios suggest rapid subsidence in the hanging wall of the SRF and relatively slow subsidence in the NE-tilting footwall (cf. Allen and Hovius, 1998). The depth of the southern Coachella Valley increases from the SW side, where sediments onlap

  20. Zoogeography of intertidal communities in the West Indian Ocean as determined by ocean circulation systems: patterns from the Tetraclita barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region. PMID:23024801

  1. Water in barnacle muscle. III. NMR studies of fresh fibers and membrane-damaged fibers equilibrated with selected solutes.

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, E E; Clark, M E; Hinke, J A; Chapman, N R

    1981-01-01

    Water in barnacle muscle has been studied using NMR techniques. Fresh fibers are compared with membrane-damaged fibers treated with solutes that greatly alter fixed charge and total water content. Both water (97%) and solute (3%) protons are visible in continuous wave spectra of oriented fresh fibers. No local field inhomogeneities were detected, nor are cell solutes significantly bound. In pulse experiments, all cell water is visible and exhibits a single exponential decay. In fresh fibers, T2 approximately or equal to 40 ms; faster decaying signals are assigned to immobile and mobile protons on macromolecules. T1 and T1p are frequency dependent. Using equations derived for a two-compartment model with fast exchange, we calculate the following: tau b, the correlation time for anisotropic rotational motion of bound water; Sb, its order parameter; tau ex, the correlation time for exchange between bound and free fractions; f, the fraction of water bound; and Hr, the grams of water bound per gram of macromolecule. Whereas f varies inversely with total water content, the other parameters are virtually constant, with values: tau b approximately or equal to 1.3 X 10(-8) S; tau ex approximately or equal to 8 X 10(-6) s; Sb approximately or equal to 0.06; and Hr approximately or equal to 0.1g H2O/g macromolecule. Thus, the NMR relaxation detectable properties of water bound to macromolecules are unaffected by solutes that greatly alter the macromolecular surface charge. PMID:7272435

  2. Morphology and responses to light of the somata, axons, and terminal regions of individual photoreceptors of the giant barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, A. J.; Stuart, Ann E.

    1977-01-01

    1. The median eye of the giant barnacle, B. nubilus, comprises four large photoreceptor neurones which are visible under the dissecting microscope for almost their entire length. We have studied the structure of, and the responses to light recorded in, the somata, axons, and terminal regions of these neurones. 2. The photoreceptor somata, each 40-70 μm in diameter, extend numerous light-sensitive dendritic processes whose membranes form rhabdomeric microvilli. Recordings from the soma show that dim light evokes a steady, noisy depolarization; brighter light elicits a transient depolarization which decays to a maintained plateau, followed by a hyperpolarization when the light is turned off. 3. Light-induced voltage changes spread decrementally along the photoreceptor axons, which average 10 mm in length and 25 μm in diameter. In distal parts of the axon, near the presynaptic terminals, depolarizations and hyperpolarizations can be as large as 50% or more of their values in the soma. 4. There is no demonstrable electrical coupling between photoreceptor neurones as shown by simultaneous recordings from two receptor somata or axons. 5. Each photoreceptor axon enters the mid line commissure of the supraoesophageal ganglion, bifurcates, and arborizes in a restricted zone of neuropil in each hemiganglion. The large size of the terminal processes of these neurones and their characteristic cytoplasmic inclusions enable one to trace them with the electron microscope as they branch in the neuropil. 6. The terminal processes subdivide and end in 1-3 μm diameter branches which are the sites of apparently chemical synapses. Vesicle-containing, presynaptic loci on these processes of the receptor cell are invariably apposed to two post-synaptic processes from cells as yet unidentified. ImagesABCDEABCABCDABCABCDEFG PMID:592112

  3. Zoogeography of Intertidal Communities in the West Indian Ocean as Determined by Ocean Circulation Systems: Patterns from the Tetraclita Barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region. PMID:23024801

  4. Cellular synthesis and axonal transport of gamma-aminobutyric acid in a photoreceptor cell of the barnacle.

    PubMed Central

    Koike, H; Tsuda, K

    1980-01-01

    1. [3H]glutamate or [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was injected into the photoreceptor cell of the lateral ocellus of Balanus eburneus, in order to study the transmitter substance of the cell. 2. The photoreceptor cell synthesized [3H]GABA from injected [3H]glutamate. 3. The newly formed [3H]GABA moved inside the photoreceptor axon towards the axon terminal with a velocity of about 0.9 mm/hr. Injected [3H]GABA moved at 0.9 mm/hr and also at 0.4 mm/hr. 4. Axonally transported [3H]GABA reached the axon terminal within several hours following the injection. It did not accumulate at the terminal, but gradually disappeared. 5. Light-microscope and electron-microscope autoradiography following the injection of [3H]GABA revealed that [3H]-reacted silver grains were present in a certain type of axon terminal. The terminal thus identified as that of a photoreceptor cell contains many clear, polymorphic synaptic vesicles about 300-500 A in diameter, some dense-cored vesicles 700-1300 A in diameter, and glycogen granules. The terminal forms many synapses, and each synapse has a synaptic dense body. The terminal always faces two post-synaptic elements at the synapse, forming a triad with a gap distance of about 160-200 A. 6. A GABA analogue, [3H]di-aminobutyric acid, was selectively taken up into the terminals previously identified as those of photoreceptors. 7. These results support the notion that the transmitter substance of the photoreceptor cell of the barnacle is GABA. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:6160239

  5. Population genetic analysis of a recent range expansion: mechanisms regulating the poleward range limit in the volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Stuart, Yoel E; Sanford, Eric

    2010-04-01

    As range shifts coincident with climate change have become increasingly well documented, efforts to describe the causes of range boundaries have increased. Three mechanisms-genetic impoverishment, migration load, or a physical barrier to dispersal-are well described theoretically, but the data needed to distinguish among them have rarely been collected. We describe the distribution, abundance, genetic variation, and environment of Tetraclita rubescens, an intertidal barnacle that expanded its northern range limit by several hundreds of kilometres from San Francisco, CA, USA, since the 1970s. We compare geographic variation in abundance with abiotic and biotic patterns, including sea surface temperatures and the distributions of 387 co-occurring species, and describe genetic variation in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial noncoding region, and nine microsatellite loci from 27 locations between Bahia Magdalena (California Baja Sur, Mexico) and Cape Mendocino (CA, USA). We find very high gene flow, high genetic diversity, and a gradient in physical environmental variation coincident with the range limit. We infer that the primary cause of the northern range boundary in T. rubescens is migration load arising from flow of maladapted alleles into peripheral locations and that environmental change, which could have reduced selection against genotypes immigrating into the newly colonized portion of the range, is the most likely cause of the observed range expansion. Because environmental change could similarly affect all taxa in a region whose distributional limits are established by migration load, these mechanisms may be common causes of range boundaries and largely synchronous multi-species range expansions. PMID:20345681

  6. Zoogeography of intertidal communities in the West Indian Ocean as determined by ocean circulation systems: patterns from the Tetraclita barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rosa rugosa Flower Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tursun, Xirali; Zhao, Yongxin; Talat, Zulfiya; Xin, Xuelei; AdilaTursun; Abdulla, Rahima; AkberAisa, Haji

    2016-01-01

    Rosa rugosa Thunb, a deciduous shrub of the genus Rosa, has been widely used to treat stomach aches, diarrhoea, pain, and chronic inflammatory disease in eastern Asia. In recent years, our research team has extensively studied the Rosa rugosa flower extract, and specifically undertook pharmacological experiments which have optimized the extraction process. Our methods have yielded a standard extract enriched in phenolic compounds, named PRE. Herein, we expand our efforts and evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of PRE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. PRE significantly inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, interleukin (IL)-6, and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), as well as expression of their synthesizing enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2). Furthermore, PRE inhibited activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) as well as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Our findings are the first to explain the anti-inflammatory mechanism by PRE in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Given these results, we propose that PRE has therapeutic potential in the prevention of inflammatory disorders. PMID:26797110

  8. Texture and composition of the Rosa Marina beach sands (Adriatic coast, southern Italy): a sedimentological/ecological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Massimo; Tropeano, Marcello; Loon, A. J. (Tom) van; Acquafredda, Pasquale; Baldacconi, Rossella; Festa, Vincenzo; Lisco, Stefania; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Moretti, Vincenzo; Scotti, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Beach sands from the Rosa Marina locality (Adriatic coast, southern Italy) were analysed mainly microscopically in order to trace the source areas of their lithoclastic and bioclastic components. The main cropping out sedimentary units were also studied with the objective to identify the potential source areas of lithoclasts. This allowed to establish how the various rock units contribute to the formation of beach sands. The analysis of the bioclastic components allows to estimate the actual role of organisms regarding the supply of this material to the beach. Identification of taxa that are present in the beach sands as shell fragments or other remains was carried out at the genus or family level. Ecological investigation of the same beach and the recognition of sub-environments (mainly distinguished on the basis of the nature of the substrate and of the water depth) was the key topic that allowed to establish the actual source areas of bioclasts in the Rosa Marina beach sands. The sedimentological analysis (including a physical study of the beach and the calculation of some statistical parameters concerning the grain-size curves) shows that the Rosa Marina beach is nowadays subject to erosion.

  9. Description of third instar larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa (FAR complex) and C. capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Gary J.; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Third instar larvae of members of the Ceratitis FAR complex, including Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae Graham, and Ceratitis rosa Karsch are described and compared with those of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Diagnostic characters, such as presence vs. absence of a secondary tooth on the mandibles, previously used to separate Ceratitis capitata from Ceratitis rosa, are shown to vary in each species. Significant variation in diagnostic morphological characters among populations of Ceratitis rosa from east and south Africa is documented; however, the differences are not simply congruent with the R1 and R2 designations based on other studies. Quantitative measures of numerous morphological characters are consistently smaller in the larvae of Ceratitis fasciventris and distinguish them from other species of the FAR complex. Larvae of Ceratitis capitata can be distinguished from those of the FAR complex by characters such as absence of accessory plates of the oral ridges, the shape of the anterior spiracle, and the pattern of dorsal spinules. Previous studies indicated that absence of accessory lobes separate the genus Ceratitis from Bactrocera, but this is shown to be incorrect, as accessory lobes are in fact present in several species of Ceratitis. PMID:26798272

  10. Host status of avocado ('Hass') to Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, J

    2009-08-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are pests potentially associated with avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in South Africa. The aim of the study was to determine the host status of 'Hass' avocado to these tephritid pests over 4 yr. Unpunctured harvested avocado was exposed to fruit flies in the laboratory under no-choice conditions for 24 h. In field studies, each species was exposed for 48 h under no-choice conditions to avocado attached to the tree. Fruit was harvested immediately, 4, 8 and 18 d after exposure. In all the experiments, the fruit was incubated at 25 degrees C for 49 d after harvest. Hass avocado fruit was sourced from pack-houses throughout the avocado production areas and inspected for any internal pests. Similar inspections were done from 2005 to 2008 at arrival in Europe following standard export procedures. Analysis indicated that Hass avocado is a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and a poor but potential host for C. rosa and C. cosyra. No requirement for a risk mitigation treatment for C. capitata on South African Hass avocado was found. Fruit sampling data did not produce any infested fruit, suggesting that natural conditions and/or existing procedures functioning in a systems approach are likely to mitigate the quarantine risks of C. rosa and C. cosyra on Hass avocado in South Africa.

  11. The whale barnacle Cryptolepas rhachianecti (Cirripedia: Coronulidae), a phoront of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea: Eschrichtiidae), from a sandy beach in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosselaers, Mark; Collareta, Alberto

    2016-08-22

    An isolated compartment of a whale barnacle is herein described from Recent beach deposits in Zoutelande (Walcheren, The Netherlands). This specimen is identified as belonging to the extant coronulid species Cryptolepas rhachianecti, currently known as an epizoic symbiont of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus. This find represents the first occurrence of C. rhachianecti outside the North Pacific, and the first one as a (sub)fossil. In view of the fact that E. robustus, which is currently confined to the North Pacific, is known as a subfossil from the northeastern Atlantic between late Late Pleistocene (c. 45,000 years ago) and historical (c. 1700 AD) times, we propose a similar (late Quaternary) age for the isolated compartment. The find indicates that the extinct late Quaternary northeastern Atlantic population of E. robustus was infected by Cryptolepas rhachianecti. Our find is, therefore, compatible with the hypothesis of an ancient grey whale migration route running between the subtropical/temperate waters of the northeast Atlantic (or Mediterranean Basin), and the cold waters of the Baltic Sea (or southern Arctic Ocean), through the southern North Sea. Finally, we discuss the systematic placement of the fossil barnacle species Cryptolepas murata and propose the possibility of its removal from the genus Cryptolepas pending further investigations.

  12. Phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles (Cirripedia; Thoracica; Pyrgomatidae) based on 12S, 16S and 18S rDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Simon-Blecher, N; Huchon, D; Achituv, Y

    2007-09-01

    The traditional phylogeny of the coral-inhabiting barnacles, the Pyrgomatidae, is based on morphological characteristics, mainly of the hard parts. It has been difficult to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Pyrgomatidae because of the apparent convergence of morphological characteristics, and due to the use of non-cladistic systematics, which emphasize ancestor-descendant relationships rather than sister-clade relationships. We used partial sequences of two mithochondrial genes, 12S rDNA and 16S rDNA, and a nuclear gene, 18S rDNA, to infer the molecular phylogeny of the pyrgomatids. Our phylogenetic results allowed us to reject previous classifications of Pyrgomatidae based on morphological characteristics. Our results also suggested the possibility of paraphyly of the Pyrgomatidae. The hydrocoral barnacle Wanella is not found on the same clade as the other pyrgomatids, but rather, with the free-living balanids. The basal position of Megatrema and Ceratoconcha is supported. The archeaobalanid Armatobalanus is grouped with Cantellius at the base of the Indo-Pacific pyrgomatines. Fusion of the shell plate and modification of the opercular valves are homoplasious features that occurred more than three times on different clades. The monophyly of the "Savignium" group, comprising four nominal genera, is also not supported, and the different taxa are placed on different clades.

  13. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death.

  14. On the morphology of antennular sensory and attachment organs in cypris larvae of the deep-sea vent/seep barnacles, Ashinkailepas and Neoverruca.

    PubMed

    Yorisue, Takefumi; Chan, Benny K K; Kado, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inoue, Koji; Kojima, Shigeaki; Høeg, Jens T

    2016-05-01

    Barnacle cypris larvae show high morphological variation in the organs used in search of and attaching to a substratum. This variation may represent adaptation to the habitat of the species. Here, we studied SEM level morphologies of cypris antennular sensory and attachment organs in a deep-sea vent endemic species (Neoverruca sp.) and a vent/seep inhabiting species (Ashinkailepas seepiophila). We compare them with three species from other environments. The antennular morphologies of Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila were similar, which is consistent with recent molecular studies showing a close relationship of the two species. The setation pattern of the antennules was very conservative among species from various environments. In contrast, striking differences were observed in the structure of the attachment organ (the third antennular segment). Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila had no velum or a skirt surrounding the attachment disc on the third segment, while other cirripede cyprids almost always have either of these structures. In addition, both cyprids of A. seepiophila and Neoverruca sp. had the attachment disc angled toward the substratum, whereas it faces distally in cyprids from hard bottom inhabiting barnacles. We suggest that both velum/skirt and the angle of the attachment disc play an important role, when the antennules are contacting the substratum during surface exploration. Differences in attachment organ structures may be highly adaptive, enabling cirripede species to enter new habitats during evolution.

  15. On the morphology of antennular sensory and attachment organs in cypris larvae of the deep-sea vent/seep barnacles, Ashinkailepas and Neoverruca.

    PubMed

    Yorisue, Takefumi; Chan, Benny K K; Kado, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inoue, Koji; Kojima, Shigeaki; Høeg, Jens T

    2016-05-01

    Barnacle cypris larvae show high morphological variation in the organs used in search of and attaching to a substratum. This variation may represent adaptation to the habitat of the species. Here, we studied SEM level morphologies of cypris antennular sensory and attachment organs in a deep-sea vent endemic species (Neoverruca sp.) and a vent/seep inhabiting species (Ashinkailepas seepiophila). We compare them with three species from other environments. The antennular morphologies of Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila were similar, which is consistent with recent molecular studies showing a close relationship of the two species. The setation pattern of the antennules was very conservative among species from various environments. In contrast, striking differences were observed in the structure of the attachment organ (the third antennular segment). Neoverruca sp. and A. seepiophila had no velum or a skirt surrounding the attachment disc on the third segment, while other cirripede cyprids almost always have either of these structures. In addition, both cyprids of A. seepiophila and Neoverruca sp. had the attachment disc angled toward the substratum, whereas it faces distally in cyprids from hard bottom inhabiting barnacles. We suggest that both velum/skirt and the angle of the attachment disc play an important role, when the antennules are contacting the substratum during surface exploration. Differences in attachment organ structures may be highly adaptive, enabling cirripede species to enter new habitats during evolution. PMID:26948410

  16. The whale barnacle Cryptolepas rhachianecti (Cirripedia: Coronulidae), a phoront of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea: Eschrichtiidae), from a sandy beach in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bosselaers, Mark; Collareta, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    An isolated compartment of a whale barnacle is herein described from Recent beach deposits in Zoutelande (Walcheren, The Netherlands). This specimen is identified as belonging to the extant coronulid species Cryptolepas rhachianecti, currently known as an epizoic symbiont of the grey whale Eschrichtius robustus. This find represents the first occurrence of C. rhachianecti outside the North Pacific, and the first one as a (sub)fossil. In view of the fact that E. robustus, which is currently confined to the North Pacific, is known as a subfossil from the northeastern Atlantic between late Late Pleistocene (c. 45,000 years ago) and historical (c. 1700 AD) times, we propose a similar (late Quaternary) age for the isolated compartment. The find indicates that the extinct late Quaternary northeastern Atlantic population of E. robustus was infected by Cryptolepas rhachianecti. Our find is, therefore, compatible with the hypothesis of an ancient grey whale migration route running between the subtropical/temperate waters of the northeast Atlantic (or Mediterranean Basin), and the cold waters of the Baltic Sea (or southern Arctic Ocean), through the southern North Sea. Finally, we discuss the systematic placement of the fossil barnacle species Cryptolepas murata and propose the possibility of its removal from the genus Cryptolepas pending further investigations. PMID:27615844

  17. Evaluation of the floating time of a corpse found in a marine environment using the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Venn, Cynthia; Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Ricci, Pietrantonio; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Dadour, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Human activities involving water may result in a crime scene. Typically, death may be due to natural causes, homicide, or mass disasters. Decomposition in water is a complex process where many factors may interplay. Human remains in water are subject to many potential interactions, depending upon the remains themselves, the type of water and the characteristics of the water. A number of studies are focused on the decomposition process of the corpse in water, on the identification of the post mortem submersion interval (PMSI) and on the diagnosis of drowning, but very few studies consider the fate of floating remains in any aquatic environment. The following case describes a corpse found on a shore of the Tyrrhenian Sea (South West of Italy, Calabria Region). The corpse and the soles of his shoes were colonized by the barnacle Lepas anatifera L. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Pedunculata). The analyses of the barnacles present on the corpse aided in the evaluation of the floating time of the corpse which assisted in estimating the minimum time since death. PMID:25538026

  18. Water resources of the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation and vicinity, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, Anthony; Moyle, W.R.; Dana, Patricia

    1979-01-01

    Additional water for irrigation is needed by the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation, Riverside County, California. Water in the area is derived from precipitation, which averages 12 inches annually, on three subbasins nearly surrounding the 17-square-mile reservation. No ground water flows in from outside the area. A supply well that taps sandy material overlying the pre-Tertiary basement complex showed a specific capacity of 0.4 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown. Estimates of specific yield for material encountered during drilling of three wells and a test hole ranged from 5 to 10 percent. A gravity survey outlined the thickest section of the aquifer in the Vandeventer Flat area, and test wells are proposed to determine its potential well yield. Damming streams to retain runoff (about 1,500 acre-feet per year, and more during periods of heavy precipitation) is also proposed. Analyses of water from the supply well and five major springs showed that ground water is suitable for irrigation except at Sulphur Spring, where the percent sodium of 97 exceeds recommended maximums, and at Bull Canyon Spring, where the specific conductance of 1,300 micromhos indicate a salinity hazard. (Kosco-USGS)

  19. An Autotetraploid Linkage Map of Rose (Rosa hybrida) Validated Using the Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Genome Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H.; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map. The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome. PMID:21647382

  20. Re-evaluating the origins of late Pleistocene fire areas on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Wah, John S.; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2012-09-01

    At the close of the Pleistocene, fire regimes in North America changed significantly in response to climate change, megafaunal extinctions, anthropogenic burning and, possibly, even an extraterrestrial impact. On California's Channel Islands, researchers have long debated the nature of late Pleistocene "fire areas," discrete red zones in sedimentary deposits, interpreted by some as prehistoric mammoth-roasting pits created by humans. Further research found no evidence that these red zones were cultural in origin, and two hypotheses were advanced to explain their origin: natural fires and groundwater processes. Radiocarbon dating, X-ray diffraction analysis, and identification of charcoal from six red zones on Santa Rosa Island suggest that the studied features date between ~ 27,500 and 11,400 cal yr BP and resulted from burning or heating, not from groundwater processes. Our results show that fire was a component of late Pleistocene Channel Island ecology prior to and after human colonization of the islands, with no clear evidence for increased fire frequency coincident with Paleoindian settlement, extinction of pygmy mammoths, or a proposed Younger Dryas impact event.

  1. Estimating floodplain sedimentation in the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Jennifer A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a conceptual and analytical framework for predicting the spatial distribution of floodplain sedimentation for the Laguna de Santa Rosa, Sonoma County, CA. We assess the role of the floodplain as a sink for fine-grained sediment and investigate concerns regarding the potential loss of flood storage capacity due to historic sedimentation. We characterized the spatial distribution of sedimentation during a post-flood survey and developed a spatially distributed sediment deposition potential map that highlights zones of floodplain sedimentation. The sediment deposition potential map, built using raster files that describe the spatial distribution of relevant hydrologic and landscape variables, was calibrated using 2 years of measured overbank sedimentation data and verified using longer-term rates determined using dendrochronology. The calibrated floodplain deposition potential relation was used to estimate an average annual floodplain sedimentation rate (3.6 mm/year) for the ~11 km2 floodplain. This study documents the development of a conceptual model of overbank sedimentation, describes a methodology to estimate the potential for various parts of a floodplain complex to accumulate sediment over time, and provides estimates of short and long-term overbank sedimentation rates that can be used for ecosystem management and prioritization of restoration activities.

  2. Compounds from rose (Rosa rugosa) flowers with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, M; Ng, T B; Jiang, Y; Pi, Z F; Liu, Z K; Li, L; Liu, F

    2006-09-01

    The aqueous extracts and ethanol precipitates of aqueous extracts of 18 medicinal herbs traditionally used in China were screened for their ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) in-vitro. Among the samples screened at a concentration of 500 microg mL-1, dried rose (Rosa rugosa) flowers showed the strongest inhibition. The ethanol precipitate of the aqueous extract of R. rugosa was processed and two components (P1 and P2) were obtained after ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Then, P1-a (Mr 150 kDa) and P1-b (Mr 8 kDa) were isolated from P1 by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. They inhibited the activity of HIV-1 RT with an IC50 of 158 nM and 148.16 microg mL-1 (18.5 microM), respectively. Further structural analyses revealed that P1-a was a polysaccharide-peptide complex, and P1-b was a polymer consisting of acteoside and acteoside derivatives identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, assays of carbohydrate and protein contents and high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. PMID:16945187

  3. Rosa canina L.--new possibilities for an old medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Živković, Jelena; Stojković, Dejan; Petrović, Jovana; Zdunić, Gordana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Glamočlija, Jasna; Soković, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Health beneficial properties of Rosa canina species are mainly attributed to rose hips, while the leaves are usually discarded as waste. In the present study we investigated chemical constituents as well as antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of R. canina methanolic leaf extract. Chemical analysis showed that dominant phenolic compounds are quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives (isoquercetin and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside). Among the tested bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were the most susceptible to the activity of R. canina leaf extract with MIC and MBC values both 0.009 mg mL(-1). For most of the bacterial strains investigated the extract showed significantly higher activity compared to the used standard compounds streptomycin and ampicillin. Also the tested extract powerfully inhibited in vitro biofilm growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Leishmania monocytogenes and Escherichia coli at sub MIC-levels. With concentrations equal to 1/4 and 1/8 of MIC values biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli was inhibited by 90%. The obtained results are significant for a wider and efficient use of R. canina leaves.

  4. An autotetraploid linkage map of rose (Rosa hybrida) validated using the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map.The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome.

  5. [Impacts of salt stress on the growth and physiological characteristics of Rosa rugosa].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Lan-yong; Xu, Zong-da

    2011-08-01

    Taking 1-year-old cuttings of a wild type and three cultivars of Rosa rugosa as test materials, this paper studied their biomass, photosynthesis, osmotic adjustment substance contents, root activity, and ion contents under the stress of different concentration NaCl. Salt stress inhibited the growth of the cuttings, and root was more sensitive than shoot. Under salt stress, wild rose had significantly higher contents of free proline and soluble sugar than the cultivars, and the contents of free proline and soluble sugar in cultivar 'Ziyan' were higher than those in cultivars 'Zhongke 2' and 'Purple Branch'. Compared with rose cultivars, the wild rose under salt stress had smaller changes in its photosynthetic characteristics and root activity. It was suggested that wild rose had a higher resistance to salt stress than the cultivars, and cultivar 'Ziyan' had a higher resistance than 'Purple Branch' and 'Zhongke 2'. All the test indices could be used as the indicators of R. rugosa salt-tolerance.

  6. Immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides from waste rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Anton; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Yamada, Haruki

    2013-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (RP-1) was obtained from distilled rose petals of Rosa damascena Mill. as an attempt for valorization of the waste. RP-1 showed in vitro intestinal immune system modulating activity through Peyer's patch cells and IL-6 producing activity from macrophages. RP-1 lost most of its immunomodulating activity by degradation of the carbohydrate moiety with periodate. RP-1 was fractionated by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and some of the fractions showed significant intestinal immune system modulating activity. The active fractions were suggested to be pectic polysaccharides and type II arabino-3,6-galactan from the component sugar analyses and the reactivity with Yariv antigen. When some active fractions were digested with endo α-d-(1→4)-polygalacturonase, highest molecular weight fragments which were considered as rhamnogalacturonan I, showed potent immunomodulating activities. To our knowledge, this is a first report which explores the possibility for utilization of waste rose petals as a source of immunomodulating pectic polysaccharides.

  7. Polyploidization mechanisms: temperature environment can induce diploid gamete formation in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Pécrix, Yann; Rallo, Géraldine; Folzer, Hélène; Cigna, Mireille; Gudin, Serge; Le Bris, Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Polyploidy is an important evolutionary phenomenon but the mechanisms by which polyploidy arises still remain underexplored. There may be an environmental component to polyploidization. This study aimed to clarify how temperature may promote diploid gamete formation considered an essential element for sexual polyploidization. First of all, a detailed cytological analysis of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis was performed to target precisely the key developmental stages which are the most sensitive to temperature. Then, heat-induced modifications in sporad and pollen characteristics were analysed through an exposition of high temperature gradient. Rosa plants are sensitive to high temperatures with a developmental sensitivity window limited to meiosis. Moreover, the range of efficient temperatures is actually narrow. 36 °C at early meiosis led to a decrease in pollen viability, pollen ectexine defects but especially the appearance of numerous diploid pollen grains. They resulted from dyads or triads mainly formed following heat-induced spindle misorientations in telophase II. A high temperature environment has the potential to increase gamete ploidy level. The high frequencies of diplogametes obtained at some extreme temperatures support the hypothesis that polyploidization events could have occurred in adverse conditions and suggest polyploidization facilitating in a global change context. PMID:21398431

  8. Field rates for natural attenuation of arsenic in Tinto Santa Rosa acid mine drainage (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Asta, Maria P; Ayora, Carlos; Acero, Patricia; Cama, Jordi

    2010-05-15

    Reactive transport modelling of the main processes related to the arsenic natural attenuation observed in the acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted stream of Tinto Santa Rosa (SW Spain) was performed. Despite the simplicity of the kinetic expressions used to deal with arsenic attenuation processes, the model reproduced successfully the major chemical trends observed along the acid discharge. Results indicated that the rate of ferrous iron oxidation was similar to the one obtained in earlier field studies in which microbial catalysis is reported to occur. With regard to the scaled arsenic oxidation rate, it is one order of magnitude faster than the values obtained under laboratory conditions suggesting the existence of a catalytic agent in the natural system. Schwertmannite precipitation rate, which was represented by a simple kinetic expression relying on Fe(III) and pH, was in the range calculated for other AMD impacted sites. Finally, the obtained distribution coefficients used for representing arsenic sorption onto Fe(III) precipitates were lower than those deduced from reported laboratory data. This discrepancy is attributed to a decrease in the schwertmannite arsenate sorption capacity as sulphate increases in the solution.

  9. Characterization of a polysaccharide from Rosa davurica and inhibitory activity against neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Tong, Haibin; Jiang, Guiquan; Guan, Xingang; Wu, Hong; Song, Kangxing; Cheng, Kuan; Sun, Xin

    2016-08-01

    The rapid recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into infected sites is critical step for inflammatory responses; however, the excessive and improper recruitment can lead to serious tissue damages. Thus, it is a promising strategy to inhibit their excessive recruitment for treating inflammation-related disease. Here, we isolated a polysaccharide (RDPA1) from Rosa davurica, to evaluate its physicochemical property and inhibitory effects on neutrophil migration. RDPA1 was obtained by hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and fractionated by DEAE-cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B columns. RDPA1 significantly inhibited in vitro migration of human neutrophils evaluated by transwell chamber and impacted the migratory behavior observed by time-lapsed microscopy, we found the migrated distance and average velocity of RDPA1-treated cells were greatly reduced. In addition, RDPA1 treatment impaired in vivo neutrophil infiltration in the peritonitis mice. RDPA1 exhibited significant blocking capacity of the interaction between β2 integrins and ICAM-1 evaluated by flow cytometry and in vitro protein binding assay. Together, these results suggest RDPA1 could be considered as a potential candidate for developing a novel anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:27112979

  10. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Homayoun, Mansour; Seghatoleslam, Masoumeh; Pourzaki, Mojtaba; Shafieian, Reihaneh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena). In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1) Control: received saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3) PTZ- Extract 50 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 50), (4) PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 100), and (5) PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg (PTZ-Ext 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG) recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s) as well as the possible mechanism(s). PMID:26101759

  11. [Description of a staphylococcal alimentary poisoning outbreak in Las Rosas, Santa Fe Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Brizzio, Aníbal A; Tedeschi, Fabián A; Zalazar, Fabián E

    2011-01-01

    On February 2008, a suspected foodborne outbreak was reported in Las Rosas (Santa Fe Province, Argentina). The formal procedures indicated that an undetermined number of individuals had experienced food poisoning following consumption of vegetable cannelloni bought at a local shop. The manufacturer establishment was audited. Samples from the suspected food, as well as environmental samples and swabs from food handlers were obtained and involved subjects were interviewed. Remnants of ingested food were also obtained. Routine microbiological procedures of the foodborne outbreak revealed the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus subspecies aureus in samples from ingested and raw food, and from manipulators. Indicator microorganisms did not show significant levels and no other foodborne pathogen was isolated. Presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin-producing genes was subsequently investigated, and a positive result for enterotoxin B was shown in S. aureus strains isolated from a food handler as well as from food linked to the outbreak Moreover, these isolates showed 100% similarity by SmaI-PFGE. Timely notification together with coordinated sanitary measures and the availability of appropriate laboratory tools allowed to interrupt the chain of disease transmission by identifying risk and protective factors. PMID:21491063

  12. Rosa canina L.--new possibilities for an old medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Živković, Jelena; Stojković, Dejan; Petrović, Jovana; Zdunić, Gordana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Glamočlija, Jasna; Soković, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Health beneficial properties of Rosa canina species are mainly attributed to rose hips, while the leaves are usually discarded as waste. In the present study we investigated chemical constituents as well as antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of R. canina methanolic leaf extract. Chemical analysis showed that dominant phenolic compounds are quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives (isoquercetin and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside). Among the tested bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium were the most susceptible to the activity of R. canina leaf extract with MIC and MBC values both 0.009 mg mL(-1). For most of the bacterial strains investigated the extract showed significantly higher activity compared to the used standard compounds streptomycin and ampicillin. Also the tested extract powerfully inhibited in vitro biofilm growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Leishmania monocytogenes and Escherichia coli at sub MIC-levels. With concentrations equal to 1/4 and 1/8 of MIC values biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa and E. coli was inhibited by 90%. The obtained results are significant for a wider and efficient use of R. canina leaves. PMID:26399901

  13. Anti-hyperplasia effects of Rosa rugosa polyphenols in rats with hyperplasia of mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping; Yang, Chuhao

    2015-03-01

    Rosa rugosa (Thunb.) is used in Chinese traditional medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving the depressed liver and attenuating breast disorders. This study was to investigate the anti-hyperplasia effects of the polyphenols-rich fraction from R. rugosa (FRR) in rat. Rat model of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) was induced by intramuscularly injected with estrogen (0.5mg/kg/d) for 25 days, and followed with progestogen (5mg/kg/d) for another 5 days. Meanwhile, FRR was orally given for 30 days. Then, the levels of estradiol and oxidative stress were assessed. The mammary expressions of AKT and JNK were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The expressions of NFκB-p65, COX-2 and VEGF were measured by immunohistochemical analysis. The whole results indicated that FRR could exert anti-hyperplasia effects in rat via modulating the mammary expression of JNK and AKT, as well as alleviating the NFκB related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  14. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K(+) (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K(+) induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  15. [Description of a staphylococcal alimentary poisoning outbreak in Las Rosas, Santa Fe Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Brizzio, Aníbal A; Tedeschi, Fabián A; Zalazar, Fabián E

    2011-01-01

    On February 2008, a suspected foodborne outbreak was reported in Las Rosas (Santa Fe Province, Argentina). The formal procedures indicated that an undetermined number of individuals had experienced food poisoning following consumption of vegetable cannelloni bought at a local shop. The manufacturer establishment was audited. Samples from the suspected food, as well as environmental samples and swabs from food handlers were obtained and involved subjects were interviewed. Remnants of ingested food were also obtained. Routine microbiological procedures of the foodborne outbreak revealed the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus subspecies aureus in samples from ingested and raw food, and from manipulators. Indicator microorganisms did not show significant levels and no other foodborne pathogen was isolated. Presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin-producing genes was subsequently investigated, and a positive result for enterotoxin B was shown in S. aureus strains isolated from a food handler as well as from food linked to the outbreak Moreover, these isolates showed 100% similarity by SmaI-PFGE. Timely notification together with coordinated sanitary measures and the availability of appropriate laboratory tools allowed to interrupt the chain of disease transmission by identifying risk and protective factors.

  16. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy

    2010-03-01

    Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles of various shapes using the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is reported. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticles. The size and shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal salt and extract in the reaction medium. Variation of pH of the reaction medium gives silver nanoparticles of different shapes. The nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in the fcc structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes, bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image. From FTIR spectra it is found that the Au nanoparticles are bound to amine groups and the Ag nanoparticles to carboxylate ion groups.

  17. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Táňa

    2011-01-01

    Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

  18. Laser cleaning of graffiti in Rosa Porriño granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, M. P.; Lamas, J.; López, A. J.; Rivas, T.; Ramil, A.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents preliminary results in determining the optimum parameters for graffiti removal in a ornamental granite, Rosa Porriño, by means of Nd:YVO4 laser at the wavelength of 355 nm and different fluences. The spray-paints (black, blue, red and silver) tested in this work were chemically characterized by means of elemental analysis, XRF, SEM/EDX and FTIR. The assessment of cleaning and characterization of the stone substrate before and after irradiation was performed by means of optical microscopy, SEM-EDX, and confocal microscopy. The analysis of the irradiated samples showed in some cases, damage in the granite substrate associated to thermal effects. The severity and kind of damage, depends on the laser fluence delivered, the constituent mineral irradiated, and the color used to paint the stone. So, at the highest levels of fluence the laser beam is able to scratch the surface, being the depth of the grooves in the stone measured by confocal microscopy. Moreover, SEM images show the differential damage caused in mineral constituents of granite i.e., quartz, feldspars, and biotite, the latter providing to be the most affected mineral, reaching melting even at low levels of fluence. It was appreciated that the color of the spray-paint affects the results of cleaning, and observed differences could be attributed to different organic constituents in the paints or the presence of metallic particles in its composition, as occurs with silver paint.

  19. Dpp/BMP transport mechanism is required for wing venation in the sawfly Athalia rosae.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shinya; Yoshiyama, Naotoshi; Künnapuu-Vulli, Jaana; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Shimmi, Osamu

    2013-05-01

    The pattern of wing venation varies considerably among different groups of insects and has been used as a means of species-specific identification. However, little is known about how wing venation is established and diversified among insects. The decapentaplegic (Dpp)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway plays a critical role in wing vein formation during the pupal stages in Drosophila melanogaster. A key mechanism is BMP transport from the longitudinal veins (LVs) to the posterior crossvein (PCV) by the BMP-binding proteins, short gastrulation (Sog) and twisted gastrulation2/crossveinless (Tsg2/Cv). To investigate whether the BMP transport mechanism is utilized to specify insect wing vein patterns in other than Drosophila, we used the sawfly Athalia rosae as a model, which has distinct venation patterns in the fore- and hindwings. Here, we show that Ar-dpp is ubiquitously expressed in both the fore- and hindwings, but is required for localized BMP signaling that reflects distinct wing vein patterns between the fore- and hindwings. By isolating Ar-tsg/cv in the sawfly, we found that Ar-Tsg/Cv is also required for BMP signaling in wing vein formation and retains the ability to transport Dpp. These data suggest that the BMP transport system is widely used to redistribute Dpp to specify wing venation and may be a basal mechanism underlying diversified wing vein patterns among insects.

  20. New Radiometric Age Constraints for the Matuyama-Bruhnes Reversal and Santa Rosa Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbas, A.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Kent, D. V.; Coe, R. S.; Konrad, K.; Clark, P. U.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling of the timing of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) position and the absolute paleointensities for geomagnetic events is vital for understanding the Earth's geodynamo. Here we present new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations using an ARGUS-VI multi-collector mass spectrometer for lava flows on Floreana Island, Galapagos, and Tahiti Nui, Society Islands. New Galapagos ages (n=6) place the GA-79 lava flow on Floreana Island, which records an excursional VGP from an equatorial region (Cox and Dalrymple, 1966), within the Santa Rosa excursion. This flow contains extremely low paleointesity values of 1.1 x 1022 Am2 (n=11; Wang and Kent, 2013). We also present 52 new ages on 18 lava flows from the Punaruu valley, Tahiti, which record the Matuyama-Bruhnes reversal. The new ages confirm that the lavas record this reversal, but the ages differ from the original stratigraphy presented in Mochizuki et al. (2011). Our new ages using the Kuiper et al. (2008) fish canyon sanidine ages for Punaruu valley lava flows are concordant with previous astronomically tuned ages (Channell et al. 2002, 2009) and represent the highest precision radiometric ages for the most recent reversal. Here we show that paleointensity lows associated with excursional events can be comparable to or less than those associated with reversals. In addition, such field strength reductions can occur in time intervals as short as 3 thousand years.

  1. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  2. The behavior of the ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux in single barnacle muscle fibers toward the microinjection of aluminum.

    PubMed

    Bittar, E E; Huang, Y P

    1990-10-01

    Recent work with single muscle fibers from the barnacle Balanus nubilus has shown that the injection of Al into these fibers leads to inhibition of the resting Na efflux and that this involves both the ouabain-sensitive and the ouabain-insensitive components of the efflux. This work also showed that the injection of Al into ouabain-poisoned fibers often leads to a rise in the remaining Na efflux. This observation suggested the possibility that Al is able to stimulate the ouabain-insensitive Na by increasing myoplasmic free Ca2+ and that trigger Ca2+ reaches the myoplasm via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. The results obtained are as follows: (i) The injection of AlCl3 into fibers poisoned with ouabain produces a biphasic or monophasic effect on the remaining Na efflux. That is, stimulation is followed by inhibition, or there is only stimulation. (ii) This response is dose-dependent and is seen to take place following the injection of Al in a concentration as low as 0.01 M. (iii) Both Ga3+ and Sc3+ are able to mimic the effect of Al. (iv) Injection of EGTA following peak stimulation of the ouabain-insensitive Na efflux by injected AlCl3 leads to reversal of this response. If, however, EGTA is injected long after the onset of peak stimulation and after ouabain reaches its maximum effect, it is found to be ineffective. (v) The magnitude of the stimulatory response of the ouabain-insensitive Na efflux is a sigmoidal function of external Ca2+ and is almost completely abolished by verapamil, devapamil, and Cd2+ but is unaffected by injecting Mg2+ before or after AlCl3. (vi) Whereas preinjection of Al reduces the response to ryanodine, external preapplication of ryanodine fails to alter the response to Al. The preinjection of deferoxamine (a potent chelator of Al) fails to stop the stimulatory response to Al injection from occurring. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that the stimulatory response elicited by Al injection is due to a fall in myoplasmic

  3. Numerical simulations of barnacle larval dispersion coupled with field observations on larval abundance, settlement and recruitment in a tropical monsoon influenced coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Samiksha, S. V.; George, Grinson; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-06-01

    Larval abundance in an area depends on various factors which operate over different spatial and temporal scales. Identifying the factors responsible for variations in larval supply and abundance is important to understand the settlement and recruitment variability of their population in a particular area. In view of this, observations were carried out to monitor the larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles on a regular basis for a period of two years. The results were then compared with the numerical modelling studies carried out along the west coast of India. Field observations of larval abundance showed temporal variations. The least abundance of larvae was mostly observed during the monsoon season and the peak in abundance was mostly observed during the pre-monsoon season. Numerical simulations also showed a seasonal change in larval dispersion and retention patterns. During pre-monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards south and the larvae released from the northern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuaries, whereas during the monsoon season the larval movement was mostly found towards north and the larvae released from southern release sites contributed to larval abundance within the estuary. During post-monsoon season, the larval movement was found towards the north in the beginning of the season and is shifted towards the south at the end of the season, but the movement was mostly restricted near to the release sites. Larval supply from the adjacent rocky sites to the estuaries was higher during the pre-monsoon season and the retention of larvae released from different sites within the estuaries was found to be highest during the late post-monsoon and early pre-monsoon season. Maximum larval supply and retention during the pre-monsoon season coincided with maximum larval abundance, settlement and recruitment of barnacles observed in the field studies. These observations showed that the pattern of

  4. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Gorji-Chakespari, Abbas; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world) using an electronic nose (EN) system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively) based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN) system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response). The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr), also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil. PMID:27153069

  5. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Gorji-Chakespari, Abbas; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-05-04

    Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world) using an electronic nose (EN) system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively) based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN) system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response). The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr), also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil.

  6. Performance Comparison of Fuzzy ARTMAP and LDA in Qualitative Classification of Iranian Rosa damascena Essential Oils by an Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Gorji-Chakespari, Abbas; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad; Sefidkon, Fatemeh; Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Brezmes, Jesús; Llobet, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Quality control of essential oils is an important topic in industrial processing of medicinal and aromatic plants. In this paper, the performance of Fuzzy Adaptive Resonant Theory Map (ARTMAP) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithms are compared in the specific task of quality classification of Rosa damascene essential oil samples (one of the most famous and valuable essential oils in the world) using an electronic nose (EN) system based on seven metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors. First, with the aid of a GC-MS analysis, samples of Rosa damascene essential oils were classified into three different categories (low, middle, and high quality, classes C1, C2, and C3, respectively) based on the total percent of the most crucial qualitative compounds. An ad-hoc electronic nose (EN) system was implemented to sense the samples and acquire signals. Forty-nine features were extracted from the EN sensor matrix (seven parameters to describe each sensor curve response). The extracted features were ordered in relevance by the intra/inter variance criterion (Vr), also known as the Fisher discriminant. A leave-one-out cross validation technique was implemented for estimating the classification accuracy reached by both algorithms. Success rates were calculated using 10, 20, 30, and the entire selected features from the response of the sensor array. The results revealed a maximum classification accuracy of 99% when applying the Fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm and 82% for LDA, using the first 10 features in both cases. Further classification results explained that sub-optimal performance is likely to occur when all the response features are applied. It was found that an electronic nose system employing a Fuzzy ARTMAP classifier could become an accurate, easy, and inexpensive alternative tool for qualitative control in the production of Rosa damascene essential oil. PMID:27153069

  7. Interplay of sugar, light and gibberellins in expression of Rosa hybrida vacuolar invertase 1 regulation.

    PubMed

    Rabot, Amélie; Portemer, Virginie; Péron, Thomas; Mortreau, Eric; Leduc, Nathalie; Hamama, Latifa; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Atanassova, Rossitza; Sakr, Soulaiman; Le Gourrierec, José

    2014-10-01

    Our previous findings showed that the expression of the Rosa hybrida vacuolar invertase 1 gene (RhVI1) was tightly correlated with the ability of buds to grow out and was under sugar, gibberellin and light control. Here, we aimed to provide an insight into the mechanistic basis of this regulation. In situ hybridization showed that RhVI1 expression was localized in epidermal cells of young leaves of bursting buds. We then isolated a 895 bp fragment of the promoter of RhVI1. In silico analysis identified putative cis-elements involved in the response to sugars, light and gibberellins on its proximal part (595 bp). To carry out functional analysis of the RhVI1 promoter in a homologous system, we developed a direct method for stable transformation of rose cells. 5' deletions of the proximal promoter fused to the uidA reporter gene were inserted into the rose cell genome to study the cell's response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli. Deletion analysis revealed that the 468 bp promoter fragment is sufficient to trigger reporter gene activity in response to light, sugars and gibberellins. This region confers sucrose- and fructose-, but not glucose-, responsive activation in the dark. Inversely, the -595 to -468 bp region that carries the sugar-repressive element (SRE) is required to down-regulate the RhVI1 promoter in response to sucrose and fructose in the dark. We also demonstrate that sugar/light and gibberellin/light act synergistically to up-regulate β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity sharply under the control of the 595 bp pRhVI1 region. These results reveal that the 127 bp promoter fragment located between -595 and -468 bp is critical for light and sugar and light and gibberellins to act synergistically.

  8. Two-dimensional modelling of overwash at Santa Rosa Island during Hurricane Ivan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, R. T.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; Roelvink, J. A.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Thompson, D. M.; Plant, N. G.

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 10% of the world's coastline consists of low-lying barrier coasts, which are susceptible to coastal flooding, dune overwash and breaching. Although several numerical cross shore models exist to calculate beach and dune profile change during storms, overwash and breaching are not necessarily incorporated. Additionally, these models assume longshore uniformity and therefore do not include longshore variation in for instance dune height, shoreline angle and wave conditions. In order to simulate overwash on a barrier island we use a new numerical model for the nearshore and coast called XBeach (Roelvink et al., ICCE 2008). This process-based and time dependent model solves coupled short and long wave propagation, sediment transport and morphology in 2DH. The model has a robust numerical scheme, allowing it to simulate flooding and drying, thereby removing the need for separate dry and wet domains and procedures. XBeach is used to model a section of Santa Rosa Island, Florida, during Hurricane Ivan in 2004. This island was heavily overwashed during the hurricane and breached in one location. The model is set-up using high resolution airborne LIDAR altimetry and bathymetry data and forced using surge and wave data from larger scale numerical models. The modelled final bed elevation is compared to airborne LIDAR data acquired three days after the storm. The results show that XBeach is capable of simulating the complex hydrodynamics that occur during extreme overwash events. It is shown that the model can recreate the morphological developments that occurred on the island during the storm and that the model has considerable quantitative skill in predicting the final bed elevation.

  9. Ground-water recharge in Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a major component of Florida's water resources, accounting for 90 percent of all public-supply and self-supplied domestic water withdrawals, and 58 percent of self-supplied commercial-industrial and agricultural withdrawals of freshwater (Marella, 1992). Ground-water is also an important source of water for streams, lakes, and wetlands in Florida. Because of their importance, a good understanding of these resources is essential for their sound development, use, and protection. One area in which our understanding is lacking is in characterizing the rate at which ground water in aquifers is recharged, and how recharge rates vary geographically. Ground-water recharge (recharge) is the replenishment of ground water by downward infiltration of water from rainfall, streams, and other sources (American Society of Civil Engineers, 1987, p. 222). The recharge rates in many areas of Florida are unknown, of insufficient accuracy, or mapped at scales that are too coarse to be useful. Improved maps of recharge rates will result in improved capabilities for managing Florida's ground-water resources. In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, began a study to delineate high-rate recharge areas in several regions of Florida (Vecchioli and others, 1990). This study resulted in recharge maps that delineated areas of high (greater than 10 inches per year) and low (0 to 10 inches per year) recharge in three counties--Okaloosa, Pasco, and Volusia Counties--at a scale of 1:100,000. This report describes the results of a similar recharge mapping study for Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties (fig. 1), in which areas of high- and low-rates of recharge to the sand-and-gravel aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer are delineated. The study was conducted in 1992 and 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Rosa canina fruit extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Heibatollah; Hosseinzadeh, Saleh; Akbartabar Touri, Mehdi; Ghavamzadeh, Mehdi; Jafari Barmak, Mehrzad; sayahi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of hydro-ethanolic fruit extract of Rosa canina (R. canina) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups of 8 animals of each, including control, toxic (CCl4), R. canina 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg + CCl4 and R. canina 750 mg/kg alone. R. canina (p.o., daily) and CCl4 (1 ml/kg twice a week, 50% v/v in olive oil, i.p.) were administered to animals for six weeks. Serum analysis was performed to assay the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Biochemical observations were also supplemented with histopathological examination (haematoxylin and eosin staining) of liver section. Results: Hepatotoxicity was evidenced by considerable increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decrease in levels of ALB and TP. Injection of CCL4 also induced congestion in central vein, and lymphocyte infiltration. Treatment with hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina at doses of 500 and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced CCl4-elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP and MDA (p<0.01). The extract also increased the serum levels of ALB and TP compared to CCl4 group (p<0.01) at the indicated dose Histopathological studies supported the biochemical finding. Conclusion: Our finding indicated hepatoprotective effects of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of R. canina on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats and suggested that these effects may be produced through reducing oxidative stress. PMID:27222831

  11. Identification of antimutagenic properties of anthocyanins and other polyphenols from rose (Rosa centifolia) petals and tea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-06-01

    Petals from different rose (Rosa centifolia) cultivars ("passion," "pink noblesse," and "sphinx") were assessed for antimutagenicity using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based Rif (S) →Rif (R) (rifampicin sensitive to resistant) forward mutation assay against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutagenesis. The aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited a wide variation in their antimutagenicity. Among these, cv. "passion" was found to display maximum antimutagenicity. Upon further fractionation, the anthocyanin extract of cv. "passion" displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than its phenolic extract. During thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, the anthocyanin extract got resolved into 3 spots: yellow (Rf : 0.14), blue (Rf : 0.30), and pink (Rf : 0.49). Among these spots, the blue one displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than the other 2. Upon high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, this blue spot further got resolved into 2 peaks (Rt : 2.7 and 3.8 min). The 2nd peak (Rt : 3.8 min) displaying high antimutagenicity was identified by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis as peonidin 3-glucoside, whereas less antimutagenic peak 1 (Rt : 2.7) was identified as cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. The other TLC bands were also characterized by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis. The least antimutagenic pink band (Rf : 0.49) was identified as malvidin 3-acetylglucoside-4-vinylcatechol, whereas non-antimutagenic yellow band (Rf : 0.14) was identified as luteolinidin anthocyanin derivative. Interestingly, the anthocyanin extracted from rose tea of cv. "passion" exhibited a similar antimutagenicity as that of the raw rose petal indicating the thermal stability of the contributing bioactive(s). The findings thus indicated the health protective property of differently colored rose cultivars and the nature of their active bioingredients.

  12. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar.

  13. Light and nitrogen nutrition regulate apical control in Rosa hybrida L.

    PubMed

    Furet, Pierre-Maxime; Lothier, Jérémy; Demotes-Mainard, Sabine; Travier, Sandrine; Henry, Clémence; Guérin, Vincent; Vian, Alain

    2014-03-01

    Apical control is defined as the inhibition of basal axillary bud outgrowth by an upper actively growing axillary axis, whose regulation is poorly understood yet differs markedly from the better-known apical dominance. We studied the regulation of apical control by environmental factors in decapitated Rosa hybrida in order to remove the apical hormonal influence and nutrient sink. In this plant model, all the buds along the main axis have a similar morphology and are able to burst in vitro. We concentrated on the involvement of light intensity and nitrate nutrition on bud break and axillary bud elongation in the primary axis pruned above the fifth leaf of each rose bush. We observed that apical control took place in low light (92 μmol m(-2)s(-1)), where only the 2-apical buds grew out, both in low (0.25 mM) and high (12.25 mM) nitrate. In contrast, in high light (453 μmol m(-2)s(-1)), the apical control only operates in low nitrate while all the buds along the stem grew out when the plant was supplied with a high level of nitrate. We found a decreasing photosynthetic activity from the top to the base of the plant concomitant with a light gradient along the stem. The quantity of sucrose, fructose, glucose and starch are higher in high light conditions in leaves and stem. The expression of the sucrose transporter RhSUC2 was higher in internodes and buds in this lighting condition, suggesting an increased capacity for sucrose transport. We propose that light intensity and nitrogen availability both contribute to the establishment of apical control.

  14. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development. PMID:27462328

  15. Identification of antimutagenic properties of anthocyanins and other polyphenols from rose (Rosa centifolia) petals and tea.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2013-06-01

    Petals from different rose (Rosa centifolia) cultivars ("passion," "pink noblesse," and "sphinx") were assessed for antimutagenicity using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase B (rpoB)-based Rif (S) →Rif (R) (rifampicin sensitive to resistant) forward mutation assay against ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutagenesis. The aqueous extracts of rose petals from different cultivars exhibited a wide variation in their antimutagenicity. Among these, cv. "passion" was found to display maximum antimutagenicity. Upon further fractionation, the anthocyanin extract of cv. "passion" displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than its phenolic extract. During thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis, the anthocyanin extract got resolved into 3 spots: yellow (Rf : 0.14), blue (Rf : 0.30), and pink (Rf : 0.49). Among these spots, the blue one displayed significantly higher antimutagenicity than the other 2. Upon high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, this blue spot further got resolved into 2 peaks (Rt : 2.7 and 3.8 min). The 2nd peak (Rt : 3.8 min) displaying high antimutagenicity was identified by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis as peonidin 3-glucoside, whereas less antimutagenic peak 1 (Rt : 2.7) was identified as cyanidin 3, 5-diglucoside. The other TLC bands were also characterized by ESI-IT-MS/MS analysis. The least antimutagenic pink band (Rf : 0.49) was identified as malvidin 3-acetylglucoside-4-vinylcatechol, whereas non-antimutagenic yellow band (Rf : 0.14) was identified as luteolinidin anthocyanin derivative. Interestingly, the anthocyanin extracted from rose tea of cv. "passion" exhibited a similar antimutagenicity as that of the raw rose petal indicating the thermal stability of the contributing bioactive(s). The findings thus indicated the health protective property of differently colored rose cultivars and the nature of their active bioingredients. PMID:23627876

  16. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  17. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases.

  18. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Rosa taiwanensis Nakai in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Der-Shiang; Huang, Mei-Hsuen; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Chang, Yuan-Shuang; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a 70% ethanol extract from Rosa taiwanensis Nakai (RTEtOH). The analgesic effect was determined using acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of RTEtOH was examined by measuring the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the paw edema tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver tissue. The betulinic acid and oleanolic acid contents of RTEtOH were assayed by HPLC. The results showed that RTEtOH decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses (1.0 g/kg) and the late phase of the formalin-induced licking time (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg). In the anti-inflammatory models, RTEtOH (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4, and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms might be due to the decreased levels of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as the inhibition of NO and MDA levels through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd. The contents of two active compounds, betulinic acid and oleanolic acid, were quantitatively determined. This study demonstrated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RTEtOH and provided evidence to support its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases. PMID:25494361

  19. Possible changes in ground-water flow to the Pecos River caused by Santa Rosa Lake, Guadalupe County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980 Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control, sediment control, and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the groundwater flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow gaging stations. Data collected at these stations are used to measure the amount of water available for downstream users. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model for a 950 sq mi area between Anton Chico and Puerto de Luna was used to simulate the effects of Santa Rosa Lake on groundwater flow to a gaining reach of the Pecos River for lake levels of 4,675, 4,715, 4,725, 4,750, 4,776, and 4,797 feet above sea level and durations of impoundment of 30, 90, 182, and 365 days for all levels except 4 ,797 feet. These simulations indicated that streamflow in the Pecos River could increase by as much as 2 cu ft/sec between the dam and Puerto de Luna if the lake level were maintained at 4 ,797 feet for 90 days or 4,776 feet for 1 year. About 90% of this increased streamflow would occur < 0.5 mi downstream from the dam, some of which would be measured at the streamflow gaging station located 0.2 mile downstream from the dam. Simulations also indicated that the lake will affect groundwater flow such that inflow to the study area may be decreased by as much as 1.9 cu ft/sec. This water may leave the Pecos River drainage basin or be diverted back to the Pecos River downstream from the gaging station near Puerto de Luna. In either case, this quantity represents a net loss of water upstream from Puerto de Luna. Most simulations indicated that the decrease in groundwater flow into the study area would be of about the same quantity as the simulated increase in streamflow downstream from the dam. Therefore, the net effect of the lake on the flow of the Pecos River in the study area appears to be negligible. Model simulations

  20. Cross-species, amplifiable microsatellite markers for neoverrucid barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents developed using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Khalturina, Mariia; Watanabe, Hiromi; Inagaki, Fumio; Satoh, Nori; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2014-08-18

    Barnacles of the genus Neoverruca are abundant near deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and are useful for understanding processes of population formation and maintenance of deep-sea vent faunas. Using next-generation sequencing, we isolated 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci from Neoverruca sp., collected in the Okinawa Trough. These microsatellite loci revealed 2-19 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.286 to 1.000 and 0.349 to 0.935, respectively. Cross-species amplification showed that 9 of the 12 loci were successfully amplified for Neoverruca brachylepadoformis in the Mariana Trough. A pairwise FST value calculated using nine loci showed significant genetic differentiation between the two species. Consequently, the microsatellite markers we developed will be useful for further population genetic studies to elucidate genetic diversity, differentiation, classification, and evolutionary processes in the genus Neoverruca.

  1. Seasonal variation of metal contamination in the barnacles Pollicipes pollicipes in northwest coast of Portugal show clear correlation with levels in the surrounding water.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2013-05-15

    The concentrations of metals were determined in northwest (NW) coast of Portugal seawaters and soft tissues of goose barnacles Pollicipes pollicipes. P. pollicipes can be used for monitoring metal contamination in these coastal seawaters, because there were significant correlations (p<0.05) for all metals between soft tissues and seawaters during the four seasons. Metal concentrations in seawaters and P. pollicipes had significant (p<0.05) spatial and seasonal variations and mean log BAFs for Fe and Cd were higher than for Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn. Regarding the metal concentrations obtained in the coastal seawaters, all NW coast of Portugal should be classified as "Class IV--Bad", except two locations (location 7 at Summer and location 10 at Winter), which should be classified as "Class III--Moderate". However, considering the metal concentrations bioaccumulated in P. pollicipes, all locations should be classified as "Class III--Remarkably Polluted" during all seasons of 2011.

  2. Two new species of the gorgonian inhabiting barnacle, Conopea (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica), from the Gulf of Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Carrison-Stone, Dana; Syoc, Robert Van; Williams, Gary; Simison, W. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Conopea (Say 1822) are described from the Gulf of Guinea: Conopea saotomensis sp. n.and Conopea fidelis sp. n. These two new species were collected from the historically isolated volcanic islands of São Tomé and Príncipe. The relationship between Conopea saotomensis sp. n., Conopea fidelis sp. n.and two other Atlantic barnacle species, Conopea calceola (Ellis 1758) and Conopea galeata (Linnaeus 1771), is examined. The methods employed are the construction of a molecular phylogeny using mitochondrial COI and nuclear H3 gene sequence data along with morphological comparisons of calcareous and cuticular body parts. It is found that Conopea saotomensis sp. n., Conopea fidelis sp. n.and Conopea calceola are most closely related to each other but the relationship among them is unresolved. Gorgonian hosts are identified. Preliminary observations show species level host specificity for Conopea fidelis sp. n. PMID:23730186

  3. Barcoding Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae), a Large Stripy Earthworm from Alpine Foothills of Northeastern Italy Similar to Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888).

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Maurizio G; Blakemore, Robert J; Csuzdi, Csaba; Dorigo, Luca; Dreon, Angelo Leandro; Gavinelli, Federico; Lazzarini, Francesca; Manno, Nicola; Moretto, Enzo; Porco, David; Ruzzier, Enrico; Toniello, Vladimiro; Squartini, Andrea; Concheri, Giuseppe; Zanardo, Marina; Alba-Tercedor, Javier

    2016-01-01

    A new Italian earthworm morphologically close to the similarly large and anecic Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888) is described. Distribution of Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. extends over 750 km2 from East to West on the Asiago Plateau and Vittorio Veneto Hills, from North to South on mounts Belluno Prealps (Praderadego and Cesen), Asiago, Grappa and onto the Montello foothills. This range abuts that of Eophila tellinii in northern Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Known localities of both E. tellinii and E. crodabepis sp. nov. are mapped. mtDNA barcoding definitively separates the new western species from classical Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888).

  4. Barcoding Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae), a Large Stripy Earthworm from Alpine Foothills of Northeastern Italy Similar to Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888)

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Maurizio G.; Blakemore, Robert J.; Csuzdi, Csaba; Dorigo, Luca; Dreon, Angelo Leandro; Gavinelli, Federico; Lazzarini, Francesca; Manno, Nicola; Moretto, Enzo; Porco, David; Ruzzier, Enrico; Toniello, Vladimiro; Squartini, Andrea; Concheri, Giuseppe; Zanardo, Marina; Alba-Tercedor, Javier

    2016-01-01

    A new Italian earthworm morphologically close to the similarly large and anecic Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888) is described. Distribution of Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. extends over 750 km2 from East to West on the Asiago Plateau and Vittorio Veneto Hills, from North to South on mounts Belluno Prealps (Praderadego and Cesen), Asiago, Grappa and onto the Montello foothills. This range abuts that of Eophila tellinii in northern Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Known localities of both E. tellinii and E.crodabepis sp. nov. are mapped. mtDNA barcoding definitively separates the new western species from classical Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888). PMID:27019284

  5. Barcoding Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae), a Large Stripy Earthworm from Alpine Foothills of Northeastern Italy Similar to Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888).

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Maurizio G; Blakemore, Robert J; Csuzdi, Csaba; Dorigo, Luca; Dreon, Angelo Leandro; Gavinelli, Federico; Lazzarini, Francesca; Manno, Nicola; Moretto, Enzo; Porco, David; Ruzzier, Enrico; Toniello, Vladimiro; Squartini, Andrea; Concheri, Giuseppe; Zanardo, Marina; Alba-Tercedor, Javier

    2016-01-01

    A new Italian earthworm morphologically close to the similarly large and anecic Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888) is described. Distribution of Eophila crodabepis sp. nov. extends over 750 km2 from East to West on the Asiago Plateau and Vittorio Veneto Hills, from North to South on mounts Belluno Prealps (Praderadego and Cesen), Asiago, Grappa and onto the Montello foothills. This range abuts that of Eophila tellinii in northern Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Known localities of both E. tellinii and E. crodabepis sp. nov. are mapped. mtDNA barcoding definitively separates the new western species from classical Eophila tellinii (Rosa, 1888). PMID:27019284

  6. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  7. The Influence of Pleistocene Climatic Changes and Ocean Currents on the Phylogeography of the Southern African Barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Terry V.; Matthee, Conrad A.; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041–0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  8. The influence of Pleistocene climatic changes and ocean currents on the phylogeography of the southern African barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Terry V; Matthee, Conrad A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041-0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  9. Relative influences of ocean acidification and temperature on intertidal barnacle post-larvae at the northern edge of their geographic distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Helen S.; Kendall, Michael A.; Spicer, John I.; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its associated ecosystems face numerous challenges over the coming century. Increasing atmospheric CO 2 is causing increasing warming and ice melting as well as a concomitant change in ocean chemistry ("ocean acidification"). As temperature increases it is expected that many temperate species will expand their geographic distribution northwards to follow this thermal shift; however with the addition of ocean acidification this transition may not be so straightforward. Here we investigate the potential impacts of ocean acidification and climate change on populations of an intertidal species, in this case the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides, at the northern edge of its range. Growth and development of metamorphosing post-larvae were negatively impacted at lower pH (pH 7.7) compared to the control (pH 8.1) but were not affected by elevated temperature (+4 °C). The mineral composition of the shells did not alter under any of the treatments. The combination of reduced growth and maintained mineral content suggests that there may have been a change in the energetic balance of the exposed animals. In undersaturated conditions more mineral is expected to dissolve from the shell and hence more energy would be required to maintain the mineral integrity. Any energy that would normally be invested into growth could be reallocated and hence organisms growing in lowered pH grow slower and end up smaller than individuals grown in higher pH conditions. The idea of reallocation of resources under different conditions of pH requires further investigation. However, there could be long-term implications on the fitness of these barnacles, which in turn may prevent them from successfully colonising new areas.

  10. The influence of Pleistocene climatic changes and ocean currents on the phylogeography of the southern African barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Terry V; Matthee, Conrad A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041-0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  11. Kinetics and stoichiometry of coupled Na efflux and Ca influx (Na/Ca exchange) in barnacle muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Coupled Na+ exit/Ca2+ entry (Na/Ca exchange operating in the Ca2+ influx mode) was studied in giant barnacle muscle cells by measuring 22Na+ efflux and 45Ca2+ influx in internally perfused, ATP-fueled cells in which the Na+ pump was poisoned by 0.1 mM ouabain. Internal free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, was controlled with a Ca-EGTA buffering system containing 8 mM EGTA and varying amounts of Ca2+. Ca2+ sequestration in internal stores was inhibited with caffeine and a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP). To maximize conditions for Ca2+ influx mode Na/Ca exchange, and to eliminate tracer Na/Na exchange, all of the external Na+ in the standard Na+ sea water (NaSW) was replaced by Tris or Li+ (Tris-SW or LiSW, respectively). In both Na-free solutions an external Ca2+ (Cao)-dependent Na+ efflux was observed when [Ca2+]i was increased above 10(-8) M; this efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]i = 0.3 microM (LiSW) to 0.7 microM (Tris-SW). The Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was half-maximally activated by [Ca2+]o = 2.0 mM in LiSW and 7.2 mM in Tris-SW; at saturating [Ca2+]o, [Ca2+]i, and [Na+]i the maximal (calculated) Cao-dependent Na+ efflux was approximately 75 pmol#cm2.s. This efflux was inhibited by external Na+ and La3+ with IC50's of approximately 125 and 0.4 mM, respectively. A Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was also observed in Tris-SW. This Ca2+ influx also required [Ca2+]i greater than 10(-8) M. Internal Ca2+ activated a Nai-independent Ca2+ influx from LiSW (tracer Ca/Ca exchange), but in Tris-SW virtually all of the Cai-activated Ca2+ influx was Nai-dependent (Na/Ca exchange). Half-maximal activation was observed with [Na+]i = 30 mM. The fact that internal Ca2+ activates both a Cao-dependent Na+ efflux and a Nai- dependent Ca2+ influx in Tris-SW implies that these two fluxes are coupled; the activating (intracellular) Ca2+ does not appear to be transported by the exchanger. The maximal (calculated) Nai-dependent Ca2+ influx was -25 pmol/cm2.s. At various [Na+]i between 6 and 106 m

  12. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  13. NRC confirmatory AP600 safety system phase I testing in the ROSA/AP600 test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, G.S.; Kukita, Yutaka; Schultz, R.R.

    1996-03-01

    The NRC confirmatory phase I testing for the AP600 safety systems has been completed in the modified ROSA (Rig of Safety Assessment) test facility located at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) campus in Tokai, Japan. The test matrix included a variety of accident scenarios covering both design and beyond-design basis accidents. The test results indicate the AP600 safety systems as reflected in ROSA appear to perform as designed and there is no danger of core heatup for the accident scenarios investigated. In addition, no detrimental system interactions nor adverse effects of non-safety systems on the safety system functions were identified. However, three phenomena of interest have been identified for further examination to determine whether they are relevant to the AP600 plant. Those three phenomena are: (1) a potential for water hammer caused by rapid condensation which may occur following the actuation of the automatic depressurization system (ADS), (2) a large thermal gradient in the cold leg pipe where cooled water returns from the passive residual heat removal system and forms a thermally stratified layer, and (3) system-wide oscillations initiating following the ADS stage 4 actuation and persisting until the liquid in the pressurizer drains and steam generation in the core becomes insignificant.

  14. A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1, is involved in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Wen, Chao; Fan, Lusheng; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2014-12-01

    Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

  15. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent. PMID:26590603

  16. A Rosa canina WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene, RcWOX1, is involved in auxin-induced rhizoid formation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bin; Wen, Chao; Fan, Lusheng; Kou, Yaping; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2014-12-01

    Homeobox (HB) proteins are important transcription factors that regulate the developmental decisions of eukaryotes. WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factors, known as a plant-specific HB family, play a key role in plant developmental processes. Our previous work has indicated that rhizoids are induced by auxin in rose (Rosa spp.), which acts as critical part of an efficient plant regeneration system. However, the function of WOX genes in auxin-induced rhizoid formation remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene from Rosa canina, RcWOX1, containing a typical homeodomain with 65 amino acid residues. Real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that RcWOX1 was expressed in the whole process of callus formation and in the early stage of rhizoid formation. Moreover, its expression was induced by auxin treatment. In Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing the RcWOX1pro::GUS and 35S::GFP-RcWOX1, RcWOX1 was specifically expressed in roots and localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of RcWOX1 in Arabidopsis increased lateral root density and induced upregulation of PIN1 and PIN7 genes. Therefore, we postulated that RcWOX1 is a functional transcription factor that plays an essential role in auxin-induced rhizoid formation. PMID:25301174

  17. Barnacle Bill Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These IMP spectra show the characteristics of the rock surface measured by the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (blue), the soil trapped in pits on the rock surface (red), and the deposit of bright drift on the top of the rock. The area measured by the APXS has the properties expected for nearly unweathered igneous rock, and the soil trapped in the pits is intermediate to the unweathered rock and the highly weathered drift material.

  18. Numerical studies of microphysical modulations of stratospheric aerosol within ROMIC-ROSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, René; von Savigny, Christian; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John; Zalach, Jakob

    2016-04-01

    The stratospheric aerosol layer (so-called Junge layer) is an inherent part of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). Stratospheric aerosols play a large role in the Earth's climate system because they interact with catalytic cycles depleting ozone, directly alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and modulate the strength of polar vortices, in particular when this system is perturbed. In terms of mass the layer is predominantly composed of liquid sulphate-water droplets and is fed from the oxidation of gaseous precursors reaching the stratosphere either by direct volcanic injections (mainly supplying SO2) or troposphere-stratosphere exchange processes. In volcanically quiescent periods, latter processes predominantly maintain the so-called background state of aerosol layer through oxidation of OCS above 22 km, and SO2 below. The Junge layer begins to develop 2-3 km above the tropopause and reaches a height of about 35 km, with a largest vertical extent in the tropics and spring-time polar regions. Above the TTL, the layer's vertical extent varies between 2 km and 8 km (about 35% of its mean vertical expansion), depending on the phase of the QBO. The QBO-induced meridional circulation, overlying the BDC, and accompanied signatures in the stratospheric temperature directly affect the life cycle of stratospheric aerosol. Mainly by modulating the equilibrium between microphysical processes which maintain the layer. Effects caused by QBO modulations of the advective transport in the upwelling region of the BDC are smaller and difficult to quantify, because the overlying sedimentation of aerosol is also being modulated and counteract the aerosol lofting. Here we show results from numerical studies performed within the project ROMIC-ROSA (Role of Stratospheric Aerosol in Climate and Atmospheric Science). We further explored relationships between QBO forcing and aerosol processes in the lower stratosphere. We examined whether similar process interferences can be caused by

  19. Detailed mapping and rupture implications of the 1 km releasing bend in the Rodgers Creek Fault at Santa Rosa, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hecker, Suzanne; Langenheim, Victoria; Williams, Robert; Hitchcock, Christopher S.; DeLong, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) topography reveals for the first time the trace of the Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) through the center of Santa Rosa, the largest city in the northern San Francisco Bay area. Vertical deformation of the Santa Rosa Creek floodplain expresses a composite pull‐apart basin beneath the urban cover that is part of a broader 1‐km‐wide right‐releasing bend in the fault. High‐resolution geophysical data illuminate subsurface conditions that may be responsible for the complex pattern of surface faulting, as well as for the distribution of seismicity and possibly for creep behavior. We identify a dense, magnetic basement body bounded by the RCF beneath Santa Rosa that we interpret as a strong asperity, likely part of a larger locked patch of the fault to the south. A local increase in frictional resistance associated with the basement body appears to explain (1) distributed fault‐normal extension above where the RCF intersects the body; (2) earthquake activity around the northern end of the body, notably the 1969 ML 5.6 and 5.7 events and aftershocks; and (3) creep rates on the RCF that are higher to the north of Santa Rosa than to the south. There is a significant probability of a major earthquake on the RCF in the coming decades, and earthquakes associated with the proposed asperity have the potential to release seismic energy into the Cotati basin beneath Santa Rosa, already known from damaging historical earthquakes to produce amplified ground shaking.

  20. Application of the TitaniQ Geothermobarometer to metamorphic rocks of the Santa Rosa Mylonite Zone in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canada, T.; Behr, W. M.; Stockli, L.; Stockli, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    In order to study the behavior of the crust in different regions and over time, it remains important to be able to quantify the pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions of metamorphism in exhumed rocks. The recently developed technique, known as "Titanium-in-quartz" (TitaniQ) shows particular promise as both a geothermometer and geobarometer, because it focuses on one of the most abundant minerals on Earth—quartz—and it can thus be applied to a very wide range of rock types. Despite the potential of TitaniQ, two aspects of the technique remain poorly understood. Firstly, the two most recently developed calibrations predict Ti concentrations that differ by close to a factor of three at the same temperature. Secondly, the effect of deformation on Ti re-equilibration at temperatures where static diffusion is sluggish is debated. We address these aspects of the TitaniQ thermobarometer by applying the technique to a suite of rocks in the Santa Rosa mylonite zone of eastern California that were deformed and metamorphosed at known P-T conditions. The Santa Rosa mylonite zone is a 100-km-long Cretaceous ductile thrust system that juxtaposes deformed metasedimentary rocks (P = 3-5 kbar, T = 600-800 C) known as the Palm Canyon Series in the hanging wall against mylonitized granodiorites (P 4-5 kbar, T = 400-550) of the Peninsular Ranges Batholith in the footwall. The Palm Canyon series includes quartzites, amphibolites and garnet-mica schists, most of which contain titanite as the primary Ti-bearing phase. We measure Ti concentrations in several samples from this unit to see whether they are consistent among different rock types and whether calibrations of the TitaniQ thermobarometer match the P-T conditions constrained by mineral assemblages. The granodiorites show a distinct strain gradient developed over approximately one kilometer as they are incorporated into the Santa Rosa mylonite zone; they range from weakly deformed at the shear zone margin to ultramylonitic

  1. Flights of older, elevated marine wave-cut platforms on Santa Rosa Island, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Minor, S. A.; Bedford, D.; Powell, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The California Continental Borderland exhibits Neogene and Quaternary faults and folds with poorly constrained kinematics and associated surface uplift rates. We aim to infer a more detailed, long-term tectonic history from the spatial distribution, age, and deformation of uplifted marine wave-cut platforms on Santa Rosa Island. Composed mainly of Paleogene and Neogene subtidal to abyssal marine sediments and volcanic rocks, the island is mantled by late Neogene(?) and Quaternary intertidal marine and nonmarine terrace deposits. Previous research focused upon the widespread coastal platforms generated during 120 and 80 ka sea-level high stands correlated with marine oxygen isotope stages 5.5 and 5.1. Recent Quaternary geologic mapping identified several new topographically higher, presumably older terrace remnants on the island. These elevated, low-gradient, low-relief topographic surfaces display features characteristic of marine incursion including: topographic breaks at potential shoreline angles, thin fossiliferous strata containing diverse, shallow-water, well-preserved Pliocene (or) Pleistocene marine molluscan fauna [e.g., Calicantharus fortis (Carpenter), Epilucina californica (Conrad), Glans carpenteri (Lamy), and Callianax biplicata (Sowerby)]. Also observed were pholad-like borings in well-rounded clasts and in underlying planar bedrock surfaces, and gravel lags partly composed of rock types not present on the island. These marine sequences are typically overlain by younger alluvial and eolian deposits, including weakly to moderately cemented, thin, whitish micritic strata. Some of the most elevated platforms, however, may reflect either the i) reworking and preferential concentration of older fossils by Quaternary marine incursion, or ii) exhumation of older Miocene strata that coincidently correspond with the present ground surface. Paleontologic evidence indicates that some of the mollusks [e.g., Lyropecten crassicardo (Conrad), Pycnodonte? howelli

  2. Heat stability of strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions containing natural copigments extracted from rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Vasil; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Mihalev, Kiril; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-09-24

    Thermal degradation and color changes of purified strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions were studied upon heating at 85 degrees C by HPLC-DAD analyses and CIELCh measurements, respectively. The anthocyanin half-life values increased significantly due to the addition of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petal extracts enriched in natural copigments. Correspondingly, the color stability increased as the total color difference values were smaller for anthocyanins upon copigment addition, especially after extended heating. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect of rose petal polyphenols was compared with that of well-known copigments such as isolated kaempferol, quercetin, and sinapic acid. The purified rose petal extract was found to be a most effective anthocyanin-stabilizing agent at a molar pigment/copigment ratio of 1:2. The results obtained demonstrate that the addition of rose petal polyphenols slows the thermal degradation of strawberry anthocyanins, thus resulting in improved color retention without affecting the gustatory quality of the product.

  3. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite.

  4. Heat stability of strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions containing natural copigments extracted from rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petals.

    PubMed

    Shikov, Vasil; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Mihalev, Kiril; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-09-24

    Thermal degradation and color changes of purified strawberry anthocyanins in model solutions were studied upon heating at 85 degrees C by HPLC-DAD analyses and CIELCh measurements, respectively. The anthocyanin half-life values increased significantly due to the addition of rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) petal extracts enriched in natural copigments. Correspondingly, the color stability increased as the total color difference values were smaller for anthocyanins upon copigment addition, especially after extended heating. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect of rose petal polyphenols was compared with that of well-known copigments such as isolated kaempferol, quercetin, and sinapic acid. The purified rose petal extract was found to be a most effective anthocyanin-stabilizing agent at a molar pigment/copigment ratio of 1:2. The results obtained demonstrate that the addition of rose petal polyphenols slows the thermal degradation of strawberry anthocyanins, thus resulting in improved color retention without affecting the gustatory quality of the product. PMID:18729376

  5. The expression level of Rosa Terminal Flower 1 (RTFL1) is related with recurrent flowering in roses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Man; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Liu, Qing-Lin

    2012-04-01

    We examined the relationship between the recurrent flowering character and the expression patterns of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologs in roses, using flower buds of Rosa multiflora, R. rugosa, R. chinensis, and six other rose species and nine rose cultivars. RTFL1 (Rosa TFL1) genes were amplified from rose genomic DNA using a combination of degenerate and gene-specific primers by thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR and normal PCR, respectively. Their copy numbers in different species were determined by Southern blots. We used real-time PCR to analyze the expression patterns of RTFL1 genes at four developmental stages (pre-sprouting, young, mid-aged, and mature flower buds). Our results show that there are at least three RTFL1 homologs in roses; RTFL1a, RTFL1b, and RTFL1c. The sequences of the homologs were more similar among the same homolog in different species than among the different homologs in the same species. For RTFL1a, we detected two copies in R. multiflora, two copies in R. rugosa, and one copy in R. chinensis. For RTFL1c, we detected one copy in R. multiflora, two copies in R. rugosa, and three copies in R. chinensis. We detected only one copy of RTFL1b in R. chinensis. RTFL1c was expressed at high levels at all four flowering stages in R. multiflora and R. rugosa, which are non-recurrent flowering species, whereas it was barely detected in R. chinensis (a recurrent flowering species) at any stage. These results were further verified in six other non-recurrent flowering species and nine recurrent flowering cultivars. These results suggest that the recurrent flowering habit in roses results from lower expression of RTFL1c, which may be related to recurrent flowering character in roses.

  6. Chemical Composition, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eduardo H. S.; Moraes, Marcílio M.; Nerys, Laís L. de A.; Nascimento, Silene C.; Militão, Gardênia C. G.; de Figueiredo, Regina C. B. Q.; da Câmara, Cláudio A. G.; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25136617

  7. Incorporating allelic variation for reconstructing the evolutionary history of organisms from multiple genes: An example from Rosa in North America.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; Bruneau, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Allelic variation within individuals holds information regarding the relationships of organisms, which is expected to be particularly important for reconstructing the evolutionary history of closely related taxa. However, little effort has been committed to incorporate such information for reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Haplotype trees represent a solution when one nonrecombinant marker is considered, but there is no satisfying method when multiple genes are to be combined. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that converts a distance matrix of alleles to a distance matrix among organisms. This algorithm allows the incorporation of allelic variation for reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms from one or more genes. The method is applied to reconstruct the phylogeny of the seven native diploid species of Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae in North America. The glyceralgehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), and the malate synthase (MS) genes were sequenced for 40 individuals from these species. The three genes had little genetic variation, and most species showed incomplete lineage sorting, suggesting these species have a recent origin. Despite these difficulties, the networks (NeighborNet) of organisms reconstructed from the matrix obtained with the algorithm recovered groups that more closely match taxonomic boundaries than did the haplotype trees. The combined network of individuals shows that species west of the Rocky Mountains, Rosa gymnocarpa and R. pisocarpa, form exclusive groups and that together they are distinct from eastern species. In the east, three groups were found to be exclusive: R. nitida-R. palustris, R. foliolosa, and R. blanda-R. woodsii. These groups are congruent with the morphology and the ecology of species. The method is also useful for representing hybrid individuals when the relationships are reconstructed using a phylogenetic network. PMID:16969938

  8. Interlaboratory study of the Charm ROSA Safe Level Aflatoxin M1 Quantitative lateral flow test for raw bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert; Douglas, David; Tess, Mark; Markovsky, Bob; Saul, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study of 21 public health, state agriculture, and industry laboratories in the United States tested raw commingled bovine milk containing aflatoxin M1 using the Charm Rapid One Step Assay (ROSA) Safe Level Aflatoxin M1 Quantitative lateral flow method. Blind coded sample pairs were fortified with 0, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, and 550 parts per trillion (ppt) aflatoxin M1. A ROSA reader quantitatively interpreted test strips with ppt readings. Readings < or = 400 ppt were interpreted as negative, and readings >400 ppt were interpreted as positive. Initial positive samples were subsequently assayed 2 additional times. If both retest results were >400 ppt, the sample was called positive/ actionable relative to U.S. and Codex levels, 500 ppt. The concentration of 400 ppt was chosen for the positive/negative interpretation to provide 90% sensitivity with 95% confidence at the 500 ppt legislative level. The combined false negative rate was <5% (4 of 83) for samples at 500 and 550 ppt. The false violatives at 0, 300, 350, 400, and 450 ppt (n = 42 at each level) were 0, 0, 21, 14, and 93%, respectively. The 90% positive concentration with 95% confidence was 503 ppt by probit analysis. The average intralaboratory repeatability was 11% and average interlaboratory reproducibility was 13% for the fortified sample pairs. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the study samples by 5 laboratories showed 38% false negatives with the 500 and 550 ppt samples, and a 0% false-violative rate with samples less than the 500 ppt action level.

  9. Chemical composition, leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Eduardo H S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Nerys, Laís L de A; Nascimento, Silene C; Militão, Gardênia C G; de Figueiredo, Regina C B Q; da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25136617

  10. vasa-related genes and their expression in stem cells of colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Golovnina, Kseniya A; Baiborodin, Sergei I; Gunbin, Konstantin V; Blinov, Alexander G; Isaeva, Valeria V

    2007-02-01

    vasa (vas)-related genes are members of the DEAD-box protein family and are expressed in the germ cells of many Metazoa. We cloned vasa-related genes (PpVLG, CpVLG) and other DEAD-box family related genes (PpDRH1, PpDRH2, CpDRH, AtDRHr) from the colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, the non-colonial Clistosaccus paguri (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala), and the parasitic isopodan Athelgis takanoshimensis (Crustacea: Isopoda). The colonial Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crabs Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Hemigrapsus longitarsis was used as a model object for further detailed investigations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PpVLG and CpVLG are closely related to vasa-like genes of other Arthropoda. The rest of the studied genes form their own separate branch on the phylogenetic tree and have a common ancestry with the p68 and PL10 subfamilies. We suppose this group may be a new subfamily of the DEAD-box RNA helicases that is specific for parasitic Crustacea. We found PpVLG and PpDRH1 expression products in stem cells from stolons and buds of internae, during asexual reproduction of colonial P. polygenea, and in germ cells from sexually reproducing externae, including male spermatogenic cells and female oogenic cells.

  11. Acrothoracican barnacles (Lithoglyptida) in Taiwan, including the taxonomic status of Balanodytes taiwanus Utinomi, 1950 and cryptic diversity of Auritoglyptes bicornis (Aurivillius, 1892).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Cheang, Chi Chiu; Chen, I-Han; Kolbasov, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    We list five acrothoracican barnacles of the order Lithoglyptida currently found in Taiwanese waters, including two new records, Trypetesa habei Utinomi, 1962 and Berndtiapurpurea Utinomi, 1950 and a new undescribed species of the genus Lithoglyptes. We also investigate the morphology and molecular genetics of Balanodytes taiwanus Utinomi, from its type locality, Taiwan. The original description of B. taiwanus in Utinomi (1950a) reported the absence of caudal appendages. Re-examination of the somatic body of one of the syntype specimens (the other syntype only having an opercular bar remaining) of B. taiwanus deposited in the Seto Marine Laboratory in Japan, revealed the presence of caudal appendages. The morphology of our specimens collected in various locations in Taiwan fits the description in Utinomi (1950a) and all have caudal appendages. The diagnosis of Balanodytes Utinomi, 1950 is revised herein. The genus Armatoglyptes Kolbasov & Newman, 2005 is a nomen nudum and ajunior synonym of Balanodytes. Our results also show that the widespread species Lithoglyptes habei Tomlinson, 1963 is a junior synonym of B. taiwanensis. The molecular sequence divergencse of the 16S RNA and COI genes were studied for samples of another monotypic genus Auritoglyptes (A. bicornis) from different regions of Taiwan. It was shown that there are at least three phylogenetic clades in Taiwan, suggesting that Auritoglyptes represents a cryptic species complex.

  12. Characterization of the phosphatic mineral of the barnacle Ibla cumingi at atomic level by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: comparison with other phosphatic biominerals.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Mason, Matthew J; Chan, Benny K K; Duer, Melinda J

    2012-07-01

    Ibliform barnacles are among the few invertebrate animals harnessing calcium phosphate to construct hard tissue. The (31)P solid-state NMR (SSNMR) signal from the shell plates of Ibla cumingi (Iblidae) is broader than that of bone, and shifted by ca 1 ppm to low frequency. (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) experiments show a continuum of different phosphorus/phosphate atomic environments, close to hydrogen populations with resonance frequencies between ca 10 and 20 ppm. Associated (1)H and (31)P chemical shifts argue the coexistence of weakly (high (31)P frequency, low (1)H frequency) to more strongly (lower (31)P frequency, higher (1)H frequency) hydrogen-bonded hydrogen phosphate-like molecular/ionic species. There is no resolved signal from discrete OH(-) ions. (13)C SSNMR shows chitin, protein and other organic biomolecules but, unlike bone, there are no significant atomic scale organic matrix-mineral contacts. The poorly ordered hydrogen phosphate-like iblid mineral is strikingly different, structurally and compositionally, from both vertebrate bone mineral and the more crystalline fluoroapatite of the linguliform brachiopods. It probably represents a previously poorly characterized calcium phosphate biomineral, the evolution of which may have reflected either the chemical conditions of ancestral seas or the mechanical advantages of phosphatic biomineralization over a calcium carbonate equivalent.

  13. Baseline Immune Activity Is Associated with Date Rather than with Moult Stage in the Arctic-Breeding Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis)

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, Cecilia A. M.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in immune defence in birds is often explained either by external factors such as food availability and disease pressure or by internal factors such as moult and reproductive effort. We explored these factors together in one sampling design by measuring immune activity over the time frame of the moulting period of Arctic-breeding barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). We assessed baseline innate immunity by measuring levels of complement-mediated lysis and natural antibody-mediated agglutination together with total and differential leukocyte counts. Variation in immune activity during moult was strongly associated with calendar date and to a smaller degree with the growth stage of wing feathers. We suggest that the association with calendar date reflected temporal changes in the external environment. This environmental factor was further explored by comparing the immune activity of geese in the Arctic population with conspecifics in the temperate climate zone at comparable moult stages. In the Arctic environment, which has a lower expected disease load, geese exhibited significantly lower values of complement-mediated lysis, their blood contained fewer leukocytes, and levels of phagocytic cells and reactive leukocytes were relatively low. This suggests that lower baseline immune activity could be associated with lower disease pressure. We conclude that in our study species, external factors such as food availability and disease pressure have a greater effect on temporal variation of baseline immune activity than internal factors such as moult stage. PMID:25517982

  14. Invasion and morphological variation of the non-indigenous barnacle Chthamalus challengeri (Hoek, 1883) in Yangshan Port and its surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Junzeng; Lin, Junda; Wu, Huixian

    2015-06-01

    Invasive species generally possess unique characteristics that allow them to survive the invasion process in order to establish and spread in new habitats. Successful invaders must resist both physical and physiological stresses associated with the changing environment. A common littoral barnacle, Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, 1883 (Crustacea, Cirripedia), which is native to Japan, South Korea and northern China, has become established in the high-littoral zone adjacent to Yangshan Port, Shanghai, China. A comparison of the morphology of Chthamlus species from Zhoushan archipelago with previous description indicates the occurrence of C. challengeri. The new immigrant becomes a dominant species in certain high-intertidal habitats of the adjacent area to of Yangshan Port. C. challengeri was found in part of sampling sites in Zhoushan in 2010; however, it dispersed to all the eleven sampling sites in 2012. Densities of C.challengeri had increased over 10 times in the last 2 years, with the highest mean value reaching 39533 ± 6243 ind. m-2 in the new habitat. The specific ratios of both operculum area ( Sa) to base area ( SA) and average height of parietal plates ( H) to length of base ( L) revealed that C. challengeri displays morphological changes to resist stronger currents in the new habitats for invasion.

  15. Vulcanolepas scotiaensis sp. nov., a new deep-sea scalpelliform barnacle (Eolepadidae: Neolepadinae) from hydrothermal vents in the Scotia Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A

    2013-12-09

    A new deep-sea stalked barnacle, Vulcanolepas scotiaensis sp. nov. is described from hydrothermal vents at depths of 2400-2600 metres along segments of the East Scotia Ridge and from 1400 metres in the Kemp Caldera. Both locations are areas of volcanic activity that lie on the Antarctic-South American Ocean Ridge complex near the South Sandwich Islands. This discovery confirms a wide distribution in southern seas for Vulcanolepas, complementing the previous records from deep-sea vents in the Lau Basin and Kermadec Ridge in the southwest Pacific, and the Pacific Antarctic Ridge in the southeast Pacific. V. scotiaensis sp. nov., the third described species of Vulcanolepas shows an extraordinary range in morphology, requiring a reassessment of the original diagnosis for Vulcanolepas. Although the morphological envelope of V. scotiaensis sp. nov. includes representatives with a peduncle to capitulum ratio similar to that observed in most neolepadines, the peduncle generally shows greater proportional length than in species in any neolepadine genus except Leucolepas; it is distinguished from other species of Vulcanolepas by a broader capitulum, much smaller imbricating scales on the peduncle and more ornamented capitulum plates. The morphological diversity of V. scotiaensis sp. nov. is interpreted as having arisen due to abrupt changes in water temperature.LSID: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:AA2AFDA5-0B08-466A-A584-D3FDBDE9DA61.

  16. Revision of the Oriental genus Holophris Mocsáry, 1890 and description of the genus Leptopareia Rosa & Xu, gen. nov. (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae).

    PubMed

    Rosa, Paolo; Wei, Na-Sen; Notton, David; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2016-02-19

    Two Oriental genera of the tribe Elampini (Chrysidinae) are here discussed. The genus Holophris Mocsáry, 1890 is redescribed, and the genus Leptopareia Rosa & Xu, gen. nov. (type species Hedychrum borneanum Cameron, 1908) is established. Two new species are described: Holophris thailandica Rosa, Wei, Notton & Xu, sp. nov. (Thailand), and Leptopareia luzonensis Rosa, Wei, Notton & Xu, sp. nov. (Philippines, Luzon). The lectotype of Hedychrum borneanum Cameron, 1908 is designated. New combinations are proposed for L. borneana (Cameron, 1908), comb. nov., L. purpurea (Smith, 1860), comb. nov., L. abyssinica (Mocsáry, 1914), comb. nov., L. confusa (Kimsey, 1988), comb. nov., L. congoensis (du Buysson, 1900), comb. nov., and L. kalliopsis (Zimmermann, 1961), comb. nov. (all are from Holophris Mocsáry). Holophris marginella (Mocsáry, 1890) is newly recorded from China and Thailand; H. taiwana (Tsuneki, 1970) from India, Indonesia and Laos; and Leptopareia borneana (Cameron, 1908) from Thailand. Keys to Oriental genera of the tribe Elampini and to Oriental species of the two genera are provided.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of strains of Steinernema carpocapsae Santa Rosa and ALL (Steinernematidae: Rhabditida) to control engorged female Anocentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas-Ribeiro, G M; Vasconcelos, V O; Furlong, J; Dolinski, C

    2009-04-01

    In view of the need to combat the generalized spread of resistance in ticks to commercial acaricides, the objective of this study was to evaluate the action of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema carpocapsae, strains Santa Rosa and ALL) on engorged female Anocentor nitens. Five ticks per Petri dish were exposed to concentrations of 500, 5,000, or 25,000 infective juveniles of S. carpocapsae for 72 h. After transferring the ticks to clean plates, biological parameters were analyzed. Related to strains Santa Rosa, the period of pre-oviposition (p = 0.0001), oviposition (p = 0.041), and the mass weight of eggs (p = 0.005) showed significant differences between the control group and treated group. When the strain ALL was tested, the control and treated groups differed between the periods of pre-oviposition (p = 0.001), oviposition (p = 0.001), and egg mass weight (p = 0.01). The egg mass conversion was less significant in the groups when exposed to strains Santa Rosa (p = 0.002) and ALL (p = 0.001) relative to the control. The efficacy of both entomopathogenic nematode strains used in this study was comparable to other biological control agents, showing their potential against A. nitens in the laboratory. PMID:19123009

  18. Before and After the Younger Dryas: Chronostratigraphic and Paleoenvironmental Research at Arlington Springs, Santa Rosa Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Stafford, T. W.; West, G. J.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2007-05-01

    To corroborate the age of 10,960 +/- 80 RCYBP (CAMS-16810) obtained on collagen from human bone from Arlington Springs, Santa Rosa Island, several seasons of fieldwork have been conducted at the site. This date, the oldest yet obtained for human skeletal remains in North America, indicates that Paleoamericans had reached the offshore Channel Islands by 13,000 CALYBP and confirms the use of watercraft along the Pacific coast of North America in Clovis times. The Arlington Springs field investigations have been undertaken as part of a research program to (1) identify the stratum from which the bones were originally discovered by Phil Orr in 1959, (2) establish the geological and chronostratigraphic context for the remains, (3) gather data for paleoenvironmental reconstructions, (4) assess geophysical techniques for detecting buried features at the site, and (5) obtain a series of deep sediment cores for further study. To date, twenty AMS radiocarbon dates from charcoal, humic acids, and marine shells in the various geological and cultural strata at the Arlington Springs locality have been obtained from samples collected during our fieldwork. These supplement six AMS dates that were derived from the human bone and associated materials in the soil matrix collected in 1960 by Orr. Our recently-collected samples corroborate that the age of the human bone dates no later than 13,000 CALYBP. An overlying, very dark soil layer, prominently visible in the side of Arlington Canyon, dates from the inception of the Younger Dryas at 12,900 CALYBP. Other, thinner, dark bands of sediment appear to be derived from fires and/or cienega/marsh deposits. In the stratum that contained the 13,000-year-old human bone, some small chert flakes have been recovered, indicating Paleoamerican cultural activities in the vicinity. In this cultural layer, as well as in the overlying dark soil of the Younger Dryas Period, there are abundant remains of an extinct Pleistocene deer mouse (Peromyscus

  19. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes somatic embryogenesis in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.).

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, Tammy; Browne, Robin; Dong, Zhongmin

    2007-02-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) offers vast potential for the clonal propagation of high-value roses. However, some recalcitrant cultivars unresponsive to commonly employed SE-inducing agents and low induction rates currently hinder the commercialization of SE technology in rose. Rose SE technology requires improvement before it can be implemented as a production system on a commercial scale. In the present work, we assessed 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), a synthetic auxin not previously tested in rose, for its effectiveness to induce SE in the rose cultivar "Livin' Easy" (Rosa sp.). We ran a parallel comparison to the commonly used 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). We tested each auxin with two different basal media: Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and woody plant medium (WPM). MS medium resulted in somatic embryo production, whereas WPM did not. 2,4,5-T induced SE over a greater concentration range than 2,4-D's and resulted in significantly greater embryo yields. 2,4,5-T at a concentration of 10 or 25 microM was better for embrygenic tissue initiation than 2,4,5-T at 5 microM. Further embryo development occurred when the tissue was transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR) free medium or media with 40% the original auxin concentration. However, the PGR-free medium resulted in a high percentage of abnormal embryos (32.31%) compared to the media containing auxins. Upon transfer to germination medium, somatic embryos successfully converted into plantlets at rates ranging from 33.3 to 95.2%, depending on treatment. Survival rates 3 months ex vitro averaged 14.0 and 55.6% for 2,4-D- and 2,4,5-T-derived plantlets, respectively. Recurrent SE was observed in 60.2% of the plantlets growing on germination medium. This study is the first report of SE in the commercially valuable rose cultivar 'Livin' Easy' (Rosa sp.) and a suitable methodology was developed for SE of this rose cultivar.

  20. Short-term regulation and alternative pathways of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Vershubskii, Alexey V; Priklonskii, Vladimir I; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    In this work, using the EPR and PAM-fluorometry methods, we have studied induction events of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. The methods used are complementary, providing efficient tools for in situ monitoring of P700 redox transients and photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). The induction of P700(+) in dark-adapted leaves is characterized by the multiphase kinetics with a lag-phase, which duration elongates with the dark-adaptation time. Analyzing effects of the uncoupler monensin and artificial electron carrier methylviologen (MV) on photooxidation of P700 and slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF), we could ascribe different phases of transient kinetics of electron transport processes in dark-adapted leaves to the following regulatory mechanisms: (i) acceleration of electron transfer on the acceptor side of PSI, (ii) pH-dependent modulation of the intersystem electron flow, and (iii) re-distribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear, cyclic, and pseudocyclic) pathways. Monensin significantly decreases a level of P700(+) and inhibits SIF. MV, which mediates electron flow from PSI to O2 with consequent formation of H2O2, promotes a rapid photooxidation of P700 without any lag-phase peculiar to untreated leaves. MV-mediated water-water cycle (H2O→PSII→PSI→MV→O2→H2O2→H2O) is accompanied by generation of ascorbate free radicals. This suggests that the ascorbate peroxidase system of defense against reactive oxygen species is active in chloroplasts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves. In DCMU-treated chloroplasts with inhibited PSII, the contribution of cyclic electron flow is insignificant as compared to linear electron flow. For analysis of induction events, we have simulated electron transport processes within the framework of our generalized mathematical model of oxygenic photosynthesis, which takes into account pH-dependent mechanisms of electron transport control and re-distribution of