Science.gov

Sample records for barnacle megabalanus rosa

  1. Isolation and characterization of agglutinins from the hemolymph of an acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Muramoto, K; Goto, R

    1987-01-01

    Two agglutinins, MVA-1 and MVA-2, were isolated from the hemolymph of the acorn barnacle, Megabalanus volcano. They agglutinated human erythrocytes irrespective of the ABO blood group and also rabbit and sheep blood cells. Lactose and fetuin strongly inhibited the hemagglutinating activity. D-galactose, D-arabinose and N-acetylneuraminic acid were also moderate inhibitors. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both MVA-1 and MVA-2 gave a single band corresponding to 38,000 daltons. It split into one major band with a molecular weight of 23,000 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The two agglutinins showed the same apparent molecular weight of 116,000 by gel filtration. In isoelectric focusing MVA-1 showed one band at pH 4.8, whereas MVA-2 gave a main band at pH 4.4 with few faint ones in the range between pH 4.0 and 4.8. The agglutinins were glycoproteins containing D-mannose and L-fucose as carbohydrate components. No precipitation reaction was observed in Ouchterlony immuno-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera against the agglutinins from the phylogenetically related Megabalanus rosa.

  2. PCR-cloning of cadmium-inducible peptides in the barnacle, Megabalanus volcano.

    PubMed

    Togi, Akiko; Kamino, Kei; Shizuri, Yoshikazu

    2002-04-01

    A 340 bp DNA fragment was amplified from barnacle (Megabalanus volcano) cDNA by polymerase chain reaction using primers designed based on the amino acid sequences of barnacle cadmium-inducible peptides CdlP1 and CdlP2. The whole sequence was determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding 71 amino acid residues and the sequences for CdlP1 and CdlP2 were found to be located in the center of this coding region. Although CdlP1 and CdlP2 had been detected only in the cadmium-exposed barnacles, their mRNA was present both in cadmium-exposed barnacles and in unexposed barnacles. These results suggest that posttranslational proteolytic processing may be induced in the presence of cadmium.

  3. The introduction to Japan of the Titan barnacle, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and the role of shipping in its translocation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Prabowo, Romanus Edy; Ohshiro, Yuu; Shimono, Takaki; Jones, Diana; Kawai, Hiroshi; Otani, Michio; Oshino, Akio; Inagawa, Shou; Akaya, Tomoyoshi; Tamura, Itsuro

    2009-01-01

    The Titan Acorn barnacle, Megabalanus coccopoma, a native of the tropical eastern Pacific, has become established in the western Atlantic (Brazil and the northern Gulf of Mexico to the Carolinas), northwestern Europe and the western Indian Ocean (Mauritius), and therefore its dispersal capabilities are well known. This study reports its introduction to Japan and confirms its occurrence in Australia. In an attempt to determine the source of this introduction, phylogeographic techniques, involving cytochrome c oxidase I sequences of various widely separate populations of M. rosa and M. volcano, were utilized. No significant genetic differentiation or haplotype patterns between widely separated populations of each of the three species were found. Lack of such differentiation indicates recent geographical isolation and thus negates a null hypothesis predicting that the occurrence of one of more of these species in Australia was natural.

  4. Phylogeography of a Marine Insular Endemic in the Atlantic Macaronesia: The Azorean Barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916)

    PubMed Central

    González, José A.; Almeida, Corrine; Lopes, Evandro; Araújo, Ricardo; Carreira, Gilberto P.

    2015-01-01

    The Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus (Pilsbry, 1916), is a Macaronesian endemic whose obscure taxonomy and the unknown relationships among forms inhabiting isolated Northern Atlantic oceanic islands is investigated by means of molecular analysis herein. Mitochondrial data from the 16S rRNA and COX1 genes support its current species status, tropical ancestry, and the taxonomic homogeneity throughout its distribution range. In contrast, at the intraspecific level and based on control region sequences, we detected an overall low level of genetic diversity and three divergent lineages. The haplogroups α and γ were sampled in the Azores, Madeira, Canary, and Cabo Verde archipelagos; whereas haplogroup β was absent from Cabo Verde. Consequently, population analysis suggested a differentiation of the Cabo Verde population with respect to the genetically homogenous northern archipelagos generated by current oceanographic barriers. Furthermore, haplogroup α, β, and γ demographic expansions occurred during the interglacial periods MIS5 (130 Kya - thousands years ago -), MIS3 (60 Kya), and MIS7 (240 Kya), respectively. The evolutionary origin of these lineages is related to its survival in the stable southern refugia and its demographic expansion dynamics are associated with the glacial-interglacial cycles. This phylogeographic pattern suggests the occurrence of genetic discontinuity informative to the delimitation of an informally defined biogeographic entity, Macaronesia, and its generation by processes that delineate genetic diversity of marine taxa in this area. PMID:25919141

  5. A Cryptic Invasion in the Western Atlantic: Presence of the Fouling Barnacle Megabalanus zebra (Darwin, 1854) (Crustacea, Cirripedia) in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Gobin, Judith; Abreu, Nivia Maria Nunes; Jute, Alana

    2017-02-26

    The barnacle Megabalanus zebra is largely known from ship hulls, with little information on its biology, ecology, and natural range. We identify M. zebra here from the southern Caribbean, based upon specimens collected as early as 2002. Challenges associated with identifying megabalinine species have delayed recognition of this species as distinct from other Caribbean Megabalanus. Sequenced material of M. zebra from Curaçao did not match M. zebra GenBank sequences that could be verified by descriptions or vouchered material. The presence of young M. zebra on vessels that have not left the Caribbean, as well as on pier pilings and resident buoys, indicate that this species is established in the tropical Western Atlantic Ocean, but the timing of its invasion remains unknown.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fire coral-inhabiting barnacle Megabalanus ajax (Sessilia: Balanidae): gene rearrangements and atypical gene content.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Megabalanus ajax Darwin, 1854 (Sessilia: Balanidae) is reported. Compared to typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes, duplication of one tRNA gene (trnL2) and absence of another tRNA gene (trnS1) are identified in M. ajax mitochondrial genome. There is a replacement of one tRNA (trnS1) by another tRNA (trnL2) in M. ajax mitochondrial genome compared to Megabalanus volcano mitochondrial genome. Inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) is found between M. ajax/M. volcano and Tetraclita japonica mitochondrial genomes. With reference to the pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, there is an inversion of a large gene block from the light strand to heavy strand in the two Megabalanus mitochondrial genomes, including three PCGs and two tRNAs (nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF). Furthermore, four tRNAs (trnA, trnE, trnQ and trnC) exhibit translocation, while translocation and inversion occur in three tRNAs (trnP, trnY and trnK).

  7. Fouling acorn barnacles in China—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenhao; Yan, Tao; Li, Zufu; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zhiqiang

    2013-07-01

    We review the species composition, distribution, and seasonal variation of fouling acorn barnacles in Chinese waters—from Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea to East and South China Seas. Thirty-two species of acorn barnacles were found, of which, the dominant species are Amphibalanus amphitrite, A. reticulatus, A. variegates, Balanus trigonus, Fistulobalanus kondakovi, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Striatobalanus amaryllis, and Eurapha withersi in the fouling communities. A. amphitrite is the dominant species in the coastal waters of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and A. reticulatus is dominant in the East and South China Seas. The settlement period of fouling acorn barnacles is usually in summer and autumn. From north to south with the decrease of latitude, their settlement period obviously extends, even to the whole year, and the species number also increases. Other environmental factors, such as salinity and distance from shore, also play an important role in the distribution of fouling acorn barnacles.

  8. A checklist of the barnacles (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica) of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman with nine new records.

    PubMed

    Shahdadi, Adnan; Sari, Alireza; Naderloo, Reza

    2014-03-28

    The present annotated checklist contains 43 species of thoracican barnacles known to date from the area, 33 and 26 from the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, respectively. Nine species are new records for the area including Amphibalunus subalbidus (Henry, 1973), Armatobalanus allium (Darwin, 1854), Chelonibia patula (Ranzani, 1818), Conchoderma hunteri (Owen, 1830), Lepas anserifera Linnaeus, 1767, Lithotrya valentiana Reinhardt, 1850, Megabalanus coccopoma (Darwin, 1854), Megabalanus occator (Darwin, 1854) and Platylepas hexastylos (Fabricius, 1798), of which A. subalbidus and M. coccopoma are reported as alien species from the region.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in edible barnacles exposed to natural contamination.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, M; Costa, A; Rodrigues, A

    2013-04-01

    The giant barnacle Megabalanus azoricus is a popular seafood in the Azores. It is mainly caught in coastal environments and sold for domestic human consumption. This species is a filter feeder and can be used as a biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities. To investigate consumption safety, the concentrations of 10 trace metals - As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn - were evaluated in 3 body tissues of M. azoricus from 3 sites on 2 islands. There were no significant differences between the metal loads of the barnacles from the different sites. However, the concentrations of the total trace metal loads revealed significant differences among the tissues (cirrus, muscles and ovaries). The concentrations of some metals in the body were not within the safety levels for consumers, based on the allowable standard levels for crustaceans issued by the European Union and of legislations in several countries. Alarming levels of As and Cd were found. Considering the absence of heavy industry in the region, a non-anthropogenic volcanic source was assumed to be the reason for the observed metal levels. Barnacles, in particular M. azoricus, seem to be useful as bioindicators in this peculiar environment.

  10. ROSA deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-18

    iss052e002857 (6/18/2017) --- The Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) is a new type of solar panel that rolls open in space like a party favor and is more compact than current rigid panel designs. The ROSA investigation tests deployment and retraction, shape changes when the Earth blocks the sun, and other physical challenges to determine the array’s strength and durability. ROSA has the potential to replace solar arrays on future satellites, making them more compact and lighter weight. Satellite radio and television, weather forecasting, GPS and other services used on Earth would all benefit from high-performance solar arrays.

  11. ROSA deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-18

    iss052e002871 (6/18/2017) --- The Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) is a new type of solar panel that rolls open in space like a party favor and is more compact than current rigid panel designs. The ROSA investigation tests deployment and retraction, shape changes when the Earth blocks the sun, and other physical challenges to determine the array’s strength and durability. ROSA has the potential to replace solar arrays on future satellites, making them more compact and lighter weight. Satellite radio and television, weather forecasting, GPS and other services used on Earth would all benefit from high-performance solar arrays.

  12. ROSA deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-18

    iss052e004379 (6/18/2017) --- The Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) is a new type of solar panel that rolls open in space like a party favor and is more compact than current rigid panel designs. The ROSA investigation tests deployment and retraction, shape changes when the Earth blocks the sun, and other physical challenges to determine the array’s strength and durability. ROSA has the potential to replace solar arrays on future satellites, making them more compact and lighter weight. Satellite radio and television, weather forecasting, GPS and other services used on Earth would all benefit from high-performance solar arrays.

  13. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, & Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was taken on Sol 3. Barnacle Bill, the small rock at left, and Yogi, the large rock at upper right, have been examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument and the rover's cameras. Barnacle Bill has the chemical composition of an andesitic volcanic rock, but may have been produced by sedimentation processes or meteorite impact. The lander's rear ramp which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface is at lower left, and a portion of deflated airbag is at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  14. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, & Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was taken on Sol 3. Barnacle Bill, the small rock at left, and Yogi, the large rock at upper right, have been examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument and the rover's cameras. Barnacle Bill has the chemical composition of an andesitic volcanic rock, but may have been produced by sedimentation processes or meteorite impact. The lander's rear ramp which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface is at lower left, and a portion of deflated airbag is at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  15. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  16. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2016-05-01

    Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955 bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr).

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of common fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Sessilia: Balanidae) reveals gene rearrangements compared to pancrustacean ground pattern.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome of the common fouling barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Sessilia: Balanidae). Refer to pancrustacean mitochondrial ground pattern, seven conserved genes blocks are found in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome. On the other hand, translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnA, trnE/trnS2, trnP/trnT, trnK, trnQ and trnC) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnY). Comparison among the acorn barnacle mitogenomes reveals inversion of a six-gene block (trnP-nd4L-nd4-trnH-nd5-trnF) between A. amphitrite and Megabalanus. Volcano (Balanidae), suggesting non-conserved gene order even at intrafamilial level. The three species share three conserved genes blocks, of which the two are derived from the pancrustacean ground pattern and represent synapomorphies of acorn barnacles. In sum, large-scale gene rearrangements are observed in A. amphitrite mitochondrial genome as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern and other barnacle species.

  18. Barnacle removal process and product

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, T.L.

    1984-07-24

    Barnacles from marine vessels are removed by spraying the surfaces thereof with a mixture the active ingredients of which are a hydrocarbon liquid oil; a surfactant; alcohol; a metal hypochlorite; and an alkyl, dialkyl benzyl ammonium salt. After the solution has been applied to the surfaces for about 20 minutes, the barnacles are removed by power spraying the surfaces with water.

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification.

  20. Barnacles and biofouling.

    PubMed

    Holm, Eric R

    2012-09-01

    Biofouling, the attachment and growth of organisms on submerged, man-made surfaces, has plagued ship operators for at least 2500 years. Accumulation of biofouling, including barnacles and other sessile marine invertebrates, increases the frictional resistance of ships' hulls, resulting in an increase in power and in fuel consumption required to make speed. Scientists and engineers recognized over 100 years ago that in order to solve the biofouling problem, a deeper understanding of the biology of the organisms involved, particularly with regard to larval settlement and metamorphosis and adhesives and adhesion, would be required. Barnacles have served as an important tool in pursuing this research. Over the past 20 years, the pace of these studies has accelerated, likely driven by the introduction of environmental regulations banning the most effective biofouling control products from the market. Research has largely focused on larval settlement and metamorphosis, the development of new biocides, and materials/surface science. Increased research has so far, however, failed to result in commercial applications. Two recent successes (medetomidine/Selektope(®), surface-bound noradrenaline) build on our improving understanding of the role of the larval nervous system in mediating settlement and metamorphosis. New findings with regard to the curing of barnacle adhesives may pave the way to additional successes. Although the development of most current biofouling control technologies remains largely uninfluenced by basic research on, for example, the ability of settling larvae to perceive surface cues, or the nature of the interaction between organismal adhesives and the substrate, newly-developed materials can serve as useful probes to further our understanding of these processes.

  1. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  2. Darwin and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Jean

    2010-02-01

    In this essay, I discuss the origin of Charles Darwin's interest in cirripedes (barnacles). Indeed, he worked intensively on cirripedes during the years in which he was developing the theory that eventually led to the publication of The Origin of Species. In the light of our present knowledge, I present Darwin's achievements in the morphology, systematics and biology of these small marine invertebrates, and also his mistakes. I suggest that the word that sheds the most light here is homology, and that his mistakes were due to following Richard Owen's method of determining homologies by reference to an ideal archetype. I discuss the ways in which his studies on cirripedes influenced the writing of The Origin.

  3. Extracellular space and diffusion barriers in muscle fibres from Megabalanus psittacus (Darwin).

    PubMed Central

    Bacigalupo, J; Luxoro, M; Rissetti, S; Vergara, C

    1979-01-01

    1. Muscle fibres from Megabalanus psittacus (Darwin) were used to measure the exchange of Na+ and Ca2+ between intracellular and extracellular compartments. 2. The size of the extracellular space was evaluated directly from electron micrographs at 6.1 +/- 0.5% (percentage of the fibre volume). The more conventional estimates using Na+ and 134Cs+ as space markers gave higher values, namely, 8.9 +/- 0.7 and 9.5 +/- 1.5%. 3. An average value of 9.2% was used to correct the total Na+ and K+ in the muscle fibres and to estimate the intracellular concentrations of Na+ and K+ as 39 +/- 4 and 202 +/- 11 mM respectively. 4. Na+ (and similar Ca2+) washout curves could be described using a three compartments diffusion model. The data analysed in terms of this model enabled us to estimate membrane permeabilities as PNa+ = 2.7 x 10(-7) and PCa2+ = 2.7 x 10(-7) cm/sec. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 PMID:469719

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro).

  5. Mini-review: barnacle adhesives and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Kei

    2013-01-01

    Barnacles are intriguing, not only with respect to their importance as fouling organisms, but also in terms of the mechanism of underwater adhesion, which provides a platform for biomimetic and bioinspired research. These aspects have prompted questions regarding how adult barnacles attach to surfaces under water. The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary nature of the studies makes an overview covering all aspects challenging. This mini-review, therefore, attempts to bring together aspects of the adhesion of adult barnacles by looking at the achievements of research focused on both fouling and adhesion. Biological and biochemical studies, which have been motivated mainly by understanding the nature of the adhesion, indicate that the molecular characteristics of barnacle adhesive are unique. However, it is apparent from recent advances in molecular techniques that much remains undiscovered regarding the complex event of underwater attachment. Barnacles attached to silicone-based elastomeric coatings have been studied widely, particularly with respect to fouling-release technology. The fact that barnacles fail to attach tenaciously to silicone coatings, combined with the fact that the mode of attachment to these substrata is different to that for most other materials, indicates that knowledge about the natural mechanism of barnacle attachment is still incomplete. Further research on barnacles will enable a more comprehensive understanding of both the process of attachment and the adhesives used. Results from such studies will have a strong impact on technology aimed at fouling prevention as well as adhesion science and engineering.

  6. APXS on Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The image was taken by a camera aboard the Sojourner rover on Sol 4. Portions of the rover's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are visible studying Barnacle Bill.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Metamorphosis in balanomorphan, pedunculated, and parasitic barnacles: a video-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Maruzzo, Diego; Okano, Keiju; Glenner, Henrik; Chan, Benny K K

    2012-09-01

    Cypris metamorphosis was followed using video microscopy in four species of cirripeds representing the suspension-feeding pedunculated and sessile Thoracica and the parasitic Rhizocephala. Cirripede metamorphosis involves one or more highly complex molts that mark the change from a free cypris larva to an attached suspension feeder (Thoracica) or an endoparasite (Rhizocephala). The cyprids and juveniles are so different in morphology that they are functionally incompatible. The drastic reorganization of the body implicated in the process can therefore only commence after the cyprid has irreversibly cemented itself to a substratum. In both Megabalanus rosa and Lepas, the settled cyprid first passes through a quiescent period of tissue reorganization, in which the body is raised into a position vertical to the substratum. In Lepas, this is followed by extension of the peduncle. In both Lepas and M. rosa, the juvenile must free itself from the cypris cuticle by an active process before it can extend the cirri for suspension feeding. In M. rosa, the juvenile performs intensely pulsating movements that result in shedding of the cypris carapace ~8 h after settlement. Lepas sp. sheds the cypris cuticle ~2 days after settlement due to contractile movements of the peduncle. In Lepas anserifera, the juvenile actively breaks through the cypris carapace, which can thereafter remain for several days without impeding cirral feeding. Formation of the shell plates begins after 1-2 days under the cyprid carapace in Lepas. In M. rosa, the free juvenile retains its very thin cuticle and flexible shape for some time, and shell plates do not appear until sometime after shedding of the cypris cuticles. In Sacculina carcini, the cypris settles at the base of a seta on the host crab and remains quiescent and aligned at an angle of ~60° to the crab's cuticle. The metamorphosis involves two molts, resulting in the formation of an elongated kentrogon stage with a hollow injection stylet

  8. Metamorphosis in Balanomorphan, Pedunculated, and Parasitic Barnacles: A Video-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Høeg, Jens T.; Maruzzo, Diego; Okano, Keiju; Glenner, Henrik; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Cypris metamorphosis was followed using video microscopy in four species of cirripeds representing the suspension-feeding pedunculated and sessile Thoracica and the parasitic Rhizocephala. Cirripede metamorphosis involves one or more highly complex molts that mark the change from a free cypris larva to an attached suspension feeder (Thoracica) or an endoparasite (Rhizocephala). The cyprids and juveniles are so different in morphology that they are functionally incompatible. The drastic reorganization of the body implicated in the process can therefore only commence after the cyprid has irreversibly cemented itself to a substratum. In both Megabalanus rosa and Lepas, the settled cyprid first passes through a quiescent period of tissue reorganization, in which the body is raised into a position vertical to the substratum. In Lepas, this is followed by extension of the peduncle. In both Lepas and M. rosa, the juvenile must free itself from the cypris cuticle by an active process before it can extend the cirri for suspension feeding. In M. rosa, the juvenile performs intensely pulsating movements that result in shedding of the cypris carapace ∼8 h after settlement. Lepas sp. sheds the cypris cuticle ∼2 days after settlement due to contractile movements of the peduncle. In Lepas anserifera, the juvenile actively breaks through the cypris carapace, which can thereafter remain for several days without impeding cirral feeding. Formation of the shell plates begins after 1-2 days under the cyprid carapace in Lepas. In M. rosa, the free juvenile retains its very thin cuticle and flexible shape for some time, and shell plates do not appear until sometime after shedding of the cypris cuticles. In Sacculina carcini, the cypris settles at the base of a seta on the host crab and remains quiescent and aligned at an angle of ∼60° to the crab’s cuticle. The metamorphosis involves two molts, resulting in the formation of an elongated kentrogon stage with a hollow injection

  9. ROSA on Oceansat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cosmo, Vittorio; Catalano, Valeria; Garramone, Luciano; Loizzo, Rosa; Marzo, Mino; Thyagarajan, K.; Venkatarao, M.; Vespe, Francesco

    2006-12-01

    ROSA (Radio Occultation Sounder of Atmosphere) is a space instrument which uses the Radio Occultation Technique to provide highly accurate measurements of the atmospheric refractive indexes from which it is possible to derive, atmospheric vertical profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, as well as profiles of electron content in the ionosphere. The measurements, generally, are made by using meteorological balloons, able to give a very detailed atmospheric profiles but only on a local scale. From the space, ROSA, flying on a LEO orbit, is able to perform more than 500 atmospheric profiles per day on a global scale, The ROSA instrument is the core of a scientific program, of the same name, promoted by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to contribute to a better understanding of Climate Change. This program foresees the installation of the ROSA instruments on several space missions and the developments of an ad hoc Ground Segment for the acquisition and processing of the data. The ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) mission OCEANSAT-2 will be the first mission that will embark ROSA. OCEANSAT-2 is an operative mission for the study of the Ocean that will be launched next July 2007.

  10. Rosa L.: rose, briar

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer

    2008-01-01

    The genus Rosa is found primarily in the North Temperate Zone and includes about 200 species, with perhaps 20 that are native to the United States (table 1). Another 12 to 15 rose species have been introduced for horticultural purposes and are naturalized to varying degrees. The nomenclature of the genus is in a state of flux, making it difficult to number the species...

  11. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner is visible in this color image, one of the first taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The rover has moved from this position into one that later facilitated its using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on Barnacle Bill. The APXS, located at the rear of the rover, is not visible in this image.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. Evolution: how a barnacle came to parasitise a shark.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tommy L F

    2014-06-16

    A new study on a parasitic barnacle that lives on a deep sea shark found that its closest living relatives are rocky shore barnacles. The findings provide insight into barnacle phylogeny and raise new questions about the evolution of parasitism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Larvae of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) in the White sea plankton].

    PubMed

    Poltarukha, O P

    2003-01-01

    The barnacle fauna in the White Sea is briefly described. The morphology of barnacle larvae in this water body is comparatively analyzed. The characters important for the larvae identification are given particular attention. A classification key was developed for the nauplius and cyprid larvae of barnacles in the White Sea.

  14. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. Sojourner's APXS studies Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Sojourner's first analysis of a rock on Mars began on Sol 3 with the study of Barnacle Bill, a nearby rock named for its rough surface. The Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be used to determine the elements that make up the rocks and soil on Mars. A full study using the APXS takes approximately ten hours, and can measure all elements except hydrogen at any time of the Martian day or night. The APXS will conduct its studies by bombarding rocks and soil samples with alpha particle radiation -- charged particles equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  17. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping.

    PubMed

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J; Everett, Richard K

    2011-06-06

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism.

  18. Barnacles resist removal by crack trapping

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chung-Yuen; Long, Rong; Wahl, Kathryn J.; Everett, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the mechanics of pull-off of a barnacle adhering to a thin elastic layer which is bonded to a rigid substrate. We address the case of barnacles having acorn shell geometry and hard, calcarious base plates. Pull-off is initiated by the propagation of an interface edge crack between the base plate and the layer. We compute the energy release rate of this crack as it grows along the interface using a finite element method. We also develop an approximate analytical model to interpret our numerical results and to give a closed-form expression for the energy release rate. Our result shows that the resistance of barnacles to interfacial failure arises from a crack-trapping mechanism. PMID:21208968

  19. Super Resolution Anaglyph of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image and [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  20. Super Resolution Anaglyph of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image and [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  1. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  2. For the Classroom: Filter Feeding in Barnacles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Lois

    1983-01-01

    Provided is a high school activity in which students observe the filter feeding of barnacles and the effects of a variety of changing parameters upon their feeding process. Includes list of materials needed and procedures necessary to accomplish the activity. (JN)

  3. Preventing Growth Of Barnacles On Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Kemp L.

    1993-01-01

    Possible to prevent barnacles and other marine life from obtaining firm bonds on propellers and other metal parts by coating parts with NEDOX (or equivalent) cavitation-resistant material. Available in several forms; one that works best is mold-release coating. Also provides improved surface hardness, protection against electrolysis, better resistance to abrasion, and less friction between propellers and water.

  4. Some insights into how barnacles survive as sessile organisms.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Reeves, Jessica M

    2009-12-01

    During routine chemical analyses of the stalked ibliform barnacle Chaetolepas calcitergum Buckeridge & Newman 2006, peaks of more than 7% (by dry mass) of bromine were detected. Although bromine ions occur in seawater (up to 66 ppm), this level of accumulation, in the soft tissue of the barnacle, is extraordinary. Organic concentration of bromine compounds occurs in a number of invertebrates, such as algae and sponges, but this is the first record of elevated bromine in goose barnacles. The high accumulation of bromine compound(s) is most likely a defense mechanism. The present paper includes a review of the mechanisms deployed by barnacles to repel predators.

  5. Biomineral Structure and Strength of Barnacle Exoskeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Nathan

    2011-03-01

    Studying the construction of organic-inorganic compound structures through biomineralization is potentially very useful. During biomineral formation, organisms restructure naturally occurring minerals in conjunction with their own organically produced minerals to create new structures. While there is extensive knowledge about material properties and structure of the raw minerals themselves, insight into how specific biomineral structures and compounds contribute to an object's mechanical properties is lacking. In this study, the exoskeletons of barnacles from the genus Balanus were examined, both for their physical structure (how they're put together) and for their mechanical properties (strength, hardness, and elasticity). Scanning electron microscopy produced close-up, detailed images of the inner shell structure to determine what type of structure barnacles build during exoskeleton formation. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to map the elemental components of the shells. Nanoindentation tested the mechanical properties of these mapped structures to determine how certain characteristics of the exoskeleton contribute to its mechanical properties.

  6. Darwin's "beloved barnacles": tough lessons in variation.

    PubMed

    Mannouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    In 1846, burdened by insecurity and self-doubt, and having been convinced that he needed to study some group of organisms closely, Darwin embarked on an eight-year odyssey in the protean and perplexing world of barnacles. At the time, he was searching for evidence in support of his theory of evolution by natural selection. In the course of his long study of barnacles, however, he was not just validating his preexisting theoretical system, but was also modifying his views on such fundamental aspects as the universality of individual variation, which is the focus of this paper. According to this notion, the members of any population of living things are expected to exhibit sufficient differences from one another for natural selection to operate. By emphasizing the theoretical value of the barnacle project, my analysis contributes to the historiographic tradition which highlights the significance of the period between the first comprehensive formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1844 and its urgent publication in the late 1850s. In the course of these years, Darwin's theory was not just accumulating empirical laurels, but was also expected to adapt to a changing conceptual landscape.

  7. Base plate mechanics of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite).

    PubMed

    Ramsay, David B; Dickinson, Gary H; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2008-01-01

    The mechanical properties of barnacle base plates were measured using a punch test apparatus, with the purpose of examining the effect that the base plate flexural rigidity may have on adhesion mechanics. Base plate compliance was measured for 43 Balanus amphitrite (=Amphibalanus amphitrite) barnacles. Compliance measurements were used to determine flexural rigidity (assuming a fixed-edge circular plate approximation) and composite modulus of the base plates. The barnacles were categorized by age and cement type (hard or gummy) for statistical analyses. Barnacles that were 'hard' (> or =70% of the base plate thin, rigid cement) and 'gummy' (>30% of the base plate covered in compliant, tacky cement) showed statistically different composite moduli but did not show a difference in base plate flexural rigidity. The average flexural rigidity for all barnacles was 0.0020 Nm (SEM +/- 0.0003). Flexural rigidity and composite modulus did not differ significantly between 3-month and 14-month-old barnacles. The relatively low flexural rigidity measured for barnacles suggests that a rigid punch approximation is not sufficient to account for the contributions to adhesion mechanics due to flexing of real barnacles during release.

  8. Barnacle-induced corrosion of high-alloyed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Koryakova, M.D.; Filonenko, N.Yu.; Kaplin, Yu.M.

    1995-03-01

    Local corrosion of two sorts of high-alloyed steels under the action of acorn barnacles (Balanuses) has been studied. It has been shown that in natural seawater at anaerobic conditions beneath living and dead barnacles, metabolic activity of bacteria may be considered as a primary cause for local surface depassivation.

  9. Larval development and settlement of a whale barnacle.

    PubMed

    Nogata, Yasuyuki; Matsumura, Kiyotaka

    2006-03-22

    Larval development and settlement of whale barnacles have not previously been described, unlike intertidal barnacles. Indeed, the mechanisms of the association between barnacles and whales have not been studied. Here we describe the larval development and settlement of the whale barnacle, Coronula diadema, and possible involvement of a cue from the host in inducing larval settlement. Eight-cell stage embryos were collected from C. diadema on a stranded humpback whale, incubated in filtered seawater for 7 days, and nauplius larvae hatched out. When fed with Chaetoceros gracilis, the nauplii developed to stage VI, and finally metamorphosed to the cypris stage. The larval development looked similar to that of intertidal barnacles with planktotrophic larval stages. The cyprids did not settle in normal seawater, but did settle in polystyrene Petri dishes when incubated in seawater with a small piece of skin tissue from the host whale. This strongly suggests the involvement of a chemical cue from the host whale tissue to induce larval settlement.

  10. Trace metals in barnacles: the significance of trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Philip S; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2005-05-01

    Barnacles have very high accumulated trace metal body concentrations that vary with local trace metal bioavailabilities and represent integrated measures of the supply of bioavailable metals. Pioneering work in Chinese waters in Hong Kong highlighted the potential value of barnacles (particularly Balanus amphitrite) as trace metal biomonitors in coastal waters, identifying differences in local trace metal bioavailabilities over space and time. Work in Hong Kong has also shown that although barnacles have very high rates of trace metal uptake from solution, they also have very high trace metal assimilation efficiencies from the diet. High assimilation efficiencies coupled with high ingestion rates ensure that trophic uptake is by far the dominant trace metal uptake route in barnacles, as verified for cadmium and zinc. Kinetic modelling has shown that low efflux rate constants and high uptake rates from the diet combine to bring about accumulated trace metal concentrations in barnacles that are amongst the highest known in marine invertebrates.

  11. Flow over Barnacles-Characterization of Barnacle Geometry and Some Initial Flow Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Schultz, Michael; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Macrobiofouling is a serious concern for the marine industry, costing billions in preventive and control measures. Accurate modelling of flows over surfaces with such complex geometry and wide range of length scales is still a huge challenge. Such simulations are required in predicting the effects of fouling, like surface drag and also forces experienced by individual barnacles. DNS or wall resolved LES are impractical due to constraints imposed by the nature of the geometry. We aim to develop and test a computational tool for accurate simulation of such flows. The method being proposed incorporates generalized dynamic wall models along with sharp-interface Immersed Boundary Methods. The results from these simulations will help us understand the effects on surface drag caused by variations in parameters like roughness density, roughness heights, spatial heterogeneity etc. Along with this, detailed studies on a single barnacle will help us in understanding flow structures in the presence of boundary layers. In this talk we will give a brief overview of the problem and some results from our investigation on the characterization of Barnacle geometries and on the characteristics of flow over a single barnacle. This research is supported by a grant from the Office of Naval Research.

  12. "The Rosa Parks Story": Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onish, Liane B.

    On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a black seamstress, refused to give up her seat to a white man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, and she was arrested. On that day, Rosa Parks became the mother of the modern civil rights movement. This study guide may be used as a companion to "The Rosa Parks Story" video which aired on CBS…

  13. Barnacle allergy: allergen characterization and cross-reactivity with mites.

    PubMed

    Marinho, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Gaspar, A; Santa-Marta, C; Pires, G; Postigo, I; Guisantes, J; Martínez, J; Rosado-Pinto, J

    2006-01-01

    Barnacles are a type of seafood with worldwide distribution and abundant along the shores of temperate seas. They are particularly appreciated and regularly consumed in Portugal as well as in Spain, France and South America, but barnacle allergy is a rare condition of which there is only one reference in the indexed literature. The molecular allergens and possible cross-reactivity phenomena implicated (namely with mites) have not been established. To demonstrate the IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle and to identify the proteins implicated as well as possible cross-reactivity phenomena with mites. We report the clinical and laboratory data of five patients with documented IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle. The diagnosis was based on a suggestive clinical history combined with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to barnacle--prick to prick method. Two barnacle extracts were prepared (raw and cooked barnacle) and sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting were performed. An immunoblotting inhibition assay with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also done in order to evaluate cross-reactivity. All patients had mite-related asthma and the allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; they all experienced mucocutaneous symptoms. All of them had positive SPT to barnacle, and the immunoblotting showed several allergenic fractions with a wide molecular weight range (19 - 94 kDa). The D. pteronyssinus extract inhibited several IgE-binding protein fractions in the barnacle extract. We describe five patients with IgE-mediated barnacle allergy. We also describe a group of IgE-binding+proteins between 30 and 75 kDa as the allergenic fractions of this type of Crustacea. Cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus was demonstrated in two cases.

  14. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At right, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill and the rear ramp is to the left of Sojourner.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  15. Sojourner near Barnacle Bill - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At right, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill and the rear ramp is to the left of Sojourner.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. Barnacle cement: a polymerization model based on evolutionary concepts.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Vega, Irving E; Wahl, Kathryn J; Orihuela, Beatriz; Beyley, Veronica; Rodriguez, Eva N; Everett, Richard K; Bonaventura, Joseph; Rittschof, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Enzymes and biochemical mechanisms essential to survival are under extreme selective pressure and are highly conserved through evolutionary time. We applied this evolutionary concept to barnacle cement polymerization, a process critical to barnacle fitness that involves aggregation and cross-linking of proteins. The biochemical mechanisms of cement polymerization remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that this process is biochemically similar to blood clotting, a critical physiological response that is also based on aggregation and cross-linking of proteins. Like key elements of vertebrate and invertebrate blood clotting, barnacle cement polymerization was shown to involve proteolytic activation of enzymes and structural precursors, transglutaminase cross-linking and assembly of fibrous proteins. Proteolytic activation of structural proteins maximizes the potential for bonding interactions with other proteins and with the surface. Transglutaminase cross-linking reinforces cement integrity. Remarkably, epitopes and sequences homologous to bovine trypsin and human transglutaminase were identified in barnacle cement with tandem mass spectrometry and/or western blotting. Akin to blood clotting, the peptides generated during proteolytic activation functioned as signal molecules, linking a molecular level event (protein aggregation) to a behavioral response (barnacle larval settlement). Our results draw attention to a highly conserved protein polymerization mechanism and shed light on a long-standing biochemical puzzle. We suggest that barnacle cement polymerization is a specialized form of wound healing. The polymerization mechanism common between barnacle cement and blood may be a theme for many marine animal glues.

  17. Morphology of Cyprid Attachment Organs Compared Across Disparate Barnacle Taxa: Does It Relate to Habitat?

    PubMed

    Al-Yahya, Hamad; Chen, Hsi-Nien; Chan, Benny K K; Kado, Ryusuke; Høeg, Jens T

    2016-10-01

    This study used morphometric analyses to compare the structure of the third antennular segment, also called the attachment organ, in cyprid larvae from cirripede species representing a diverse set of taxonomic groups. The aim was to investigate the degree of morphological variation in view of the diversity of habitats, settlement substrata, and modes of life found in the Cirripedia. In all cyprids the third segment features a flat surface (the attachment disc) covered with small cuticular villi thought to function in adhesion. The parameters analyzed were the angle of this disc relative to the long axis of the antennule, its shape (outline), the density of cuticular villi, and the type of cuticular structure encircling the disc. The 10 species studied came from most major groups of cirripedes, and comprised shallow-water forms inhabiting hard bottoms (Capitulum mitella, Pollicipes pollicipes, Semibalanus balanoides, Austrominius modestus, Megabalanus rosa), sublittoral forms (Verruca stroemia, Scalpellum scalpellum), epibiotic forms settling on live, soft tissues (Balanus spongicola, Savignium crenatum), and a parasite (Peltogaster paguri). Significant structural variation was found among the species, but due to limited taxon sampling it was unclear whether the differences relate to ecological factors or phylogenetic affiliation. The disc perimeter is guarded by either a series of long and thin cuticular fringes overreaching the rim of the disc (= a velum) or a few low, but very broad cuticular flaps (= a skirt). The presence of a velum (in all rocky-shore species) or a skirt (all other species) around the attachment disc was the only parameter that was clearly correlated with habitat. The shape of the third antennular segment varied from a symmetrical bell shape with a distally facing attachment disc having a circular disc outline, to segments that were elongated in side view, with a very tilted ventral disc surface having an elliptical disc outline. The bell

  18. Imaging Active Surface Processes in Barnacle Adhesive Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joel P; Burden, Daniel K; Fears, Kenan P; Barlow, Daniel E; So, Christopher R; Burns, Justin; Miltenberg, Benjamin; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittshof, Daniel; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J; Tender, Leonard M

    2016-01-19

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) and voltammetry were used simultaneously to monitor Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite barnacles reattached and grown on gold-coated glass slides in artificial seawater. Upon reattachment, SPRI revealed rapid surface adsorption of material with a higher refractive index than seawater at the barnacle/gold interface. Over longer time periods, SPRI also revealed secretory activity around the perimeter of the barnacle along the seawater/gold interface extending many millimeters beyond the barnacle and varying in shape and region with time. Ex situ experiments using attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy confirmed that reattachment of barnacles was accompanied by adsorption of protein to surfaces on similar time scales as those in the SPRI experiments. Barnacles were grown through multiple molting cycles. While the initial reattachment region remained largely unchanged, SPRI revealed the formation of sets of paired concentric rings having alternately darker/lighter appearance (corresponding to lower and higher refractive indices, respectively) at the barnacle/gold interface beneath the region of new growth. Ex situ experiments coupling the SPRI imaging with optical and FTIR microscopy revealed that the paired rings coincide with molt cycles, with the brighter rings associated with regions enriched in amide moieties. The brighter rings were located just beyond orifices of cement ducts, consistent with delivery of amide-rich chemistry from the ducts. The darker rings were associated with newly expanded cuticle. In situ voltammetry using the SPRI gold substrate as the working electrode revealed presence of redox active compounds (oxidation potential approx 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl) after barnacles were reattached on surfaces. Redox activity persisted during the reattachment period. The results reveal surface adsorption processes coupled to the complex secretory and chemical activity under barnacles as they construct

  19. Rosa Parks: The Movement Organizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Kai

    This biography for younger readers describes the life of Rosa Parks, the Alabama black woman whose refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus helped establish the civil rights movement. The book is introduced by an overview of the movement by Andrew Young and a timeline indicating major historical events from 1954 through 1968. Highlights in…

  20. Nature and perception of barnacle settlement pheromones.

    PubMed

    Clare, A S; Matsumura, K

    2000-01-01

    It is now almost 50 years since the gregarious settlement of barnacles and its chemical basis was first described. Although originally noted for Elminius modestus, mechanistic studies of gregariousness have focused on two species, Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus amphitrite. By virtue of its ease of study and its economic importance as a fouling organism, the latter species has assumed increasing importance in recent years. This paper will provide an overview of studies on settlement pheromones and their perception. An adult glycoprotein, arthropodin (now known as settlement-inducing protein complex or SIPC), was once thought to be the sole pheromone involved in the induction of cypris larval settlement. At least two other pheromones are now known to be involved, a waterborne cue originating from the adult and the cypris temporary adhesive. The latter is related, immunologically, to SIPC. In keeping with many other examples of chemical communication, the available evidence suggests that barnacle settlement induction involves receptor-ligand interactions and a signal transduction pathway(s) that translates into attachment and metamorphosis. Similar findings have been reported for some, but not all, marine invertebrate larvae examined thus far and the implications for antifoulant development are discussed.

  1. Characterization of Two 20kDa-Cement Protein (cp20k) Homologues in Amphibalanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Gen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, is a common marine fouling organism. Understanding the mechanism of barnacle adhesion will be helpful in resolving the fouling problem. Barnacle cement is thought to play a key role in barnacle attachment. Although several adult barnacle cement proteins have been identified in Megabalanus rosa, little is known about their function in barnacle settlement. In this study, two homologous 20k-cement proteins (cp20k) in Amphibalanus amphitrite, named Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2, were characterized. The two homologues share primary sequence structure with proteins from other species including Megabalanus rosa and Fistulobalanus albicostatus. The conserved structure included repeated Cys domains and abundant charged amino acids, such as histidine. In this study we demonstrated that Bamcp20k-1 localized at the α secretory cells in the cyprid cement gland, while Bamcp20k-2 localized to the β secretory cells. The differential localizations suggest differential regulation for secretion from the secretory cells. Both Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 from cyprids dissolved in PBS. However, adult Bamcp20k-2, which was dominant in the basal shell of adult barnacles, was largely insoluble in PBS. Solubility increased in the presence of the reducing reagent Dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that the formation of disulfide bonds plays a role in Bamcp20k-2 function. In comparison, Bamcp20k-1, which was enriched in soft tissue, could not be easily detected in the shell and base by Western blot and easily dissolved in PBS. These differential solubilities and localizations indicate that Bamcp20k-1 and Bamcp20k-2 have distinct functions in barnacle cementing. PMID:23717550

  2. Biochemical biomarkers in barnacles Balanus improvisus: pollution and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Juliano; Monserrat, José Maria; Bianchini, Adalto

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in the barnacle Balanus improvisus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) sampled from both polluted and reference sites in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil. During winter, higher glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was recorded in the barnacles from the polluted sites, indicating environmental exposure to contaminants. Relatively low lipid peroxide levels (LPO) were also observed in barnacles from polluted sites, indicating that oxidative stress by lipid peroxidation was not a major threat in barnacles from those sites. Seasonal differences in the GST and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) could have contributed to the low LPO levels in the summer relative to the levels in the winter. Catalase activity and metallothionein levels were not affected by contamination or seasonality. The seasonal changes observed in biomarker responses were paralleled by the differences in temperature, which could have affected physiological responses, including the balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants.

  3. FACT, Mega-ROSA, SOLAROSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian; White, Steve; Schmid, Kevin; Douglas Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Flexible Array Concentrator Technology (FACT) is a lightweight, high-performance reflective concentrator blanket assembly that can be used on flexible solar array blankets. The FACT concentrator replaces every other row of solar cells on a solar array blanket, significantly reducing the cost of the array. The modular design is highly scalable for the array system designer, and exhibits compact stowage, good off-pointing acceptance, and mass/cost savings. The assembly s relatively low concentration ratio, accompanied by a large radiative area, provides for a low cell operating temperature, and eliminates many of the thermal problems inherent in high-concentration-ratio designs. Unlike other reflector technologies, the FACT concentrator modules function on both z-fold and rolled flexible solar array blankets, as well as rigid array systems. Mega-ROSA (Mega Roll-Out Solar Array) is a new, highly modularized and extremely scalable version of ROSA that provides immense power level range capability from 100 kW to several MW in size. Mega-ROSA will enable extremely high-power spacecraft and SEP-powered missions, including space-tug and largescale planetary science and lunar/asteroid exploration missions. Mega-ROSA's inherent broad power scalability is achieved while retaining ROSA s solar array performance metrics and missionenabling features for lightweight, compact stowage volume and affordability. This innovation will enable future ultra-high-power missions through lowcost (25 to 50% cost savings, depending on PV and blanket technology), lightweight, high specific power (greater than 200 to 400 Watts per kilogram BOL (beginning-of-life) at the wing level depending on PV and blanket technology), compact stowage volume (greater than 50 kilowatts per cubic meter for very large arrays), high reliability, platform simplicity (low failure modes), high deployed strength/stiffness when scaled to huge sizes, and high-voltage operation capability. Mega-ROSA is adaptable to

  4. Localization of Phosphoproteins within the Barnacle Adhesive Interface.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Gary H; Yang, Xu; Wu, Fanghui; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Beniash, Elia

    2016-06-01

    Barnacles permanently adhere to nearly any inert substrate using proteinaceous glue. The glue consists of at least ten major proteins, some of which have been isolated and sequenced. Questions still remain about the chemical mechanisms involved in adhesion and the potential of the glue to serve as a platform for mineralization of the calcified base plate. We tested the hypothesis that barnacle glue contains phosphoproteins, which have the potential to play a role in both adhesion and mineralization. Using a combination of phosphoprotein-specific gel staining and Western blotting with anti-phosphoserine antibody, we identified multiple phosphorylated proteins in uncured glue secretions from the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite The protein composition of the glue and the quantity and abundance of phosphoproteins varied distinctly among individual barnacles, possibly due to cyclical changes in the glue secretion over time. We assessed the location of the phosphoproteins within the barnacle glue layer using decalcified barnacle base plates and residual glue deposited by reattached barnacles. Phosphoproteins were found throughout the organic matrix of the base plate and within the residual glue. Staining within the residual glue appeared most intensely in regions where capillary glue ducts, which are involved in cyclical release of glue, had been laid down. Lastly, mineralization studies of glue proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that proteins identified as phosphorylated possibly induce mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These results contribute to our understanding of the protein composition of barnacle glue, and provide new insights into the potential roles of phosphoproteins in underwater bioadhesives.

  5. Modeling variation in interaction strength between barnacles and fucoids.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Rebecca L; Dudgeon, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The strength by which species interact can vary throughout their ontogeny, as environments vary in space and time, and with the density of their populations. Characterizing strengths of interaction in situ for even a small number of species is logistically difficult and may apply only to those conditions under which the estimates were derived. We sought to combine data from field experiments estimating interaction strength of life stages of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, on germlings of Ascophyllum nodosum, with a model that explored the consequences of variability at per capita and per population levels to the abundance of year-old algal recruits. We further simulated how this interaction affected fucoid germling abundance as the timing of their respective settlements varied relative to one another, as occurs regionally across the Gulf of Maine, USA. Juvenile S. balanoides have a weak estimated per capita effect on germlings. Germling populations are sensitive to variation in per capita effects of juvenile barnacles because of the typically large population sizes of the latter. However, high mortality of juvenile barnacles weakens the population interaction strength over time. Adult barnacles probably weakly facilitate fucoid germlings, but greater survival of adults sustains the strength of that interaction at the population level. Germling abundance is positively associated with densities of adult barnacles and negatively associated with that of juvenile barnacles. Metamorphosing cyprid larvae have the strongest per capita effect on germling abundance, but the interaction between the two stages is so short-lived that germling abundance is altered little. Variation in the timing of barnacle and A. nodosum settlement relative to one another had very little influence on the abundance of yearling germlings. Interactions between barnacles and germlings may influence the demographic structure of A. nodosum populations and the persistence of fucoid

  6. The invasive barnacle species, Austrominius modestus: Its status and competition with indigenous barnacles on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Mary Catherine; Davenport, John; Gregory, Susan; McAllen, Rob; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The invasive barnacle Austrominius (= Elminius) modestus has been present in Europe since the 1940s, and has recently been recorded to outnumber native barnacle species at some locations, including an Irish marine nature reserve. It has been suggested that these increases in abundance following a lag phase since establishment, represent the awakening of an 'ecological sleeper', due to changes in environmental conditions. Austrominius modestus was first recorded on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland in 1955, and was reported to be well established on the island by 2007. Since this location is close to the northern limit of the invaded range of A. modestus, it has been chosen as a site for the long term monitoring of this species. Quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys of the abundance of A. modestus, together with the native barnacle species Chthamalus montagui and Semibalanus balanoides, have been made on the island on a biannual basis since 2009. This study examined changes in the abundances of these three species from 2009 to 2013, and reports on the present status of this invasive species on the island. Austrominius modestus was found at all sites surveyed, but did not outnumber native barnacle species at any site. Semibalanus balanoides, a cold water boreal species, was the most abundant barnacle species at most sites from 2009 to 2013. All three barnacle species underwent a decline in 2011, but had increased in abundance by 2013. Despite undergoing the smallest increase in abundance between 2011 and 2013, S. balanoides remains the dominant barnacle species on the Isle of Cumbrae. Nearly sixty years after its initial discovery on the island, A. modestus is widespread, however it has not outnumbered native species, which continue to recruit at high densities. This competitive pressure makes it unlikely that A. modestus will outnumber native barnacle species at this location, close to its northern limit, in the near future.

  7. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  8. Diverse, continuous, and plastic sexual systems in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Yoichi; Takemura, Mayuko; Sawada, Kota; Yamaguchi, Sachi

    2013-10-01

    Barnacles (Crustacea: Thoracica) show diverse sexual systems, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites + males), and dioecy (females + males). When males occur, they are always much smaller (called dwarf males) than conspecific hermaphrodites or females. Ever since Darwin made this discovery, many scientists have been fascinated by such diversity. In this study, we provide an overview of (1) the diversity of sexual systems in barnacles, (2) the continuity between different sexual systems in some genera or species, and (3) the plasticity in sexual expression in several species. First, although most barnacles are hermaphroditic, both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that females and dwarf males tend to occur in species with small mating groups. Low sperm competition among hermaphrodites and little chance to act as a male are both associated with small group sizes and identified as the forces promoting the evolution of dwarf males and pure females, respectively. Second, in some groups of barnacles, the distinction between hermaphrodites and dwarf males is unclear because of the potential of dwarf males to become hermaphrodites. As many barnacle species tend toward protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (develop male function first and then add female function without discarding male function), the dwarf males in such cases are best described as potential hermaphrodites that arrest growth and emphasize male function much earlier because of attachment to conspecifics. This is presumably advantageous in fertilizing the eggs of the host individuals. The distinction between hermaphrodites and females may also be obscured in some species. Third, sex allocation and penial morphology are plastic in some species. We also report the results of a transplanting experiment on small individuals of the pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis angulata, which suggests that individuals transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer and broader penises than

  9. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  10. The Arrest Records of Rosa Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredhoff, Stacey; Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann

    1999-01-01

    Provides background information on the arrest of Rosa Parks and the effects this event had on the Civil Rights Movement. Offers a collection of teaching activities in which the students examine the arrest records of Rosa Parks and explains that these activities are designed to accompany a unit on racial segregation. (CMK)

  11. Australian barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica), distributions and biogeographical affinities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana S

    2012-09-01

    Currently, 279 barnacle species are recognized in Australia waters. The barnacle fauna of tropical Australia exhibits high species diversity (221), with a high incidence of tropical species (87 Indo-west Pacific [IWP], 16 West Pacific and 65 Indo-Malayan), a low species endemicity (8), and 44 cosmopolitan and 1 Australasian species. Conversely, that of temperate Australia shows lower species diversity (129), with a lower incidence of tropical species (26 IWP, 10 West Pacific and 25 Indo-Malayan), higher species endemicity (23), 37 cosmopolitan, 6 Australasian species, and 3 Australasian/Antarctic species. Distributions corroborate the general patterns demonstrated by the shallow-water biota of northern tropical and southern temperate Australian biogeographic provinces. Tropical and temperate provinces grade into each other in a broad overlap zone along both the western and eastern Australian coasts. This overlap zone is essentially a transitional region, with the gradual replacement of a tropical barnacle fauna in the north by a predominantly temperate barnacle fauna in the south. Both western and eastern Australian coasts are bounded by major poleward-flowing warm currents that have considerable influence on the marine flora and fauna, distributing tropical species of many taxa much farther south than could be predicted by latitude. Currently, 16 barnacle species introduced into Australian waters are identified, although this number may increase in the future due to new port developments and increased shipping arrivals.

  12. Pharmacological effects of rosa damascena.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-07-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers.

  13. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    PubMed Central

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were performed using Medline, medex, Scopus, and Google Scholar websites backed to 1972 to identify researches about R. damascena. Searches also were done by going through the author's files and the bibliographies of all located papers. PMID:23493250

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BARNACLE GIANT MUSCLE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Graham; McNeill, Patricia A.; Selverston, Allen I.

    1973-01-01

    Increasing use of barnacle giant muscle fibers for physiological research has prompted this investigation of their fine structure. The fibers are invaginated by a multibranched system of clefts connecting to the exterior and filled with material similar to that of the basement material of the sarcolemmal complex. Tubules originate from the surface plasma membrane at irregular sites, and also from the clefts They run transversely, spirally, and longitudinally, making many diadic and some triadic contacts with cisternal sacs of the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The contacts are not confined to any particular region of the sarcomere. The tubules are wider and their walls are thicker at points of contact with Z material. Some linking of the Z regions occurs across spaces within the fiber which contain large numbers of glycogen particles. A-band lengths are extremely variable, in the range 2.2 µm–20.3 µm (average 5.2 µm) Individual thick filaments have thin (110 Å) hollow regions alternating with thick (340 Å) solid ones. Bridges between thick filaments occur at random points and are not concentrated into an M band The thin:thick filament ratio is variable in different parts of a fiber, from 3:1 to 6:1. Z bands are basically perforated, but the number of perforations may increase during contraction. PMID:4264604

  15. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Barnacles - recorders of environmental conditions with unique geochemical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens; Gale, Andy; Korte, Christoph; Frei, Robert; Huggett, Jenny; Wray, Dave

    2017-04-01

    Barnacles are calcite-forming arthropods that occur in a wide range of habitats in modern times and are found in sedimentary successions reaching back to the Paleozoic. Despite potential use of their mostly low-Mg calcite hard parts for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, their geochemical composition has been little studied. Here, we present the first comprehensive overview of barnacle geochemistry, with C and O isotope, as well as Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca data for multiple samples of 42 species covering the orders Sessilia, Scalpelliformes, and Lepadiformes. XRD analyses confirm calcite as the only significant carbonate mineral of the studied barnacle shell material. Apart from one species, median Mg/Ca ratios fall below 50 mmol/mol, the approximate limit for low-Mg-calcite. In the order Sessilia, the scuta and terga are on average enriched in Mg by 36 % over the unmoveable plates. Amongst the calcite-forming marine animals, barnacles have very high Sr/Ca ratios of 2.6 to 5.9 mmol/mol, amongst the highest known for calcite secreting animals. Mn/Ca and Fe/Ca ratios are commonly low and compatible with other modern shell calcite, but can be strongly enriched to > 1 mmol/mol in proximal habitats, particularly close to areas strongly affected by human activity. Carbon and oxygen isotope data indicate formation of the calcite in or near isotopic equilibrium with ambient water conditions. Apart from species showing δ18O values below 0 ‰ V-PDB, a negative correlation of oxygen isotope ratios with Sr/Ca ratios is observed, which may be related to metabolic activity. Compositional patterns in barnacle shell material, particularly high Sr concentrations and Mg distribution in shell plates of the Sessilia, point to a great potential of barnacles for high fidelity reconstruction of past seawater chemistry and environmental conditions complementary to other archives.

  17. The antioxidant effect of Rosa rugosa.

    PubMed

    Altiner, Dehen; Kiliçgün, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of Rosa rugosa (Rosa rugosa Thunb) on lipid peroxidation, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glutathione and protein oxidation levels in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated male Wistar rats. Two control groups and one treatment group of rats were formed. The control groups were fed a standard diet, while the Rosa rugosa group was fed a standard diet enriched with 6% by weight dried Rosa rugosa fruit powder. After 3 months, a single dose of CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally in the Control II and Rosa rugosa groups (1 ml/kg, as 20% in olive oil) and a similar dose of olive oil was administered i.p. to rats in the Control I group. The rats were sacrificed 2 hours later. Lipid peroxide levels in liver, protein oxidation in liver, glutathione (GSH) levels in liver, and ALT and AST in plasma were measured. The rats in the Rosa rugosa group were found to have significantly lower liver peroxide, protein oxidation, glutathione levels and plasma ALT and AST activities compared with the rats in the CCl4 treated control group. These findings suggest that Rosa rugosa possesses antioxidant activity.

  18. Surface elastic modulus of barnacle adhesive and release characteristics from silicone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujie; Guo, Senli; Walker, Gilbert C; Kavanagh, Christopher J; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2004-12-01

    The properties of barnacle adhesive on silicone surfaces were studied by AFM indentation, imaging, and other tests and compared to the barnacle shear adhesion strength. A multilayered structure of barnacle adhesive plaque is proposed based on layered modulus regions measured by AFM indentation. The fracture of barnacles from PDMS surfaces was found to include both interfacial and cohesive failure of barnacle adhesive plaque, as determined by protein staining of the substratum after forced barnacle release from the substrate. Data for freshly released barnacles showed that there was a strong correlation between the mean Young's modulus of the outermost (softest) adhesive layer (E<0.3 MPa) and the shear strength of adhesion, but no correlation for other higher modulus regions. Linear, quadratic, and Griffith's failure criterion (based on rough estimate of crack length) regressions were used in the fit, and showed significance.

  19. Calcium Efflux from Barnacle Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J. M.; Blaustein, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Calcium-45 was injected into single giant barnacle muscle fibers, and the rate of efflux was measured under a variety of conditions. The rate constant (k) for 45Ca efflux into standard seawater averaged 17 x 10–4 min–1 which corresponds to an efflux of about 1–2 pmol/cm2·s. Removal of external Ca (Cao) reduced the efflux by 50%. In most fibers about 40% of the 45Ca efflux into Ca-free seawater was dependent on external Na (Nao); treatment with 3.5 mM caffeine increased the magnitude of the Nao-dependent efflux. In a few fibers removal of Nao, in the absence of Cao, either had no effect or increased k; caffeine (2–3.5 mM) unmasked an Nao-dependent efflux in these fibers. The Nao-dependent Ca efflux had a Q10 of about 3.7. The data are consistent with the idea that a large fraction of the Ca efflux may be carrier-mediated, and may involve both Ca-Ca and Na-Ca counterflow. The relation between the Nao-dependent Ca efflux and the external Na concentration is sigmoid, and suggests that two, or more likely three, external Na+ ions may activate the efflux of one Ca+2. With a three-for-one Na-Ca exchange, the Na electrochemical gradient may be able to supply sufficient energy to maintain the Ca gradient in these fibers. Other, more complex models are not excluded, however, and may be required to explain some puzzling features of the Ca efflux such as the variable Nao-dependence. PMID:4812633

  20. Barnacle cement: An etchant for stainless steel 316L?

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, R; Kumar, R; Doble, M; Venkatesan, R

    2010-09-01

    Localized corrosion of stainless steel beneath the barnacle-base is an unsolved issue for the marine industry. In this work, we clearly bring out for the first time the role of the barnacle cement in acting as an etchant, preferentially etching the grain boundaries, and initiating the corrosion process in stainless steel 316L. The investigations include structural characterization of the cement and corroded region, and also chemical characterization of the corrosion products generated beneath the barnacle-base. Structural characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the morphological changes in the cement structure across the interface of the base-plate and the substrate, modification of the steel surface by the cement and the corrosion pattern beneath the barnacle-base. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the corrosion products show that they are composed of mainly oxides of iron thereby implying that the corrosion is aerobic in nature. A model for the etching and corrosion mechanism is proposed based on our observations.

  1. Barnacle cement: an etchant for stainless steel 316L?

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, R; Kumar, R; Doble, M; Venkatesan, R

    2010-09-01

    Localized corrosion of stainless steel beneath the barnacle-base is an unsolved issue for the marine industry. In this work, we clearly bring out for the first time the role of the barnacle cement in acting as an etchant, preferentially etching the grain boundaries, and initiating the corrosion process in stainless steel 316L. The investigations include structural characterization of the cement and corroded region, and also chemical characterization of the corrosion products generated beneath the barnacle-base. Structural characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals the morphological changes in the cement structure across the interface of the base-plate and the substrate, modification of the steel surface by the cement and the corrosion pattern beneath the barnacle-base. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the corrosion products show that they are composed of mainly oxides of iron thereby implying that the corrosion is aerobic in nature. A model for the etching and corrosion mechanism is proposed based on our observations.

  2. Effects of barnacle epibionts on the periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, C.; Reise, K.

    1999-08-01

    In a sandy bay with mussel beds in the Wadden Sea (Island of Sylt, eastern North Sea), periwinkles Littorina littorea (L.) were often strongly overgrown with the barnacle Balanus crenatus Bruguière in the lower intertidal zone. Consequences of this epibiosis on mobility, reproduction and mortalityof the snail were examined. B. crenatus growing on L. littorea increased snail volume up to 4-fold and weight up to 3.5-fold and crawling speed of fouled L. littorea was significantly slowed down. The epibiotic structure also caused a decrease in reproductive output. In laboratory experiments, egg production of fouled L. littorea was significantly lower than in snails free of barnacles. Presumably, copulation of the periwinkles is hampered by the voluminous and prickly cover of barnacles. Field studies demonstrated an increased mortality of overgrown L. littorea. A decrease in reproductive output and a lower survival of snails with a cover of barnacles suggest that B. crenatus epibionts may have a significant impact on the population of L. littorea.

  3. Sexual systems and life history of barnacles: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Charnov, Eric L; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi

    2012-09-01

    Thoracican barnacles show one of the most diverse sexual systems in animals: hermaphroditism, dioecy (males and females), and androdioecy (males and hermaphrodites). In addition, when present, male barnacles are very small and are called "dwarf males". The diverse sexual systems and male dwarfism in this taxon have attracted both theoretical and empirical biologists. In this article, we review the theoretical studies on barnacles' sexual systems in the context of sex allocation and life history theories. We first introduce the sex allocation models by Charnov, especially in relation to the mating group size, and a new expansion of his models is also proposed. We then explain three studies by Yamaguchi et al., who have studied the interaction between sex allocation and life history in barnacles. These studies consistently showed that limited mating opportunity favors androdioecy and dioecy over hermaphroditism. In addition, other factors, such as rates of survival and availability of food, are also important. We discuss the importance of empirical studies testing these predictions and how empirical studies interact with theoretical constructs.

  4. Modelling boundary layer flow over barnacle-fouled surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadique, Jasim; Yang, Xiang; Meneveau, Charles; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-11-01

    Macro-biofouling is a critical concern for the marine industry. However, there is little data on flow and drag over such surfaces. Accurate modelling of such multi-scale flows remains a big challenge. Such simulations are vital in providing insights into the fundamental flow physics, and they can be used to estimate the timing, need and effectiveness of measures used to counteract bio-fouling. This talk focuses on the use of a sharp-interface immersed boundary method coupled with a wall model and large-eddy simulations to carry out accurate simulations of a turbulent boundary layer flow over macro-fouled surfaces. For the current study, high resolution scans of barnacles were used to create simple geometrical representations. Simulations were then carried out to test how well these simpler geometric models mimic the flow over actual barnacles. Simulations of array of modeled barnacles, with different barnacle densities have also been carried out and we present results on the effect distribution density on the flow physics and drag on the surfaces. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582.

  5. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera).

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-02-06

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein-metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S-S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives.

  6. The chemistry of stalked barnacle adhesive (Lepas anatifera)

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Morrison, Liam; Lynch, Edward P.; Grunwald, Ingo; von Byern, Janek; Power, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The results of the first chemical analysis of the adhesive of Lepas anatifera, a stalked barnacle, are presented. A variety of elements were identified in scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) of the adhesive, including Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, S, Al, Si, K and Fe; however, protein–metal interactions were not detected in Raman spectra of the adhesive. Elemental signatures from SEM-EDS of L. anatifera adhesive glands were less varied. Phosphorous was mostly absent in adhesive samples; supporting previous studies showing that phosphoserines do not play a significant role in adult barnacle adhesion. Disulfide bridges arising from Cys dimers were also investigated; Raman analysis showed weak evidence for S–S bonds in L. anatifera. In addition, there was no calcium carbonate signal in the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra of L. anatifera adhesive, unlike several previous studies in other barnacle species. Significant differences were observed between the Raman spectra of L. anatifera and Balanus crenatus; these and a range of Raman peaks in the L. anatifera adhesive are discussed. Polysaccharide was detected in L. anatifera adhesive but the significance of this awaits further experiments. The results demonstrate some of the diversity within barnacle species in the chemistry of their adhesives. PMID:25657841

  7. Barnacle Balanus amphitrite adheres by a stepwise cementing process.

    PubMed

    Burden, Daniel K; Barlow, Daniel E; Spillmann, Christopher M; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Daniel; Everett, R K; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2012-09-18

    Barnacles adhere permanently to surfaces by secreting and curing a thin interfacial adhesive underwater. Here, we show that the acorn barnacle Balanus amphitrite adheres by a two-step fluid secretion process, both contributing to adhesion. We found that, as barnacles grow, the first barnacle cement secretion (BCS1) is released at the periphery of the expanding base plate. Subsequently, a second, autofluorescent fluid (BCS2) is released. We show that secretion of BCS2 into the interface results, on average, in a 2-fold increase in adhesive strength over adhesion by BCS1 alone. The two secretions are distinguishable both spatially and temporally, and differ in morphology, protein conformation, and chemical functionality. The short time window for BCS2 secretion relative to the overall area increase demonstrates that it has a disproportionate, surprisingly powerful, impact on adhesion. The dramatic change in adhesion occurs without measurable changes in interface thickness and total protein content. A fracture mechanics analysis suggests the interfacial material's modulus or work of adhesion, or both, were substantially increased after BCS2 secretion. Addition of BCS2 into the interface generates highly networked amyloid-like fibrils and enhanced phenolic content. Both intertwined fibers and phenolic chemistries may contribute to mechanical stability of the interface through physically or chemically anchoring interface proteins to the substrate and intermolecular interactions. Our experiments point to the need to reexamine the role of phenolic components in barnacle adhesion, long discounted despite their prevalence in structural membranes of arthropods and crustaceans, as they may contribute to chemical processes that strengthen adhesion through intermolecular cross-linking.

  8. Rosa's roses: Reduced vowels in American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Edward

    2004-05-01

    Beginning phonetics students are taught that American English has two contrasting reduced vowels, transcribed as [squflg] and [squflg], illustrated by the unstressed vowels in the minimal pair Rosa's versus roses. However, little seems to be known about the precise nature or distribution of these vowels. This study explores these questions through acoustic analysis of reduced vowels in the speech of 12 American English speakers. The results show that there is a fundamental distinction between the mid central [squflg] vowel that can occur in unstressed word-final position (e.g., in Rosa), and high reduced vowels that occur in most other unstressed positions, and might be transcribed as [squflg]. The contrast between pairs like Rosa's and roses derives from this difference because the word-final [squflg] is preserved when an inflectional suffix is added, so the schwa of Rosa's is similar to the final vowel of Rosa, whereas the unstressed vowel of roses is the high [squflg] reduced vowel quality found elsewhere. So the standard transcription of the reduced vowel contrast is justified, but the widespread use of [squflg] to transcribe word-internal reduced vowels is misleading-mid reduced vowels are generally only found in stem-final position.

  9. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal... project in Santa Rosa County, Florida. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cathy Kendall, AICP... Department of Transportation will prepare an EIS for a proposal to improve SR 87 in Santa Rosa County...

  10. Reduced oxide soldering activation (ROSA) PWB solderability testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Reed, J.; Tench, D.M.; White, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of ROSA pretreatment on the solderability of environmentally stressed PWB test coupons was investigated. The PWB surface finish was an electroplated, reflowed solder. Test results demonstrated the ability to recover plated-through-hole fill of steam aged samples with solder after ROSA processing. ROSA offers an alternative method for restoring the solderability of aged PWB surfaces.

  11. Memristive Model of the Barnacle Giant Muscle Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, Maheshwar Pd.; Kim, Hyongsuk; Eroglu, Abdullah; Chua, Leon

    The generation of action potentials (oscillations) in biological systems is a complex, yet poorly understood nonlinear dynamical phenomenon involving ions. This paper reveals that the time-varying calcium ion and the time-varying potassium ion, which are essential for generating action potentials in Barnacle giant muscle fibers are in fact generic memristors in the perspective of electrical circuit theory. We will show that these two ions exhibit all the fingerprints of memristors from the equations of the Morris-Lecar model of the Barnacle giant muscle fibers. This paper also gives a textbook reference to understand the difference between memristor and nonlinear resistor via analysis of the potassium ion-channel memristor and calcium ion-channel nonlinear resistor. We will also present a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the generation of action potentials (oscillations) in memristive Morris-Lecar model using small-signal circuit model and the Hopf bifurcation theorem.

  12. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun; Kawane, Masako; Ozaki, Yuki; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Høeg, Jens T

    2012-03-07

    How and why diverse sexual systems evolve are fascinating evolutionary questions, but few empirical studies have dealt with these questions in animals. Pedunculate (gooseneck) barnacles show such diversity, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, coexistence of dwarf males and hermaphrodites (androdioecy), and coexistence of dwarf males and females (dioecy). Here, we report the first phylogenetically controlled test of the hypothesis that the ultimate cause of the diverse sexual systems and presence of dwarf males in this group is limited mating opportunities for non-dwarf individuals, owing to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin.

  13. Records of Australian Fouling Organisms: Sessile Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    4a-d; Broch 1931:116. Specific features: Parietes longitudinally ribbed, white or pinkish with summits tinged greenish blue (Plate le, f). Articular...1921). Later authors describe the presence of the spines ( Broch 1931; Rosell, 1972). A. zuiho Hiro (1936:632), figs. 8, 9), collected near Darwin...at MRL. 11 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bishop, M.W.H. (1951), Distribution of barnacles by ships. Nature, Lond. 167, 531. Broch , H. (1931), Indomalayan Cirripedia

  14. Effect of ultrasound on cyprids and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi Feng; Lee, Heow Pueh; Chaw, Kuan Chun; Miklas, Jason; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Dickinson, Gary H; Birch, William R; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2011-02-01

    Settlement inhibition of barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) cypris larvae resulting from exposure to ultrasound was measured at three frequencies (23, 63, and 102 kHz), applied at three acoustic pressure levels (9, 15, and 22 kPa) for exposure times of 30, 150, and 300 s. The lowest settlement was observed for 23 kHz, which also induced the highest cyprid mortality. Cyprid settlement following exposure to 23 kHz at 22 kPa for 30 s was reduced by a factor of two. Observing surface exploration by the cyprids revealed an altered behaviour following exposure to ultrasound: step length was increased, while step duration, walking pace, and the fraction of cyprids exploring the surface were significantly reduced with respect to control cyprids. The basal area of juvenile barnacles, metamorphosed from ultrasound-treated cyprids was initially smaller than unexposed individuals, but normalised over two weeks' growth. Thus, ultrasound exposure effectively reduced cyprid settlement, yet metamorphosed barnacles grew normally.

  15. Recyclable plastics as substrata for settlement and growth of bryozoans Bugula neritina and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Plastics are common and pervasive anthropogenic debris in marine environments. Floating plastics provide opportunities to alter the abundance, distribution and invasion potential of sessile organisms that colonize them. We selected plastics from seven recycle categories and quantified settlement of (i) bryozoans Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758) in the lab and in the field, and of (ii) barnacles Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) in the field. In the laboratory we cultured barnacles on the plastics for 8 weeks and quantified growth, mortality, and breaking strength of the side plates. In the field all recyclable plastics were settlement substrata for bryozoans and barnacles. Settlement depended on the type of plastic. Fewer barnacles settled on plastic surfaces compared to glass. In the lab and in the field, bryozoan settlement was higher on plastics than on glass. In static laboratory rearing, barnacles growing on plastics were initially significantly smaller than on glass. This suggested juvenile barnacles were adversely impacted by materials leaching from the plastics. Barnacle mortality was not significantly different between plastic and glass surfaces, but breaking strength of side plates of barnacles on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC) were significantly lower than breakage strength on glass. Plastics impact marine ecosystems directly by providing new surfaces for colonization with fouling organisms and by contaminants shown previously to leach out of plastics and impact biological processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. ESR dating pleistocene barnacles from BC and Maine: a new method for tracking sea level change.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Gong, J J J; Skinner, Anne R; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Nelson, Robert E; Blickstein, Joel I B

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles have never been successfully dated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Living mainly in the intertidal zone, barnacles die when sea level changes cause their permanent exposure. Thus, dating the barnacles dates past sea level changes. From this, we can measure apparent sea level changes that occur due to ocean volume changes, crustal isostasy, and tectonics. ESR can date aragonitic mollusc shells ranging in age from 5 ka to at least 500 ka. By modifying the standard ESR method for molluscs to chemically dissolve 20 microm from off the shells, six barnacle samples from Norridgewock, Maine, and Khyex River, British Columbia, were tested for suitability for ESR dating. Due to Mn2+ interference peaks, the four Maine barnacle samples were not datable by ESR. Two barnacles from BC, which lacked Mn2+ interference, yielded a mean ESR age of 15.1 +/- 1.0 ka. These ages agree well with 14C dates on the barnacles themselves and wood in the overlying glaciomarine sediment. Although stability tests to calculate the mean dating signal lifetime and more ESR calibration tests against other barnacles of known age are needed to ensure the method's accuracy, ESR can indeed date Balanus, and thus, sea level changes.

  17. Loggerhead turtle movements reconstructed from 18O and 13C profiles from commensal barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killingley, John S.; Lutcavage, Molly

    1983-03-01

    Commensal barnacles, Chelonibia testudinaria, from logger-head turtles have 18O and 13C variations in their calcitic shells that record the environments in which the turtles live. Isotopic profiles from the barnacle shells can thus be interpreted to reconstruct movements of the host turtle between open ocean and brackish-water regimes.

  18. The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2013-09-01

    The effect of cavitation bubbles on the removal of juvenile barnacles was documented using high speed photography. Using spark generated bubbles, the interaction between barnacle and cavitation bubble was examined in detail. The liquid jet generated by the bubble collapse was observed to be directed towards barnacle at different impact intensities, which is related to the dimensionless distance H' (H'=H/Rm), where H is the distance between bubble formation point and the top of barnacle, and Rm is the maximum bubble radius. At lower values of H', higher speed liquid jet was produced; consequently a larger impact pressure was generated. In general, barnacles are more easily removed at a younger stage. In older barnacles, the liquid jet impact was only able to remove the barnacle shells, leaving the base plate attached to the surface. This study indicates that cavitation can be used to remove attached barnacles, and it would be more efficient if it is applied during early stages of fouling, before the formation of hard calcareous structures.

  19. Santa Rosa, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Santa Rosa, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil.

    PubMed

    Basim, E; Basim, H

    2003-06-01

    The essential oil of Rosa damascena petals was evaluated for its antibacterial effects against three strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis spp. vesicatoria. The essential oil may be a potential control agent in the management of the disease caused by X.a. vesicatoria in tomato and pepper plants.

  1. Adhesive Proteins of Stalked and Acorn Barnacles Display Homology with Low Sequence Similarities

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins ‘sticky’ has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7–16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18–26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa). PMID:25295513

  2. Adhesive proteins of stalked and acorn barnacles display homology with low sequence similarities.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; Abram, Florence; Pires, Elisabete; Varela Coelho, Ana; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Barnacle adhesion underwater is an important phenomenon to understand for the prevention of biofouling and potential biotechnological innovations, yet so far, identifying what makes barnacle glue proteins 'sticky' has proved elusive. Examination of a broad range of species within the barnacles may be instructive to identify conserved adhesive domains. We add to extensive information from the acorn barnacles (order Sessilia) by providing the first protein analysis of a stalked barnacle adhesive, Lepas anatifera (order Lepadiformes). It was possible to separate the L. anatifera adhesive into at least 10 protein bands using SDS-PAGE. Intense bands were present at approximately 30, 70, 90 and 110 kilodaltons (kDa). Mass spectrometry for protein identification was followed by de novo sequencing which detected 52 peptides of 7-16 amino acids in length. None of the peptides matched published or unpublished transcriptome sequences, but some amino acid sequence similarity was apparent between L. anatifera and closely-related Dosima fascicularis. Antibodies against two acorn barnacle proteins (ab-cp-52k and ab-cp-68k) showed cross-reactivity in the adhesive glands of L. anatifera. We also analysed the similarity of adhesive proteins across several barnacle taxa, including Pollicipes pollicipes (a stalked barnacle in the order Scalpelliformes). Sequence alignment of published expressed sequence tags clearly indicated that P. pollicipes possesses homologues for the 19 kDa and 100 kDa proteins in acorn barnacles. Homology aside, sequence similarity in amino acid and gene sequences tended to decline as taxonomic distance increased, with minimum similarities of 18-26%, depending on the gene. The results indicate that some adhesive proteins (e.g. 100 kDa) are more conserved within barnacles than others (20 kDa).

  3. Barnacle Bill and Surrounding from Super-Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an image from the super-pan sequence. Of importance are some of the features around the rock nicknamed Barnacle Bill in the left foreground. The rock shows a 'streamlined tail' composed of particles deposited by wind on the leeward (downwind) side of the rock. Also seen is a 'moat' around the opposite (windward) side of the rock where either erosion (or non-deposition) of fine sediment has occurred. Mars Pathfinder scientist believe that the wind blowing over and around rocks like Barnacle Bill creates an airflow pattern wherein a buffer zone is formed immediately upwind of the rock and airflow patterns keep sediment from being deposited directly upwind of Barnacle Bill. On the downwind side, however, the airflow is complex and a small wake and tapered 'dead air zone' form. Sediment can be deposited within this region, the shape of the formed deposit corresponds to the airflow patterns that exist behind the rock. Similar features have been observed at the Viking landing sites, and are thought to form under high wind conditions during the autumn and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. This image mosaic was processed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the NASA/JPL Mars Pathfinder Mars Mission.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. "Barnacle Bill" and Surrounding from Super-Pan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-14

    This is an image from the super-pan sequence. Of importance are some of the features around the rock nicknamed Barnacle Bill in the left foreground. The rock shows a "streamlined tail" composed of particles deposited by wind on the leeward (downwind) side of the rock. Also seen is a "moat" around the opposite (windward) side of the rock where either erosion (or non-deposition) of fine sediment has occurred. Mars Pathfinder scientist believe that the wind blowing over and around rocks like Barnacle Bill creates an airflow pattern wherein a buffer zone is formed immediately upwind of the rock and airflow patterns keep sediment from being deposited directly upwind of Barnacle Bill. On the downwind side, however, the airflow is complex and a small wake and tapered "dead air zone" form. Sediment can be deposited within this region, the shape of the formed deposit corresponds to the airflow patterns that exist behind the rock. Similar features have been observed at the Viking landing sites, and are thought to form under high wind conditions during the autumn and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. This image mosaic was processed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the NASA/JPL Mars Pathfinder Mars Mission. Sojourner spent 83 days of a planned seven-day mission exploring the Martian terrain, acquiring images, and taking chemical, atmospheric and other measurements. The final data transmission received from Pathfinder was at 10:23 UTC on September 27, 1997. Although mission managers tried to restore full communications during the following five months, the successful mission was terminated on March 10, 1998. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00982

  5. Barnacle Bill and Surrounding from Super-Pan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an image from the super-pan sequence. Of importance are some of the features around the rock nicknamed Barnacle Bill in the left foreground. The rock shows a 'streamlined tail' composed of particles deposited by wind on the leeward (downwind) side of the rock. Also seen is a 'moat' around the opposite (windward) side of the rock where either erosion (or non-deposition) of fine sediment has occurred. Mars Pathfinder scientist believe that the wind blowing over and around rocks like Barnacle Bill creates an airflow pattern wherein a buffer zone is formed immediately upwind of the rock and airflow patterns keep sediment from being deposited directly upwind of Barnacle Bill. On the downwind side, however, the airflow is complex and a small wake and tapered 'dead air zone' form. Sediment can be deposited within this region, the shape of the formed deposit corresponds to the airflow patterns that exist behind the rock. Similar features have been observed at the Viking landing sites, and are thought to form under high wind conditions during the autumn and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. This image mosaic was processed by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the NASA/JPL Mars Pathfinder Mars Mission.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Antifouling Block Copolymer Surfaces that Resist Settlement of Barnacle Larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Weinman,C.; Krishnan, S.; Park, D.; Paik, M.; Wong, K.; Fischer, D.; Handlin, D.; Kowalke, G.; Wendt, D.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Marine biofouling is a serious problem caused by the accumulation and settlement of barnacles, macroalgae, and microbial slimes on the hulls of seafaring vessels. Biofouling can significantly increase drag, leading to startling consequences with regards to fuel consumption. Environmentally compatible solutions to biofouling are being sought as traditional metal-based systems of fouling control are being phased out due to their inherent toxicity. Further exasperating the problem of biofouling is the vast range of fouling organisms and environmental conditions experienced throughout the world. This renders the development of a universal biofouling coating a significant challenge.

  7. Mitochondrial evolution across lineages of the vampire barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus.

    PubMed

    Wares, John P

    2015-02-01

    Eight whole mitochondrial genomes from the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus, with one from the northern lineage and seven from the divergent southern lineage, are presented. The annotated and aligned data were analyzed for signals of non-neutral evolution. Overall, these data are consistent with purifying selection operating on the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrion. However, a notable region of nonsynonymous substitution at the 3' end of the ND2 gene region, along with unusual site frequency spectra in two other gene regions, was identified.

  8. Effect of ultrasound on cyprid footprint and juvenile barnacle adhesion on a fouling release material.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shifeng; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Zhong, Shaoping; Lim, Chwee Teck; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-03-01

    In our earlier studies, we have demonstrated that low and high intensity ultrasound can prevent barnacle cyprid settlement. In this study, we found that ultrasound treatment reduced the adhesion of newly metamorphosed barnacles up to 2 days' old. This was observed in the reduction of adhesion strength of the newly settled barnacles from ultrasound treated cyprids on silicone substrate compared to the adhesion strength of barnacles metamorphosed from cyprids not exposed to ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the effect of ultrasound on barnacle cyprid footprints (FPs), which are protein adhesives secreted when the larvae explore surfaces. The ultrasound treated cyprids were found to secrete less FPs, which appeared to spread a larger area than those generated by untreated cyprids. The evidence from this study suggests that ultrasound treatment results in a reduced cyprid settlement and footprint secretion, and may affect the subsequent recruitment of barnacles onto fouling release surfaces by reducing the ability of early settlement stage of barnacles (up to 2 days' old) from firmly adhering to the substrates. Ultrasound therefore can be used in combination with fouling release coatings to offer a more efficient antifouling strategy.

  9. On the origin of a novel parasitic-feeding mode within suspension-feeding barnacles.

    PubMed

    Rees, David John; Noever, Christoph; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Ommundsen, Anders; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-06-16

    In his monograph on Cirripedia from 1851, Darwin pointed to a highly unusual, plateless, and most likely parasitic barnacle of uncertain phylogenetic affinity. Darwin's barnacle was Anelasma squalicola, found on deep-water sharks of the family Etmopteridae, or lantern sharks. The barnacle is uncommon and is therefore rarely studied. Recent observations by us have shown that they occur at an unusually high prevalence on the velvet belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax, in restricted fjord areas of western Norway. A phylogenetic analysis based on ribosomal DNA data (16S, 18S, and 28S) from 99 selected barnacle species, including all available pedunculate barnacle sequences from GenBank, shows that A. squalicola is most closely related (sister taxon) to the pedunculate barnacle Capitulum mitella. Both C. mitella and species of Pollicipes, situated one node higher in the tree, are conventional suspension feeders from the rocky intertidal. Our phylogenetic analysis now makes it possible to establish morphological homologies between A. squalicola and its sister taxon and provides the evolutionary framework to explain the unprecedented transition from a filter-feeding barnacle to a parasitic mode of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of desiccation on the adhesion of barnacles attached to non-stick coatings.

    PubMed

    Wiegemann, Maja; Watermann, Burkard

    2004-06-01

    Fouling-release coatings prevent fouling of ships' hulls through hydrodynamic forces generated as the ship moves through the water. The effectiveness of such coatings may be evaluated by measuring the adhesion strength of settled organisms, e.g. barnacles. The influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive on such measurements was investigated. Shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Balanus increased during the course of desiccation up to the point when the barnacles suddenly self-detached. The increase was thought to be due to the rising cohesive strength of the adhesive. Growing tensile forces within the weakly cross-linked adhesive, however, are suggested to have led to self-detachment. The shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Elminius were generally low and did not differ significantly during the course of desiccation. The different results may be attributed to specific base morphologies. It was concluded that measuring the adhesion strength of members of the Balanidae on non-stick surfaces in air could produce flawed results due to the influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive. The investigations have also provided new insights into the characteristics of barnacle adhesive.

  11. Introduction to the symposium--barnacle biology: essential aspects and contemporary approaches.

    PubMed

    Zardus, John D

    2012-09-01

    Barnacles have evolved a number of specialized features peculiar for crustaceans: they produce a calcified, external shell; they exhibit sexual strategies involving dioecy and androdioecy; and some have become internal parasites of other Crustacea. The thoroughly sessile habit of adults also belies the highly mobile and complex nature of their larval stages. Given these and other remarkable innovations in their natural history, it is perhaps not surprising that barnacles present a spectrum of opportunities for study. This symposium integrates research on barnacles in the areas of larval biology, biofouling, reproduction, biogeography, speciation, population genetics, ecological genomics, and phylogenetics. Pioneering comparisons are presented of metamorphosis among barnacles from three major lineages. Biofouling is investigated from the perspectives of biochemical and biomechanical mechanisms. Tradeoffs in reproductive specializations are scrutinized through theoretical modeling and empirical validation. Patterns of endemism and diversity are delineated in Australia and intricate species boundaries in the genus Chthamalus are elucidated for the Indo-Pacific. General methodological concerns with population expansion studies in crustaceans are highlighted using barnacle models. Data from the first, draft barnacle genome are employed to examine location-specific selection. Lastly, barnacle evolution is framed in a deep phylogenetic context and hypothetical origins of defined characters are outlined and tested.

  12. Antifouling properties of tough gels against barnacles in a long-term marine environment experiment.

    PubMed

    Murosaki, T; Noguchi, T; Hashimoto, K; Kakugo, A; Kurokawa, T; Saito, J; Chen, Y M; Furukawa, H; Gong, J P

    2009-10-01

    In the marine environment, the antifouling (AF) properties of various kinds of hydrogels against sessile marine organisms (algae, sea squirts, barnacles) were tested in a long-term experiment. The results demonstrate that most hydrogels can endure at least 2 months in the marine environment. In particular, mechanically tough PAMPS/PAAm DN and PVA gels exhibited AF activity against marine sessile organisms, especially barnacles, for as long as 330 days. The AF ability of hydrogels toward barnacles is explained in terms of an 'easy-release' mechanism in which the high water content and the elastic modulus of the gel are two important parameters.

  13. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun; Kawane, Masako; Ozaki, Yuki; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Høeg, Jens T.

    2012-01-01

    How and why diverse sexual systems evolve are fascinating evolutionary questions, but few empirical studies have dealt with these questions in animals. Pedunculate (gooseneck) barnacles show such diversity, including simultaneous hermaphroditism, coexistence of dwarf males and hermaphrodites (androdioecy), and coexistence of dwarf males and females (dioecy). Here, we report the first phylogenetically controlled test of the hypothesis that the ultimate cause of the diverse sexual systems and presence of dwarf males in this group is limited mating opportunities for non-dwarf individuals, owing to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin. PMID:21881138

  14. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    PubMed

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances.

  15. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Michael A.; Pfaller, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai’i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris. PMID:26813348

  16. Oceanic barnacles act as foundation species on plastic debris: implications for marine dispersal.

    PubMed

    Gil, Michael A; Pfaller, Joseph B

    2016-01-27

    Plastic has emerged as an abundant, stable substratum for oceanic dispersal of organisms via rafting. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying community diversity on plastic debris remain poorly understood. On a cruise from California to Hawai'i, we surveyed plastic debris, some likely originating from the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami, to examine the relationship between rafting community diversity and both habitat area and stalked barnacle (Lepas spp.) abundance. For sessile taxa richness, we observed an interaction in which the positive effect of debris area weakened the negative effect of barnacle cover. In contrast, for mobile taxa richness, including cohabiting species from opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean, barnacle abundance had a positive effect that was strongest at smaller debris sizes. These findings suggest that barnacles, through interactions with habitat area, have trait-dependent effects on other species, serving as both foundation species and competitors, mediating the diversity and dispersal potential of marine organisms on plastic debris.

  17. Release characteristics of reattached barnacles to non-toxic silicone coatings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Nyren-Erickson, Erin; Stafslien, Shane; Daniels, Justin; Bahr, James; Chisholm, Bret J

    2008-01-01

    Release mechanisms of barnacles (Amphibalanus amphitrite or Balanus amphitrite) reattached to platinum-cured silicone coatings were studied as a function of coating thickness (210-770 microm), elastic modulus (0.08-1.3 MPa), and shear rate (2-22 microm s(-1)). It was found that the shear stress of the reattached, live barnacles necessary to remove from the silicone coatings was controlled by the combined term (E/t)(0.5) of the elastic modulus (E) and thickness (t). As the ratio of the elastic modulus to coating thickness decreased, the barnacles were more readily removed from the silicone coatings, showing a similar release behavior to pseudobarnacles (epoxy glue). The barnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.017 to 0.055 MPa whereas the pseudobarnacle mean shear stress ranged from 0.022 to 0.095 MPa.

  18. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  19. Molt-dependent transcriptomic analysis of cement proteins in the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Leary, Dagmar H; Liu, Jinny; Settlage, Robert E; Fears, Kenan P; North, Stella H; Mostaghim, Anahita; Essock-Burns, Tara; Haynes, Sarah E; Wahl, Kathryn J; Spillmann, Christopher M

    2015-10-24

    A complete understanding of barnacle adhesion remains elusive as the process occurs within and beneath the confines of a rigid calcified shell. Barnacle cement is mainly proteinaceous and several individual proteins have been identified in the hardened cement at the barnacle-substrate interface. Little is known about the molt- and tissue-specific expression of cement protein genes but could offer valuable insight into the complex multi-step processes of barnacle growth and adhesion. The main body and sub-mantle tissue of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (basionym Balanus amphitrite) were collected in pre- and post-molt stages. RNA-seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome for differential gene expression at these two stages and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the protein content of barnacle secretions. We report on the transcriptomic analysis of barnacle cement gland tissue in pre- and post-molt growth stages and proteomic investigation of barnacle secretions. While no significant difference was found in the expression of cement proteins genes at pre- and post-molting stages, expression levels were highly elevated in the sub-mantle tissue (where the cement glands are located) compared to the main barnacle body. We report the discovery of a novel 114kD cement protein, which is identified in material secreted onto various surfaces by adult barnacles and with the encoding gene highly expressed in the sub-mantle tissue. Further differential gene expression analysis of the sub-mantle tissue samples reveals a limited number of genes highly expressed in pre-molt samples with a range of functions including cuticular development, biominerialization, and proteolytic activity. The expression of cement protein genes appears to remain constant through the molt cycle and is largely confined to the sub-mantle tissue. Our results reveal a novel and potentially prominent protein to the mix of cement

  20. Recruitment of the Intertidal Barnacle Semibalanus balanoides; Metamorphosis and Survival from Daily to Seasonal Timescales

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Hartnoll (1982) compared the settler abundance measured over four consecutive years, relating variability in settlement to factors such as variation in...the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides. Marine Ecology Progress Series 137:103-110. Connell, J. H. 1985. The consequences of variation in initial...Temporal variation in cyprid quality and juvenile growth capacity for an intertideal barnacle. Ecology 78:1262-1265. Jenkins, S. R. 2005. Larval

  1. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  2. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Insurance Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the 'Insurance Pan' frames taken while the IMP camera was still in its stowed position on sol2. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The right eye composite consists of 5 frames, taken with different color filters, the left eye consists of only 1 frame. The resultant image from each eye was enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

    The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument.

  3. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Insurance Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the 'Insurance Pan' frames taken while the IMP camera was still in its stowed position on sol2. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The right eye composite consists of 5 frames, taken with different color filters, the left eye consists of only 1 frame. The resultant image from each eye was enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

    The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. Barnacle Bill is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument.

  4. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  5. Celebrating the Life and Legacy of Rosa Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Loraine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the life and legacy of Rosa Parks. The author highlights four children's books that accurately portray Parks as an activist and acknowledge the broader context of her life's story--and the years of struggle of the black community against Jim Crow laws. The four children's books share Rosa Park's story in ways…

  6. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND MONITORING STUDY, 1997 - PRESENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in May 1997 water samples have been collected quarterly from 37 stations in Santa Rosa Sound, from the Pensacola Beach Bridge eastward to Ft. Walton Beach. Quarterly averages for Santa Rosa Sound showing quarterly and annual variations in concentrations of dissolved ni...

  7. Increased algal fouling on mussels with barnacle epibionts: a fouling cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge L.; Palomo, M. Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    If the external surfaces of epibionts are more suitable to other fouling species than those of their basibionts, a 'fouling cascade' might occur where epibionts facilitate secondary colonization by other epibionts. Here we evaluate whether the presence of epibiotic barnalces (Balanus glandula) influences the probability of mussel (Brachidontes rodriguezii) fouling by ephemeral red algae (Porphyra sp.) in a Southwestern Atlantic rocky shore. Mussels with barnacle epibionts showed a higher prevalence of Porphyra sp. fouling (32-40% depending on sampling date) than mussels without them (3-7%). Two lines of evidence indicate that barnacles facilitate Porphyra sp. fouling. First, most Porphyra sp. thalli in mussels with barnacle epibionts were attached to barnacle shells (75-92% of cases). Secondly, Porphyra sp. associated with mussels with barnacle epibionts in a proportion that significantly exceeded that expected under random co-occurrence. These results suggest the occurrence of a fouling cascade where barnacle epibiosis on mussels facilitates subsequent algal fouling. Recognizing the occurrence of such fouling cascades is important because they might explain the non-random aggregation of multiple epibiotic species onto a proportionally few individuals of the host species.

  8. First evidence for temporary and permanent adhesive systems in the stalked barnacle cyprid, Octolasmis angulata

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Fook Choy; Wong, Wey-Lim; Maule, Aaron G.; Brennan, Gerard P.; Chong, Ving Ching; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2017-01-01

    Although there have been extensive studies on the larval adhesion of acorn barnacles over the past few decades, little is known about stalked barnacles. For the first time, we describe the larval adhesive systems in the stalked barnacle, Octolasmis angulata and the findings differ from previous reports of the temporary (antennulary) and cement glands in thoracican barnacles. We have found that the temporary adhesives of cyprid are produced by the clustered temporary adhesive glands located within the mantle, instead of the specialised hypodermal glands in the second antennular segment as reported in the acorn barnacles. The temporary adhesive secretory vesicles (TASV) are released from the gland cells into the antennule via the neck extensions of the glands, and surrounded with microtubules in the attachment disc. Cement glands undergo a morphological transition as the cyprid grows. Synthesis of the permanent adhesives only occurs during the early cyprid stage, and is terminated once the cement glands reach maximum size. Evidence of the epithelial invaginations on the cement glands supports the involvement of exocytosis in the secretion of the permanent adhesives. This study provides new insight into the larval adhesives system of thoracican barnacles. PMID:28327603

  9. Significance of trophic transfer in predicting the high concentration of zinc in barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.X.; Qui, J.W.; Qian, P.Y.

    1999-09-01

    Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. The authors determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98% for the zooplankton preys. These AEs were the highest measured among aquatic invertebrates. Varying distribution in the soft tissues of zooplankton did not account for the variability of Zn AE observed among different zooplankton preys. Most Zn was distributed in the guts of the animals, presumably associated with the numerous granules beneath the gut epithelium. The efflux rate constant was 0.003 d{sup {minus}1}, and the calculated biological retention half-time was about 230 days. Using a simple bioenergetic-based kinetic model, the authors demonstrated that trophic transfer can account for such a high Zn concentration in barnacles. The predicted Zn concentrations in barnacles were directly comparable to the concentrations measured in Hong Kong coastal waters {micro}g. The high Zn concentration is related to its very efficient assimilation in barnacles coupled with a very low efflux rate. Biological variability must be fully appreciated before barnacles can be designated as an appropriate biomonitor of Zn contamination in coastal waters. The authors study suggests that metal concentration in aquatic animals can be predicted only when both physiological and geochemical processes are considered.

  10. Prawns, barnacles, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: effect modifiers or diagnostic confounders [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; González-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V; Armisén, M

    2007-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman with no history of atopy reported several episodes of generalized urticaria and shortness of breath after eating shellfish (prawns and barnacles) but with good tolerance of the same foods between episodes. Skin prick tests (SPTs), serum enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST) for specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, Western blot and inhibition assays, and oral challenge tests with prawns, barnacles, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and alcohol as potential effect modifiers were performed. Specific IgE to both barnacle and prawn were detected by SPTs and EAST. Results from a Western blot of raw prawn revealed an IgE binding band of 37 kDa and IgE binding bands of 143, 83, 38, 32, and 20 kDa appeared in the raw barnacle assay. Oral challenge tests were positive with prawns and prawn extract only if preceded by NSAIDs. Oral challenges with NSAIDs alone, prawns alone, barnacles with or without NSAIDs and alcohol led to no reaction. A synergistic effect of NSAIDs in inducing anaphylaxis after prawn intake was confirmed. No similar effect was achieved with barnacles despite the presence of specific IgE. Additional factors needed to elicit a clinical reaction in food allergy may not be obvious and several oral challenge protocols are mandatory in such cases.

  11. Prolonged morphometric study of barnacles grown on soft substrata of hydrogels and elastomers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nafees; Murosaki, Takayuki; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Kakugo, Akira; Yashima, Shintaro; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-01-01

    A long-term investigation of the shell shape and the basal morphology of barnacles grown on tough, double-network (DN) hydrogels and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was conducted in a laboratory environment. The elastic modulus of these soft substrata varied between 0.01 and 0.47 MPa. Polystyrene (PS) (elastic modulus, 3 GPa) was used as a hard substratum control. It was found that the shell shape and the basal plate morphology of barnacles were different on the rigid PS substratum compared to the soft substrata of PDMS and DN hydrogels. Barnacles on the PS substratum had a truncated cone shape with a flat basal plate while on soft PDMS and DN gels, barnacles had a pseudo-cylindrical shape and their basal plates showed curvature. In addition, a large adhesive layer was observed under barnacles on PDMS, but not on DN gels. The effect of substratum stiffness is discussed in terms of barnacle muscle contraction, whereby the relative stiffness of the substratum compared to that of the muscle is considered as the key parameter.

  12. Larval vision contributes to gregarious settlement in barnacles: adult red fluorescence as a possible visual signal.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Gregarious settlement, an essential behavior for many barnacle species that can only reproduce by mating with a nearby barnacle, has long been thought to rely on larval ability to recognize chemical signals from conspecifics during settlement. However, the cyprid, the settlement stage larva in barnacles, has one pair of compound eyes that appear only at the late nauplius VI and cyprid stages, but the function(s) of these eyes remains unknown. Here we show that cyprids of the intertidal barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite can locate adult barnacles even in the absence of chemical cues, and prefer to settle around them probably via larval sense of vision. We also show that the cyprids can discriminate color and preferred to settle on red surfaces. Moreover, we found that shells of adult B. amphitrite emit red auto-fluorescence and the adult extracts with the fluorescence as a visual signal attracted cyprid larvae to settle around it. We propose that the perception of specific visual signals can be involved in behavior of zooplankton including marine invertebrate larvae, and that barnacle auto-fluorescence may be a specific signal involved in gregarious larval settlement.

  13. The identification and role of a novel eicosanoid in the reproductive behaviour of barnacles (Balanus balanus).

    PubMed

    Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2006-02-01

    Post-copulatory behaviour in barnacles involves a violent rocking movement of the opercular valves, which is thought to contribute to the expulsion of oocytes through the oviduct into the mantle cavity where they are fertilised. We demonstrate in this study that the seminal vesicles/testis of the subtidal barnacle Balanus balanus produce a biologically active factor, barnacle muscle stimulatory factor (BMSF), which causes a significant increase in cirral and body muscular activity. BMSF was identified using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry as a novel eicosanoid/oxylipin, 8,13-dihydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid. This is rapidly inactivated under mild acid conditions to form a complex range of triene and pentaene chromophore-containing products that have only been partially identified. Injection of purified BMSF into the mantle cavity of barnacles caused the rocking movements of the opercular valves as reported following fertilisation. In excised barnacles, it also caused muscular contractions of the whole body mass. The breakdown products of BMSF, however, were without such activities. The function of BMSF in facilitating fertilisation in barnacles is comparable to the role of other eicosanoids in human reproduction, reinforcing the view that these compounds have conserved activities in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  14. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the parasitic barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Glenner, Henrik; Hebsgaard, Martin Bay

    2006-12-01

    The barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia) consist of three well-defined orders: the conventional filter-feeding barnacles (Thoracica), the burrowing barnacles (Acrothoracica), and the parasitic barnacles (Rhizocephala). Thoracica and Acrothoracica feed by catching food particles from the surrounding seawater using their thoracic appendages while members of Rhizocephala are exclusively parasitic. The parasite consists of a sac-shaped, external reproductive organ situated on the abdomen of its crustacean host and a nutrient-absorbing root system embedded into the heamolymph of the host. In order to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of the order Rhizocephala and elucidate the evolution of the different life history strategies found within the Rhizocephala, we have performed the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group. Our results indicate that Rhizocephala is monophyletic with a filter-feeding barnacle-like ancestor. The host-infective stage, the kentrogon larva, inserted in the lifecycle of the rhizocephalan suborder, Kentrogonida, is shown to be ancestral and most likely a homologue of the juvenile stage of a conventional thoracican barnacle. The mode of host inoculation found in the suborder Akentrogonida, where the last pelagic larval stage directly injects the parasitic material into the heamolymph of the host is derived, and has evolved only once within the Rhizocephala. Lastly, our results show that the ancestral host for extant rhizocephalans appears to be the anomuran crustaceans (Anomura), which includes hermit crabs and squat lobsters.

  15. 'Flying barnacles': implications for the spread of non-indigenous species.

    PubMed

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu; Høeg, Jens T

    2010-07-01

    The presence of adult barnacles of Fistulobalanus pallidus (Darwin) and Fistulobalanus albicostatus (Pilsbry) attached to field-readable plastic leg rings on the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus in Northern Europe is reported. L. fuscus is a long-distance palaearctic migrant, breeding in temperate areas spreading widely over inland and marine habitats outside the breeding season. The species is known to perform long-distance migration to Africa and the Middle East. Combining present knowledge on the birds' migratory pattern and the home range of the barnacle species, it is concluded that the cypris larvae of F. pallidus must have settled in African waters, whereas the area where F. albicostatus settled on the bird leg rings is less certain. The barnacles were of adult size and must thus have been attached for a period of no less than 2 months. More than 30 individual barnacles could occur together on a single field-readable plastic leg ring. The barnacles could therefore, if ported alive to a new area, reproduce successfully and thus either introduce the species or genetically affect other native populations. This may pose a new and wholly unexpected transportation pathway for barnacles as invasive species.

  16. The adhesive strategies of cyprids and development of barnacle-resistant marine coatings.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, approaches to the development of surfaces that perturb settlement and/or adhesion by barnacles have diversified substantially. Although, previously, coatings research focussed almost exclusively on biocidal technologies and low modulus, low surface-free-energy 'fouling-release' materials, novel strategies to control surface colonisation are now receiving significant attention. It is timely, therefore, to review the current 'state of knowledge' regarding fouling-resistant surface characteristics and their mechanisms of action against settling larvae of barnacles. The role of the barnacle in marine fouling is discussed here in the context of its life cycle and the behavioural ecology of its cypris larva. The temporary and permanent adhesion mechanisms of cyprids are covered in detail and an overview of adult barnacle adhesion is presented. Recent legislation has directed academic research firmly towards environmentally inert marine coatings, so the actions of traditional biocides on barnacles are not described here. Instead, the discussion is restricted to those surface modifications that interfere with settlement-site selection and adhesion of barnacle cypris larvae; specifically, textural engineering of surfaces, development of inert 'non-fouling' surfaces and the use of enzymes in antifouling.

  17. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture. PMID:23071672

  18. Classification of the pre-settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Maleschlijski, Stojan; Bauer, Stella; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Barnacle cyprids exhibit a complex swimming and exploratory behaviour on surfaces and settlement is a consequence of extensive surface probing and selection of suitable settlement sites. In this work, the behaviour of cyprids in their pre-settlement phase was studied by three-dimensional video stereoscopy. With this technique, three-dimensional trajectories were obtained that were quantitatively analysed. The velocity during vertical sinking of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite was used with a modified form of Stokes' law to calculate their mean body density. Furthermore, a classification of the swimming patterns allowed the extension of existing models describing cyprid locomotion and swimming behaviour. The patterns were characterized with respect to their occurrence, transition between patterns and their velocity distribution, and motions were identified that led to surface contacts. This analysis provides a classification framework, which can assist future attempts to identify behavioural responses of cyprids to specific settlement cues. PMID:25551141

  19. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  20. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  1. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Super Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-07-03

    "Barnacle Bill" is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin. This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the "Super Panorama" frames from the IMP camera. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of these rocks and what it might tell us about their mode of origin. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The composites consist of 7 frames in the right eye and 8 frames in the left eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01409

  2. Antifouling activity of synthetic alkylpyridinium polymers using the barnacle model.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-04-02

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC₅₀) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC₅₀: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC₅₀ of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L.

  3. Phenolic antioxidants from Rosa soulieana flowers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Fu; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Zhiqiong; Wang, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    Rosa soulieana has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disorders. In this study, antioxidant activity-guided fractionation and purification of the methanol extract from the flowers of R. soulieana has led to the isolation of nine phenolic antioxidants, which were identified as catechin (1), tiliroside (2), astragalin (3), isoquercitrin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eugenol 4-O-β-d-(6'-O-galloyl) glucoside (6), michehedyosides D (7), citrusin C (8) and strictinin (9), respectively. Among them, compounds 5-9 were reported from the genus Rosa for the first time. All the compounds were also assayed by in vitro ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] radical cation scavenging activity. Among these bioactive isolates (1-9), compounds 1, 6, 7 and 9 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS (SC50 = 10.17, 7.38, 8.60, 4.72 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (SC50 = 15.97 μmol/L).

  4. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under the McMurdo Ice Shelf using Antarctic barnacle shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential of barnacles for paleoceanographic reconstruction and, in particular, of the Antarctic species Bathylasma corolliforme to reconstruct past conditions under ice shelves. Like other barnacle species, this Antarctic barnacle secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth over a number of years (30-50 in samples studied here). The Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and became entrained at the grounding line of a coastal ice shelf in McMurdo Sound, offering potential as an archive of changing conditions in this difficult to access environment under the McMurdo ice shelf. Nine barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ 18O and δ 13C analysis. These samples were dated with 14C and U-Th techniques, although the later did not yield useful age information due to open-system behaviour of barnacle calcite. Measured δ 18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater. One older sample (≈ 200 ka) has similar δ 18O and δ 13C values as the eight Holocene samples, suggesting that barnacle calcite is not prone to significant diagenesis in this setting. Apparent isotope equilibrium and lack of diagenesis make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Cycles of δ 18O observed within each sample sometimes correlate with the external growth ridges, but not always, and have amplitudes of typically 0.6‰. This magnitude of variation suggests shell growth during a significant portion of the year, although it remains unclear whether growth continues throughout the year. However, the prominent growth bands suggest at least a signficant seasonal slowing in growth rate. Variations in barnacle δ 18O within each plate and between plates are too large to be caused by temperature, and instead reflect changes in δ 18O of the seawater, allowing some assessment of seawater

  5. Morphological and host specificity evolution in coral symbiont barnacles (Balanomorpha: Pyrgomatidae) inferred from a multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Nozawa, Yoko; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2014-08-01

    Coral-inhabiting barnacles (Thoracica: Pyrgomatidae) are obligatory symbionts of scleractinian and fire corals. We attempted to reconstruct the phylogeny of coral-inhabiting barnacles using a multi-locus approach (mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, H3 and RP gene sequences, total 3532bp), which recovered a paraphyletic pattern. The fire-coral inhabiting barnacle Wanella milleporae occupied a basal position with respect to the other coral inhabiting barnacles. Pyrgomatids along with the coral-inhabiting archaeobalanid Armatobalanus nested within the same clade and this clade was subdivided into two major lineages: Armatobalanus+Cantellius with species proposed to be the ancestral stock of extant coral barnacles, and the other comprising the remaining genera studied. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) suggested multiple independent fusions and separations of shell plates and opercular valves in coral barnacle evolution, which counters the traditional hypothesis founded on a scheme of morphological similarities. Most of the coral barnacles are restricted to one or two coral host families only, suggesting a trend toward narrow host range and more specific adaptation. Furthermore, there is a close linkage between coral host usage and phylogenetic relationships with sister taxa usually being found on the same coral host family. This suggests that symbiotic relationships in coral-inhabiting barnacles are phylogenetically conserved and that host associated specialization plays an important role in their diversification.

  6. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A. Richard

    2008-01-01

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification—female choice, sexual conflict and male–male competition—can influence genital form. PMID:18252665

  7. Something Darwin didn't know about barnacles: spermcast mating in a common stalked species.

    PubMed

    Barazandeh, Marjan; Davis, Corey S; Neufeld, Christopher J; Coltman, David W; Palmer, A Richard

    2013-03-07

    Most free-living barnacles are hermaphroditic, and eggs are presumed to be fertilized either by pseudo-copulation or self-fertilization. Although the common northeast Pacific intertidal gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes polymerus, is believed only to cross-fertilize, some isolated individuals well outside penis range nonetheless bear fertilized eggs. They must therefore either self-fertilize or-contrary to all prior expectations about barnacle mating-obtain sperm from the water. To test these alternative hypotheses, we collected isolated individuals bearing egg masses, as well as isolated pairs where at least one parent carried egg masses. Using 16 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we confirmed that a high percentage of eggs were fertilized with sperm captured from the water. Sperm capture occurred in 100 per cent of isolated individuals and, remarkably, even in 24 per cent of individuals that had an adjacent partner. Replicate subsamples of individual egg masses confirmed that eggs fertilized by captured sperm occurred throughout the egg mass. Sperm capture may therefore be a common supplement to pseudo-copulation in this species. These observations (i) overturn over a century of beliefs about what barnacles can (or cannot) do in terms of sperm transfer, (ii) raise doubts about prior claims of self-fertilization in barnacles, (iii) raise interesting questions about the capacity for sperm capture in other species (particularly those with short penises), and (iv) show, we believe for the first time, that spermcast mating can occur in an aquatic arthropod.

  8. Mating group size and evolutionarily stable pattern of sexuality in barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Yamato, Shigeyuki; Urano, Satoru; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2008-07-07

    Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have various patterns of sexuality depending on species including simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (hermaphrodites and dwarf males), and dioecy (females and dwarf males). We develop a model that predicts the pattern of sexuality in barnacles by two key environmental factors: (i) food availability and (ii) the fraction of larvae that settle on the sea floor. Populations in the model consist of small individuals and large ones. We calculate the optimal resource allocation toward male function, female function and growth for small and large barnacles that maximizes each barnacle's lifetime reproductive success using dynamic programming. The pattern of sexuality is defined by the combination of the optimal resource allocations. In our model, the mating group size is a dependent variable and we found that sexuality pattern changes with the food availability through the mating group size: simultaneous hermaphroditism appears in food-rich environments, where the mating group size is large, protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism appears in intermediate food environments, where the mating group size also takes intermediate value, the other sexuality patterns, androdioecy, dioecy, and sex change are observed in food-poor environments, where the mating group size is small. Our model is the first one where small males can control their growth to large individuals, and hence has ability to explain a rich spectrum of sexual patterns found in barnacles.

  9. Evaluation of a fully automated method to measure the critical removal stress of adult barnacles.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2008-01-01

    A computer-controlled force gauge designed to measure the adhesive strength of barnacles on test substrata is described. The instrument was evaluated with adult barnacles grown in situ on Silastic T2(R)-coated microscope slides and epoxy replicas adhered to the same substratum with synthetic adhesive. The force per unit area required to detach the barnacles (critical removal stress) using the new automated system was comparable to that obtained with ASTM D5618 (1994) (0.19 and 0.28 MPa compared with 0.18 and 0.27 MPa for two batches of barnacles). The automated method showed a faster rate of force development compared with the manual spring force gauge used for ASTM D5618 (1994). The new instrument was as accurate and precise at determining surface area as manual delineation used with ASTM D5618 (1994). The method provided significant advantages such as higher throughput speed, the ability to test smaller barnacles (which took less time to grow) and to control the force application angle and speed. The variability in measurements was lower than previously reported, suggesting an improved ability to compare the results obtained by different researchers.

  10. Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Christopher J; Palmer, A Richard

    2008-05-07

    For their size, barnacles possess the longest penis of any animal (up to eight times their body length). However, as one of few sessile animals to copulate, they face a trade-off between reaching more mates and controlling ever-longer penises in turbulent flow. We observed that penises of an intertidal barnacle (Balanus glandula) from wave-exposed shores were shorter than, stouter than, and more than twice as massive for their length as, those from nearby protected bays. In addition, penis shape variation was tightly correlated with maximum velocity of breaking waves, and, on all shores, larger barnacles had disproportionately stouter penises. Finally, field experiments confirmed that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity: barnacles transplanted to a wave-exposed outer coast produced dramatically shorter and wider penises than counterparts moved to a protected harbour. Owing to the probable trade-off between penis length and ability to function in flow, and owing to the ever-changing wave conditions on rocky shores, intertidal barnacles appear to have acquired the capacity to change the size and shape of their penises to suit local hydrodynamic conditions. This dramatic plasticity in genital form is a valuable reminder that factors other than the usual drivers of genital diversification--female choice, sexual conflict and male-male competition--can influence genital form.

  11. Something Darwin didn't know about barnacles: spermcast mating in a common stalked species

    PubMed Central

    Barazandeh, Marjan; Davis, Corey S.; Neufeld, Christopher J.; Coltman, David W.; Palmer, A. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Most free-living barnacles are hermaphroditic, and eggs are presumed to be fertilized either by pseudo-copulation or self-fertilization. Although the common northeast Pacific intertidal gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes polymerus, is believed only to cross-fertilize, some isolated individuals well outside penis range nonetheless bear fertilized eggs. They must therefore either self-fertilize or—contrary to all prior expectations about barnacle mating—obtain sperm from the water. To test these alternative hypotheses, we collected isolated individuals bearing egg masses, as well as isolated pairs where at least one parent carried egg masses. Using 16 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we confirmed that a high percentage of eggs were fertilized with sperm captured from the water. Sperm capture occurred in 100 per cent of isolated individuals and, remarkably, even in 24 per cent of individuals that had an adjacent partner. Replicate subsamples of individual egg masses confirmed that eggs fertilized by captured sperm occurred throughout the egg mass. Sperm capture may therefore be a common supplement to pseudo-copulation in this species. These observations (i) overturn over a century of beliefs about what barnacles can (or cannot) do in terms of sperm transfer, (ii) raise doubts about prior claims of self-fertilization in barnacles, (iii) raise interesting questions about the capacity for sperm capture in other species (particularly those with short penises), and (iv) show, we believe for the first time, that spermcast mating can occur in an aquatic arthropod. PMID:23325777

  12. Characterization of the Campylobacter jejuni population in the barnacle geese reservoir.

    PubMed

    Llarena, A-K; Skarp-de Haan, C P A; Rossi, M; Hänninen, M-L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and have been isolated from a wide number of different hosts and environmental sources. Waterfowl is considered a natural reservoir for this zoonotic bacterium and may act as a potential infection source for human campylobacteriosis. In this study, faecal samples from 924 barnacle geese were tested for the presence of C. jejuni and C. coli. The resulting C. jejuni and C. coli populations were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), structure analysis by BAPS and phylogenetic analysis based on full genome sequences. The prevalences of C. jejuni in barnacle geese faeces were 11.5% and 23.1% in 2011 and 2012, respectively, and only 0.2% of the samples were positive for C. coli in both years. Furthermore, a possible adaption of the clonal complexes (CCs) ST-702 and ST-1034 to the barnacle geese reservoir was found, as these two CCs represented the majority of the typed isolates and were repeatedly isolated from different flocks at several time-points. Further core genome phylogenetic analysis using ClonalFrame revealed a formation of a distinct monophyletic lineage by these two CCs, suggesting a certain degree of clonality of the C. jejuni population adapted to barnacle geese. Therefore, although STs also commonly found in humans patients (e.g. ST-45) were among the barnacle geese C. jejuni isolates, this reservoir is probably an infrequent source for human campylobacteriosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate.

    PubMed

    Burden, Daniel K; Spillmann, Christopher M; Everett, Richard K; Barlow, Daniel E; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Fears, Kenan P; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery.

  14. Selective settlement of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) facilitates its growth and reproduction on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2001-07-01

    On the unstable sedimentary tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a suitable attachment substrate for sessile organisms is generally lacking. Epibenthic mussel beds (Mytilus edulis L.) provide the only and strongly limited settlement sites available for the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides (L.). Field investigations showed that barnacles were non-randomly distributed within a mussel bed. They preferentially occurred near the siphonal apertures of living mussels but rarely grew on dead mussels or shell fragments. Field experiments revealed that this was due to selective settlement of barnacle cyprid larvae. Growth of barnacles was significantly higher upon living mussels than on empty mussel shells. Moreover, a higher reproductive output was obtained by individuals on living mussels which produced twice as many nauplii larvae than barnacles attached to empty shells. This study shows that selective settlement of S. balanoides cyprid larvae on living mussels is adaptive with respect to individual fitness.

  15. ROSA Transfer (for SpaceX CRS-11)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-12

    Inside the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, the Roll-Out Solar Array, or ROSA, is being prepared for transfer out of the high bay. ROSA will be delivered to the International Space Station aboard the SpaceX Dragon cargo carrier on the company’s 11th commercial resupply services mission to the space station. ROSA is a new type of solar panel that rolls open in space and is more compact than current rigid panel designs. The ROSA investigation will test deployment and retraction, shape changes when the Earth blocks the sun, and other physical challenges to determine the array's strength and durability.

  16. ROSA Transfer (for SpaceX CRS-11)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-12

    Outside the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician uses a Hyster forklift to carry the Roll-Out Solar Array, or ROSA, to the loading dock. ROSA will be delivered to the International Space Station aboard the SpaceX Dragon cargo carrier on the company’s 11th commercial resupply services mission to the space station. ROSA is a new type of solar panel that rolls open in space and is more compact than current rigid panel designs. The ROSA investigation will test deployment and retraction, shape changes when the Earth blocks the sun, and other physical challenges to determine the array's strength and durability.

  17. ROSA Transfer (for SpaceX CRS-11)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-12

    At the loading dock outside the Space Station Processing Facility high bay at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician uses a Hyster forklift to load the Roll-Out Solar Array, or ROSA, into a truck. ROSA will be delivered to the International Space Station aboard the SpaceX Dragon cargo carrier on the company’s 11th commercial resupply services mission to the space station. ROSA is a new type of solar panel that rolls open in space and is more compact than current rigid panel designs. The ROSA investigation will test deployment and retraction, shape changes when the Earth blocks the sun, and other physical challenges to determine the array's strength and durability.

  18. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical...

  19. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical...

  20. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico...

  1. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.730... Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The areas—(1) The... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical...

  2. Santa Rosa Island Mission Utilization Plan Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    fox, feral cats , fire ants, and cactus moths are non-native invasive animal species known to inhabit SRI. Affected Environment Biological Resources...03/22/05 Santa Rosa Island Mission Utilization Plan Page 3-22 Programmatic Environmental Assessment Feral Cats Feral cats are a major predator on...native wildlife species. Over time, and with the assistance of humans, feral cats have become established on Santa Rosa Island. Feral cats hunt

  3. Contractile activation phenomena in voltage-clamped barnacle muscle fiber

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Tension development in voltage-clamped barnacle muscle fibers occurs with depolarizing pulses so small as not to activate the potassium and calcium conductance systems. Peak tension and the tension time integral appear to be graded by both amplitude and duration of the depolarizing pulses. Subthreshold depolarizing conditioning pulses shorter than 500 ms potentiate the response to a given test pulse. This effect diminishes and reverts when the duration of the conditioning pulse is increasingly prolonged. The relationship between fiber membrane potential and tension developed in response to depolarizing pulses is described by an S-shaped curve. The tension saturates at a membrane potential of about +10 mV (inside positive). For a given pulse duration the saturation value remains constant even when the fiber interior reaches a value of +230 mV, which is well above what may be estimated to be the equilibrium potential of calcium ions (Eca = +120). In the presence of 5 mM external procaine, the shape of the tension-potential curve changes; the maximum value tension besides being diminished is not sustained by falls when the potential approaches the estimated value for Eca. These results suggest that under physiological conditions the contractile activator is probably released from an internal store, and that the calcium entering the fiber as inward current does not play a direct major role in contractile activation. PMID:660158

  4. Genetic diversity of hydrothermal-vent barnacles in Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouviez, Sophie; Schultz, Thomas F.; McGinnis, Gwendolyn; Minshall, Halle; Rudder, Meghan; Van Dover, Cindy L.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I genetic diversity of two barnacle species (Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis, Vulcanolepas cf. parensis) at three sites in Manus Basin (Solwara 1, South Su, Solwara 8). There was no evidence for within-site or between-site genetic differentiation for either species. While E. ohtai manusensis showed limited genetic variation, V. cf. parensis showed greater variation, with sequences distributed between two divergent groups. Assuming the cytochrome oxidase I gene is not under selection, significantly negative Tajima's D in E. ohtai manusensis is consistent with a recent population expansion due to a bottleneck or founder effect, whereas V. cf. parensis (combined groups) did not depart from a stable effective population size. Considering the groups separately, V. cf. parensis Group 1 (but not Group 2) showed a negative Tajima's D, indicating these groups may have encountered different historical demographic conditions. Data reported here are part of a baseline study against which recovery of genetic diversity following mineral extraction at Solwara 1 can be measured.

  5. Calcium-dependent potassium current in barnacle photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Bolsover, S R

    1981-12-01

    When barnacle lateral eye photoreceptors are depolarized to membrane potentials of 0 to +50 mV in the dark, the plot of outward current through the cell membrane against time has two distinct maxima. The first maximum occurs 5-10 ms after the depolarization began. The current then decays to a minimum at approximately 500 ms after the onset of depolarization, and then increases to a second maximum 4-6 s after the depolarization began. If depolarization is maintained, the current again decays to reach a steady value approximately 1 min after depolarization began. The increase in current to the maximum at 4-6s from the minimum at approximately 500 ms is termed the "late current." It is maximum for depolarizations to around +25 mV and is reduced in amplitude at more positive potentials. It is not observed when the membrane is depolarized to potentials more positive than +60 mV. The late current is inhibited by external cobaltous ion and external tetraethylammonium ion, and shows a requirement for external calcium ion. When the calcium-sequestering agent EGTA is injected, the late current is abolished. Illumination of a cell under voltage clamp reduces the amplitude of the late current recorded subsequently in the dark. On the basis of the voltage dependence and pharmacology of the late current, it is proposed that the current is a calcium-dependent potassium current.

  6. Inhibition of barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) cyprid settlement by means of localized, pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Roa, Rodolfo E; Anderson, Marc A; Rittschof, Dan; Orihuela, Beatriz; Wendt, Dean; Kowalke, Gregory L; Noguera, Daniel R

    2008-01-01

    The increasing needs for environmental friendly antifouling coatings have led to investigation of new alternatives for replacing copper and TBT-based paints. In this study, results are presented from larval settlement assays of the barnacle Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite on planar, interdigitated electrodes (IDE), having 8 or 25 mum of inter-electrode spacing, upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Using pulses of 100 ms in duration, 200 Hz in frequency and 10 V in pulse amplitude, barnacle settlement below 5% was observed, while similar IDE surfaces without pulse application had an average of 40% settlement. The spacing between the electrodes did not affect cyprid settlement. Assays with lower PEF amplitudes did not show significant settlement inhibition. On the basis of the settlement assays, the calculated minimum energy requirement to inhibit barnacle settlement is 2.8 W h m(-2).

  7. Sedimentary environment of the La Rosa Formation, Maracaibo Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, D.; Noel, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    The La Rosa formation, Miocene consists of three facies: basal sand, the Santa Barbara, a middle shale, and the upper La Rosa Sand. The sands are variably productive. Paleontologic studies by others have shown the La Rosa Formation to be of marine origin. The shape of the SP curve of the Santa Barbara in bell shaped, caused by fining upward of the sand. This shape is typical with a beach deposit formed during transgression. The shale, because of its lithology and fossil content, represents shallow marine origin. The wine glass shape of the SP of the La Rosa sand is a beach sand, the result of a coarsening upward grain size during regression. An isopach of the La Rosa Formation and isoliths of the two sand units show a thickening trend from northeast to southwest. The thickest area trends diagonally across the center of the Basin. The study shows that the Miocene sea entered the basin from the northeast, transgressed southwesterly depositing the Santa Barbara sand on top of the unconformity as it went. The movement was constricted by the highlands on three sides of the basin. The shale was then deposited in the resulting shallow marine environment. As the highlands gradually rose, the sea regressed to the northeast depositing the La Rosa sand as it went.

  8. Unusual adhesive production system in the barnacle Lepas anatifera: an ultrastructural and histochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Jaimie-Leigh; von Byern, Janek; Flammang, Patrick; Klepal, Waltraud; Power, Anne Marie

    2012-12-01

    Adhesives that are naturally produced by marine organisms are potential sources of inspiration in the search for medical adhesives. Investigations of barnacle adhesives are at an early stage but it is becoming obvious that barnacles utilize a unique adhesive system compared to other marine organisms. The current study examined the fine structure and chemistry of the glandular system that produces the adhesive of the barnacle Lepas anatifera. All components for the glue originated from large single-cell glands (70-180 μm). Staining (including immunostaining) showed that L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and phosphoserine were not present in the glue producing tissues, demonstrating that the molecular adhesion of barnacles differs from all other permanently gluing marine animals studied to date. The glandular tissue and adhesive secretion primarily consisted of slightly acidic proteins but also included some carbohydrate. Adhesive proteins were stored in cytoplasmic granules adjacent to an intracellular drainage canal (ICC); observations implicated both merocrine and apocrine mechanisms in the transport of the secretion from the cell cytoplasm to the ICC. Inside the ICC, the secretion was no longer contained within granules but was a flocculent material which became "clumped" as it traveled through the canal network. Hemocytes were not seen within the adhesive "apparatus" (comprising of the glue producing cells and drainage canals), nor was there any structural mechanism by which additions such as hemocytes could be made to the secretion. The unicellular adhesive gland in barnacles is distinct from multicellular adhesive systems observed in marine animals such as mussels and tubeworms. Because the various components are not physically separated in the apparatus, the barnacle adhesive system appears to utilize completely different and unknown mechanisms for maintaining the liquid state of the glue within the body, as well as unidentified mechanisms for the conversion of

  9. Speciation versus phenotypic plasticity in coral inhabiting barnacles: Darwin's observations in an ecological context.

    PubMed

    Mokady, O; Loya, Y; Achituv, Y; Geffen, E; Graur, D; Rozenblatt, S; Brickner, I

    1999-09-01

    Speciation and phenotypic plasticity are two extreme strategic modes enabling a given taxon to populate a broad ecological niche. One of the organismal models which stimulated Darwin's ideas on speciation was the Cirripedia (barnacles), to which he dedicated a large monograph. In several cases, including the coral-inhabiting barnacle genera Savignium and Cantellius (formerly Pyrgoma and Creusia, respectively), Darwin assigned barnacle specimens to morphological "varieties" (as opposed to species) within a genus. Despite having been the subject of taxonomic investigations and revisions ever since, the significance of these varieties has never been examined with respect to host-associated speciation processes. Here we provide evidence from molecular (12S mt rDNA sequences) and micromorphological (SEM) studies, suggesting that these closely related barnacle genera utilize opposite strategies for populating a suite of live-coral substrates. Cantellius demonstrates a relatively low genetic variability, despite inhabiting a wide range of corals. The species C. pallidus alone was found on three coral families, belonging to distinct higher-order classification units. In contrast, Savignium barnacles exhibit large between- and within-species variations with respect to both micromorphology and DNA sequences, with S. dentatum "varieties" clustering phylogenetically according to their coral host species (all of which are members of a single family). Thus, whereas Savignium seems to have undergone intense host-associated speciation over a relatively narrow taxonomic range of hosts, Cantellius shows phenotypic plasticity over a much larger range. This dichotomy correlates with differences in life-history parameters between these barnacle taxa, including host-infestation characteristics, reproductive strategies, and larval trophic type.

  10. Reconstructing Holocene conditions under ice in the Ross Sea and in the Southern Ocean using barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.; Henderson, G. M.; Hall, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimate archives that capture annual and subannual resolution marine conditions outside the tropics are not common but would be highly desirable. This study demonstrates the potential of barnacles for such purposes and applies them to paleoceanographic reconstruction under the McMurdo ice shelf and in the Southern Ocean. Most of the Bathylasma samples used in this study grew in the Ross Sea and range in age between modern samples (used for calibration) and Holocene samples which were collected on the surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, having been entrained at the grounding line and moved through the ice by surface ablation and further basal freezing. Like other barnacles, this species secretes a robust low-Mg calcite shell with distinct growth increments on the external surface indicating growth durations of several decades. Barnacle shells were subsampled at high resolution (60 μm) for δ18O and δ13C analysis and dated by 14C. Measured δ18O values indicate that Bathylasma calcifies close to equilibrium with ambient seawater and those of old (>200kyr) samples suggest little or no diagenesis. These features make barnacles a promising archive for reconstruction of past ocean conditions. Variations in barnacle δ18O within each plate and between plates reflect changes in δ18O of the seawater, and allow some assessment of the salinity under the ice shelf. Salinities are lowered by addition of meltwaters, but the barnacle data suggest this lowering does not go below 33‰. Salinity near the grounding line shows both temporal and spatial variability. These data indicate that Bathylasma can provide valuable paleoclimate information at subannual resolution for shallow/intermediate water depths and regions such as Antarctica that play an important role in the climate system. We are now exploring this potential to investigate intermediate water conditions in the South Pacific during the last glacial using samples from seamounts on the Macquarie Ridge and south of

  11. Mg/Ca and isotopic high resolution record of deep-sea hydrothermal barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, A.-V.; Bojar, H.-P.; Tufar, W.

    2012-04-01

    Barnacles are crustaceans adapted to a sessile existence and cemented to a substrate by a protein complex. Most of the known species inhabit shallow marine environment, less than 2% of the species are found at depths between 100 and 2500 m. The shell of barnacles has a great adaptive significance, the shell of some barnacle species have been already investigated for microstructure. In this study we investigated the shell microstructure as well as the Mg/Ca and stable isotope distribution of barnacles found at a depth of around 2500m at a black smoker from the Manus Spreading centre, north-east of Papua New Guinea. The shell consists of three substructures: an outer layer with pores and aragonite crystals, a massive interior mass and an inner layer with pores. The shell shows grown lines and the outer layer exhibits longitudinal striation from base to apex. The pores have a medium size of 0.8 microns. The size of the calcitic microcrystals are in the range of 0.2 to 0.5 microns, beside, larger aragonite crystals, with size of c. 10 microns are present. The massive interior mass has a compact structure, no pores or channels could be observed. Oxygen stable isotope data of barnacle shell were performed from the centre to the border of the calcitic shells, along profiles. Within one shell, the isotope values show variations of max. 0.6 ‰. The calculated temperatures from the stable isotope data consistently indicate that the barnacles populate sites with low temperature values, up to a few °C. The calculated temperatures from the isotope data are also in agreement with the reported habitat from the North Fiji and Lau Basins, where temperatures of max. 6°C were measured at sites populated by barnacles. Both calculated and measured temperatures of a few degrees indicate that at the sites where barnacles live, hydrothermal fluid input is present, as ambient temperature is around 1.5°C. Electron-microbeam analyses were done along the interior layer of the shell. The

  12. Reversible antifouling effect of the cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles.

    PubMed

    Göransson, Ulf; Sjögren, Martin; Svangård, Erika; Claeson, Per; Bohlin, Lars

    2004-08-01

    Cycloviolacin O2, a plant peptide of the cyclotide family, is shown to have potent effects against fouling barnacles (Balanus improvisus), with complete inhibition of settlement at a concentration of 0.25 microM. The effect of cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles is reversible and nontoxic in the bioassay employed in these studies. Cycloviolacin O2 was isolated from the terrestrial plant Viola odorata by strong cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry following aminoethylation and enzymatic cleavage.

  13. [Identification and analysis of genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae by FTIR and 2D correlation IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cai, Fang; Sun, Su-qin; Yan, Wen-rong; Niu, Shi-jie; Li, Xian-en

    2009-09-01

    The genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora) were examined in terms of their differences by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy. The three species were shown very similar in FTIR spectra. The peak of 1318 cm(-1) of genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae is not obvious but this peak could be found sharp in Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora. Generally, the second derivative IR spectrum can clearly enhance the spectral resolution. Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos rosae Chinensis have aromatic compounds distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 617 and 1 618 cm(-1), respectively. Nevertheless, FlosRosa multiflora has the peak at 1612 cm(-1). There is a discrepancy of 5 to 6 cm(-1). FlosRosa multiflora has glucide's distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 044 cm(-1), but Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos Rosae Chinensis don't. The second derivative infrared spectra indicated different fingerprint characteristics. Three of them showed aromatic compounds with autopeaks at 1620, 1560 and 1460 cm(-1). Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora have the shoulder peak at 1660 cm(-1). In the range of 850-1250 cm(-1), three of them are distinct different, Flos Rosae Rugosae has the strongest autopeak, Flos Rosae Chinensis has the feeble autopeak and Flos Rosa multiflora has no autopeak at 1050 cm(-1). In third-step identification, the different contents of aromatic compounds and glucide in Flos Rosae Rugosae, Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora were revealed. It is proved that the method is fast and effective for distinguishing and analyzing genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora).

  14. Temperature, stratification and barnacle larval settlement in two Californian sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jesús; López, Manuel

    2002-05-01

    Barnacle s ettlement was monitored in two sites 100 km apart along the coast of Alta and Baja California. In five periods of observations completed between 1991 and 1996, Chthamalus spp ., Pollicipes polymerus, and Balanus glandula settlement was consistently higher in the northern site, La Jolla (LJ), than in the southern site, La Salina (LS). For Chthamalus, the most abundant settler, settlement was higher in LJ in 58 out of 60 paired dates, by a mean factor of 141. In 1996, time series of temperature in about 15 m of water showed that the stratification was 72% higher, on average, and that the thermocline was shallower in LJ than in LS. Spectra of temperature showed that internal motions of tidal and higher frequencies were more energetic and closer to the surface in LJ compared to LS. In LJ changes in settlement were positively correlated with changes in stratification. These results suggest that high-frequency internal motions are important in the onshore transport of larvae. Low-frequency cooling events recorded in LJ apparently caused the energetic semidiurnal temperature variability to migrate from the bottom towards the surface, leading to the surface manifestation of the internal tide and surface internal tidal bores, which indicates that the surface nearshore bores occur in response to the shallowing of the thermocline. Tidal and higher frequency internal motions were more energetic when the thermocline was shallow during the low-frequency cooling events, than when it was deep and relatively weak during ordinary conditions. The major cooling event in LJ correlated with the local wind, suggesting local wind-driven upwelling. On the other hand, correlation of LS temperature with LJ temperature, winds, and sea level suggest propagation from the South. These results suggest that the low-frequency drops in temperature that modulate the nearshore internal tidal bores are caused by a combination of the local wind and events that propagate poleward, possibly as

  15. Analysis of the Behaviours Mediating Barnacle Cyprid Reversible Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Nick; Høeg, Jens T.; Maruzzo, Diego; Clare, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    When exploring immersed surfaces the cypris larvae of barnacles employ a tenacious and rapidly reversible adhesion mechanism to facilitate their characteristic ‘walking’ behaviour. Although of direct relevance to the fields of marine biofouling and bio-inspired adhesive development, the mechanism of temporary adhesion in cyprids remains poorly understood. Cyprids secrete deposits of a proteinaceous substance during surface attachment and these are often visible as ‘footprints’ on previously explored surfaces. The attachment structures, the antennular discs, of cyprids also present a complex morphology reminiscent of both the hairy appendages used by some terrestrial invertebrates for temporary adhesion and a classic ‘suction cup’. Despite the numerous analytical approaches so-far employed, it has not been possible to resolve conclusively the respective contributions of viscoelastic adhesion via the proteinaceous ‘temporary adhesive’, ‘dry’ adhesion via the cuticular villi present on the disc and the behavioural contribution by the organism. In this study, high-speed photography was used for the first time to capture the behaviour of cyprids at the instant of temporary attachment and detachment. Attachment is facilitated by a constantly sticky disc surface – presumably due to the presence of the proteinaceous temporary adhesive. The tenacity of the resulting bond, however, is mediated behaviourally. For weak attachment the disc is constantly moved on the surface, whereas for a strong attachment the disc is spread out on the surface. Voluntary detachment is by force, requiring twisting or peeling of the bond – seemingly without any more subtle detachment behaviours. Micro-bubbles were observed at the adhesive interface as the cyprid detached, possibly an adaptation for energy dissipation. These observations will allow future work to focus more specifically on the cyprid temporary adhesive proteins, which appear to be fundamental to adhesion

  16. 75 FR 71787 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvator Rosa: Bandits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvator Rosa: Bandits, Wilderness... ``Salvator Rosa: Bandits, Wilderness and Magic'', imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  17. Dietary Rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa) oil prevents high diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    D'Espessailles, Amanda; Dossi, Camila G; Espinosa, Alejandra; González-Mañán, Daniel; Tapia, Gladys S

    2015-09-01

    The effects of dietary Rosa mosqueta (RM, Rosa rubiginosa) oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in the prevention of liver steatosis were studied in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6j mice were fed either a control diet or HFD with or without RM oil for 12 weeks. The results indicate that RM oil supplementation decreases fat infiltration of the liver from 43.8% to 6.2%, improving the hepatic oxidative state, insulin levels, HOMA index, and both body weight and adipose tissue weight of HFD plus RM treated animals compared to HFD without supplementation. In addition, the DHA concentration in the liver was significantly increased in HFD fed mice with RM oil compared to HFD (3 vs. 1.6 g per 100 g FAME). The n-6/n-3 ratio was not significantly modified by treatment with RM. Our findings suggest that RM oil supplementation prevents the development of hepatic steatosis and the obese phenotype observed in HFD fed mice.

  18. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem. PMID:24167779

  19. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Overstreet, Robin M.; Raga, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration. PMID:26083019

  20. Living on the Edge: Settlement Patterns by the Symbiotic Barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis on Small Cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Juan M; Overstreet, Robin M; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The highly specialized coronulid barnacle Xenobalanus globicipitis attaches exclusively on cetaceans worldwide, but little is known about the factors that drive the microhabitat patterns on its hosts. We investigate this issue based on data on occurrence, abundance, distribution, orientation, and size of X. globicipitis collected from 242 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) that were stranded along the Mediterranean coast of Spain. Barnacles exclusively infested the fins, particularly along the trailing edge. Occurrence, abundance, and density of X. globicipitis were significantly higher, and barnacles were significantly larger, on the caudal fin than on the flippers and dorsal fin. Barnacles were found more frequently and in greater numbers on the dorsal rather than ventral side of the caudal fin and on the central third of dorsal and ventral fluke surfaces. Nearly all examined individuals attached with their cirral fan oriented opposite to the fluke edge. We suggest that X. globicipitis may chemically recognize dolphins as a substratum, but fins, particularly the flukes, are passively selected because of creation of vortices that increase contact of cyprids with skin and early survival of these larvae at the corresponding sites. Cyprids could actively select the trailing edge and orient with the cirri facing the main direction of flow. Attachment on the dorsal side of the flukes is likely associated with asymmetrical oscillation of the caudal fin, and the main presence on the central segment of the flukes could be related to suitable water flow conditions generated by fluke performance for both settlement and nutrient filtration.

  1. Predation danger can explain changes in timing of migration: the case of the barnacle goose.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Rudy M; Eichhorn, Götz; van Langevelde, Frank; Bauer, Silke

    2010-06-30

    Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in The Netherlands by approximately one month and have reduced their staging duration at stopover sites in the Baltic accordingly. Consequently, this extended stay increases agricultural damage in The Netherlands. Using a dynamic state variable approach we explored three hypotheses about the underlying causes of these changes in migratory behavior, possibly related to changes in (i) onset of spring, (ii) potential intake rates and (iii) predation danger at wintering and stopover sites. Our simulations showed that the observed advance in onset of spring contradicts the observed delay of departure, whereas both increased predation danger and decreased intake rates in the Baltic can explain the delay. Decreased intake rates are expected as a result of increased competition for food in the growing Barnacle goose population. However, the effect of predation danger in the model was particularly strong, and we hypothesize that Barnacle geese avoid Baltic stopover sites as a response to the rapidly increasing number of avian predators in the area. Therefore, danger should be considered as an important factor influencing Barnacle goose migratory behavior, and receive more attention in empirical studies.

  2. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the electrochemical inhibition of barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) settlement

    Treesearch

    Rodolfo E. Perez-Roa; Marc A. Anderson; Dan Rittschof; Christopher G. Hunt; Daniel R. Noguera

    2009-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in electrochemical biofouling inhibition was investigated using a series of abiotic tests and settlement experiments with larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, a cosmopolitan fouler. Larval settlement, a measure of biofouling potential, was reduced from 43% ± 14% to 5% ± 6% upon the application of...

  3. Characterization of metalloproteinase-like activities in barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) nauplii.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Canesi, Laura; Faimali, Marco; Piazza, Veronica; Gallo, Gabriella; Geraci, Sebastiano

    2003-05-01

    The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) degrading enzymes was investigated in naupliar stages of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin. The results of substrate gel-zymography and quantitative assays demonstrated that naupliar extracts contain several protease activities that are specific towards gelatin substrates; some caseinolytic activity was also detected. Substrate specificity was observed in all naupliar stages (II-VI). The gelatinolytic activities showed dependence on both Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) and inhibition by EDTA, EGTA, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Also Mg(2+) partially activated the enzymes, whereas Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) were inhibitory. The thermal denaturation profile was significantly different in the presence and absence of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+). Overall, the results indicate that the Ca(2+)/Zn(2+)-dependent gelatinase activities in barnacle nauplii belong to the subfamily of matrix metalloproteases. Barnacle larvae MMPs showed biochemical characteristics different from those of vertebrate MMPs but common to other gelatinases from marine invertebrates: they were unaffected by several protease inhibitors and insensitive to specific activators/inhibitors of vertebrate MMPs. The presence of MMP-like activities in different naupliar stages suggests a constitutive role for these enzymes in ECM remodeling during barnacle larvae growth and development.

  4. Larval phototaxis in barnacles and snails associated with bathyal sea urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Brian L.; Young, Craig M.

    1993-01-01

    Larvae of many shallow-water marine invertebrates show phototactic behaviors which may allow them to exercise some control over their positions in the water column. Such behavior should be useful only in regions where light provides a consistent directional cue and might not, therefore, be expected in species found exclusively in deep water where light levels are extremely low. In this paper, we investigated larval phototactic responses in two barnacle and one prosobranch gastropod species that occur epifaunally on tropical, bathyal sea urchins. Newly released larvae of the gastropod Pelseneeria sp. did not respond to light but Stage I nauplii of both barnacle species ( Verruca floridana and Paralepas pedunculata) showed strong positive phototaxis at light intensities greater than 2.66 μmol m -2s -1. Larvae are expected to encounter the threshold intensities at depths no greater than 90 m in Caribbean waters. As both barnacle species were collected at much greater depths, phototaxis (at least in the early larvae) should have little effect. The ability to detect and respond to light may foreshadow functional photoresponses in later larvae that move to shallower depths. Alternatively, the presence of photoreceptors and light responses may be interpreted as evidence that these barnacles, which now reside in the deep sea, may have originated in shallow water.

  5. Predation Danger Can Explain Changes in Timing of Migration: The Case of the Barnacle Goose

    PubMed Central

    Jonker, Rudy M.; Eichhorn, Götz; van Langevelde, Frank; Bauer, Silke

    2010-01-01

    Understanding stopover decisions of long-distance migratory birds is crucial for conservation and management of these species along their migratory flyway. Recently, an increasing number of Barnacle geese breeding in the Russian Arctic have delayed their departure from their wintering site in the Netherlands by approximately one month and have reduced their staging duration at stopover sites in the Baltic accordingly. Consequently, this extended stay increases agricultural damage in the Netherlands. Using a dynamic state variable approach we explored three hypotheses about the underlying causes of these changes in migratory behavior, possibly related to changes in (i) onset of spring, (ii) potential intake rates and (iii) predation danger at wintering and stopover sites. Our simulations showed that the observed advance in onset of spring contradicts the observed delay of departure, whereas both increased predation danger and decreased intake rates in the Baltic can explain the delay. Decreased intake rates are expected as a result of increased competition for food in the growing Barnacle goose population. However, the effect of predation danger in the model was particularly strong, and we hypothesize that Barnacle geese avoid Baltic stopover sites as a response to the rapidly increasing number of avian predators in the area. Therefore, danger should be considered as an important factor influencing Barnacle goose migratory behavior, and receive more attention in empirical studies. PMID:20614027

  6. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Goodwin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed "microplastic," have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the "rafting assemblage," are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.), which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem.

  7. Cockles, barnacles and ascidians compose a subtidal facilitation cascade with multiple hierarchical levels of foundation species.

    PubMed

    Yakovis, Eugeniy; Artemieva, Anna

    2017-03-22

    Facilitation cascades occur when multiple foundation species in a community are involved in a hierarchy of positive interactions, and consist of a primary facilitator which positively affects secondary facilitators, each supporting a suit of dependent species. There is no theoretical limit to the number of levels in a facilitation cascade, yet the existence of more than two has rarely been examined. We manipulated biogenic substrate produced by a primary facilitator (cockle shells) and a secondary facilitator (barnacles and their empty tests) in a space-limited subtidal community to test the hypothesis that solitary ascidians would be the third-level facilitator. In the field, most ascidians were found on barnacles, and most barnacles occupied cockle shells. To produce this pattern, barnacles could nurse ascidians (a longer 'facilitation chain') or outcompete them from cockle shells (a shorter chain). Experimental results clearly supported the nursing hypothesis providing evidence for a facilitation cascade with three hierarchical levels of foundation species. Our findings confirm that like predation and competition, positive interspecific interactions nest into multi-tier hierarchies with numerous levels. While the number of foundation species should increase community stability and resilience as it increases diversity and reduces environmental stress, facilitation chain length may have the opposite effect.

  8. Sexual systems and dwarf males in barnacles: integrating life history and sex allocation theories.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Sawada, Kota; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2013-03-07

    Barnacles, which are sedentary marine crustaceans, have diverse sexual systems that include simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (coexistence of hermaphrodites and males) and dioecy (females and males). In dioecious and androdioecious species, the males are very small and are thus called dwarf males. These sexual systems are defined by two factors: sex allocation of non-dwarf individuals and the presence or absence of dwarf males. We constructed an ESS model treating sex allocation and life history simultaneously to explain sexual systems in barnacles. We analyzed the evolutionarily stable size-dependent resource allocation strategy to male reproductive function, female reproductive function and growth in non-dwarf barnacles, and the ESS proportion of dwarf males, under conditions of varying mortality and food availability. Sex allocation in non-dwarf individuals (hermaphrodites or females) is affected by mate availability and the proportion of dwarf males. When hermaphrodites appear, all hermaphrodites become protandric simultaneous hermaphrodites. Furthermore, high mortality and poor resource availability favor dwarf males because of their early maturation and weakened sperm competition. In conclusion, we showed that combining sex allocation and life history theories is a useful way to understand various sexual systems in barnacles and perhaps in other organisms as well.

  9. Fish in offshore kelp forests affect recruitment to intertidal barnacle populations.

    PubMed

    Gaines, S D; Roughgarden, J

    1987-01-23

    Kelp forests along the coast of central California harbor juvenile rockfish that prey on the larvae of invertebrates from the rocky intertidal zone. This predation reduces recruitment to barnacle populations to 1/50 of the level in the absence of fish. The dynamics of the intertidal community are thus strongly coupled to the dynamics of the offshore kelp community.

  10. Adhesive barnacle peptides exhibit a steric-driven design rule to enhance adhesion between asymmetric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sangeetha; Malms, Lukas; Utzig, Thomas; Shrestha, Buddha Ratna; Stock, Philipp; Krishnan, Shankar; Valtiner, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Barnacles exhibit superior underwater adhesion simply through sequencing of the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, without post processing or using special amino acids. Here, we measure and discuss the molecular interaction of two distinct and recurring short peptide sequences (Bp1 and Bp2) inspired from the surface binding 19kDa protein from the barnacle attachment interface. Using self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) of known physical and chemical properties on molecularly smooth gold substrates in 5mM NaCl at pH 7.3, (1) the adsorption mechanisms of the barnacle inspired peptides are explored using quartz crystal microbalance, and (2) adhesion mediating properties are measured using the surface force apparatus. The hydrophobic Bp1 peptide with a cysteine residue adsorbs irreversibly onto Au surfaces due to thiol bond formation, while on hydrophobic CH3 SAM surface, the interactions are hydrophobic in nature. Interestingly, Bp2 that contains both hydrophobic and protonated amine units exhibits asymmetric bridging with an exceptionally high adhesion energy up to 100mJ/m(2) between mica and both gold and CH3 SAM. Surprisingly on hydrophilic surfaces such as COOH- or OH-SAMs both peptides fail to show any interactions, implying the necessity of surface charge to promote bridging. Our results provide insights into the molecular aspects of manipulating and utilizing barnacle-mediated peptides to promote or inhibit underwater adhesion.

  11. Predation on transmission stages reduces parasitism: sea anemones consume transmission stages of a barnacle parasite.

    PubMed

    Fong, Caitlin R; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-06-01

    While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host. We investigate whether a sea anemone protects an associated barnacle from parasitism by Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasitic castrator. At Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California USA, 29% of barnacles were within 1 cm from an anemone at the surveyed tidal height. Barnacles associated with anemones had reduced parasite prevalence and higher reproductive productivity than those remote from sea anemones. In the laboratory, anemones readily consumed the transmission stage of the parasite. Hence, anemone consumption of parasite transmission stages may provide a mechanism by which community context regulates parasite prevalence at a local scale. Our results suggest predation may be an important process providing parasite transmission control.

  12. Towards a FISH-based karyotype of Rosa L. (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya V.; Van Laere, Katrijn; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Rosa Linnaeus, 1753 has important economic value in ornamental sector and many breeding activities are going on supported by molecular studies. However, the cytogenetic studies of rose species are scarce and mainly focused on chromosome counting and chromosome morphology-based karyotyping. Due to the small size of the chromosomes and a high frequency of polyploidy in the genus, karyotyping is very challenging for rose species and requires FISH-based cytogenetic markers to be applied. Therefore, in this work the aim is to establish a FISH-based karyotype for Rosa wichurana (Crépin, 1888), a rose species with several benefits for advanced molecular cytogenetic studies of genus Rosa (Kirov et al. 2015a). It is shown that FISH signals from 5S, 45S and an Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeat are distributed on five (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) of seven chromosome pairs. In addition, it is demonstrated that the interstitial telomeric repeat sequences (ITR) are located in the centromeric regions of four chromosome pairs. Using low hybridization stringency for ITR visualization, we showed that the number of ITR signals increases four times (1–4 signals). This study is the first to propose a FISH-based Rosa wichurana karyotype for the reliable identification of chromosomes. The possible origin of Rosa wichurana ITR loci is discussed. PMID:28123677

  13. 77 FR 40541 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... temporary safety zone for a portion of GICW in Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This proposed...

  14. 77 FR 56772 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... portion of GICW in Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This temporary safety zone is deemed...

  15. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of barnacles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Santiago; Watanabe, Hiromi; Shank, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographical hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here, we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal and diversification. Our approach was to target a suite of multiple loci in samples representing seven of the eight described genera. We also performed restriction-site associated DNA sequencing on individuals from each species. Phylogenetic inferences and topology hypothesis tests indicate that vent barnacles have colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents at least twice in history. Consistent with preliminary estimates, we find a likely radiation of barnacles in vent ecosystems during the Cenozoic. Our analyses suggest that the western Pacific was the place of origin of the major vent barnacle lineage, followed by circumglobal colonization eastwards through the Southern Hemisphere during the Neogene. The inferred time of radiation rejects the classic hypotheses of antiquity of vent taxa. The timing and the mode of origin, radiation and dispersal are consistent with recent inferences made for other deep-sea taxa, including nonvent species, and are correlated with the occurrence of major geological events and mass extinctions. Thus, we suggest that the geological processes and dispersal mechanisms discussed here can explain the current distribution patterns of many other marine taxa and have played an important role shaping deep-sea faunal diversity. These results also constitute the critical baseline data with which to assess potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on deep-sea ecosystems.

  16. Growth of the mussel Mytilus edulis L. in the Wadden Sea affected by tidal emergence and barnacle epibionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Saier, Bettina

    2001-02-01

    On the tidal flats in the Wadden Sea mussels Mytilus edulis form extensive epibenthic beds. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), these extend from mid intertidal to shallow subtidal zones and are often heavily overgrown by barnacles ( Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus crenatus). The effects of tidal emergence and barnacle epibionts on growth in M. edulis were investigated by field experiments and surveys. The results showed that mussel cohort lengths increased from the mid intertidal (25-35 mm shell length) over low intertidal (30-45 mm) to the subtidal zone (45-60 mm). In the low intertidal zone M. edulis were heavily overgrown by barnacles (2.2±0.4 g dry weight mussel -1), while balanid epigrowth was significantly lower subtidally (0.9±0.4 g mussel -1) as well as in the mid intertidal zone (0.7±0.3 g mussel -1). Cross-transplantation experiments of clean mussels (25-35 mm length) showed that from July to September growth was about 3 mm in the intertidal zone and significantly increased to about 10 mm subtidally. Mussel origin had no influence upon growth. Further field experiments showed significantly lower growth in mussels with barnacles than without. Living and experimentally sealed barnacles did not differ in their effect, indicating that food competition was not responsible. This investigation suggests that fluctuations in the extent of barnacle epigrowth may modify growth patterns in M. edulis which are otherwise governed by tidal exposure.

  17. The Rosa Parks "Myth": A Third Grade Historical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary; Lowenstein, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how, by comparing multiple perspectives of the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, students can experience first-hand how different published accounts of the same event may contain different information. The author relates the lesson plan of Jennifer Morrow, a third-grade teacher at Coral Ridge Elementary…

  18. The Rosa Parks "Myth": A Third Grade Historical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landorf, Hilary; Lowenstein, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how, by comparing multiple perspectives of the story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, students can experience first-hand how different published accounts of the same event may contain different information. The author relates the lesson plan of Jennifer Morrow, a third-grade teacher at Coral Ridge Elementary…

  19. Presence and distribution of serotonin immunoreactivity in the cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Gallus, L; Ramoino, P; Faimali, M; Piazza, V; Maura, G; Marcoli, M; Ferrando, S; Girosi, L; Tagliafierro, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the presence and distribution of serotonin in the cyprid of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite were investigated by immunohistochemical methods. Serotonin-like immuno-reactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the central nervous system only. Various clusters of immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies are distributed in the brain (protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, optical lobes), and at least, four pairs of neuronal cell bodies were detected in the centrally positioned neuropil of the posterior ganglion. Rich plexuses of immunoreactive nerve fibers in the neuropil area were also observed. Furthermore, bundles of strongly immunoreactive nerve fibers surrounding the gut wall were localized, and immunoreactive nerve terminals in the antennules and compound eyes were observed. These data demonstrate the presence of a serotonin-like immunoreactive substance in the barnacle cyprids; furthermore, its immunolocalization in the cephalic nerve terminals allows us to postulate the involvement of this bioactive molecule in substrate recognition during the settlement process.

  20. Predation on barnacles of intertidal and subtidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Balanids are the numerically dominant epibionts on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), Semibalanus balanoides dominated intertidally and Balanus crenatus subtidally. Field experiments were conducted to test the effects of predation on the density of barnacle recruits. Subtidally, predator exclusion resulted in significantly increased abundances of B. crenatus, while predator exclusion had no significant effects on the density of S. balanoides intertidally. It is suggested that recruitment of B. crenatus to subtidal mussel beds is strongly affected by adult shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and juvenile starfish ( Asterias rubens), whereas recruits of S. balanoides in the intertidal zone are mainly influenced by grazing and bulldozing of the very abundant periwinkle Littorina littorea, which is rare subtidally. Thus, not only do the barnacle species differ between intertidal and subtidal mussel beds, but the biotic control factors do so as well.

  1. New alien barnacles in the Azores and some remarks on the invasive potential of Balanidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Paulo; Costa, Ana Cristina; Dionísio, Maria Ana

    2012-12-01

    Global homogenization of biota is underway through worldwide introduction and establishment of non-indigenous (exotic) species. Organisms fouling ship hulls are continually in transit and can affect communities through biodiversity loss and serious damage to economy and public health. In the Azores, for the first time, underwater alien species prospection was conducted in marinas and recreational harbours, at São Miguel Island. Populations of three locally previously unknown barnacle species were found: Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus eburneus and Perforatus perforatus. These species account for the more than 50% of alien barnacles worldwide that belong to Balanidae family. Hence, some considerations about morphology and life cycle of this family are advanced, discussed and related to their invasive potential.

  2. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E.; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M.

    2016-06-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual’s origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling.

  3. Correlation between surface chemistry and settlement behaviour in barnacle cyprids (Balanus improvisus).

    PubMed

    Di Fino, A; Petrone, L; Aldred, N; Ederth, T; Liedberg, B; Clare, A S

    2014-02-01

    In laboratory-based biofouling assays, the influence of physico-chemical surface characteristics on barnacle settlement has been tested most frequently using the model organism Balanus amphitrite (= Amphibalanus amphitrite). Very few studies have addressed the settlement preferences of other barnacle species, such as Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus). This study aimed to unravel the effects of surface physico-chemical cues, in particular surface-free energy (SFE) and surface charge, on the settlement of cyprids of B. improvisus. The use of well-defined surfaces under controlled conditions further facilitates comparison of the results with recent similar data for B. amphitrite. Zero-day-old cyprids of B. improvisus were exposed to a series of model surfaces, namely self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols with varying end-groups, homogenously applied to gold-coated polystyrene (PS) Petri dishes. As with B. amphitrite, settlement of cyprids of B. improvisus was influenced by both SFE and charge, with higher settlement on low-energy (hydrophobic) surfaces and negatively charged SAMs. Positively charged SAMs resulted in low settlement, with intermediate settlement on neutral SAMs of similar SFE. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that despite previous suggestions to the contrary, these two species of barnacle show similar preferences in response to SFE; they also respond similarly to charge. These findings have positive implications for the development of novel antifouling (AF) coatings and support the importance of consistency in substratum choice for assays designed to compare surface preferences of fouling organisms.

  4. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E.; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M.

    2016-01-01

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual’s origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma−Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling. PMID:27292413

  5. Sequence basis of Barnacle Cement Nanostructure is Defined by Proteins with Silk Homology

    PubMed Central

    So, Christopher R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Leary, Dagmar H.; Scancella, Jenifer M.; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinny L.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2016-01-01

    Barnacles adhere by producing a mixture of cement proteins (CPs) that organize into a permanently bonded layer displayed as nanoscale fibers. These cement proteins share no homology with any other marine adhesives, and a common sequence-basis that defines how nanostructures function as adhesives remains undiscovered. Here we demonstrate that a significant unidentified portion of acorn barnacle cement is comprised of low complexity proteins; they are organized into repetitive sequence blocks and found to maintain homology to silk motifs. Proteomic analysis of aggregate bands from PAGE gels reveal an abundance of Gly/Ala/Ser/Thr repeats exemplified by a prominent, previously unidentified, 43 kDa protein in the solubilized adhesive. Low complexity regions found throughout the cement proteome, as well as multiple lysyl oxidases and peroxidases, establish homology with silk-associated materials such as fibroin, silk gum sericin, and pyriform spidroins from spider silk. Distinct primary structures defined by homologous domains shed light on how barnacles use low complexity in nanofibers to enable adhesion, and serves as a starting point for unraveling the molecular architecture of a robust and unique class of adhesive nanostructures. PMID:27824121

  6. Sequence basis of Barnacle Cement Nanostructure is Defined by Proteins with Silk Homology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Christopher R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Leary, Dagmar H.; Scancella, Jenifer M.; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinny L.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2016-11-01

    Barnacles adhere by producing a mixture of cement proteins (CPs) that organize into a permanently bonded layer displayed as nanoscale fibers. These cement proteins share no homology with any other marine adhesives, and a common sequence-basis that defines how nanostructures function as adhesives remains undiscovered. Here we demonstrate that a significant unidentified portion of acorn barnacle cement is comprised of low complexity proteins; they are organized into repetitive sequence blocks and found to maintain homology to silk motifs. Proteomic analysis of aggregate bands from PAGE gels reveal an abundance of Gly/Ala/Ser/Thr repeats exemplified by a prominent, previously unidentified, 43 kDa protein in the solubilized adhesive. Low complexity regions found throughout the cement proteome, as well as multiple lysyl oxidases and peroxidases, establish homology with silk-associated materials such as fibroin, silk gum sericin, and pyriform spidroins from spider silk. Distinct primary structures defined by homologous domains shed light on how barnacles use low complexity in nanofibers to enable adhesion, and serves as a starting point for unraveling the molecular architecture of a robust and unique class of adhesive nanostructures.

  7. Sequence basis of Barnacle Cement Nanostructure is Defined by Proteins with Silk Homology.

    PubMed

    So, Christopher R; Fears, Kenan P; Leary, Dagmar H; Scancella, Jenifer M; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Jinny L; Orihuela, Beatriz; Rittschof, Dan; Spillmann, Christopher M; Wahl, Kathryn J

    2016-11-08

    Barnacles adhere by producing a mixture of cement proteins (CPs) that organize into a permanently bonded layer displayed as nanoscale fibers. These cement proteins share no homology with any other marine adhesives, and a common sequence-basis that defines how nanostructures function as adhesives remains undiscovered. Here we demonstrate that a significant unidentified portion of acorn barnacle cement is comprised of low complexity proteins; they are organized into repetitive sequence blocks and found to maintain homology to silk motifs. Proteomic analysis of aggregate bands from PAGE gels reveal an abundance of Gly/Ala/Ser/Thr repeats exemplified by a prominent, previously unidentified, 43 kDa protein in the solubilized adhesive. Low complexity regions found throughout the cement proteome, as well as multiple lysyl oxidases and peroxidases, establish homology with silk-associated materials such as fibroin, silk gum sericin, and pyriform spidroins from spider silk. Distinct primary structures defined by homologous domains shed light on how barnacles use low complexity in nanofibers to enable adhesion, and serves as a starting point for unraveling the molecular architecture of a robust and unique class of adhesive nanostructures.

  8. Bivalve and barnacle larvae distribution driven by water temperature in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ziadi, Boutheina; Dhib, Amel; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between the distribution of some meroplanktonic species and water temperature. Meroplankton larvae abundance of bivalves, and barnacles and water temperature fluctuations were studied from February 2011 to January 2012 at five stations in Ghar El Melh lagoon (GML) Mediterranean Sea, northern Tunisia). According to redundancy analysis (RDA), a significant difference was found in the distribution of larvae among the seasons (F = 10.28, p < 0.001); summer and autumn appear to be the period of bivalve larvae development, whereas the arrival of barnacle larvae coincided with winter and spring. The generalized additive models (GAMs) show strong correlation of bivalve larvae with high temperature (F = 23.2; p < 0.001) and the affinity of barnacle larvae to low temperature values (F = 8.41; p = 0.004). This environmental parameter accounted for 26 % of the deviance in variability in larvae abundance. The development process of many generations of larvae may therefore have been predetermined by temperature.

  9. Harvest locations of goose barnacles can be successfully discriminated using trace elemental signatures.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Swearer, Stephen E; Calado, Ricardo; Leandro, Sérgio M

    2016-06-13

    European Union regulations state that consumers must be rightfully informed about the provenance of fishery products to prevent fraudulent practices. However, mislabeling of the geographical origin is a common practice. It is therefore paramount to develop forensic methods that allow all players involved in the supply chain to accurately trace the origin of seafood. In this study, trace elemental signatures (TES) of the goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes, collected from ten sites along the Portuguese coast, were employed to discriminate individual's origin. Barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorous (P), lead (Pb), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) - were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences were recorded among locations for all elements. A regularized discriminant analysis (RDA) revealed that 83% of all individuals were correctly assigned. This study shows TES can be a reliable tool to confirm the geographic origin of goose barnacles at fine spatial resolution. Although additional studies are required to ascertain the reliability of TES on cooked specimens and the temporal stability of the signature, the approach holds great promise for the management of goose barnacles fisheries, enforcement of conservation policies and assurance in accurate labeling.

  10. Environmental heterogeneity and balancing selection in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P S; Bertness, M D; Rand, D M

    2000-02-22

    The northern acorn barnacle Semibalans banlanoides occupies several intertidal microhabitats which vary greatly in their degree of physical stress. This environmental heterogeneity creates distinct selection regimes which can maintain genetic variation in natural populations. Despite considerable attention placed on the link between spatial variation in fitness and balancing selection at specific loci, experimental manipulations and fitness estimates for molecular polymorphisms have rarely been conducted in the wild. The aim of this transplant experiment was to manipulate the level of physical stress experienced by a cohort of barnacles in the field and then investigate the spatial variation in fitness for genotypes at three loci: two candidate allozymes and the mitochondrial DNA control region. The viability of mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi) genotypes was dependent on the level of physical stress experienced in the various treatments; alternative homozygotes were favoured in alternative high stress-low stress environments. In contrast, the fitness of genotypes at other loci was equivalent among treatments and unaffected by the manipulation. Evaluated in the light of balancing selection models, these data indicate that the presence of multiple environmental niches is sufficient to promote a stable Mpi polymorphism in barnacle populations and that allelic variation at this locus reflects the process of adaptation to the heterogeneous intertidal landscape.

  11. Ecology and Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity in the Penis and Cirri of Barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, J Matthew; Schneck, Daniel T; Neufeld, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    Most barnacles are sessile, simultaneous hermaphrodites that reproduce by copulation. This is achieved through the extension of a muscular penis, famous for being the proportionally largest in the animal kingdom. The penis is a long cylindrical or conical organ, composed of a series of folded rings, allowing it to stretch to great lengths. The penises are covered with chemosensory setae allowing them to seek out receptive neighbors. For many species, the condition of the penis changes seasonally. In the most extreme circumstances, it degenerates and is shed during the first post-mating molt and is re-grown for the next mating season. Barnacle penises have been shown to exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to many different challenges. When exposed to heavy waves, diameter is increased by thickening both the cuticle and muscles. When mates are far, length increases by adding ringed annulations. Experiments have shown that these plastic traits are modular, capable of changing independently from each other and that they improve mating ability. Alternate strategies to increase reproductive ability by barnacles include the production of dwarf and complemental males, sperm casting and sperm leakage, and aerial copulation. All of these mating strategies may have important implications for the study of reproductive biology, life history, and sex allocation theory.

  12. Compounds from silicones alter enzyme activity in curing barnacle glue and model enzymes.

    PubMed

    Rittschof, Daniel; Orihuela, Beatriz; Harder, Tilmann; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Dickinson, Gary H

    2011-02-17

    Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity. GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents. Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management.

  13. Compounds from Silicones Alter Enzyme Activity in Curing Barnacle Glue and Model Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Daniel; Orihuela, Beatriz; Harder, Tilmann; Stafslien, Shane; Chisholm, Bret; Dickinson, Gary H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Attachment strength of fouling organisms on silicone coatings is low. We hypothesized that low attachment strength on silicones is, in part, due to the interaction of surface available components with natural glues. Components could alter curing of glues through bulk changes or specifically through altered enzyme activity. Methodology/Principal Findings GC-MS analysis of silicone coatings showed surface-available siloxanes when the coatings were gently rubbed with a cotton swab for 15 seconds or given a 30 second rinse with methanol. Mixtures of compounds were found on 2 commercial and 8 model silicone coatings. The hypothesis that silicone components alter glue curing enzymes was tested with curing barnacle glue and with commercial enzymes. In our model, barnacle glue curing involves trypsin-like serine protease(s), which activate enzymes and structural proteins, and a transglutaminase which cross-links glue proteins. Transglutaminase activity was significantly altered upon exposure of curing glue from individual barnacles to silicone eluates. Activity of purified trypsin and, to a greater extent, transglutaminase was significantly altered by relevant concentrations of silicone polymer constituents. Conclusions/Significance Surface-associated silicone compounds can disrupt glue curing and alter enzyme properties. Altered curing of natural glues has potential in fouling management. PMID:21379573

  14. Quantitative Proteomics Study of Larval Settlement in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wong, Yue Him; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stage remain largely unclear. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomic profiles of stage II nauplii, stage VI nauplii, cyprids, and juveniles of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite using label-free quantitative proteomics, followed by the measurement of the gene expression levels of candidate proteins. More than 700 proteins were identified at each stage; 80 were significantly up-regulated in cyprids and 95 in juveniles vs other stages. Specifically, proteins involved in energy and metabolism, the nervous system and signal transduction were significantly up-regulated in cyprids, whereas proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling, transcription and translation, cell proliferation and differentiation, and biomineralization were up-regulated in juveniles, consistent with changes associated with larval metamorphosis and tissue remodeling in juveniles. These findings provided molecular evidence for the morphological, physiological and biological changes that occur during the transition process from the larval to the juvenile stages in B. amphitrite. PMID:24551147

  15. The origins and evolution of dwarf males and habitat use in thoracican barnacles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Høeg, Jens T; Yusa, Yoichi; Chan, Benny K K

    2015-10-01

    Barnacles are exceptional in having various sexual systems (androdioecy, hermaphroditism, dioecy) and with a high morphological diversity of males, though these are always minute (dwarf) compared to their female or hermaphrodite partners. For the first time, we use a multiple DNA marker-based phylogeny to elucidate the ancestral states and evolution of (1) dwarf males, (2) their morphology when present, (3) their attachment site on the partner, and (4) habitat use in thoracican barnacles. Our taxon sampling was especially rich in rare deep-sea Scalpelliformes and comprised species with diverse sexual systems and dwarf male morphologies. Within the thoracican barnacles dwarf male evolution is subject to extensive convergence, but always correlated to similar ecological conditions. Males evolved convergently at least four times from purely hermaphroditic ancestors, in each case correlated with the invasion into habitats with low mating group sizes. The independent evolution of dwarf males in these lineages dovetails with the males having different morphologies and occurring in several different locations on their sexual partner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cool barnacles: Do common biogenic structures enhance or retard rates of deterioration of intertidal rocks and concrete?

    PubMed

    Coombes, Martin A; Viles, Heather A; Naylor, Larissa A; La Marca, Emanuela Claudia

    2017-02-15

    Sedentary and mobile organisms grow profusely on hard substrates within the coastal zone and contribute to the deterioration of coastal engineering structures and the geomorphic evolution of rocky shores by both enhancing and retarding weathering and erosion. There is a lack of quantitative evidence for the direction and magnitude of these effects. This study assesses the influence of globally-abundant intertidal organisms, barnacles, by measuring the response of limestone, granite and marine-grade concrete colonised with varying percentage covers of Chthamalus spp. under simulated, temperate intertidal conditions. Temperature regimes at 5 and 10mm below the surface of each material demonstrated a consistent and statistically significant negative relationship between barnacle abundance and indicators of thermal breakdown. With a 95% cover of barnacles, subsurface peak temperatures were reduced by 1.59°C for limestone, 5.54°C for concrete and 5.97°C for granite in comparison to no barnacle cover. The amplitudes of short-term (15-30min) thermal fluctuations conducive to breakdown via 'fatigue' effects were also buffered by 0.70°C in limestone, 1.50°C in concrete and 1.63°C in granite. Furthermore, concentrations of potentially damaging salt ions were consistently lower under barnacles in limestone and concrete. These results indicate that barnacles do not enhance, but likely reduce rates of mechanical breakdown on rock and concrete by buffering near-surface thermal cycling and reducing salt ion ingress. In these ways, we highlight the potential role of barnacles as agents of bioprotection. These findings support growing international efforts to enhance the ecological value of hard coastal structures by facilitating their colonisation (where appropriate) through design interventions.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S S; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  19. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air... regulations. (1) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force within the...

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the acorn barnacle family Tetraclitidae (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Tetraclitoidea): validity of shell morphology and arthropodal characteristics in the systematics of Tetraclitid barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    Shell structure is a crucial aspect of barnacle systematics. Within Tetraclitidae, the diametric and monometric growth patterns and number of rows of parietal tubes in the shells are key characteristics used to infer evolutionary trends. We used molecular analysis based on seven genes (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and nuclear EF1, RPII, H3, and 18S rRNA) to test two traditional phylogenetic hypothesis: (1) Tetraclitid barnacles are divided into two major lineages, which are distinguished according to monometric and diametric shell growth patterns, and (2) the evolutionary trend in shell parietal development began with a solid shell, which developed into a single tubiferous shell, which then developed into multitubiferous shells. The results indicated that Tetraclitinae and Newmanellinae are not monophyletic, but that Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitellinae are. The phylogram based on the genetic data suggested that Bathylasmatidae is nested within the Tetraclitidae, forming a sister relationship with the Austrobalaninae and Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade. Within the Tetraclitinae/Newmanellinae clade, the genera Tetraclita (multitubiferous shell), Tesseropora (single tubiferous shell), and Yamaguchiella (multitubiferous shell) are polyphyletic. The results suggested that shell morphology and growth patterns do not reflect the evolutionary history of Tetraclitidae, whereas the arthropodal characteristics are informative.

  1. Chemical Analysis of Dietary Constituents in Rosa roxburghii and Rosa sterilis Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Hua; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yuan-He; Lu, Xian-Yuan; Fu, Wei-Ming; He, Jing-Yu

    2016-09-09

    Both Rosa roxburghii and R. sterilis, belonging to the Rosaceae, are endemic species in Guizhou Province, China. The fruits of these two species are mixed-used as functional food in the region. Aiming to elucidate the phytochemical characteristics of R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits, the essential oils and constituents in a methanol extract have been analyzed and compared by GC-MS and UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, respectively. As a result, a total of 135 volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS and 91 components were different between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits; a total of 59 compounds in methanol extracts were identified by UFLC/Q-TOF-MS, including 13 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 11 triterpenes, nine amino acids, five phenylpropanoid derivatives, four condensed tannins, two stilbenes, two benzaldehyde derivatives and one benzoic acid derivative; and nine characteristic compounds were found between R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits. This systematic study plays an important role for R. roxburghii and R. sterilis fruits in the product development.

  2. Still the same after all these years: Santa Rosa`s curbside recycling model

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, K.

    1997-10-01

    When Santa Rosa, located north of San Francisco, first began its recycling program in 1977, it was no different from the other fledgling curbside recycling programs in the state. Back then, residents collected recyclables in their homes and put them out on the curb each week next to the garbage cans in whatever container they could find, whether it was a paper grocery bag or a cardboard box. The city`s pre-bin recycling program had a participation rate of about 25%. Then in 1978, with the firm`s help, Empire officials came up with the idea of providing recycling bins to residents. The program planners asked residents to source-separate their recyclables and then put the metals (including steel, tin, and aluminum); all three glass colors (brown, green, and clear); and newspaper in three individual bins. A few weeks after city officials distributed the bins to residents, the program showed a participation rate of 77%, indicating to Clark that the bins were necessary to significantly increase public awareness of the program.

  3. Some biological consequences of environmental change: a study using barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha) and gum trees (Angiospermae: Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2010-06-01

    Uniformitarianism permits understanding of the past on the basis of the present, and modeling the future through consideration of the fossil record. The present paper addresses the impact environmental (climatic) change has had on acorn barnacles and eucalyptus trees. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the K/T mass-extinction event. In the Paleogene, rapid radiation resulted in their occupying most marine environments. That balanomorphs survived both the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to adapt to opportunities; they are known from the littoral (Chamaesipho) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this from diverse substrates: rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with most larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the late Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in their diversity, distribution and biomass. Barnacles are contrasted with the Australian Myrtaceae: plants ranging from woody shrubs to tall trees. The most significant is Eucalyptus sensu lato, which typifies Australia's flora, and is characterized by aromatic leaves that produce eucalyptol. Eucalyptus has evolved strategies that result in its domination of Australian open woodlands: these include production of highly flammable eucalyptol oil (with a flashpoint of 49 °C) and an unprecedented ability to regenerate following forest fires. Gum trees and barnacles first appear in the Paleogene, their earliest records are Australasian, and they both demonstrate extraordinary resilience when environmental conditions are optimal. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  4. Growth and development of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite: time and spatially resolved structure and chemistry of the base plate

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Daniel K.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Everett, Richard K.; Barlow, Daniel E.; Orihuela, Beatriz; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Fears, Kenan P.; Rittschof, Daniel; Wahl, Kathryn J.

    2014-01-01

    The radial growth and advancement of the adhesive interface to the substratum of many species of acorn barnacles occurs underwater and beneath an opaque, calcified shell. Here, the time-dependent growth processes involving various autofluorescent materials within the interface of live barnacles are imaged for the first time using 3D time-lapse confocal microscopy. Key features of the interface development in the striped barnacle, Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite were resolved in situ and include advancement of the barnacle/substratum interface, epicuticle membrane development, protein secretion, and calcification. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provide ex situ material identification of regions imaged by confocal microscopy. In situ and ex situ analysis of the interface support the hypothesis that barnacle interface development is a complex process coupling sequential, timed secretory events and morphological changes. This results in a multi-layered interface that concomitantly fulfills the roles of strongly adhering to a substratum while permitting continuous molting and radial growth at the periphery. PMID:25115515

  5. Synthetic taxonomy of Rosa races using ACT-STATIS.

    PubMed

    Raymond, O; Fiasson, J L; Jay, M

    2000-01-01

    Fifteen Rosa cultivated races were described by means of phenotypic frequencies (11 tables). Two groups of correlated contingency tables were identified by ACT-STATIS (Analyse Conjointe de Tableaux-Structuration de Tableaux à Trois Indices de la Statistique) interstructure analysis. Three data sets appeared to be independent from the others. Typologies of races were obtained after ACT-STATIS compromise analyses for the two groups of correlated tables, and after Principal Component Analyses for the independent data sets. Each typology was original and variously influenced by genealogical structure, mutation or artificial selection pressures. A weighted synthesis was attempted in order to build a taxonomy of races taking into account these diversity factors. The good agreement between the resulting classification and the assumptions about the history of Rosa domestication advocated for a wider utilization of ACT-STATIS and RV coefficient when the relationships between individuals or populations have to be studied on the basis of their similarities.

  6. Therapeutic Applications of Rose Hips from Different Rosa Species.

    PubMed

    Mármol, Inés; Sánchez-de-Diego, Cristina; Jiménez-Moreno, Nerea; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María Jesús

    2017-05-25

    Rosa species, rose hips, are widespread wild plants that have been traditionally used as medicinal compounds for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. The therapeutic potential of these plants is based on its antioxidant effects caused by or associated with its phytochemical composition, which includes ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and healthy fatty acids among others. Over the last few years, medicinal interest in rose hips has increased as a consequence of recent research that has studied its potential application as a treatment for several diseases including skin disorders, hepatotoxicity, renal disturbances, diarrhoea, inflammatory disorders, arthritis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and cancer. In this review, the role of different species of Rosa in the prevention of treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress, is examined, focusing on new therapeutic approaches from a molecular point of view.

  7. Tocopherols in rose hips (Rosa spp.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Staffan C; Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Johansson, Eva; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2012-08-15

    Rose hips are used as a food ingredient and in health products. They are rich in various bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and vitamin C, but data on their vitamin E content (tocopherols and tocotrienols) are limited. In this study, four different species of Rosa were analysed for tocopherol and tocotrienol content during ripening in three different years. Only α- and γ-tocopherol were found in the fleshy parts of the rose hips, and the tocopherol content and vitamin E activity varied depending on date of harvesting, species and year. The amount of vitamin E activity differed between species of Rosa and years, whereas the changes during ripening were relatively small. The choice of species must be considered if tocopherol content is to be optimised when rose hips are used as a food ingredient. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Therapeutic Applications of Rose Hips from Different Rosa Species

    PubMed Central

    Mármol, Inés; Sánchez-de-Diego, Cristina; Jiménez-Moreno, Nerea; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Rosa species, rose hips, are widespread wild plants that have been traditionally used as medicinal compounds for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. The therapeutic potential of these plants is based on its antioxidant effects caused by or associated with its phytochemical composition, which includes ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and healthy fatty acids among others. Over the last few years, medicinal interest in rose hips has increased as a consequence of recent research that has studied its potential application as a treatment for several diseases including skin disorders, hepatotoxicity, renal disturbances, diarrhoea, inflammatory disorders, arthritis, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and cancer. In this review, the role of different species of Rosa in the prevention of treatment of various disorders related to oxidative stress, is examined, focusing on new therapeutic approaches from a molecular point of view. PMID:28587101

  9. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  10. Identification and authentication of Rosa species through development of species-specific SCAR marker(s).

    PubMed

    Bashir, K M I; Awan, F S; Khan, I A; Khan, A I; Usman, M

    2014-05-30

    Roses (Rosa indica) belong to one of the most crucial groups of plants in the floriculture industry. Rosa species have special fragrances of interest to the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. The genetic diversity of plants based on morphological characteristics is difficult to measure under natural conditions due to the influence of environmental factors, which is why a reliable fingerprinting method was developed to overcome this problem. The development of molecular markers will enable the identification of Rosa species. In the present study, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done on four Rosa species, Rosa gruss-an-teplitz (Surkha), Rosa bourboniana, Rosa centifolia, and Rosa damascena. A polymorphic RAPD fragment of 391 bp was detected in R. bourboniana, which was cloned, purified, sequenced, and used to design a pair of species-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (forward and reverse). These SCAR primers were used to amplify the specific regions of the rose genome. These PCR amplifications with specific primers are less sensitive to reaction conditions, and due to their high reproducibility, these species-specific SCAR primers can be used for marker-assisted selection and identification of Rosa species.

  11. Regional variation in the spatial scale of selection at MPI* and GPI* in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Véliz, D; Bourget, E; Bernatchez, L

    2004-09-01

    Elucidating the ecological processes by which adaptive genetic polymorphism is maintained in heterogeneous environments requires knowledge on the spatial scale at which alternate habitats affect genotype-specific fitness. The general objective of this study was to document patterns of temporal and spatial variation of genetic polymorphism in the acorn barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) at MPI* and GPI* allozyme loci. A total of 7261 barnacles were sampled in the intertidal at various locations north and south of the Miramichi estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that both MPI* and GPI* are under the effect of strong directional selection south of the Miramichi, whereas neutrality cannot be ruled out at sampling sites located north of the estuary. Comparisons between this study and previous ones also question the generality of current hypotheses regarding ecological processes that are responsible for maintaining polymorphism at MPI* and GPI* in the acorn barnacle.

  12. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Cornelius, Annika; Goedknegt, M. Anouk

    2016-11-01

    In sedimentary coastal ecosystems shells of epibenthic organisms such as blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) provide the only major attachment surface for barnacle epibionts, which may cause detrimental effects on their mussel basibionts by e.g. reducing growth rate. In the European Wadden Sea, beds of native blue mussels have been invaded by Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, which transformed these beds into mixed reefs of oysters with mussels. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of M. edulis and their barnacle epibionts (Semibalanus balanoides) within the reef matrix. Mean mussel density near the bottom was about twice as high compared to the mussel density near the top of an oyster reef, whereas barnacles on mussels showed a reversed pattern. Barnacle dry weight per mussel was on average 14 times higher near the top than at the bottom. This pattern was confirmed by experimentally placing clean M. edulis at the top and on the bottom of oyster reefs at two sites in the Wadden Sea (island of Texel, The Netherlands; island of Sylt, Germany). After an experimental period of five weeks (April and May 2015, the main settlement period of S. balanoides), the number of barnacles per mussel was at both sites significantly higher on mussels near the top compared to near the bottom. We conclude that the oyster reef matrix offers a refuge for M. edulis: inside reefs they are not only better protected against predators but also against detrimental barnacle overgrowth. This study shows that alien species can cause beneficial effects for native organisms and should not be generally considered as a risk for the recipient marine ecosystems.

  13. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Ann I; Granhag, Lena M; Jonsson, Per R

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9-2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime.

  14. Instantaneous Flow Structures and Opportunities for Larval Settlement: Barnacle Larvae Swim to Settle

    PubMed Central

    Granhag, Lena M.; Jonsson, Per R.

    2016-01-01

    Water flow affects settlement of marine larvae on several scales. At the smallest scale local flow regime may control the probability of adhesion to the substrate. Our aim was to mechanistically understand the transition from suspended to attached larvae in turbulent flow. Recently it was proposed that opportunities for larval settlement in turbulent boundary layers depend on time windows with suitable instantaneous flow properties. In flume flow we characterized the proportion of suitable time windows in a series of flow velocities with focus on the near-bed flow. The change in the proportion of potential settling windows with increasing free-stream velocities was compared to the proportion of temporary attachment of barnacle cypris larvae at different flow velocities. We found large instantaneous flow variations in the near-bed flow where cyprid attachment took place. The probability of temporary attachment in cyprids declined with local flow speed and this response was compatible with a settling window lasting at least 0.1 s with a maximum local flow speed of 1.9–2.4 cm s-1. Cyprids swam against the near-bed flow (negative rheotaxis) and the swimming speed (1.8 cm s-1) was close to the critical speed that permitted temporary attachment. We conclude that temporary attachment in barnacle cyprids requires upstream swimming to maintain a fixed position relative to the substrate for at least 0.1 s. This behaviour may explain the ability of barnacles to recruit to high-flow environments and give cyprids flexibility in the pre-settlement choice of substrates based on flow regime. PMID:27463968

  15. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  16. Cytoplasmic Solvent Structure of Single Barnacle Muscle Cells Studied by Electron Spin Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Fred; Latorre, Ramon

    1974-01-01

    A free radical probe was introduced into single barnacle muscle cells, and its freedom of motion inferred from the spin resonance spectra. The probe reported an average local viscosity of 5-10 cp compared with 1 cp for pure water. From a comparison of the temperature dependence of the probe's tumbling rate in model aqueous systems and in the muscle we concluded that in the muscle the probe was undergoing fast exchange between sites of different mobility. Thus 10 cp must be taken as an upper limit for the viscosity of most cell water. PMID:4364470

  17. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  18. Rosa's Law and the Language of Disability: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Terciano, Jacylou

    2011-01-01

    National campaigns promoting the use of the term intellectual disability (ID) have culminated in the recent U.S. congressional passing of Rosa's Law. Rosa's Law changes how ID is referred to in federal disability programs by removing all references to the term, "mental retardation" (U.S Government Printing Office, October, 2010). Little is known…

  19. Rosa's Law and the Language of Disability: Implications for Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Terciano, Jacylou

    2011-01-01

    National campaigns promoting the use of the term intellectual disability (ID) have culminated in the recent U.S. congressional passing of Rosa's Law. Rosa's Law changes how ID is referred to in federal disability programs by removing all references to the term, "mental retardation" (U.S Government Printing Office, October, 2010). Little is known…

  20. 76 FR 53822 - Safety Zone; Labor Day at the Landing Santa Rosa Sound, Fort Walton Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Labor Day at the Landing Santa Rosa Sound... is establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of the Santa Rosa Sound in Fort Walton Beach... Chamber of Commerce applied for a Marine Event Permit to conduct a fireworks display on the Santa Rosa...

  1. 75 FR 34481 - Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National...) have reestablished the charter of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument Advisory...). Certification Statement I hereby certify that the reestablishment of the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains...

  2. [Phenylpropanoids and phenylethanol from flowers of Rosa rugosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-de; Zhou, Kun; Dong, Wei; Liu, Gui-you; Li, Li-mei; Lou, Jie; Hu, Qiu-fen; Ye, Yan-qing; Zhou, Min

    2015-10-01

    A new phenylpropanoid (1), together with seven known ones (2-8), has been isolated from the flowers of Rosa rugosa collected from Shanxi province by using various chromatographic techniques. Compound 1 is a new compound, and it displayed cytotoxicity against NB4, SH-SY5Y, PC3, A549 and MCF7 cell lines with IC₅₀ values of 8.2, 6.2, 4.3, 2.8, and 9.6 µmol · L⁻¹ respectively.

  3. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  4. Rosa rugosa Aqueous Extract Alleviates Endurance Exercise-Induced Stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunjin; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Boemjeong; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Chung, Jin Woong; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of water extract from Rosa rugosa (RRW) on endurance exercise-induced stress in mice. The mice were orally administered with distilled water or RRW, respectively. The endurance capacity was evaluated by exhaustive swimming using an adjustable-current water pool. Mice administered RRW swam longer before becoming exhausted. Also, RRW administration resulted in less lipid peroxidation, lower muscular antioxidant enzyme activities, and lower cortisol level. The results suggest that RRW can prevent exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels.

  5. The structural, compositional and mechanical features of the calcite shell of the barnacle Tetraclita rufotincta.

    PubMed

    Astachov, Liliana; Nevo, Zvi; Brosh, Tamar; Vago, Razi

    2011-09-01

    The microstructure and chemical composition of the calcite shell of the sea barnacle Tetraclita rufotincta (Pilsbry, 1916) were investigated using microscopic and analytical methods. The barnacle shell was separated mechanically into its three substructural units: outer, interior, and inner layers. The organic matrices of these structural parts were further separated into soluble and insoluble constituents and their characteristic functional groups were studied by FTIR. Investigation of the mechanical properties of the interior mass of the shell reveals remarkable viscoelastic behavior. In general, the mechanical behavior of the shell is a function of its geometry as well as of the material, of which it is constructed. In the case of T. rufotincta, as calcite is a brittle material, the elastic behavior of the shell is apparently related to its micro- and macroarchitecture. The latter enables the shell to fulfill its primary function which is to protect the organism from a hostile environment and enables its survival. Our detailed identification of the similarities and differences between the various structural components of the shell in regard to the composition and properties of the organic component will hopefully throw light on the role of organic matrices in biomineralization processes.

  6. Species-specific engineered antifouling topographies: correlations between the settlement of algal zoospores and barnacle cyprids.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, James F; Aldred, Nick; Callow, Maureen E; Finlay, John A; Callow, James A; Clare, Anthony S; Brennan, Anthony B

    2007-01-01

    Novel, non-toxic antifouling technologies are focused on the manipulation of surface topography to deter settlement of the dispersal stages of fouling organisms. This study investigated the effect of the aspect ratio (feature height/feature width) of topographical features engineered in polydimethylsiloxane, on the settlement of cyprids of Balanus amphitrite and zoospores of Ulva linza. The correlation of relative aspect ratios to antifouling efficacy was proven to be significant. An increase in aspect ratio resulted in an increase of fouling deterrence for both zoospores and cyprids. The spore density of Ulva was reduced 42% with each unit increase in aspect ratio of the Ulva-specific Sharklet AF topography. Similarly, the number of settled cyprids was reduced 45% with each unit increase in aspect ratio. The newly described barnacle-specific Sharklet AF topography (40 microm feature height, aspect ratio of 2) reduced cyprid settled by 97%. Techniques have been developed to superimpose the smaller Ulva-specific topographies onto the barnacle-specific surfaces into a hierarchical structure to repel both organisms simultaneously. The results for spore settlement on first-generation hierarchical surfaces provide insight for the efficacious design of such structures when targeting multiple settling species.

  7. Three dimensional tracking of exploratory behavior of barnacle cyprids using stereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Maleschlijski, S; Sendra, G H; Di Fino, A; Leal-Taixé, L; Thome, I; Terfort, A; Aldred, N; Grunze, M; Clare, A S; Rosenhahn, B; Rosenhahn, A

    2012-12-01

    Surface exploration is a key step in the colonization of surfaces by sessile marine biofoulers. As many biofouling organisms can delay settlement until a suitable surface is encountered, colonization can comprise surface exploration and intermittent swimming. As such, the process is best followed in three dimensions. Here we present a low-cost transportable stereoscopic system consisting of two consumer camcorders. We apply this novel apparatus to behavioral analysis of barnacle larvae (≈800 μm length) during surface exploration and extract and analyze the three-dimensional patterns of movement. The resolution of the system and the accuracy of position determination are characterized. As a first practical result, three-dimensional swimming trajectories of the cypris larva of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides are recorded in the vicinity of a glass surface and close to PEG2000-OH and C(11)NMe(3)(+)Cl(-) terminated self-assembled monolayers. Although less frequently used in biofouling experiments due to its short reproductive season, the selected model species [Marechal and Hellio (2011), Int Biodeterior Biodegrad, 65(1):92-101] has been used following a number of recent investigations on the settlement behavior on chemically different surfaces [Aldred et al. (2011), ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 3(6):2085-2091]. Experiments were scheduled to match the availability of cyprids off the north east coast of England so that natural material could be used. In order to demonstrate the biological applicability of the system, analysis of parameters such as swimming direction, swimming velocity and swimming angle are performed.

  8. Plastic Sexual Expression in the Androdioecious Barnacle Octolasmis warwickii (Cirripedia: Pedunculata).

    PubMed

    Wijayanti, Hendry; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Most barnacles are simultaneous hermaphrodites, but dwarf males are also found attached to hermaphrodites in several species. This biologically rare phenomenon of the coexistence of males and hermaphrodites is termed androdioecy. To test whether the hermaphrodite and male sexes are fixed or plastic in the androdioecious pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis warwickii, we conducted a series of 22-day-long transplanting experiments to evaluate the effects of a) the original site (attached to the conspecific vs. attached directly to the substrate) and b) the transplanting site (conspecific-attached vs. substrate-attached). Penis length (as an index of male function), the presence or absence of egg mass (female function), and growth rate were investigated. As with natural dwarf males, individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics developed longer penises than did those that were transplanted onto the substrate. The original site of attachment also affected penis length. However, no significant effects of the original site or the transplanting were detected in egg-laying activities, as only one experimental individual laid eggs. Individuals that were transplanted onto conspecifics grew less than those that were attached to the substrate. These results indicate that individual sexual expression is affected by the environment in O. warwickii.

  9. Response of larval barnacle proteome to CO(2)-driven seawater acidification.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin K W; Lane, Ackley C; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Thiyagarajan, V

    2011-09-01

    The majority of benthic marine invertebrates have a complex life cycle, during which the pelagic larvae select a suitable substrate, attach to it, and then metamorphose into benthic adults. Anthropogenic ocean acidification (OA) is postulated to affect larval metamorphic success through an altered protein expression pattern (proteome structure) and post-translational modifications. To test this hypothesis, larvae of an economically and ecologically important barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, were cultured from nauplius to the cyprid stage in the present (control) and in the projected elevated concentrations of CO(2) for the year 2100 (the OA treatment). Cyprid response to OA was analyzed at the total proteome level as well as two protein post-translational modification (phosphorylation and glycosylation) levels using a 2-DE based proteomic approach. The cyprid proteome showed OA-driven changes. Proteins that were differentially up or down regulated by OA come from three major groups, namely those related to energy-metabolism, respiration, and molecular chaperones, illustrating a potential strategy that the barnacle larvae may employ to tolerate OA stress. The differentially expressed proteins were tentatively identified as OA-responsive, effectively creating unique protein expression signatures for OA scenario of 2100. This study showed the promise of using a sentinel and non-model species to examine the impact of OA at the proteome level.

  10. Automated tracking and classification of the settlement behaviour of barnacle cyprids

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.

    2017-01-01

    A focus on the development of nontoxic coatings to control marine biofouling has led to increasing interest in the settlement behaviour of fouling organisms. Barnacles pose a significant fouling challenge and accordingly the behaviour of their settlement-stage cypris larva (cyprid) has attracted much attention, yet remains poorly understood. Tracking technologies have been developed that quantify cyprid movement, but none have successfully automated data acquisition over the prolonged periods necessary to capture and identify the full repertoire of behaviours, from alighting on a surface to permanent attachment. Here we outline a new tracking system and a novel classification system for identifying and quantifying the exploratory behaviour of cyprids. The combined system enables, for the first time, tracking of multiple larvae, simultaneously, over long periods (hours), followed by automatic classification of typical cyprid behaviours into swimming, wide search, close search and inspection events. The system has been evaluated by comparing settlement behaviour in the light and dark (infrared illumination) and tracking one of a group of 25 cyprids from the water column to settlement over the course of 5 h. Having removed a significant technical barrier to progress in the field, it is anticipated that the system will accelerate our understanding of the process of surface selection and settlement by barnacles. PMID:28356538

  11. Barnacle: detecting and characterizing tandem duplications and fusions in transcriptome assemblies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chimeric transcripts, including partial and internal tandem duplications (PTDs, ITDs) and gene fusions, are important in the detection, prognosis, and treatment of human cancers. Results We describe Barnacle, a production-grade analysis tool that detects such chimeras in de novo assemblies of RNA-seq data, and supports prioritizing them for review and validation by reporting the relative coverage of co-occurring chimeric and wild-type transcripts. We demonstrate applications in large-scale disease studies, by identifying PTDs in MLL, ITDs in FLT3, and reciprocal fusions between PML and RARA, in two deeply sequenced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) RNA-seq datasets. Conclusions Our analyses of real and simulated data sets show that, with appropriate filter settings, Barnacle makes highly specific predictions for three types of chimeric transcripts that are important in a range of cancers: PTDs, ITDs, and fusions. High specificity makes manual review and validation efficient, which is necessary in large-scale disease studies. Characterizing an extended range of chimera types will help generate insights into progression, treatment, and outcomes for complex diseases. PMID:23941359

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica).

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K

    2016-07-01

    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance.

  13. Evolution of sex determination and sexually dimorphic larval sizes in parasitic barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Høeg, Jens T; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-04-21

    The parasitic (rhizocephalan) barnacles include species of which larval sex is determined by the mother (genetic sex determination, GSD), male larvae are larger than female larvae, and a female accepts only two dwarf males who sire all the eggs laid by her. In contrast, other species of parasitic barnacles exhibit monomorphic larvae that choose to become male or female depending on the condition of the host they settle (environmental sex determination, or ESD), and a female accepts numerous dwarf males. Here, we ask why these set of traits are observed together, by examining the evolution of sex determination and the larval size. ESD has an advantage over GSD because each larva has a higher chance of encountering a suitable host. On the other hand, GSD has two advantages over ESD: the larval size can be chosen differently between sexes, and their larvae can avoid spending time for sex determination on the host. We conclude that, in species whose female accepts only two males, the male larvae engage in intense contest competition for reproductive opportunities, and male's success-size relation is very different from female's. Then, larvae with predetermined sex (GSD) with sexually dimorphic larvae is more advantageous than ESD. In contrast, in species whose females accept many dwarf males, the competition among males is less intense, and producing larvae with undetermined sex should evolve. We also discuss the condition for females to evolve receptacles to limit the number of males she accepts.

  14. Phylogenetic position and evolutionary history of the turtle and whale barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Coronuloidea).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryota; Chan, Benny K K; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Levy, Yaniv; Shuto, Takuho; Achituv, Yair

    2013-04-01

    Barnacles of the superfamily Coronuloidea are obligate epibionts of various marine mammals, marine reptiles and large crustaceans. We used five molecular markers: 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and Histone 3 to infer phylogenetic relationships among sixteen coronuloids, representing most of the recent genera of barnacles of this superfamily. Our analyses confirm the monophyly of Coronuloidea and that this superfamily and Tetraclitoidea are sister groups. The six-plated Austrobalanus clusters with these two superfamilies. Based on BEAST and ML trees, Austrobalanus is basal and sister to the Coronuloidea, but the NJ tree places Austrobalanus within the Tetraclitoidae, and in the MP tree it is sister to both Coronuloidea and Tetraclitoidae. Hence the position of Austrobalanus remains unresolved. Within the Coronuloidea we identified four clades. Chelonibia occupies a basal position within the Coronuloidea which is in agreement with previous studies. The grouping of the other clades does not conform to previous studies. Divergence time analyses show that some of the time estimates are congruent with the fossil record while some others are older, suggesting the possibility of gaps in the fossil record.

  15. Opportunism and the resilience of barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) to environmental change.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S

    2012-06-01

    Cirripede-like organisms have their origins in the Palaeozoic, but until the Cainozoic, were represented primarily by pedunculated forms, such as the Scalpelliformes. Acorn barnacles (Balanomorpha) are first recorded after the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event. During the late Palaeogene, rapid radiation of cirripedes resulted in sufficient diversification for them to occupy most marine environments. That they survived both the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and the Pleistocene glaciation is testament to their ability to rapidly adapt to opportunities. The wide habitat distribution of balanomorphs in particular is unparalleled; they are known from the upper littoral (Chthamalus) to depths of 3600 m (Tetrachaelasma) and within this attached to rock, wood and miscellaneous flotsam, plus in symbiosis or commensalism with larger marine organisms. Darwin's (1854) view of the Tertiary as the age of barnacles is reflected in this diversity, distribution and biomass. All cirripedes are, nonetheless, at risk, from rapid habitat change, competition, pollution and, especially in light of their sessile habit, from predation. This paper assesses the viability of a number of cirripedes and concludes that the Lepadiformes, Scalpelliformes and Balanomorpha are the most resilient, and will most quickly adapt to occupy new niches when opportunities arise.

  16. Genetic evidence for kin aggregation in the intertidal acorn barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides).

    PubMed

    Veliz, David; Duchesne, Pierre; Bourget, Edwin; Bernatchez, Louis

    2006-11-01

    It is generally assumed that larvae of benthic species are thoroughly mixed in the plankton and distributed randomly at settlement. Yet, it has also been hypothesized that a combination of larval gregarious behaviour coupled with particular oceanographic conditions may prevent larvae from mixing completely, and result in nonrandom spatial distributions following settlement. Using microsatellite markers, the main objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of statistical connections between relatedness and settlement in the intertidal acorn barnacle from the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that patches of kin-related individuals came from a common parental site. Our results indicated that a significant number of barnacles within a given sample were more closely related than expected by chance despite the enormous potential for admixture during the planktonic phase. Thus, eight out of 37 samples analysed had relatedness values significantly higher than expected from random settlement. Moreover, analyses of sibship network construction and network complexity tests provided evidence for the occurrence of networks within several samples that were characterized by strong connections among individuals. Thus, nonrandom planktonic dispersal associated with relatively stable oceanic currents, as well as additional ecological factors to be rigorously investigated (e.g. behavioural mechanisms), may be more important in determining patterns of genetic structure in marine benthic invertebrates than generally assumed. Therefore, documenting genetic patterns associated with kin aggregation should be a fruitful and an important avenue for future studies in marine invertebrates.

  17. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  18. The dark brown integumentary pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus). A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Barden, H; Koulish, S

    1983-01-01

    A histochemical analysis involving tinctorial and solubility tests was pursued in conjunction with electron microscopy for the purpose of identifying the dark brown epidermal pigment of a barnacle (Balanus eburneus) as melanin and/or ommochrome. Histochemically, comparisons were made with other brown pigments located in the subcarapal epidermis of another crustacean, the fiddler crab (Uca pugilator), the dorsal skin of the red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus), the liver and testis of a slider turtle (Chrysemys sp.) and the substantia nigra of human brain. The solubility properties of the pigment of the two crustacean invertebrates were in general similar to one another and markedly different from the pigment of the three vertebrates. Insolubility in appropriate solvents classified the vertebrate pigment as melanin. The invertebrate pigment, however, which was soluble in the ommochrome solvents, concentrated sulfuric and formic acids and 2-chloroethanol, remained insoluble in the ommochrome solvents, dilute aqueous and methanolic hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid. On the basis of these solubilities, an unequivocal classification of the invertebrate pigment as either melanin or ommochrome did not appear possible. The tinctorial and electron microscopic properties of the barnacle pigment were also equally ambiguous in regard to its specific classification.

  19. Heat-shock response of the upper intertidal barnacle Balanus glandula: thermal stress and acclimation.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michael S; Emlet, Richard B

    2007-06-01

    In the intertidal zone in the Pacific Northwest, body temperatures of sessile marine organisms can reach 35 degrees C for an extended time during low tide, resulting in potential physiological stress. We used immunochemical assays to examine the effects of thermal stress on endogenous Hsp70 levels in the intertidal barnacle Balanus glandula. After thermal stress, endogenous Hsp70 levels did not increase above control levels in B. glandula exposed to 20 and 28 degrees C. In a separate experiment, endogenous Hsp70 levels were higher than control levels when B. glandula was exposed to 34 degrees C for 8.5 h. Although an induced heat-shock response was observed, levels of conjugated ubiquitin failed to indicate irreversible protein damage at temperatures up to 34 degrees C. With metabolic labeling, we examined temperature acclimation and thermally induced heat-shock proteins in B. glandula. An induced heat-shock response of proteins in the 70-kDa region (Hsp70) occurred in B. glandula above 23 degrees C. This heat-shock response was similar in molting and non-molting barnacles. Acclimation of B. glandula to relatively higher temperatures resulted in higher levels of protein synthesis in the 70-kDa region and lack of an upward shift in the induction temperature for heat-shock proteins. Our results suggest that B. glandula may be well adapted to life in the high intertidal zone but may lack the plasticity to acclimate to higher temperatures.

  20. Genetic consequences of breaking migratory traditions in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis.

    PubMed

    Jonker, R M; Kraus, R H S; Zhang, Q; van Hooft, P; Larsson, K; van der Jeugd, H P; Kurvers, R H J M; van Wieren, S E; Loonen, M J J E; Crooijmans, R P M A; Ydenberg, R C; Groenen, M A M; Prins, H H T

    2013-12-01

    Cultural transmission of migratory traditions enables species to deal with their environment based on experiences from earlier generations. Also, it allows a more adequate and rapid response to rapidly changing environments. When individuals break with their migratory traditions, new population structures can emerge that may affect gene flow. Recently, the migratory traditions of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis changed, and new populations differing in migratory distance emerged. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of the Barnacle Goose to evaluate the consequences of altered migratory traditions. We used a set of 358 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to genotype 418 individuals from breeding populations in Greenland, Spitsbergen, Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands, the latter two being newly emerged populations. We used discriminant analysis of principal components, FST , linkage disequilibrium and a comparison of geneflow models using migrate-n to show that there is significant population structure, but that relatively many pairs of SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium, suggesting recent admixture between these populations. Despite the assumed traditions of migration within populations, we also show that genetic exchange occurs between all populations. The newly established nonmigratory population in the Netherlands is characterized by high emigration into other populations, which suggests more exploratory behaviour, possibly as a result of shortened parental care. These results suggest that migratory traditions in populations are subject to change in geese and that such changes have population genetic consequences. We argue that the emergence of nonmigration probably resulted from developmental plasticity.

  1. Intraspecific variation in the turtle barnacle, Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Coronuloidea), with brief notes on habitat selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens of the turtle barnacle Cylindrolepas sinica Ren, 1980 were collected from sea turtles in Japanese waters. The specimens were hexagonal in shape and were found burrowing into the sea turtle plastron. Specimens were dissected and the hard and soft parts were compared with the original description. PMID:24167420

  2. Morphology of the cement apparatus and the cement of the buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Thoracica, Lepadidae).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Von Byern, Janek; Kerbl, Alexandra; Leisch, Nikolaus; Staedler, Yannick; Grunwald, Ingo; Power, Anne Marie; Klepal, Waltraud

    2012-10-01

    Barnacles produce a proteinaceous adhesive called cement to attach permanently to rocks or to other hard substrata. The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis is of special interest as it produces a large amount of foam-like cement that can be used as a float. The morphology of the cement apparatus and of the polymerized cement of this species is almost unknown. The current study aims at filling these gaps in our knowledge using light and electron microscopy as well as x-ray microtomography. The shape of the cement gland cells changes from round to ovoid during barnacle development. The cytoplasm of the gland cells, unlike that of some other barnacles, does not have distinct secretory and storage regions. The cement canals, which transport the cement from the gland cells to the base of the stalk, end at different positions in juvenile and mature animals. With increasing size of the cement float, the exit of the cement canals shift from the centrally positioned attachment disk of the vestigial antennules to more lateral positions on the stalk. The bubbles enclosed in the foam-like float are most likely filled with CO(2) that diffuses from the hemolymph into the cement canal system and from there into the cement.

  3. Analysis of aquaporins from the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus reveals differential expression in response to changes in salinity.

    PubMed

    Lind, Ulrika; Järvå, Michael; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Pingitore, Piero; Karlsson, Emil; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Kamdal, Emelie; Sundell, Kristina; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Havenhand, Jon; Eriksson, Leif A; Hedfalk, Kristina; Blomberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Barnacles are sessile macro-invertebrates, found along rocky shores in coastal areas worldwide. The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854) (= Amphibalanus improvisus) can tolerate a wide range of salinities, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the osmoregulatory capacity of this truly brackish species are not well understood. Aquaporins are pore-forming integral membrane proteins that facilitate transport of water, small solutes and ions through cellular membranes, and that have been shown to be important for osmoregulation in many organisms. The knowledge of the function of aquaporins in crustaceans is, however, limited and nothing is known about them in barnacles. We here present the repertoire of aquaporins from a thecostracan crustacean, the barnacle B. improvisus, based on genome and transcriptome sequencing. Our analyses reveal that B. improvisus contains eight genes for aquaporins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they represented members of the classical water aquaporins (Aqp1, Aqp2), the aquaglyceroporins (Glp1, Glp2), the unorthodox aquaporin (Aqp12) and the arthropod-specific big brain aquaporin (Bib). Interestingly, we also found two big brain-like proteins (BibL1 and BibL2) constituting a new group of aquaporins not yet described in arthropods. In addition, we found that the two water-specific aquaporins were expressed as C-terminal splice variants. Heterologous expression of some of the aquaporins followed by functional characterization showed that Aqp1 transported water and Glp2 water and glycerol, agreeing with the predictions of substrate specificity based on 3D modeling and phylogeny. To investigate a possible role for the B. improvisus aquaporins in osmoregulation, mRNA expression changes in adult barnacles were analysed after long-term acclimation to different salinities. The most pronounced expression difference was seen for AQP1 with a substantial (>100-fold) decrease in the mantle tissue in low salinity (3 PSU

  4. Analysis of aquaporins from the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus reveals differential expression in response to changes in salinity

    PubMed Central

    Järvå, Michael; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Pingitore, Piero; Karlsson, Emil; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Kamdal, Emelie; Sundell, Kristina; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R.; Havenhand, Jon; Eriksson, Leif A.; Hedfalk, Kristina; Blomberg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Barnacles are sessile macro-invertebrates, found along rocky shores in coastal areas worldwide. The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus (Darwin, 1854) (= Amphibalanus improvisus) can tolerate a wide range of salinities, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the osmoregulatory capacity of this truly brackish species are not well understood. Aquaporins are pore-forming integral membrane proteins that facilitate transport of water, small solutes and ions through cellular membranes, and that have been shown to be important for osmoregulation in many organisms. The knowledge of the function of aquaporins in crustaceans is, however, limited and nothing is known about them in barnacles. We here present the repertoire of aquaporins from a thecostracan crustacean, the barnacle B. improvisus, based on genome and transcriptome sequencing. Our analyses reveal that B. improvisus contains eight genes for aquaporins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they represented members of the classical water aquaporins (Aqp1, Aqp2), the aquaglyceroporins (Glp1, Glp2), the unorthodox aquaporin (Aqp12) and the arthropod-specific big brain aquaporin (Bib). Interestingly, we also found two big brain-like proteins (BibL1 and BibL2) constituting a new group of aquaporins not yet described in arthropods. In addition, we found that the two water-specific aquaporins were expressed as C-terminal splice variants. Heterologous expression of some of the aquaporins followed by functional characterization showed that Aqp1 transported water and Glp2 water and glycerol, agreeing with the predictions of substrate specificity based on 3D modeling and phylogeny. To investigate a possible role for the B. improvisus aquaporins in osmoregulation, mRNA expression changes in adult barnacles were analysed after long-term acclimation to different salinities. The most pronounced expression difference was seen for AQP1 with a substantial (>100-fold) decrease in the mantle tissue in low salinity (3 PSU

  5. Genomic Approach to Study Floral Development Genes in Rosa sp.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, Aurélie; Maene, Marion; Pécrix, Yann; Yang, Shu-Hua; Jeauffre, Julien; Thouroude, Tatiana; Boltz, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Janczarski, Stéphane; Legeai, Fabrice; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Le Bris, Manuel; Foucher, Fabrice; Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cultivated for centuries, the varieties of rose have been selected based on a number of flower traits. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits will impact on future improvements for this economically important ornamental plant. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy and sections of meristems and flowers to establish a precise morphological calendar from early rose flower development stages to senescing flowers. Global gene expression was investigated from floral meristem initiation up to flower senescence in three rose genotypes exhibiting contrasted floral traits including continuous versus once flowering and simple versus double flower architecture, using a newly developed Affymetrix microarray (Rosa1_Affyarray) tool containing sequences representing 4765 unigenes expressed during flower development. Data analyses permitted the identification of genes associated with floral transition, floral organs initiation up to flower senescence. Quantitative real time PCR analyses validated the mRNA accumulation changes observed in microarray hybridizations for a selection of 24 genes expressed at either high or low levels. Our data describe the early flower development stages in Rosa sp, the production of a rose microarray and demonstrate its usefulness and reliability to study gene expression during extensive development phases, from the vegetative meristem to the senescent flower. PMID:22194838

  6. Processing of Rosa rubiginosa: extraction of oil and antioxidant substances.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Pinelo, Manuel; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María José

    2007-12-01

    In this work, a study about the effect of various operational conditions on the quantity of oil and soluble solids capable of being extracted from rosa mosqueta rosehip seeds is undertaken. Both the particle sizes assayed (0.6mm, 0.6-1mm, and 1-2mm) and the solvent-to-solid ratios (15:1, 25:1, and 50:1) showed a remarkable influence on the extraction efficiency. Extracted substances obtained by using the minor particle size or the maximum solvent-to-solid ratio doubled, at least, those attained by working under any other conditions. A major weight of kinetics upon equilibrium factors can be inferred from the short extraction times and high effective diffusivity values (being the lower one 1.97x10(-11)m(2)s(-1)) assessed for any condition. The antioxidant power of extracts was evaluated by ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. Results noteworthy depended on the solvent used to extract; whilst an approximately 80% DPPH inhibition percentage was reached in ethanol extracts, values of 52.2% or 41% were found in methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. Even so, antioxidant capacity of Rosa rubiginosa extracts was much higher than that reported for other agricultural matrixes.

  7. Flavonol glycosides from distilled petals of Rosa damascena Mill.

    PubMed

    Schiber, Andreas; Mihalev, Kiril; Berardini, Nicolai; Mollov, Plamen; Carle, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Flavonol glycosides were extracted from petals of Rosa damascena Mill. after industrial distillation for essential oil recovery and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the 22 major compounds analyzed, only kaempferol and quercetin glycosides were detected. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-xyloside has so far not been reported within the genus Rosa. In addition, based on their fragmentation patterns, several acylated quercetin and kaempferol glycosides, some of them being disaccharides, were identified for the first time. The kaempferol glycosides, along with the kaempferol aglycone, accounted for 80% of the total compounds that were quantified, with kaempferol 3-O-glucoside being the predominant component. The high flavonol content of approximately 16 g/kg on a dry weight basis revealed that distilled rose petals represent a promising source of phenolic compounds which might be used as functional food ingredients, as natural antioxidants or as color enhancers.

  8. Development and evaluation of an office ergonomic risk checklist: ROSA--rapid office strain assessment.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort.

  9. Barnacles, limpets and periwinkles: the effects of direct and indirect interactions on cyprid settlement and success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Sebastian P.; Walker, Graham; van der Meer, Jaap

    2005-02-01

    Conventionally, direct interactions between species are considered to be the most important biological factors determining community composition, structure and stability. However, it has been suggested that the indirect interactions occurring between species may be as important. One area of ecology where the direct effects of one species on another have been well studied is in the rocky intertidal. Examination of the effect of the presence of P. vulgata (limpets) and L. littorea (periwinkles) on the settlement and development of S. balanoides (cyprids/barnacles), over a cyprid settlement season and some six months later, in four different treatments (limpets only, limpets and periwinkles combined, periwinkles only and control (no animals)) revealed the following: (1) that the presence of limpets increased cyprid settlement and recruitment success above treatments containing no limpets; (2) that cyprid settlement and success were greatest on the limpets-only treatment, followed by the limpets-and-periwinkles treatment, then by the control treatment and then by the periwinkles-only treatment; (3) that the initial effects observed in the treatments were reflected in the long-term community structure; (4) that the effects of the treatments were independent of variations in algal biomass between treatments, i.e. the effects were not indirectly mediated through a second species (host); (5) that cyprid mortality was greatest on the periwinkles-only treatment; (6) that the source of the effect of limpets on cyprid settlement appeared to originate indirectly through the action of their residual pedal mucus trails. It is concluded that periwinkles can affect the settlement and success of barnacles directly through biological disturbance (i.e. surface ablation). However, although limpets may have a direct negative effect on barnacle settlement and success, at low to medium densities, limpets can positively indirectly influence the cyprid settlement and success. This effect

  10. Asymmetric coexistence: bidirectional abiotic and biotic effects between goose barnacles and mussels.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takashi; Tokeshi, Mutsunori

    2006-07-01

    1. Species coexistence depends on the net effect of interacting species, representing the sum of multiple interaction components that may act simultaneously and vary independently depending on ambient environmental conditions. Consequently, for a comprehensive understanding of the compound nature of species interactions and coexistence, a mechanistic approach that allows a separate evaluation of each interaction component is required. 2. Two sessile filter-feeders, the goose barnacle Capitulum mitella and the mussel Septifer virgatus, coexist on moderately wave-exposed rocky shores in south-western Japan. In the upper intertidal, Capitulum positively influenced Septifer survivorship and growth through amelioration of thermal stress and of physical disturbance. On the other hand, these species are potential competitors as they have similar body sizes and modes of resource utilization. These opposite processes, facilitation and competition, are based on abiotic characteristics and biotic functions of the two species, respectively. 3. In order to quantify the bidirectional abiotic, biotic and net effects, a series of experimental manipulations was conducted involving the use of living neighbours with both abiotic and biotic effects, and artificial mimics to simulate abiotic effects without biotic effects. 4. Capitulum had strong positive abiotic effects on the mussel survivorship in most experimental periods, while the biotic effect was negligible or weakly negative, suggesting that the net effect of Capitulum on mussel survival was largely attributable to the abiotic effect. In contrast, a significantly negative biotic effect on the mussel growth rate was always present, though this was cancelled out by the larger, positive abiotic effect. In the case of Septifer, its abiotic and biotic effects on the survivorship of goose barnacles were negligible, while those on the growth rate showed temporal variation. 5. With respect to the relationship between species

  11. Construction and nanomechanical properties of the exoskeleton of the barnacle, Amphibalanus reticulatus.

    PubMed

    Raman, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ravi

    2011-12-01

    Barnacles are some of the major inhabitants of intertidal zones and have calcite-based exoskeleton to anchor and armor their tissues. Structural characterization studies of the specie Ambhibalanus reticulatus were performed to understand the construction of the exoskeleton which forms a light-weight yet stiff structure. The parietal shell is constructed of six compartments to yield a truncated cone geometry, which is neatly fixed onto the basal shell that attaches the organism to the substrate surface. The connections among the different compartments happen through sutured edges and also have chemical interlocking to make the junctions impermeable. Also, the shell parts are furnished with hollow channels reducing the overall mass of the construction. The structure and functions of different parts of the exoskeleton are identified and outlined. Finally, the mechanical properties such as modulus, hardness and fracture toughness of the exoskeleton obtained by indentation techniques are discussed.

  12. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters.

  13. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-01-01

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water. PMID:25657839

  14. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny K. K.; Chen, H. -N.; Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  15. Characterization of cement float buoyancy in the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Crustacea, Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Zheden, Vanessa; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Klepal, Waltraud

    2015-02-06

    Dosima fascicularis is the only barnacle which can drift autonomously at the water surface with a foam-like cement float. The cement secreted by the animal contains numerous gas-filled cells of different size. When several individuals share one float, their size and not their number is crucial for the production of both volume and mass of the float. The gas content within the cells of the foam gives positive static buoyancy to the whole float. The volume of the float, the gas volume and the positive static buoyancy are positively correlated. The density of the cement float without gas is greater than that of seawater. This study shows that the secreted cement consists of more than 90% water and the gas volume is on average 18.5%. Our experiments demonstrate that the intact foam-like cement float is sealed to the surrounding water.

  16. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  17. Spatial properties of the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential in barnacle photoreceptors. I. The induction process

    SciTech Connect

    Almagor, E.; Hillman, P.; Minke, B.

    1986-03-01

    In invertebrate photoreceptors, when the light stimulus results in substantial net transfer of the visual pigment from the rhodopsin (R) to the metarhodopsin (M) state, the ordinary late receptor potential (LRP) is followed by a prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA). The dependence of the amplitude of the PDA on the amount of pigment conversion is strongly supralinear, and the PDA duration also depends on this amount. These observations indicate an interaction among the elements of the PDA induction process and also make possible a test of the range of this interaction. The test consists of a comparison of the PDA after localized pigment conversion, obtained by strong spot illumination, to that after weaker diffuse illumination converting a comparable total amount of pigment. The experiment was performed on the barnacle lateral eye. The effective spot size was measured by the early receptor potential (ERP), in seawater saturated with CO/sub 2/, which considerably reduced the electrical coupling between the photoreceptors. The ERP was also used to determine whether there is diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot. The spot illumination induced a PDA with small amplitude and long duration, while no detectable PDA was induced by the diffuse light. This indicates that the range of the PDA interaction is much smaller than the entire cell. In addition, the ERP results showed that there was no detectable diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot area over 30 min. This measurement, with a calculated correction for the microvillar geometry of the photoreceptor, enabled us to put an upper limit on the diffusion coefficient of the pigment molecules in the inact, unfixed barnacle photoreceptor of D less than 6 X 10(-9) cm2 s-1.

  18. The Initiation of Spike Potential in Barnacle Muscle Fibers under Low Intracellular Ca++

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Susumu; Naka, Ken-ichi

    1964-01-01

    Electrical properties of the muscle fiber membrane were studied in the barnacle, Balanus nubilus Darw. by using intracellular electrode techniques. A depolarization of the membrane does not usually produce an all-or-none spike potential in the normal muscle fiber even though a mechanical response is elicited. The intracellular injection of Ca++-binding agents (K2SO4 and K salt of EDTA solution, K3 citrate solution, etc.) renders the fiber capable of initiating all-or-none spikes. The overshoot of such a spike potential increases with increasing external Ca concentration, the increment for a tenfold increase in Ca concentration being about 29 mv. The threshold membrane potential for the spike and also for the K conductance increase shifts to more positive membrane potentials with increasing [Ca++]out. The removal of Na ions from the external medium does not change the configuration of the spike potential. In the absence of Ca++ in the external medium, the spike potential is restored by Ba++ and Sr++ but not by Mg++. The overshoot of the spike potential increases with increasing [Ba++]out or [Sr++]out. The Ca influx through the membrane of the fiber treated with K2SO4 and EDTA was examined with Ca45. The influx was 14 pmol per sec. per cm2 for the resting membrane and 35 to 85 pmol per cm2 for one spike. From these results it is concluded that the spike potential of the barnacle muscle fiber results from the permeability increase of the membrane to Ca++ (Ba++ or Sr++). PMID:14212145

  19. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans.

    PubMed

    Plough, Louis V; Moran, Amy; Marko, Peter

    2014-04-16

    Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism

  20. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it

  1. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K; Chan, Karen; Jensen, Peter Gram; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe cypris morphology in species of the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas, both of which are pivotal in understanding cirripede evolution. In Ibla, we also studied late naupliar stages with video and SEM. Special emphasis was put on the lattice organs, the antennules and the thorax and telson. In Paralepas we had settled specimens only and could therefore only investigate the carapace with the lattice organs. Cyprids of Ibla quadrivalvis and Paralepas dannevigi have five sets of lattice organs, grouped as two anterior and three posterior pairs. The organs are of the pore-field type and the terminal pore is situated anteriorly in the first pair, just as in the Rhizocephala and the Thoracica. In Ibla the armament of antennular sensilla resembles that found in the Thoracica but differs from the Rhizocephala. The absence of setules on the A and B setae sited terminally on the fourth antennular segment is a similarity with the Acrothoracica. The attachment disc is angled rather than facing distally and is encircled by a low cuticular velum. The thoracopods have two-segmented endopods and exopods as in the Thoracica, but the number, shape, and position of thoracopodal setae differ somewhat from other species of that superorder. Both Ibla and Paralepas cyprids have a deeply cleaved telson, but no independent abdominal part. In cypris morphology, Ibla and Paralepas show several synapomorphies with the clade comprising Rhizocephala and Thoracica and there are no specific apomorphies with either the Acrothoracica, the Rhizocephala or any particular subgroup within the Thoracica. This is in agreement with recent molecular evidence that Ibla (Ibliformes) is the sister taxon to all other Thoracica and the ibliforms therefore become the outgroup of choice for studying character evolution within the superorder. Paralepas, and other pedunculated barnacles without shell plates, are apparently not primitive but are secondarily evolved

  2. Spatial properties of the prolonged depolarizing afterpotential in barnacle photoreceptors. I. The induction process

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In invertebrate photoreceptors, when the light stimulus results in substantial net transfer of the visual pigment from the rhodopsin (R) to the metarhodopsin (M) state, the ordinary late receptor potential (LRP) is followed by a prolonged depolarizing afterpotential (PDA). The dependence of the amplitude of the PDA on the amount of pigment conversion is strongly supralinear, and the PDA duration also depends on this amount. These observations indicate an interaction among the elements of the PDA induction process and also make possible a test of the range of this interaction. The test consists of a comparison of the PDA after localized pigment conversion, obtained by strong spot illumination, to that after weaker diffuse illumination converting a comparable total amount of pigment. The experiment was performed on the barnacle lateral eye. The effective spot size was measured by the early receptor potential (ERP), in seawater saturated with CO2, which considerably reduced the electrical coupling between the photoreceptors. The ERP was also used to determine whether there is diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot. The spot illumination induced a PDA with small amplitude and long duration, while no detectable PDA was induced by the diffuse light. This indicates that the range of the PDA interaction is much smaller than the entire cell. In addition, the ERP results showed that there was no detectable diffusion of R molecules into the illuminated spot area over 30 min. This measurement, with a calculated correction for the microvillar geometry of the photoreceptor, enabled us to put an upper limit on the diffusion coefficient of the pigment molecules in the inact, unfixed barnacle photoreceptor of D less than 6 X 10(-9) cm2 s-1. PMID:3958692

  3. Comparative analysis of headspace volatiles of Chinese Rosa rugosa.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Guo; Chen, Chen; Sheng, Li-Xia; Liu, Ping; Tao, Jun; Su, Jia-Le; Zhao, Lan-Yong

    2010-11-16

    The floral headspace compounds of Chinese Rosa rugosa germplasms that were isolated by an automated headspace sampler with built-in trap, and followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and quantification. Up to 33 volatile compounds were identified from the 23 rose germplasms, including nine alcohols, five esters, three alkanes, 10 terpenes, three aldehydes, two ketones, and one ether. The main floral components identified were 2-phenylethanol, β-citronellol, ethanol, and n-hexane. 'xizi', 'miaofengshan', 'xiangciguo', and 'tangbai' contained the highest amounts of 2-phenylethanol at 84.66 μg·g⁻¹, β-citronellol at 70.98 μg·g⁻¹, ethanol at 83.87 μg·g⁻¹, and n-hexane at 18.23 μg·g⁻¹, respectively. 'Rongchengyesheng', 'tanghong', 'xizi', 'miaofengshan', and 'baizizhi' could be considered good materials for extracting rose oil and breeding new cultivars.

  4. [Structural organization of 5S ribosomal DNA of Rosa rugosa].

    PubMed

    Tynkevych, Iu O; Volkov, R A

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify molecular organization of the genomic region encoding 5S rRNA in diploid species Rosa rugosa several 5S rDNA repeated units were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that only one length variant of 5S rDNA repeated units, which contains intact promoter elements in the intergenic spacer region (IGS) and appears to be transcriptionally active is present in the genome. Additionally, a limited number of 5S rDNA pseudogenes lacking a portion of coding sequence and the complete IGS was detected. A high level of sequence similarity (from 93.7 to 97.5%) between the IGS of major 5S rDNA variants of East Asian R. rugosa and North American R. nitida was found indicating comparatively recent divergence of these species.

  5. A modified RMCE-compatible Rosa26 locus for the expression of transgenes from exogenous promoters.

    PubMed

    Tchorz, Jan S; Suply, Thomas; Ksiazek, Iwona; Giachino, Claudio; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Danzer, Claus-Peter; Doll, Thierry; Isken, Andrea; Lemaistre, Marianne; Taylor, Verdon; Bettler, Bernhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now generated a modified Rosa26 (modRosa26) locus that combines efficient targeted transgenesis using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by Flipase (Flp-RMCE) or Cre recombinase (Cre-RMCE) with transgene expression from exogenous promoters. We silenced the endogenous Rosa26 promoter and characterized several ubiquitous (pCAG, EF1α and CMV) and tissue-specific (VeCad, αSMA) promoters in the modRosa26 locus in vivo. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous pCAG promoter in the modRosa26 locus now offers high transgene expression. While tissue-specific promoters were all active in their cognate tissues they additionally led to rare ectopic expression. To achieve high expression levels in a tissue-specific manner, we therefore combined Flp-RMCE for rapid ES cell targeting, the pCAG promoter for high transgene levels and Cre/LoxP conditional transgene activation using well-characterized Cre lines. Using this approach we generated a Cre/LoxP-inducible reporter mouse line with high EGFP expression levels that enables cell tracing in live cells. A second reporter line expressing luciferase permits efficient monitoring of Cre activity in live animals. Thus, targeting the modRosa26 locus by RMCE minimizes the effort required to target ES cells and generates a tool for the use exogenous promoters in combination with single-copy transgenes for predictable expression in mice.

  6. A new species of eriophyoid mite (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Rosa sp. from Israel.

    PubMed

    Druciarek, Tobiasz; Lewandowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-15

    A new species of eriophyoid mite from a hybrid of Rosa sp. (Rosaceae) found in Israel is described and illustrated. Eriophyes eremus n. sp. is a refuge-seeking type mite, inhabiting flower buds and petiole bases, causing no apparent damage to the host plant. Eighteen eriophyoid species are known to inhabit Rosa sp. and those are listed here along with type localities, damage they cause and host plant details.

  7. A Modified RMCE-Compatible Rosa26 Locus for the Expression of Transgenes from Exogenous Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Tchorz, Jan S.; Suply, Thomas; Ksiazek, Iwona; Giachino, Claudio; Cloëtta, Dimitri; Danzer, Claus-Peter; Doll, Thierry; Isken, Andrea; Lemaistre, Marianne; Taylor, Verdon; Bettler, Bernhard; Kinzel, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now generated a modified Rosa26 (modRosa26) locus that combines efficient targeted transgenesis using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) by Flipase (Flp-RMCE) or Cre recombinase (Cre-RMCE) with transgene expression from exogenous promoters. We silenced the endogenous Rosa26 promoter and characterized several ubiquitous (pCAG, EF1α and CMV) and tissue-specific (VeCad, αSMA) promoters in the modRosa26 locus in vivo. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous pCAG promoter in the modRosa26 locus now offers high transgene expression. While tissue-specific promoters were all active in their cognate tissues they additionally led to rare ectopic expression. To achieve high expression levels in a tissue-specific manner, we therefore combined Flp-RMCE for rapid ES cell targeting, the pCAG promoter for high transgene levels and Cre/LoxP conditional transgene activation using well-characterized Cre lines. Using this approach we generated a Cre/LoxP-inducible reporter mouse line with high EGFP expression levels that enables cell tracing in live cells. A second reporter line expressing luciferase permits efficient monitoring of Cre activity in live animals. Thus, targeting the modRosa26 locus by RMCE minimizes the effort required to target ES cells and generates a tool for the use exogenous promoters in combination with single-copy transgenes for predictable expression in mice. PMID:22253858

  8. Relationship between metal and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burden and health risks in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W; Zhang, Xiaohua; Pan, Ke; Guo, Cui; Lam, Paul K S; Wang, Wenxiong; Liu, Hongbin; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, we employed the widespread and gregarious barnacle species Balanus amphitrite in a biomonitoring program to evaluate coastal pollution around three piers (i.e., Tso Wo Hang, Sai Kung and Hebe Haven) in Hong Kong. An integrated approach was used herein, combining both the chemical determination of contaminant concentrations, including metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and a suite of biological responses across the entire barnacle lifecycle (i.e., adult, nauplius, cyprid and juvenile). The analytical results revealed a distinct geographical distribution of metals and PBDEs. Adult physiological processes and larval behaviors varied significantly among the three piers. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated a specific suite of biological responses towards metal and PBDE exposure, likely resulting from their distinct modes of action. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the combination of chemical and biological tests provided an integrated measure for the comprehensive assessment of marine pollution.

  9. Effects of food availability on growth and reproduction of the deep-sea pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Yusa, Yoichi

    2016-02-01

    Sessile animals living on continental shelves or slopes may adjust their growth and reproduction according to temporally and spatially variable food availability, but little information is available on these animals to date. We collected the pedunculate barnacle Heteralepas canci on a continental slope at a depth of 229 m off Cape Nomamisaki in southern Japan. We developed a rearing method for the barnacles and studied their growth and reproduction at different food levels in the laboratory. A total of 136 individual H. canci were fed with Artemia salina larvae and brewer's yeast at three different food levels for 100 days. Both the growth and the ovary development were delayed when food availability was low, whereas the survival rate was lower at the high food level. In addition, an individual survived under complete starvation for 167 days. We concluded that H. canci has plastic life history traits that are adaptive for variable food availability.

  10. Occurrence and diversity of barnacles on international ships visiting Osaka Bay, Japan, and the risk of their introduction.

    PubMed

    Otani, M; Oumi, T; Uwai, S; Hanyuda, T; Prabowo, R E; Yamaguchi, T; Kawai, H

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and diversity of barnacles attached to the hulls of two intercontinental bulk carriers were studied at the port in Osaka Bay, Japan, to assess the potential risk of introduction of exotic species to the inner part of the bay. Barnacles were sampled from the bulbous bows, near the midship draft marks, and around the propeller posts and rudders. Twenty-two species were found, with 14 of these not previously recorded in Osaka Bay, including four species not previously recorded elsewhere in Japan. From an assessment of environmental similarity between Osaka Bay and native ranges, of the 14 species, Elminius modestus and Amphibalanus variegatus were considered to have the highest risk of introduction to the inner part of the bay.

  11. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient caused by Alternaria rosae: First case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Amy W; Bateman, Allen C; Greenbaum, Adam; Garvin, Kanishka; Clarridge, Jill; Grim, Jonathan

    2017-03-13

    Alternaria species have been reported as a rare cause of fungal infection in organ and stem cell transplant recipients, but to date no reports have been published of infection in humans caused by Alternaria rosae. Here, we report cutaneous A. rosae infection in a 66-year-old farmer with a history of primary myelofibrosis who had undergone allogeneic unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Forty-nine days post transplant, he presented with a nodule on the thumb with no findings suggestive of disseminated infection. Pathology, culture, and molecular speciation showed the nodule was caused by cutaneous A. rosae. He had been on voriconazole as antifungal prophylaxis, but was found to have a subtherapeutic voriconazole level. He was switched to posaconazole based on published in vitro data showing its superior efficacy in Alternaria treatment. Susceptibility testing showed that the A. rosae isolate was indeed susceptible to posaconazole. His cutaneous lesion remained stable, but he died from respiratory failure secondary to lobar pneumonia. At lung autopsy, A. rosae was not identified in the lungs. We believe this to be the first published report, to our knowledge, of A. rosae infection in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of cut rose (Rosa hybrida) and rootstock varieties using robust sequence tagged microsatellite site markers.

    PubMed

    Esselink, G D; Smulders, M J M; Vosman, B

    2003-01-01

    In this study a DNA fingerprinting protocol was developed for the identification of rose varieties based on the variability of microsatellites. Microsatellites were isolated from Rosa hybrida L. using enriched small insert libraries. In total 24 polymorphic sequenced tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers with easily scorable allele profiles, from six different linkage groups, were used to characterize 46 Hybrid Tea varieties and 30 rootstock varieties belonging to different species (Rosa canina L., Rosa indica Thory., Rosa chinensis Jacq., Rosa rubiginosa L., and Rosa rubrifolia glauca Pour.). Clones and known flower color mutants were identified as being identical, all other varieties were differentiated by a unique pattern with as few as three STMS markers. The high discriminating power of the loci suggests that a selection of the most-robust STMS markers may be able to differentiate any two varieties within rootstocks or Hybrid Teas except for mutants. The selected STMS markers will be useful as a tool for reference collection management, for assessing essential derivation of varieties and illegal propagation.

  13. The effect of water temperature and flow on respiration in barnacles: patterns of mass transfer versus kinetic limitation.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2014-06-15

    In aquatic systems, physiological processes such as respiration, photosynthesis and calcification are potentially limited by the exchange of dissolved materials between organisms and their environment. The nature and extent of physiological limitation is, therefore, likely to be dependent on environmental conditions. Here, we assessed the metabolic sensitivity of barnacles under a range of water temperatures and velocities, two factors that influence their distribution. Respiration rates increased in response to changes in temperature and flow, with an interaction where flow had less influence on respiration at low temperatures, and a much larger effect at high temperatures. Model analysis suggested that respiration is mass transfer limited under conditions of low velocity (<7.5 cm (-1)) and high temperature (20-25°C). In contrast, limitation by uptake reaction kinetics, when the biotic capacity of barnacles to absorb and process oxygen is slower than its physical delivery by mass transport, prevailed at high flows (40-150 cm s(-1)) and low temperatures (5-15°C). Moreover, there are intermediate flow-temperature conditions where both mass transfer and kinetic limitation are important. Behavioral monitoring revealed that barnacles fully extend their cirral appendages at low flows and display abbreviated 'testing' behaviors at high flows, suggesting some form of mechanical limitation. In low flow-high temperature treatments, however, barnacles displayed distinct 'pumping' behaviors that may serve to increase ventilation. Our results suggest that in slow-moving waters, respiration may become mass transfer limited as temperatures rise, whereas faster flows may serve to ameliorate the effects of elevated temperatures. Moreover, these results underscore the necessity for approaches that evaluate the combined effects of multiple environmental factors when examining physiological and behavioral performance.

  14. Effects of Toxic Leachate from Commercial Plastics on Larval Survival and Settlement of the Barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Getzinger, Gordon J; Ferguson, P Lee; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-01-19

    Plastic pollution represents a major and growing global problem. It is well-known that plastics are a source of chemical contaminants to the aquatic environment and provide novel habitats for marine organisms. The present study quantified the impacts of plastic leachates from the seven categories of recyclable plastics on larval survival and settlement of barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. Leachates from plastics significantly increased barnacle nauplii mortality at the highest tested concentrations (0.10 and 0.50 m(2)/L). Hydrophobicity (measured as surface energy) was positively correlated with mortality indicating that plastic surface chemistry may be an important factor in the effects of plastics on sessile organisms. Plastic leachates significantly inhibited barnacle cyprids settlement on glass at all tested concentrations. Settlement on plastic surfaces was significantly inhibited after 24 and 48 h, but settlement was not significantly inhibited compared to the controls for some plastics after 72-96 h. In 24 h exposure to seawater, we found larval toxicity and inhibition of settlement with all seven categories of recyclable commercial plastics. Chemical analysis revealed a complex mixture of substances released in plastic leachates. Leaching of toxic compounds from all plastics should be considered when assessing the risks of plastic pollution.

  15. Barnacles as biomonitors of trace metal availabilities in Hong Kong coastal waters: changes in space and time.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, P S; Blackmore, G

    2001-06-01

    The use of selected organisms as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities allows comparisons to be made over space and time. The concentrations of 11 trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, silver, zinc) were measured in the bodies of two barnacle species, Balanus amphitrite and Tetraclita squamosa, from up to 18 littoral sites from Hong Kong coastal waters in April 1998. These data provide evidence on the geographical variation in metal bioavailabilities at this time, and are compared selectively against historical data sets for 1986 and 1989. Geographical variation in bioavailabilities is clear for several metals, with hotspots for arsenic, copper, nickel and silver at Chai Wan Kok, and for lead in Junk Bay. Victoria Harbour sites head the rankings for silver and arsenic, and Tolo Harbour sites exhibit relatively elevated cobalt, manganese and zinc. Many bioavailabilities of trace metals to barnacles are lower in Hong Kong coastal waters in 1998 than in 1986. The two barnacle species are widespread and the extensive data set presented is a benchmark which can be compared to the results of similar biomonitoring programmes elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and beyond.

  16. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-03-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the Central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  17. Multidecadal signals within co-occurring intertidal barnacles Semibalanus balanoides and Chthamalus spp. linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieszkowska, N.; Burrows, M. T.; Pannacciulli, F. G.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-05-01

    Few links have been established between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and long-term dynamics of marine systems due to the scarcity of sustained biological time-series with sufficient multi-decadal coverage. The abundances of co-occurring boreal and Lusitanian species of barnacle have been recorded annually at a rocky shore in Devon, southwest England since 1953. Multidecadal cycles in relative abundances of the cold-water Semibalanus balanoides and warm-water Chthamalus spp. are strongly correlated with both local sea surface temperatures, and a ‘Warm Index' of barnacle abundance shows strong links to the basin-scale Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. In contrast there are weak or no observed relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation for either species. The shorter lifecycle of S. balanoides compared to the chthamalids and the increase in spring and summer temperatures to which newly settled S. balanoides recruits have been exposed during the last decade are likely mechanisms by which barnacle densities are responding to low-frequency temperature variability expressed in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation.

  18. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  19. A protective coat of microorganisms on macroalgae: inhibitory effects of bacterial biofilms and epibiotic microbial assemblages on barnacle attachment.

    PubMed

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Stratil, Stephanie B; Jacob, Katharina J; Wahl, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Effects of epibiotic bacteria associated with macroalgae on barnacle larval attachment were investigated. Eight bacterial isolates obtained from samples of three macroalga species were cultured as monospecies bacterial films and tested for their activity against barnacle (Amphibalanus improvisus) attachment in field experiments (Western Baltic Sea). Furthermore, natural biofilm communities associated with the surface of the local brown alga, Fucus vesiculosus, which were exposed to different temperatures (5, 15 and 20 °C), were harvested and subsequently tested. Generally, monospecies bacterial biofilms, as well as natural microbial assemblages, inhibited barnacle attachment by 20-67%. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints showed that temperature treatment shifted the bacterial community composition and weakened the repellent effects at 20 °C. Repellent effects were absent when settlement pressure of cyprids was high. Nonviable bacteria tended to repel cyprids when compared to the unfilmed surfaces. We conclude that biofilms can have a repellent effect benefiting the host by preventing heavy fouling on its surface. However, severe settlement pressure, as well as stressful temperature, may reduce the protective effects of the alga's biofilm. Our results add to the notion that the performance of F. vesiculosus may be reduced by multiple stressors in the course of global warming.

  20. An α2-macroglobulin-like protein is the cue to gregarious settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Dreanno, Catherine; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Dohmae, Naoshi; Takio, Koji; Hirota, Hiroshi; Kirby, Richard R.; Clare, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Many benthic marine invertebrates, like barnacles, have a planktonic larval stage whose primary purpose is dispersal. How these species colonize suitable substrata is fundamental to understanding their evolution, population biology, and wider community dynamics. Unlike larval dispersal, settlement occurs on a relatively small spatial scale and involves larval behavior in response to physical and chemical characteristics of the substratum. Biogenic chemical cues have been implicated in this process. Their identification, however, has proven challenging, no more so than for the chemical basis of barnacle gregariousness, which was first described >50 years ago. We now report that a biological cue to gregarious settlement, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC), of the major fouling barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a previously undescribed glycoprotein. The SIPC shares a 30% sequence homology with the thioester-containing family of proteins that includes the α2-macroglobulins. The cDNA (5.2 kb) of the SIPC encodes a protein precursor comprising 1,547 aa with a 17-residue signal peptide region. A number of structural characteristics and the absence of a thioester bond in the SIPC suggest that this molecule is a previously undescribed protein that may have evolved by duplication from an ancestral α2-macroglobulin gene. Although the SIPC is regarded as an adult cue that is recognized by the cyprid at settlement, it is also expressed in the juvenile and in larvae, where it may function in larva–larva settlement interactions. PMID:16983086

  1. Multi-seasonal barnacle (Balanus improvisus) protection achieved by trace amounts of a macrocyclic lactone (ivermectin) included in rosin-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Pinori, Emiliano; Berglin, Mattias; Brive, Lena M; Hulander, Mats; Dahlström, Mia; Elwing, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Rosin-based coatings loaded with 0.1% (w/v) ivermectin were found to be effective in preventing colonization by barnacles (Balanus improvisus) both on test panels as well as on yachts for at least two fouling seasons. The leaching rate of ivermectin was determined by mass-spectroscopy (LC/MS-MS) to be 0.7 ng cm(-2) day(-1). This low leaching rate, as deduced from the Higuchi model, is a result of the low loading, low water solubility, high affinity to the matrix and high molar volume of the model biocide. Comparison of ivermectin and control areas of panels immersed in the field showed undisturbed colonisation of barnacles after immersion for 35 days. After 73 days the mean barnacle base plate area on the controls was 13 mm(2), while on the ivermectin coating it was 3 mm(2). After 388 days, no barnacles were observed on the ivermectin coating while the barnacles on the control coating had reached a mean of 60 mm(2). In another series of coated panels, ivermectin was dissolved in a cosolvent mixture of propylene glycol and glycerol formal prior to the addition to the paint base. This method further improved the anti-barnacle performance of the coatings. An increased release rate (3 ng cm(-2) day(-1)) and dispersion of ivermectin, determined by fluorescence microscopy, and decreased hardness of the coatings were the consequences of the cosolvent mixture in the paint. The antifouling mechanism of macrocyclic lactones, such as avermectins, needs to be clarified in further studies. Beside chronic intoxication as ivermectin is slowly released from the paint film even contact intoxication occurring inside the coatings, triggered by penetration of the coating by barnacles, is a possible explanation for the mode of action and this is under investigation.

  2. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on Diabetic Rats: An Experimental Study With Histopathological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Taherian, Ali Akbar; Vakili, Zarichehr; Sajad Sajadian, Mohammad; Ghardashi, Mostafa

    2016-10-01

    Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae) has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Rosa canina fruit extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The results showed oral administration of Rosa canina fruit extract significantly ameliorated the high levels of blood glucose compared with the control group. Serum triglyceride levels significantly decreased by the administration of Rosa canina extract compared with control. Histopathological examinations showed that the Rosa canina extract improved islets necrotic and regenerated pancreatic islet cells. Rosa canina extract has the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Patterns of distribution and abundance of the stalked barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) in the central and southwest coast of continental Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Alina; Jacinto, David; Penteado, Nélia; Martins, Pedro; Fernandes, Joana; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J.; Cruz, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is a cirriped crustacean that lives on very exposed rocky shores. This barnacle is the most important economical resource on intertidal rocky shores of continental Portugal. It is highly prized as food and heavily exploited (professional and recreational fishery), but fishery data are scarce and do not estimate the real pressure upon this resource. Despite its socio-economic interest, specific regulations on this fishery are recent and different along the Portuguese coast. Four regions with different regulation can be identified: the marine reserve “Reserva Natural das Berlengas” (RNB) and the marine park “Parque Marinho Prof. Luiz Saldanha” (PMLS) (both in central Portugal); the natural park located in SW Portugal (“Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina”, PNSACV); and the rest of the coast. The main objective of the present study was to study the spatial patterns of percentage cover, biomass, density and size structure of P. pollicipes in areas with different exploitation regimes, including harvested areas and no-take areas. Additionally, variability between mid shore and low shore barnacles was also analysed. Seven areas were sampled with a variable number of sites (a total of 24) randomly sampled in each area during 2011. Photographs and image analysis (percentage cover) and destructive sampling (density, biomass and size) were used. In general, percentage cover, biomass and density were higher in mid shore when compared to low shore, namely in harvested areas. Low shore barnacles had a higher proportion of adults with moderate and high commercial value, while juveniles were relatively more abundant at mid shore. There were no consistent differences in the patterns of distribution and abundance of P. pollicipes among areas subject to different exploitation regimes. The most different area was the harvested area by professional fishers in RNB, where the highest biomass within the study was

  4. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  5. In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa canina L. extract.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Francesca; Greco, Emanuela; Carretta, Donatella; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Govoni, Paolo; Speroni, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Rosa canina L. is a medicinal plant largely used in traditional folk medicine. Several compounds from rose hip extracts were reported to display in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The in vivo effects of Rosa canina extracts are still poorly investigated. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and the gastroprotective effects of a hydroalcoholic crude extract of Rosa canina fruits were tested in rat. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was tested on the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema assay. The gastroprotective effect was investigated on the ethanol-induced gastric damage model. The in vitro antioxidant activity of this extract was also quantified using the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity method, and the Total Phenolic Content. Data show that the Rosa canina extract inhibits the development of carrageenin-induced edema; the anti-inflammatory power is similar to that of indomethacin. The antiedema effect was more significant using a higher dose of the extract. The total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina pre-treated stomachs with respect to unpre-treated ones, although the antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically significant. The antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically detectable, even if the total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina stomachs from pre-treated rats with respect to unpre-treated ones. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract owns a good antioxidant activity that may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed in vivo. Altogether, the present data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory property of Rosa canina suggesting its potential role as adjuvant therapeutic tool for the management of inflammatory-related diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The "Tears of the Virgin" at Lakes Entrance, SE Australia were made by the intertidal barnacle Chthamalus antennatus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica) and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, John S; Newman, William A

    2016-10-26

    Curious eroded depressions, most resembling an eye shedding an elongate tear, are found in gently sloping, intertidal, carbonate-rich arenite outcropping on the sea coast near Lakes Entrance, Victoria, SE Australia. The depressions, known locally as "Tears of the Virgin", are evidently formed by multiple generations of a barnacle, Chthamalus antennatus Darwin, 1854 in association with cyanobacteria.  While the round part of a depression offers the barnacle a modicum of protection from impacts during high tides, it is also partially inhabited by cyanobacteria, which extend into and tend to fill the elongate tear. As such, this appears to be the first case of mutualism between a higher invertebrate and cyanobacteria; the cyanobacteria reducing the barnacle's risk of desiccation while receiving metabolic wastes from it during low tides.  It is also the first record of a balanomorph barnacle eroding calcareous arenite beneath its shell, the net effect of which would be expected to reduce its adhesion to the substrate.  However the siliceous residue, resulting from the barnacle's dissolution of the more than 80% of the calcite-rich sedimentary rock, is sequestered in delicate folds on the inside of the shell wall as it grows.  A brief review of cirripedes capable of excavation includes the first photographic documentation of excavation of a mollusc shell by a verrucomorph. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonality in the strength and spatial scale of processes determining intertidal barnacle population growth.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Okuda, Takehiro; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Hori, Masakazu; Noda, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    1. Population growth rate is determined by both density-dependent and density-independent processes. In the temperate zone, the strength and spatial scale of these processes are likely to differ seasonally, but such differences have rarely been quantitatively examined. 2. Coverage, the area occupied by organisms, is a measure of resource use in sessile marine populations. Population models used for density-based studies should be able to characterize effectively fluctuations in coverage, but few have tried to apply such models to sessile populations. 3. We observed coverage of the intertidal barnacle Chthamalus challengeri at 20 plots on four shores along the Pacific coast of Japan over 8 years. We then fitted a population model that incorporated both a density-dependent process (strength of density dependence) and density-independent processes (intrinsic growth rate and stochastic fluctuation at different spatial scales) to these data to analyse the seasonal variation of these processes and answer the following two questions: (i) How do the effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes on population growth vary seasonally? (ii) At what spatial scale, regional (tens of kilometres), shore (hundreds of metres), or rock (tens of centimetres), does density-independent stochastic fluctuation most strongly affect population size changes? 4. Barnacle population size tended to decrease in summer, when population dynamics were characterized by a relatively lower intrinsic growth rate, weaker density dependence and stronger stochastic fluctuation. In contrast, population size tended to increase in winter, reflecting a higher intrinsic growth rate, strong density dependence and weak stochastic fluctuation. 5. In summer, population growth rate was strongly affected by regional-scale stochastic fluctuation, whereas in winter it was affected more by rock-scale stochastic fluctuation, suggesting that populations were strongly affected by regional-scale processes

  8. Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular shell plates, with large areas of general cuticle in between. The external integument grows by means of a system of narrow growth zones, one encircling the peduncle and a Y-shaped system on either side of the capitulum. Growth is by a regular series of molts, but shedding of old cuticle and production of new layers is entirely restricted to the growth zones. Just prior to ecdysis, the new cuticle lies in a highly folded fashion beneath the old cuticle that is about to be shed. At ecdysis, the old cuticle breaks along the margins of the growth zones and the resulting scars remain as a system of "ecdysial lines" along either side of the zone. Once exposed after ecdysis, the new cuticle remains as a part of the permanent external integument. The growth zones divide the externa into five cuticular areas, two on the peduncle and three on the capitulum. The calcareous shell plates (carina, paired scuta, and, when present, paired terga) all lie within the capitular regions and the ecdysial lines pass across, not around, these mineralized areas. The number, relative spacing, and topology of the ecdysial lines form a record of the growth history of the specimen. These and other growth patterns demonstrate that size increase is due to the formation of new cuticle by molting in the growth zones, while expansion of the shell plates by mineralization follows only after production of the new cuticle. Thus, although specialized, growth in Octolasmis still complies with the general crustacean model, complicated only by the mineralization of parts of the capitular cuticle into shell plates. The results are compared with the very scarce information on molting in other barnacles. We argue that

  9. Osmotic properties of internally perfused barnacle muscle cells. I. Isosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bitner, J B; Peña-Rasgado, C; Ruiz, J; Cardona, J; Rasgado-Flores, H

    2001-07-01

    Barnacle muscle cells regulate their volume when exposed to anisotonic conditions. Due to their large size, these cells can be internally perfused. Interestingly, perfused cells maintain their volume regulatory properties (17,21). Thus, the osmotic properties of barnacle muscle cells can be studied under conditions in which the intracellular and extracellular osmolalities, the membrane potential (V(M)), the cell volume and the intracellular pressure can all be measured simultaneously. In this manuscript we report the effect that various rates of isosmotic (1000 mOsm x kg H2O(-1)) intracellular perfusion have on cell volume, intracellular pressure, intracellular osmolality, V(M), and the apparent sarcolemmal hydraulic water permeability (L'p). Replacement of the cytosol with the perfusate at a perfusion rate of 0.83 microl x min(-1) took 120 min. During this transition period, the cell volume increased from 45.1+/-6.9 microl to 73.7+/-5.8 microl, the intracellular osmolality decreased from 1406+/-133 to 1188+/-64 mOsm x kg H2O(-1), and the intracellular pressure underwent a transient drop of 2.8 cm H2O. After 2.5 hr of continuous perfusion at 0.83 microl min(-1), the above mentioned parameters reached steady values: the L'p was 1.35 x 10(-5) cm x sec(-1) x Osm(-1) x kg H2O(-1); cell volume was 67.2+/-6 microl; the intracellular osmolality was 1052+/-10 mOsm x kg H2O(-1); the intracellular pressure was 5.6+/-0.4 cm H2O; V(M) depolarized slowly at a rate of 0.03 mV x min(-1). Stepwise increases in the rate of perfusion (from 0.83 to 3.18 microl min(-1)) produced reversible increases in the intracellular pressure, L'p and cell volume and decreases in intracellular osmolality. We conclude that intracellular perfusion: i/ produces a transient removal of intracellular osmotically active components; ii/ promotes sarcolemmal water filtration; iii/ induces a laminar flow of perfusate at the center of the cell, and iv/ enables calculations of sarcolemmal L'p values under

  10. Holocene paleoecology of an estuary on Santa Rosa Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Liu, Gaisheng

    1994-01-01

    The middle to late Holocene history and early Anglo-European settlement impacts on Santa Rosa Island, California, were studied through the analysis of sediments in a small estuarine marsh. A 5.4-m-long sediment core produced a stratigraphic and pollen record spanning the last 5200 yr. Three major zones are distinguishable in the core. The lowermost zone (5200 to 3250 yr B.P.) represents a time of arid climate with predominantly marine sediment input and high Chenopodiaceae and Ambrosia pollen values. The intermediate zone (3250 yr B.P. to 1800 A.D.) is characterized by greater fresh water input and high values for Asteraceae and Cyperaceae pollen and charcoal particles. The uppermost zone (1800 A.D. to present) documents the unprecedented erosion, sedimentation, and vegetation change that resulted from the introduction of large exotic herbivores and exotic plants to the island during Anglo-European settlement. The identification of pollen grains of Torrey Pine (Pinus torreyana) documents the persistence of this endemic species on the island throughout the middle to late Holocene.

  11. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena as an ornamental plant is commonly known as “Gole Mohammadi” in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet “Mohammad”. R. damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmaceutical investigations on R. damascena. All relevant databases and local books on ethnopharmacology of R. damascena were probed without limitation up to 31st March 2015 and the results of these studies were collected and reviewed. R. damascena has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of R. damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of R. damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities. Overall, R. damascena as holy ancient plant with modern pharmacological investigations should be more investigated as traditional uses in large preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26870673

  12. [Chemical constituents from medical and edible plants of Rosa roxburghii].

    PubMed

    Li, Qi-Ji; Nan, Ying; Qin, Jing-Jing; Yang, Yan; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Rosa roxburghii, a kind of the medical and edible plants belonging to the Rosaceae family, is widely distributed in the southwest districts of China, especially Guizhou province. Now, by reason of the extensive bioactivities, the plant is widely used in the field of food, health product, drug, and so on. In the course of our continuing search for the bioactive constituents, thirteen compounds were isolated from R. roxburghii, and their structures were determined on the basis of physicochemical property, spectroscopic data and comparison with the literatures, as 2-oxo pomolic acid(1), 1β-hydroxyeuscaphic acid(2), euscaphic acid(3), arjunic acid(4), tormentic acid(5), kaiiichigeside F1(6), rosamultin(7), arjunetin(8), 2ɑ, 3ɑ, 19ɑ-trihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(9), 2α, 3α, 19α, 24-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(10), pyrogallic acid (11), daucosterol(12), and 1, 2-decanediol(13). Compounds 9 and 10 were firstly obtained from Rosaceae family, and compounds 1,4,5,9-11,13 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  14. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese

    2016-01-01

    Rosa damascena as an ornamental plant is commonly known as "Gole Mohammadi" in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet "Mohammad". R. damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmaceutical investigations on R. damascena. All relevant databases and local books on ethnopharmacology of R. damascena were probed without limitation up to 31st March 2015 and the results of these studies were collected and reviewed. R. damascena has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of R. damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of R. damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities. Overall, R. damascena as holy ancient plant with modern pharmacological investigations should be more investigated as traditional uses in large preclinical and clinical studies.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND A-AMYLASE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ROSA CANINA L.

    PubMed

    Jemaa, Houda Ben; Jemia, Amani Ben; Khlifi, Sarra; Ahmed, Halima Ben; Slama, Fethi Ben; Benzarti, Anis; Elati, Jalila; Aouidet, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinal disorders and medicinal plants continue to play an important role in the management of this disease. In this study, Rosa canina was investigated for the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities. Methanolic extract of Rosa canina was investigated for its potential antioxidant activity. The extracts' total phenolic and flavonoid contents and scavenging capacity for free radicals were evaluated. The α-amylase inhibition assay was also carried. Rosa canina extract exhibits a total Phenolic and flavonoid levels respectively (21.918 mg GAE/g and 2.647mg ER/g). The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent against DPPH with an IC50 of 0.668 mg/ml and against ABTS with an IC50 of 0.467 mg/ml. Extract showed a significant ferric ion reducing activities with an IC50 of4.962 mg/ml. Rosa canina exerted a higher inhibitory activity against α-amylase. The obtained results support the antidiabetic use of rosa canina.

  16. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND A-AMYLASE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF ROSA CANINA L

    PubMed Central

    Jemaa, Houda Ben; Jemia, Amani Ben; Khlifi, Sarra; Ahmed, Halima Ben; Slama, Fethi Ben; Benzarti, Anis; Elati, Jalila; Aouidet, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrinal disorders and medicinal plants continue to play an important role in the management of this disease. In this study, Rosa canina was investigated for the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Rosa canina was investigated for its potential antioxidant activity. The extracts’ total phenolic and flavonoid contents and scavenging capacity for free radicals were evaluated. The α-amylase inhibition assay was also carried. Results: Rosa canina extract exhibits a total Phenolic and flavonoid levels respectively (21.918 mg GAE/g and 2.647mg ER/g). The free radical scavenging activity was found to be prominent against DPPH with an IC50 of 0.668 mg/ml and against ABTS with an IC50 of 0.467 mg/ml. Extract showed a significant ferric ion reducing activities with an IC50 of4.962 mg/ml. Conclusion: Rosa canina exerted a higher inhibitory activity against α-amylase. The obtained results support the antidiabetic use of rosa canina. PMID:28573216

  17. Mechanisms of Anion and Cation Permeations in the Resting Membrane of a Barnacle Muscle Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, S.; Toyama, K.; Hayashi, H.

    1971-01-01

    The resting membrane of a barnacle muscle fiber is mostly permeable to cations in a solution of pH 7.7 whereas it becomes primarily permeable to anions if the pH is below 4.0. Mechanisms of ion permeation for various monovalent cations and anions were investigated at pH 7.7 and 3.9, respectively. Permeability ratios were obtained from the relationship between the membrane potential and the concentration of the test ions, and ionic conductances from current-voltage relations of the membrane. The permeability sequence for anions (SCN > I > NO3 > Br > ClO3 > Cl > BrO3 > IO3) was different from the conductance sequence for anions (Br, Cl > ClO3, NO3 > SCN). In contrast, the permeability and conductance sequences were identical for cations (K > Rb > Cs > Na > Li). The results suggest that anion permeation is governed by membrane charges while cation permeation is via some electrically neutral mechanism. PMID:5549097

  18. Love the one you're with: proximity determines paternity success in the barnacle Tetraclita rubescens.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric

    2012-10-01

    A species' mating system sets limits on the strength of sexual selection. Sexual selection is widespread in dioecious species, but is less well documented in hermaphrodites, and may be less important. We used four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to broods of the hermaphroditic eastern Pacific volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens. These data were used to describe the species' mating system and to examine factors affecting male reproductive success. Tetraclita can sire broods over distances of 11.2 cm, but proximity to the sperm recipient had a highly significant effect on the probability of siring success. There was no effect of body size or the mass of male reproductive tissues on siring success. Broods showed relatively low frequencies of multiple paternity; even at high densities, 75% of broods had only one father. High frequencies of single-paternity broods imply either that this species does not compete via sperm displacement, or that sperm displacement is extremely effective, potentially explaining the lack of a positive relationship between male investment and paternity. In addition, there was low variance in siring success among individuals, suggesting a lack of strong sexual selection on male traits. Low variance among sires and the strong effect of proximity are probably driven by the unusual biology of a sessile copulating species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Phylogeographic structure and northward range expansion in the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Bukša, Filip; Bockrath, Katherine; Wares, John P.; Pineda, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle Chthamalus fragilis is found along the US Atlantic seaboard historically from the Chesapeake Bay southward, and in the Gulf of Mexico. It appeared in New England circa 1900 coincident with warming temperatures, and is now a conspicuous member of rocky intertidal communities extending through the northern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The origin of northern C. fragilis is debated. It may have spread to New England from the northern end of its historic range through larval transport by ocean currents, possibly mediated by the construction of piers, marinas, and other anthropogenic structures that provided new hard substrate habitat. Alternatively, it may have been introduced by fouling on ships originating farther south in its historic distribution. Here we examine mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence diversity and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of C. fragilis from 11 localities ranging from Cape Cod, to Tampa Bay, Florida. We found significant genetic structure between northern and southern populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three well-supported reciprocally monophyletic haplogroups, including one haplogroup that is restricted to New England and Virginia populations. While the distances between clades do not suggest cryptic speciation, selection and dispersal barriers may be driving the observed structure. Our data are consistent with an expansion of C. fragilis from the northern end of its mid-19th century range into Massachusetts. PMID:25945315

  20. Calcium carrying system in the giant muscle fibre of the barnacle species, Balanus nubilus

    PubMed Central

    Beirao, P. S.; Lakshminarayanaiah, N.

    1979-01-01

    1. Single barnacle muscle fibres from Balanus nubilus were internally perfused with an isotonic solution containing 180 mM-tetraethylammonium acetate and the effects of Ca concentration in the external solution on the voltage-clamp currents, especially the initial inward current, were examined. 2. Muscle fibre in external solution containing no added Ca (concentration of Ca < 10-5 M) gave a current—voltage curve that showed a small inward current followed by a small outward current. An identical curve was obtained when the chloride in the external solution was replaced by acetate. 3. The peak inward current increased with increase in Ca concentration in the external solution; but the increase in peak current for equal increments of Ca concentration was reduced and attained saturation conforming to an adsorption regime which can be described by the Langmuir equation. 4. A double reciprocal plot of peak inward current due to Ca as a function of Ca concentration gave values of 20.7 mM and 200% (the current due to 20 mM-Ca normalized to 100%) for the dissociation constant and the maximum current respectively. These values were found to depend on the concentration of Mg used in the external solutions. 5. The peak inward Ca currents measured at two Ca concentrations as a function of pH were unaffected in the pH range 6.5-8.8; however when the pH was reduced below 6.5, the currents were depressed. PMID:41091

  1. Water and electrolyte content of the myofilament phase in the chemically skinned barnacle fiber

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Muscle fibers from the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, were placed inside the lumen of a porous glass capillary and equilibrated for 48 h in an electrolyte solution containing 2% Tween. The glass capillary prevented the chemically "skinned" fiber from swelling with a water content beyond 80%. Isotope exchange studies using 22Na, 42K, and 36Cl indicated the existence of an intermediate rate constant and compartment which varied with pH. This intermediate rate was attributed to counter-ions and co-ions in the myofilament phase. Analysis of the electrolyte composition of the fiber at pH 8 predicts that the myofilaments contain about 0.3 of the fiber water, and that a -15 mV Donnan potential exists at the myofilament surface. An open-tipped (1- micrometer) microelectrode in the skinned fiber measured a potential (similar in magnitude to the Donnan potential), which decreased and reversed sign as the pH was lowered. The measured cation contents of the fiber between pH 5 and 8 were found to be similar to the cation contents predicted from the measured Donnan potentials. The net negative charge of the myofilaments at pH 7.5 and at ionic strength 0.56 is estimated to be 41 eq per 10(5) g of dry weight. PMID:7189772

  2. Genetic Structure and the North American Postglacial Expansion of the Barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan A.; Schmidt, Paul S.; Rand, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Population genetic characteristics are shaped by the life-history traits of organisms and the geologic history of their habitat. This study provides a neutral framework for understanding the population dynamics and opportunities for selection in Semibalanus balanoides, a species that figures prominently in ecological and evolutionary studies in the Atlantic intertidal. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (N = 131) and microsatellite markers (∼40 individuals/site/locus) to survey populations of the broadly dispersing acorn barnacle from 8 sites spanning 800 km of North American coast and 1 site in Europe. Patterns of mtDNA sequence evolution were consistent with larger population sizes in Europe and population expansion at the conclusion of the last ice age, approximately 20 000 years ago, in North America. A significant portion of mitochondrial diversity was partitioned between the continents (φST = 0.281), but there was only weak structure observed from mtDNA within North America. Microsatellites showed significant structuring between the continents (FST = 0.021) as well as within North America (FST = 0.013). Isolation by distance in North America was largely driven by a split between populations south of Cape Cod and all others (P < 10−4). The glacial events responsible for generating allelic diversity at mtDNA and microsatellites may also be responsible for generating selectable variation at metabolic enzymes in S. balanoides. PMID:21885571

  3. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogeographic structure and northward range expansion in the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Annette F; Bukša, Filip; Bockrath, Katherine; Wares, John P; Pineda, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The barnacle Chthamalus fragilis is found along the US Atlantic seaboard historically from the Chesapeake Bay southward, and in the Gulf of Mexico. It appeared in New England circa 1900 coincident with warming temperatures, and is now a conspicuous member of rocky intertidal communities extending through the northern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The origin of northern C. fragilis is debated. It may have spread to New England from the northern end of its historic range through larval transport by ocean currents, possibly mediated by the construction of piers, marinas, and other anthropogenic structures that provided new hard substrate habitat. Alternatively, it may have been introduced by fouling on ships originating farther south in its historic distribution. Here we examine mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequence diversity and the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of C. fragilis from 11 localities ranging from Cape Cod, to Tampa Bay, Florida. We found significant genetic structure between northern and southern populations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three well-supported reciprocally monophyletic haplogroups, including one haplogroup that is restricted to New England and Virginia populations. While the distances between clades do not suggest cryptic speciation, selection and dispersal barriers may be driving the observed structure. Our data are consistent with an expansion of C. fragilis from the northern end of its mid-19th century range into Massachusetts.

  5. The effect of personality on social foraging: shy barnacle geese scrounge more.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Prins, Herbert H T; van Wieren, Sipke E; van Oers, Kees; Nolet, Bart A; Ydenberg, Ronald C

    2010-02-22

    Animals foraging in groups can either search for food themselves (producing) or search for the food discoveries of other individuals (scrounging). Tactic use in producer-scrounger games is partly flexible but individuals tend to show consistency in tactic use under different conditions suggesting that personality might play a role in tactic use in producer-scrounger games. Here we studied the use of producing and scrounging tactics by bold and shy barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), where boldness is a personality trait known to be repeatable over time in this species. We defined individuals as bold, shy or intermediate based on two novel object tests. We scored the frequency of finding food patches (the outcome of investing in producing) and joining patches (the outcome of investing in scrounging) by bold and shy individuals and their feeding time. Shy individuals had a higher frequency of joining than bold individuals, demonstrating for the first time that personality is associated with tactic use in a producer-scrounger game. Bold individuals tended to spend more time feeding than shy individuals. Our results highlight the importance of including individual behavioural variation in models of producer-scrounger games.

  6. Genetic structure and the North American postglacial expansion of the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; O'Brien, Megan A; Schmidt, Paul S; Rand, David M

    2012-01-01

    Population genetic characteristics are shaped by the life-history traits of organisms and the geologic history of their habitat. This study provides a neutral framework for understanding the population dynamics and opportunities for selection in Semibalanus balanoides, a species that figures prominently in ecological and evolutionary studies in the Atlantic intertidal. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (N = 131) and microsatellite markers (∼40 individuals/site/locus) to survey populations of the broadly dispersing acorn barnacle from 8 sites spanning 800 km of North American coast and 1 site in Europe. Patterns of mtDNA sequence evolution were consistent with larger population sizes in Europe and population expansion at the conclusion of the last ice age, approximately 20 000 years ago, in North America. A significant portion of mitochondrial diversity was partitioned between the continents (ϕ(ST) = 0.281), but there was only weak structure observed from mtDNA within North America. Microsatellites showed significant structuring between the continents (F(ST) = 0.021) as well as within North America (F(ST) = 0.013). Isolation by distance in North America was largely driven by a split between populations south of Cape Cod and all others (P < 10(-4)). The glacial events responsible for generating allelic diversity at mtDNA and microsatellites may also be responsible for generating selectable variation at metabolic enzymes in S. balanoides.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and character evolution of the chthamaloid barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A; Achituv, Yair

    2012-10-01

    The Chthamaloidea (Balanomorpha) present the most plesiomorphic characters in shell plates and cirri, mouthparts, and oral cone within the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia). Due to their importance in understanding both the origin and diversification of the Balanomorpha, the evolution of the Chthamaloidea has been debated since Darwin's seminal monographs. Theories of morphological and ontogenetic evolution suggest that the group could have evolved multiple times from pedunculated relatives and that shell plate number diminished gradually (8→6→4) from an ancestral state with eight wall plates surrounded by whorls of small imbricating plates; but this hypothesis has never been subjected to a rigorous phylogenetic test. Here we used multilocus sequence data and extensive taxon sampling to build a comprehensive phylogeny of the Chthamaloidea as a basis for understanding their morphological evolution. Our maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses separate the Catophragmidae (eight shell plates and imbricating plates) from the Chthamalidae (8-4 shell plates and no imbricating plates), but do no support a gradual reduction in shell plates (8→6→4). This suggests that evolution at the base of the Balanomorpha involved a considerable amount of homoplasy.

  8. Molecular phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the acorn barnacles (Thoracica: Sessilia: Balanomorpha).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Simon-Blecher, Noa; Achituv, Yair; Jones, Diana; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-12-01

    The Balanomorpha are the largest group of barnacles and rank among the most diverse, commonly encountered and ecologically important marine crustaceans in the world. Paradoxically, despite their relevance and extensive study for over 150years, their evolutionary relationships are still unresolved. Classical morphological systematics was often based on non-cladistic approaches, while modern phylogenetic studies suffer from severe undersampling of taxa and characters (both molecular and morphological). Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of the familial relationships within the Balanomorpha. We estimate divergence times and examine morphological diversity based on five genes, 156 specimens, 10 fossil calibrations, and six key morphological characters. Two balanomorphan superfamilies, eight families and twelve genera were identified as polyphyletic. Chthamaloids, chionelasmatoid and pachylasmatoids split first from the pedunculated ancestors followed by a clade of tetraclitoids and coronuloids, and most of the balanoids. The Balanomorpha split from the Verrucidae (outgroup) in the Lower Cretaceous (139.6 Mya) with all the main lineages, except Pachylasmatoidea, having emerged by the Paleocene (60.9 Mya). Various degrees of convergence were observed in all the assessed morphological characters except the maxillipeds, which suggests that classical interpretations of balanomorphan morphological evolution need to be revised and reinterpreted.

  9. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity.

  10. Variations: Darwin's finches, sea barnacles and the side effects of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Julian

    2008-01-01

    "It may metaphorically be said," Darwin wrote, "that natural selection is daily and hourly scrutinizing, throughout the world, the slightest variations; rejecting those that are bad, preserving and adding up all that are good; silently and insensibly working, whenever and wherever opportunity offers..." Variation is a principle of nature, without which natural selection could not operate, and life exist. Darwin believed that natural selection would make nature "more and more diversified." Variation occurs in the clutch sizes of birds, the color of hair and skin, the annual temperature, in language and speech, the direction of local Magnetic North and True North, and the variation of pathogens (antigenic variation). Antidepressants act as probes, burrowing into the deepest recesses of cells, and signaling physiological and pathological information to observers. They have at least forty side effects that are not only variations, but often paradoxes that would have fascinated Charles Darwin, who had the keenest interest in the variation of the beaks of finches and in sea barnacles.

  11. Stable genetic polymorphism in heterogeneous environments: balance between asymmetrical dispersal and selection in the acorn barnacle.

    PubMed

    Véliz, D; Duchesne, P; Bourget, E; Bernatchez, L

    2006-03-01

    Elucidating the processes responsible for maintaining polymorphism at ecologically relevant genes is intimately related to understanding the interplay between selection imposed by habitat heterogeneity and a species' capacity for dispersal in the face of environmental constraints. In this paper, we used a model-based approach to solve equilibria of balanced polymorphism, given values of fitness and larval dispersal among different habitats in the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides from the Gulf of St Lawrence. Our results showed that allele frequencies observed at both MPI* and GPI* loci represented stable equilibria, given empirical estimates of fitness values, and that considerably more larvae dispersed from one region (north) to the other (south) than vice versa. Dispersal conditions were predicted to be similar for the maintenance of polymorphism at both loci. Moreover, the values of asymmetrical dispersal required by the model to reach stable equilibria were compatible with empirical estimates of larval dispersal and oceanic circulation documented in this system. Overall, this study illustrated the usefulness of a modified and computable version of Bulmer's model (1972) in order to test hypotheses of balanced polymorphism resulting from interactions between spatial selection and asymmetrical dispersal.

  12. Towards a nanomechanical basis for temporary adhesion in barnacle cyprids (Semibalanus balanoides).

    PubMed

    Phang, In Yee; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Vancso, G Julius

    2008-04-06

    Cypris larvae of barnacles are able to use a rapidly reversible temporary adhesion mechanism for exploring immersed surfaces. Despite decades of research interest, the means by which cyprids maintain attachment with surfaces prior to permanent settlement remain poorly understood. Here, we present novel observations on the morphology of 'footprints' of a putative adhesive secretion deposited by cyprids during surface exploration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image footprints at high resolution and to acquire measurements of interaction forces. R-CH3- and R-NH2-terminated glass surfaces were used for comparison of footprint morphology, and it was noted that on R-NH2 each footprint comprised three times the volume of material deposited for footprints on R-CH3. Direct scaling of adhesion forces derived from AFM measurements did not adequately predict the real attachment tenacity of cyprids, and it is suggested that a mixture of 'wet' and 'dry' adhesive mechanisms may be at work in cyprid adhesion. High-resolution images of cyprid footprints are presented that correlate well with the known morphology of the attachment structures.

  13. Population and life-stage specific sensitivities to temperature and salinity stress in barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Nasrolahi, Ali; Havenhand, Jonathan; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Pansch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature and salinity shape the distribution and genetic structure of marine communities. Future warming and freshening will exert an additional stress to coastal marine systems. The extent to which organisms respond to these shifts will, however, be mediated by the tolerances of all life-stages and populations of species and their potential to adapt. We investigated nauplius and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus from the Swedish west coast with respect to temperature (12, 20, and 28 °C) and salinity (5, 15, and 30) tolerances. Warming accelerated larval development and increased overall survival and subsequent settlement success. Nauplii developed and metamorphosed best at intermediate salinity. This was also observed in cypris larvae when the preceding nauplii stages had been reared at a salinity of 30. Direct comparisons of the present findings with those on a population from the more brackish Baltic Sea demonstrate contrasting patterns. We conclude that i) B. improvisus larvae within the Baltic region will be favoured by near-future seawater warming and freshening, that ii) salinity tolerances of larvae from the two different populations reflect salinities in their native habitats, but are nonetheless suboptimal and that iii) this species is generally highly plastic with regard to salinity. PMID:27582433

  14. Third-Order Memristive Morris-Lecar Model of Barnacle Muscle Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Vetriveeran; Sah, Maheshwar Pd.; Mannan, Zubaer Ibna; Kim, Hyongsuk; Chua, Leon

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of various oscillatory behaviors observed in relation to the calcium and potassium ions in the third-order Morris-Lecar model of giant barnacle muscle fiber. Since, both the calcium and potassium ions exhibit all of the characteristics of memristor fingerprints, we claim that the time-varying calcium and potassium ions in the third-order Morris-Lecar model are actually time-invariant calcium and potassium memristors in the third-order memristive Morris-Lecar model. We confirmed the existence of a small unstable limit cycle oscillation in both the second-order and the third-order Morris-Lecar model by numerically calculating the basin of attraction of the asymptotically stable equilibrium point associated with two subcritical Hopf bifurcation points. We also describe a comprehensive analysis of the generation of oscillations in third-order memristive Morris-Lecar model via small-signal circuit analysis and a subcritical Hopf bifurcation phenomenon.

  15. Osmolytes responsible for volume reduction under isosmotic or hypoosmotic conditions in Barnacle muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rasgado, C; Pierce, S K; Rasgado-Flores, H

    2001-07-01

    In numerous animal cells, experimental manipulations that increase the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration induce cell volume reduction. This may occur under isosmotic conditions, e.g. when external Ca2+ (Ca(o)) is replaced by Mg2+ (42) or during exposure to hypoosmotic conditions (i.e. regulatory volume decrease, RVD) in the presence of Ca(o). We determined the osmolytes responsible for volume reduction under isosmotic and hypoosmotic conditions in barnacle muscle cells. Organic osmolytes (i.e. free amino acids and methylamines) and inorganic ions accounted for approximately 78% and 22% of the intracellular isosmotic activity, respectively. Isosmotic Ca(o) removal induced a net loss of KCI (with a ratio of 1K:1Cl) and free amino acids (FAA, mainly glycine and taurine). During RVD. the same ions (but in a proportion of 2K:1Cl) and FAA were lost. Since RVD was accompanied by extracellular alkalinization, the 2K:1Cl loss may be explained by the presence of a K+/H+ exchanger (or K+-OH- co-transporter) or Cl-/OH- exchanger. The lack of RVD in the absence of Ca(o) cannot be attributed to the loss of intracellular osmolytes during isosmotic Ca(o) removal because addition of Ca(o) during cell swelling promoted RVD.

  16. Can body burden in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite indicate seasonal variation in cadmium concentrations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Eduardo Teixeira; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2005-10-01

    Two three-month sampling programs measuring Cd in the environment and a biomonitor ( Balanus amphitrite) were undertaken in the austral winter of 2002 and summer of 2004 in Ross Creek, North Queensland, Australia. The objective was to test whether the burden of Cd in the biomonitor responded to any variation in the dissolved and particulate phase Cd concentrations in Ross Creek, caused by rainfall variation. The barnacles from the most Cd contaminated site were exposed to a total Cd concentration twice that in winter (93.6 ng L -1) than in summer (45.6 ng L -1). However, no significant variation was identified for the Cd concentration in the biomonitor between winter (8.4 mg kg -1) and summer (7.4 mg kg -1). A budget analysis based on a bioenergetic kinetic model indicated that Cd flux from food contributes >80% to the Cd concentration in B. amphitrite. A sensitivity analysis showed that physiological characteristics of the biomonitor are the key parameters controlling Cd accumulation in B. amphitrite, rather than the metal concentration in the dissolved or particulate phases. These two model's outcomes suggest that a tight coupling between Cd in the biomonitor and its availability in the environment does not occur.

  17. Changes and variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in fish, barnacles and crabs following an oil spill in a mangrove of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares-Gomes, Abílio; Neves, Roberta L; Aucélio, Ricardo; Van Der Ven, Paulo H; Pitombo, Fábio B; Mendes, Carla L T; Ziolli, Roberta L

    2010-08-01

    On April 26th, 2005, an accident caused a leak of 60,000L of Diesel Oil Type "B", freighted by train wagons upstream on a mangrove area within Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. After the accident, samples from animals with different biological requirements were collected in order to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations for the following 12months. Sessile, mobile, carnivorous, omnivorous, organic detritus feeders, planktivorous and suspension feeders were some of the attributes compared. Concentrations of PAHs did not vary in relation to different dietary habits and the best response was from the sessile suspensivorous barnacles. A background level of <50microgkg(-1) was suggested based on the reference site and on values observed in the following months after the accident. The highest values of PAH concentrations were observed in barnacles in the first month immediately after the spill, decreasing to background levels after few months. Barnacles are suggested as a sentinel species.

  18. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-06-22

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic.

  19. Cloning and expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase cDNA from rosa (Rosa x hybrida).

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Fan, J; Ranu, R S

    2004-01-01

    The role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase in rose flower petal senescence was investigated. A cDNA library from senescing petals of rose ( Rosa x hybrid cv. Kardinal) prepared in lambdacDNA ZAP Express Vector was probed with a rose-specific 400-bp probe, and seven putative positive ACC synthase clones were isolated. Except for differences in length, the sequences of these clones were identical. A full-length clone, RKacc7, 1,750 bp long, coded for an open reading frame of 480 amino acids that contained the 11 conserved amino acid residues, the substrate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding sites, all of which are characteristic of all ACC synthases. The transcripts prepared in vitro from the full-length clone when translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates exhibited a 55-KDa polypeptide that comigrated with a polypeptide synthesized from a mRNA fraction isolated from senescing petals, and both were immunoselected by anti-ACC synthase antibodies. Reverse transcriptase-PCR-based studies showed that in planta RKacc7 is specifically expressed in rose petals, ovary and sepals. The expression of ACC synthase increased dramatically as the flower matured to senescence and also correlated positively with ethylene levels. The results of genomic Southern blots probed with RKacc7 are consistent with a pattern expected from a multigene family.

  20. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  1. Effect of Rosa damascene aromatherapy on sleep quality in cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hajibagheri, Ali; Babaii, Atye; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2014-08-01

    Sleep disorders are common among patients hospitalized in coronary care unit (CCU). This study aimed to investigate the effect of Rosa damascene aromatherapy on sleep quality of patients hospitalized in CCU. In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conveniently sampled and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. In the experimental group, patients received routine care and Rosa damascene aromatherapy for three subsequent nights. In the both groups the sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. After the study, the mean scores of five domains of Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index as well as the mean of total score of the index in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. Rosa damascene aromatherapy can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients hospitalized in CCUs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient gene targeting of the Rosa26 locus in mouse zygotes using TALE nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kasparek, Petr; Krausova, Michaela; Haneckova, Radka; Kriz, Vitezslav; Zbodakova, Olga; Korinek, Vladimir; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2014-11-03

    Gene targeting in mice mainly employs homologous recombination (HR) in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although it is a standard way for production of genetically modified mice, the procedure is laborious and time-consuming. This study describes targeting of the mouse Rosa26 locus by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We employed TALEN-assisted HR in zygotes to introduce constructs encoding TurboRFP and TagBFP fluorescent proteins into the first intron of the Rosa26 gene, and in this way generated two transgenic mice. We also demonstrated that these Rosa26-specific TALENs exhibit high targeting efficiency superior to that of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) specific for the same targeting sequence. Moreover, we devised a reporter assay to assess TALENs activity and specificity to improve the quality of TALEN-assisted targeting.

  3. A nurse-statistician reanalyzes data from the Rosa therapeutic touch study.

    PubMed

    Cox, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a reanalysis of data used to support the work of Emily Rosa's Therapeutic Touch (TT) science fair project published as an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 1998. The purpose of this article is to take a closer look at the assumptions, data, statistical procedures, and conclusions of the JAMA article. This is accomplished by focusing on (1) the conclusion that there was no overall effect of TT, (2) the conclusion that TT practitioners did not perform better depending on which hand was used, and (3) the assumptions about the capability of Rosa's experiment to validate an existing skill. Reanalysis of the Rosa data suggests contradictions to the authors' conclusions. Based on this reanalysis, the authors' recommendations against the use of TT can and should be challenged because of inappropriate design and analysis as well as incorrect statistical assumptions and conclusions.

  4. EFFECT OF SANTA ROSA LAKE ON GROUND WATER FLOW TO THE PECOS RIVER, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risser, Dennis W.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980, Santa Rosa Dam began impounding water on the Pecos River about 7 miles (11 kilometers) north of Santa Rosa, New Mexico, to provide flood control and storage for irrigation. Santa Rosa Lake has caused changes in the ground water flow system, which may cause changes in the streamflow of the Pecos River that cannot be detected at the present streamflow-gaging stations, which are used to administer water rights along the Pecos River. The effect of the lake on streamflow was investigated using a three-dimensional ground water flow model. These simulations indicated that the net change in ground water flow to the river would be almost zero if the lake were maintained at its flood control pool for 90 days.

  5. Unraveling the evolutionary radiation of the thoracican barnacles using molecular and morphological evidence: a comparison of several divergence time estimation approaches.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A

    2004-04-01

    The Thoracica includes the ordinary barnacles found along the sea shore and is the most diverse and well-studied superorder of Cirripedia. However, although the literature abounds with scenarios explaining the evolution of these barnacles, very few studies have attempted to test these hypotheses in a phylogenetic context. The few attempts at phylogenetic analyses have suffered from a lack of phylogenetic signal and small numbers of taxa. We collected DNA sequences from the nuclear 18S, 28S, and histone H3 genes and the mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes (4,871 bp total) and data for 37 adult and 53 larval morphological characters from 43 taxa representing all the extant thoracican suborders (except the monospecific Brachylepadomorpha). Four Rhizocephala (highly modified parasitic barnacles) taxa and a Rhizocephala + Acrothoracica (burrowing barnacles) hypothetical ancestor were used as the outgroup for the molecular and morphological analyses, respectively. We analyzed these data separately and combined using maximum likelihood (ML) under "hill-climbing" and genetic algorithm heuristic searches, maximum parsimony procedures, and Bayesian inference coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under mixed and homogeneous models of nucleotide substitution. The resulting phylogenetic trees answered key questions in barnacle evolution. The four-plated Iblomorpha were shown as the most primitive thoracican, and the plateless Heteralepadomorpha were placed as the sister group of the Lepadomorpha. These relationships suggest for the first time in an invertebrate that exoskeleton biomineralization may have evolved from phosphatic to calcitic. Sessilia (nonpedunculate) barnacles were depicted as monophyletic and appear to have evolved from a stalked (pedunculate) multiplated (5+) scalpelloidlike ancestor rather than a five-plated lepadomorphan ancestor. The Balanomorpha (symmetric sessile barnacles) appear to have the following relationship: (Chthamaloidea

  6. Antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolics-based fingerprinting of Rose species: Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeraj; Bhandari, Pamita; Singh, Bikram; Bari, Shamsher S

    2009-02-01

    Roses are one of the most important groups of ornamental plants and their fruits and flowers are used in a wide variety of food, nutritional products and different traditional medicines. The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from fresh flowers of three rose species (Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii) was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical method. The ability to scavenge DPPH radical was measured by the discoloration of the solution. The methanolic extract from R. brunonii exhibited maximum free-radical-scavenging activity (64.5+/-0.38%) followed by R. bourboniana (51.8+/-0.46%) and R. damascena (43.6+/-0.25%) at 100 microg/ml. Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study phenolic composition in the methanolic extracts from the fresh flowers of rose species. The phenolic constituents were further investigated by direct infusion-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS in negative ion mode. Characteristic Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) spectra with other diagnostic fragment ions generated by retro Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation pathways were recorded for the flavonoids. Distinct similarities were observed in the relative distribution of polyphenolic compounds among the three species. The dominance of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides was observed in all the three species.

  7. Effect of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extract on rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Emami, S.

    2013-01-01

    Rosa damascena flower is widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, its pharmacological action on isolated ileum has not been studied. In this research, the effect of extract of flower petals of R. damascena Mill. growing in Kashan, Iran, on ileum motility was investigated. Hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by percolation method. A section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode’s solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl and acetylcholine (ACh). The tissue was kept under 1g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. Effect of the R. damascena extract was studied on ileum contractions induced by EFS, KCl and ACh and compared with that of atropine. R. damascena extract (10-100 mg/ml) induced a contraction in rat isolated ileum while at 1mg bath concentration it had relaxant effect on rat ileum. Hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena (1-8 mg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=3.3 ± 0.9 mg/ml), ACh (IC50=1.4 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and EFS (IC50=1.5 ± 0.3 mg/ml). The vehicle had no significant effect on ileum contractions. From this experiment it was concluded that R. damascena extract at microgram concentrations had stimulatory effect on ileum smooth muscle. However, at milligram concentrations, it shows an inhibitory effect. This is most likely due to presence of different components in the extract. The stimulatory effect of the extract confirms its benefits for the treatment of constipation. Therefore, separation and identification of active components is recommended. PMID:24082897

  8. High resolution physical mapping of single gene fragments on pachytene chromosome 4 and 7 of Rosa.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya V; Van Laere, Katrijn; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I

    2015-07-02

    Rosaceae is a family containing many economically important fruit and ornamental species. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based physical mapping of plant genomes is a valuable tool for map-based cloning, comparative genomics and evolutionary studies, no studies using high resolution physical mapping have been performed in this family. Previously we proved that physical mapping of single-copy genes as small as 1.1 kb is possible on mitotic metaphase chromosomes of Rosa wichurana using Tyramide-FISH. In this study we aimed to further improve the physical map of Rosa wichurana by applying high resolution FISH to pachytene chromosomes. Using high resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH, 7 genes (1.7-3 kb) were successfully mapped on pachytene chromosomes 4 and 7 of Rosa wichurana. Additionally, by using multicolor Tyramide-FISH three closely located genes were simultaneously visualized on chromosome 7. A detailed map of heterochromatine/euchromatine patterns of chromosome 4 and 7 was developed with indication of the physical position of these 7 genes. Comparison of the gene order between Rosa wichurana and Fragaria vesca revealed a poor collinearity for chromosome 7, but a perfect collinearity for chromosome 4. High resolution physical mapping of short probes on pachytene chromosomes of Rosa wichurana was successfully performed for the first time. Application of Tyramide-FISH on pachytene chromosomes allowed the mapping resolution to be increased up to 20 times compared to mitotic metaphase chromosomes. High resolution Tyramide-FISH and multicolor Tyramide-FISH might become useful tools for further physical mapping of single-copy genes and for the integration of physical and genetic maps of Rosa wichurana and other members of the Rosaceae.

  9. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungeun; Park, June Hyun; Lim, Chan Ju; Lim, Jae Yun; Ryu, Jee-Youn; Lee, Bong-Woo; Choi, Jae-Pil; Kim, Woong Bom; Lee, Ha Yeon; Choi, Yourim; Kim, Donghyun; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kim, Sukweon; Noh, Yoo-Sun; Shin, Chanseok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2012-11-21

    Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants--making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: 'Vital', 'Maroussia', and 'Sympathy' and Rosa rugosa Thunb., respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic resource which can be used to better understand

  10. Role of upwelling on larval dispersal and productivity of gooseneck barnacle populations in the Cantabrian Sea: management implications.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Weidberg, Nicolás; Pardiñas, Antonio F; González-Gil, Ricardo; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, J L

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coastal upwelling on the recruitment and connectivity of coastal marine populations has rarely been characterized to a level of detail to be included into sound fishery management strategies. The gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) fishery at the Cantabrian Coast (Northern Spain) is located at the fringes of the NW Spanish Upwelling system. This fishery is being co-managed through a fine-scale, interspersed set of protected rocks where each rock receives a distinct level of protection. Such interspersion is potentially beneficial, but the extent to which such spacing is consistent with mean larval dispersal distances is as yet unknown. We have simulated the spread of gooseneck barnacle larvae in the Central Cantabrian Coast using a high-resolution time-series of current profiles measured at a nearshore location. During a year of high upwelling activity (2009), theoretical recruitment success was 94% with peak recruitment predicted 56 km west of the emission point. However, for a year of low upwelling activity (2011) theoretical recruitment success dropped to 15.4% and peak recruitment was expected 13 km east of the emission point. This is consistent with a positive correlation between catch rates and the Integrated Upwelling Index, using a 4-year lag to allow recruits to reach commercial size. Furthermore, a net long-term westward larval transport was estimated by means of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for five populations in the Cantabrian Sea. Our results call into question the role of long distance dispersal, driven by the mesoscale processes in the area, in gooseneck barnacle populations and point to the prevalent role of small-scale, asymmetric connectivity more consistent with the typical scale of the co-management process in this fishery.

  11. Role of Upwelling on Larval Dispersal and Productivity of Gooseneck Barnacle Populations in the Cantabrian Sea: Management Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Antonella; Weidberg, Nicolás; Pardiñas, Antonio F.; González-Gil, Ricardo; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of coastal upwelling on the recruitment and connectivity of coastal marine populations has rarely been characterized to a level of detail to be included into sound fishery management strategies. The gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes pollicipes) fishery at the Cantabrian Coast (Northern Spain) is located at the fringes of the NW Spanish Upwelling system. This fishery is being co-managed through a fine-scale, interspersed set of protected rocks where each rock receives a distinct level of protection. Such interspersion is potentially beneficial, but the extent to which such spacing is consistent with mean larval dispersal distances is as yet unknown. We have simulated the spread of gooseneck barnacle larvae in the Central Cantabrian Coast using a high-resolution time-series of current profiles measured at a nearshore location. During a year of high upwelling activity (2009), theoretical recruitment success was 94% with peak recruitment predicted 56 km west of the emission point. However, for a year of low upwelling activity (2011) theoretical recruitment success dropped to 15.4% and peak recruitment was expected 13 km east of the emission point. This is consistent with a positive correlation between catch rates and the Integrated Upwelling Index, using a 4-year lag to allow recruits to reach commercial size. Furthermore, a net long-term westward larval transport was estimated by means of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences for five populations in the Cantabrian Sea. Our results call into question the role of long distance dispersal, driven by the mesoscale processes in the area, in gooseneck barnacle populations and point to the prevalent role of small-scale, asymmetric connectivity more consistent with the typical scale of the co-management process in this fishery. PMID:24236020

  12. Hepoxilins and trioxilins in barnacles: an analysis of their potential roles in egg hatching and larval settlement.

    PubMed

    Vogan, Claire L; Maskrey, Ben H; Taylor, Graham W; Henry, Sheelagh; Pace-Asciak, Cecil R; Clare, Anthony S; Rowley, Andrew F

    2003-09-01

    The barnacle life cycle has two key stages at which eicosanoids are believed to be involved in cellular communication pathways, namely the hatching of nauplii and the settlement of cypris larvae. Barnacle egg-hatching activity has previously been reported to reside in a variety of eicosanoids, including 8-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid and a number of tri-hydroxylated polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives, the trioxilins. The production of the eicosapentaenoic acid metabolite trioxilin A4 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid) by the barnacles Balanus amphitrite and Elminius modestus was confirmed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, both linked to mass spectrometry. In addition, both species also generated trioxilin A3 (8,11,12-trihydroxy-5,9,14-eicosatrienoic acid; an arachidonic acid-derived product), 8,11,12-trihydroxy-9,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (a omega3 analogue of trioxilin A3; derived from omega3 arachidonic acid) and 10,13,14-trihydroxy-4,7,11,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid (a docosahexaenoic acid-derived product). In contrast to earlier reports, trioxilin A3 had no E. modestus egg-hatching activity at any of the concentrations tested (10(-9)-10(-6) mol l(-1)). The unstable epoxide precursor hepoxilin A3, however, caused significant levels of hatching at 10(-6) mol l(-1). Furthermore, the stable hepoxilin B3 analogue PBT-3 stimulated hatching at 10(-7) mol l(-1). Neither trioxilin A3, hepoxilin A3 or PBT-3 at 0.25-30 micromol l(-1) served as settlement cues for B. amphitrite cypris larvae.

  13. Adaptive maintenance of genetic polymorphism in an intertidal barnacle: habitat- and life-stage-specific survivorship of Mpi genotypes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P S; Rand, D M

    2001-07-01

    In the northern acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, genotype frequencies of three genetic markers were tracked over time in four types of intertidal habitats. These habitats were selected to represent natural variation in several environmental parameters, specifically the degree of physical stress experienced by barnacles. Frequencies for one allozyme locus (Gpi) and a presumably neutral mtDNA marker were homogeneous among habitats in each temporal sample. Similarly, no temporal stratification in genotype frequencies was evident across the five sampling intervals: from planktonic larvae sampled in March to juveniles collected at the end of June. In contrast to the Gpi and mtDNA loci, Mpi genotypes significantly changed in frequency in two habitats in the high intertidal zone. On exposed substrate, the Mpi-FF homozygote increased in frequency, whereas the alternative homozygote, Mpi-SS, significantly decreased in frequency. Barnacles that were protected from environmental stress at high intertidal heights by the Ascophyllum nodosum algal canopy demonstrated the opposite pattern. In both habitats, the change in frequency of the heterozygote was intermediate to that of the homozygous genotypes. Furthermore, these patterns of genotype-by-environment association reflected a pulse of genotype-specific mortality that occurred over a two-week interval subsequent to metamorphosis from the larval to the adult form. These data indicate that each Mpi homozygote is the highest fitness genotype in some portion of the intertidal environment. Using the Levene (1953) model to evaluate the spatial variation in genotypic fitness, the stable maintenance of the Mpi polymorphism is predicted under certain subsets of conditions. Environmental heterogeneity in the intertidal zone translates to spatial variation in selection pressures, which may result in the active maintenance of the Mpi polymorphism in this species.

  14. Development of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticle Using Rosa Chinensis Flower Extract and Its Antibacterial Property.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yongde; Sun, Yanjie

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Rosa chinensis flower extract as reducing agent. The characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-VIS spectrum. The morphology and size of silver nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) image. The crystallization of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis was used to confirm the possible involvement in the formation and stabilization of synthesized silver nanoparticles by the extract of Rosa chinensis flower. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied against Gram positive Staphycoccus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coil.

  15. The effect of water temperature and velocity on barnacle growth: Quantifying the impact of multiple environmental stressors.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Michael T; Carrington, Emily

    2015-12-01

    Organisms employ a wide array of physiological and behavioral responses in an effort to endure stressful environmental conditions. For many marine invertebrates, physiological and/or behavioral performance is dependent on physical conditions in the fluid environment. Although factors such as water temperature and velocity can elicit changes in respiration and feeding, the manner in which these processes integrate to shape growth remains unclear. In a growth experiment, juvenile barnacles (Balanus glandula) were raised in dockside, once-through flow chambers at water velocities of 2 versus 19 cm s(-1) and temperatures of 11.5 versus 14 °C. Over 37 days, growth rates (i.e., shell basal area) increased with faster water velocities and higher temperatures. Barnacles at high flows had shorter feeding appendages (i.e., cirri), suggesting that growth patterns are unlikely related to plastic responses in cirral length. A separate experiment in the field confirmed patterns of temperature- and flow-dependent growth over 41 days. Outplanted juvenile barnacles exposed to the faster water velocities (32±1 and 34±1 cm s(-1); mean±SE) and warm temperatures (16.81±0.05 °C) experienced higher growth compared to individuals at low velocities (1±1 cm s(-1)) and temperatures (13.67±0.02 °C). Growth data were consistent with estimates from a simple energy budget model based on previously measured feeding and respiration response curves that predicted peak growth at moderate temperatures (15 °C) and velocities (20-30 cm s(-1)). Low growth is expected at both low and high velocities due to lower encounter rates with suspended food particles and lower capture efficiencies respectively. At high temperatures, growth is likely limited by high metabolic costs, whereas slow growth at low temperatures may be a consequence of low oxygen availability and/or slow cirral beating and low feeding rates. Moreover, these results advocate for approaches that consider the combined effects of

  16. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanga, Chrysantus M.; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A.; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15–35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20–30 °C (87–95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61–76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed. PMID:26798273

  17. Comparative analysis of development and survival of two Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae) populations from Kenya and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tanga, Chrysantus M; Manrakhan, Aruna; Daneel, John-Henry; Mohamed, Samira A; Fathiya, Khamis; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analysis of development and survivorship of two geographically divergent populations of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch designated as Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya and South Africa were studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, 35 °C). Temperature range for development and survival of both populations was 15-35 °C. The developmental duration was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature for Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries. Survivorship of all the immature stages of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from Kenya was highest over the range of 20-30 °C (87-95%) and lowest at 15 and 35 °C (61-76%). Survivorship of larvae of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from South Africa was lowest at 35 °C (22%) and 33 °C (0.33%), respectively. Results from temperature summation models showed that Ceratitis rosa R2 (egg, larva and pupa) from both countries were better adapted to low temperatures than R1, based on lower developmental threshold. Minimum larval temperature threshold for Kenyan populations were 11.27 °C and 6.34 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) compared to 8.99 °C and 7.74 °C (R1 and R2, respectively) for the South African populations. Total degree-day (DD) accumulation for the Kenyan populations were estimated at 302.75 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 413.53 (Ceratitis rosa R2) compared to 287.35 (Ceratitis rosa R1) and 344.3 (Ceratitis rosa R2) for the South African populations. These results demonstrate that Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 from both countries were physiologically distinct in their response to different temperature regimes and support the existence of two genetically distinct populations of Ceratitis rosa. It also suggests the need for taxonomic revision of Ceratitis rosa, however, additional information on morphological characterization of Ceratitis rosa R1 and Ceratitis rosa R2 is needed.

  18. Genetic and Morphological Differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific Intertidal Barnacle Chthamalus malayensis

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A.; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  19. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  20. Can ocean acidification affect population dynamics of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides at its southern range edge?

    PubMed

    Findlay, Helen S; Burrows, Michael T; Kendall, Michael A; Spicer, John I; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2010-10-01

    The global ocean and atmosphere are warming. There is increasing evidence suggesting that, in addition to other environmental factors, climate change is affecting species distributions and local population dynamics. Additionally, as a consequence of the growing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the oceans are taking up increasing amounts of this CO2, causing ocean pH to decrease (ocean acidification). The relative impacts of ocean acidification on population dynamics have yet to be investigated, despite many studies indicating that there will be at least a sublethal impact on many marine organisms, particularly key calcifying organisms. Using empirical data, we forced a barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) population model to investigate the relative influence of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean acidification on a population nearing the southern limit of its geographic distribution. Hindcast models were compared to observational data from Cellar Beach (southwestern United Kingdom). Results indicate that a declining pH trend (-0.0017 unit/yr), indicative of ocean acidification over the past 50 years, does not cause an observable impact on the population abundance relative to changes caused by fluctuations in temperature. Below the critical temperature (here T(crit) = 13.1 degrees C), pH has a more significant affect on population dynamics at this southern range edge. However, above this value, SST has the overriding influence. At lower SST, a decrease in pH (according to the National Bureau of Standards, pHNBs) from 8.2 to 7.8 can significantly decrease the population abundance. The lethal impacts of ocean acidification observed in experiments on early life stages reduce cumulative survival by approximately 25%, which again will significantly alter the population level at this southern limit. Furthermore, forecast predictions from this model suggest that combined acidification and warming cause this local population to die out 10 years earlier than

  1. STIMULATION BY MINERAL AND FATTY ACIDS IN THE BARNACLE BALANUS BALANOIDES

    PubMed Central

    Cole, William H.; Allison, J. B.

    1933-01-01

    1. Stimulation in the rock barnacle Balanus balanoides by hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids, and by the first seven members of the normal aliphatic acid series has been studied. The hydrogen ion concentrations of the solutions tested varied from 3.2 x 10–8 to 5.889 x 10–6. The criterion of response was percentage closure in groups of individuals, recorded at 1 minute intervals until maximum closure occurred. 2. The intensity of stimulation by these acids is proportional to the effects of two forces, one related to the change in the (H+), and the other to the field of force around the anion of the acid added to the environment. 3. A preliminary interpretation of the results led to the development of the following expression which fits approximately the data obtained at the end of 4 minutes: Per cent closure = 100 – 100e–0.1z+(0.003125)2–0.1z+(0.003125)2n(z–0.4) where z is the (H+) x 107 and n is the number of carbon atoms (if present) in the anion of the acid. This equation assumes that the anions of the mineral acids enter into the reaction stoichiometrically, and emphasizes the difference in the fields of force around the anion of the fatty acids, a difference which is correlated with the length of the carbon chain. 4. A further analysis of the data revealed the presence of three or more receptor groups which appeared to be differentially affected by forces originating from the anions of the acids. 5. The order of stimulating efficiency for the mineral acids was found to be: HCl>H2SO4>HNO3. 6. The order of stimulating efficiency for the fatty acids was found to be: heptylic>caproic>valeric>butyric = acetic>propionic = formic. PMID:19872747

  2. STIMULATION BY MINERAL AND FATTY ACIDS IN THE BARNACLE BALANUS BALANOIDES.

    PubMed

    Cole, W H; Allison, J B

    1933-07-20

    1. Stimulation in the rock barnacle Balanus balanoides by hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric acids, and by the first seven members of the normal aliphatic acid series has been studied. The hydrogen ion concentrations of the solutions tested varied from 3.2 x 10(-8) to 5.889 x 10(-6). The criterion of response was percentage closure in groups of individuals, recorded at 1 minute intervals until maximum closure occurred. 2. The intensity of stimulation by these acids is proportional to the effects of two forces, one related to the change in the (H(+)), and the other to the field of force around the anion of the acid added to the environment. 3. A preliminary interpretation of the results led to the development of the following expression which fits approximately the data obtained at the end of 4 minutes: Per cent closure = 100 - 100e(-0.1z+(0.003125)2(-0.1z+(0.003125)2n)(z-0.4)) where z is the (H(+)) x 10(7) and n is the number of carbon atoms (if present) in the anion of the acid. This equation assumes that the anions of the mineral acids enter into the reaction stoichiometrically, and emphasizes the difference in the fields of force around the anion of the fatty acids, a difference which is correlated with the length of the carbon chain. 4. A further analysis of the data revealed the presence of three or more receptor groups which appeared to be differentially affected by forces originating from the anions of the acids. 5. The order of stimulating efficiency for the mineral acids was found to be: HCl>H(2)SO(4)>HNO(3). 6. The order of stimulating efficiency for the fatty acids was found to be: heptylic>caproic>valeric>butyric = acetic>propionic = formic.

  3. Goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes as biomonitor of metal contamination in the northwest coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reis, Pedro A; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of this work was to assess the potential use of goose barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes as biomonitor of metal contamination in northwest (NW) coast of Portugal. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in coastal seawaters and tissues of P. pollicipes, which allowed establishing correlations between metals in coastal seawaters and P. pollicipes and calculating metal bioaccumulation factors (BAFs). The results of this study showed that P. pollicipes soft tissues can be used for monitoring metal contamination in these coastal seawaters: (1) there were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between metals in soft tissues and their concentrations in seawaters, except for Zn (p > 0.05); (2) soft tissues were sensitive to spatial variations of metal bioavailabilities and their concentrations ranged 0.70-2.22 mg Cd kg(-1), 0.49-1.40 mg Cr kg(-1), 1.37-2.07 mg Ni kg(-1), 2.4-3.3 mg Cu kg(-1), 5-59 mg Mn kg(-1), 134-578 mg Fe kg(-1)and 728-1,854 mg Zn kg(-1); (3) mean logarithmic bioaccumulation factors (log BAF) of Fe, Cd and Zn were higher, 5.57, 5.47 and 4.41, respectively, than mean log BAFs of Cr, Mn, Cu and Ni, 4.18, 4.14, 3.98 and 3.51, respectively. In contrary, P. pollicipes shell plates were not considered ideal material to monitor metal bioavailabilities in these coastal seawaters. Regarding the very high concentrations of Zn obtained in the coastal seawaters and P. pollicipes soft tissues, the NW coast of Portugal should be classified as "Class III/IV - Remarkably/Highly Polluted".

  4. Recruitment density can determine adult morphology and fecundity in the barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides.

    PubMed

    Hills, Jeremy M; Thomason, Jeremy C

    2003-06-01

    Although consequences of the settlement preference of larvae have been well documented, the consequence of these settlement choices on subsequent mortality, morphology and fecundity has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between recruit and adult density and to determine the effect of recruitment on adult morphology and egg tissue mass. This study follows 48,718 barnacles (Semibalanus balanoides) from recruitment at the end of the settling season to reproductively mature adults at a field site in the Clyde Sea (UK). Overall survivorship of the recruits to adulthood was 8.5%, although survivorship was up to 42% on low density settlement panels. In low density colonies (< 10 recruits cm-2), recruitment density was related to adult density (P < 0.001), whereas no relationship was found for higher density colonies. A shell morphology index measured at adulthood was related to recruitment density for low density recruited colonies (P < 0.001) but not high density colonies. Using ANCOVA, variations between the colonies in shell and egg tissue mass were not explained by mass of somatic tissue. However, egg mass was explained by recruitment density (P < 0.01). These results show that adult density is not a reliable indicator of the previous population density of the colony. Moreover, there are marked differences in population development between colonies with high and low recruit densities in terms of impact upon shell morphology and egg production. The dynamics that operate between recruits at the end of the settlement season and sexually mature adults to create the patterns elucidated in this paper, and other literature, remain unclear.

  5. Temporal changes in the strength of density-dependent mortality and growth in intertidal barnacles.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Stuart R; Murua, Jefferson; Burrows, Michael T

    2008-05-01

    1. In demographically open marine systems, the extent to which density-dependent processes in the benthic adult phase are required for population persistence is unclear. At one extreme, represented by the recruitment limitation hypothesis, larval supply may be insufficient for the total population size to reach a carrying capacity and density-independent mortality predominates. At the opposite extreme, populations are saturated and density-dependent mortality is sufficiently strong to reshape patterns established at settlement. 2. We examined temporal variation in the way density-independent and density-dependent mortality interact in a typical sessile marine benthic invertebrate, the acorn barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.), over a 2-year period. 3. Recruitment was manipulated at two high recruitment sites in north Wales, UK to produce recruit densities covering the range naturally found in this species. Following manipulation, fixed quadrats were monitored using digital photography and temporal changes in mortality and growth rate were examined. 4. Over a 2-year period there was a clear, spatially consistent, over-compensatory relationship between the density of recruits and adult abundance indicating strong density-dependent mortality. The strength of density dependence intensified with increasing recruitment. 5. Density-dependent mortality did not operate consistently over the study period. It only operated in the early part of the benthic phase, but the pattern of adult abundance generated was maintained throughout the whole 2-year period. Thus, early life-history processes dictated adult population abundance and dynamics. 6. Examination of the natural recruitment regime in the area of study indicated that both positive and negative effects of recruitment will occur over scales varying from kilometres to metres.

  6. The toxic effects of copper on larvae of the barnacle species Chthamalus challengeri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Leilei; Wang, Ying; Sha, Jingjing; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-03-01

    With the increased use of copper (Cu)-based antifouling (AF) paints, copper has become a potential threat to marine organisms. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of copper on larvae of the barnacle Chthamalus challengeri. These experiments attempted to identify a more sensitive index to monitor copper pollution in marine environments. The 24 h LC50 ranged from 156.07 μg/L (nauplius II) to 817.15 μg/L (cypris) and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) ranged from 81.75 μg/L (nauplius II) to 571.04 μg/L (cypris). The cypris settlement rate declined significantly when copper concentrations ≥135 μg/L. No cypris was found in the copper concentration of 60 and 75 μg/L treatment groups stressed for 22 d. Nauplius II moulting was not affected by exposure to copper for 24 h; however, when extended to 48 h, the percent moulted in 75 μg/L treatment group was declined to 37.12%, which was significant lower ( P <0.05) than that in the control group. The phototaxis of nauplius II decreased significantly when copper concentrations ≥45 μg/L. Despite an initial significant increase at copper concentrations of 30 μg/L, ammonia excretion rate decreased when copper concentrations ≥60 μg/L. These results suggested that: (1) nauplius II could not develop to the cypris when the copper concentration ≥60 μg/L; (2) cypris settlement is more susceptible to copper than cypris mortality rate; (3) nauplius II is the most sensitive larval stage; (4) nauplius II ammonia excretion rate is the most sensitive index to copper and might be as the indicator for copper pollution monitoring.

  7. Genetic and morphological differentiation of the Indo-West Pacific intertidal barnacle Chthamalus malayensis.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Wu, Tsz Huen; Shih, Hsi-Te; Williams, Gray A; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny K K

    2012-09-01

    Chthamalus malayensis is a common intertidal acorn barnacle widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. Analysis of sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I reveals four genetically differentiated clades with almost allopatric distribution in this region. The four clades exhibit morphological differences in arthropodal characters, including the number of conical spines and number of setules of the basal guard setae on the cirri. These characters are, however, highly variable within each clade; such that the absolute range of the number of conical spines and setules overlaps between clades, and therefore, these are not diagnostic characters for taxonomic identification. The geographic distribution of the four clades displays a strong relationship between surface temperatures of the sea and ocean-current realms. The Indo-Malay (IM) clade is widespread in the tropical, equatorial region, including the Indian Ocean, Malay Peninsula, and North Borneo. The South China (SC) and Taiwan (TW) clades are found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the former distributed along the coasts of southern China, Vietnam, Thailand, and the western Philippines under the influence of the South China Warm Current. The TW clade is endemic to Taiwan, while the Christmas Island (CI) clade is confined to CI. There was weak or no population subdivision observed within these clades, suggesting high gene flow within the range of the clades. The clades demonstrate clear signatures of recent demographic expansion that predated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but they have maintained a relatively stable effective population in the past 100,000 years. The persistence of intertidal fauna through the LGM may, therefore, be a common biogeographic pattern. The lack of genetic subdivision in the IM clade across the Indian and Pacific Oceans may be attributed to recent expansion of ranges and the fact that a mutation-drift equilibrium has not been reached, or the relaxed habitat

  8. Comparative study of biological activities and phytochemical composition of two rose hips and their preserves: Rosa canina L. and Rosa arvensis Huds.

    PubMed

    Nađpal, Jelena D; Lesjak, Marija M; Šibul, Filip S; Anačkov, Goran T; Četojević-Simin, Dragana D; Mimica-Dukić, Neda M; Beara, Ivana N

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare phenolic profile, vitamin C content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of rose hips and the preserves (purée and jam) of two Rosa species: renowned Rosa canina L. and unexplored Rosa arvensis Huds. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 45 phenolics resulted in quantification of 14 compounds, with quercitrin, gallic and protocatechuic acids as the most dominant. High antioxidant potential of R. canina and a moderate activity of R. arvensis extracts were determined through several assays. Purée of both species and methanol extract of air-dried R. canina hips showed some anti-inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-1 and 12-lipooxygense inhibition potency) activity. Purée of R. canina exerted cytotoxic activity only against the HeLa cell line among several others (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29 and MRC-5). The presented results support traditional use of rose hips and their fruit preserves as food with health and nutritional benefits.

  9. Transcriptome of the floral transition in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush'.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuelian; Yu, Chao; Luo, Le; Wan, Huihua; Zhen, Ni; Xu, Tingliang; Tan, Jiongrui; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-02-23

    The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways. A hypothetical model for the regulation of floral transition was proposed in which the candidate genes function synergistically the floral transition process. Hormone contents and biosynthesis and metabolism genes fluctuated during the rose floral transition process. Gibberellins (GAs) inhibited rose floral transition, the content of GAs gradually decreased and GA2ox and SCL13 were upregulated from vegetative (VM) meristem to floral meristem (FM). Auxin plays an affirmative part in mediating floral transition, auxin content and auxin-related gene expression levels were gradually upregulated during the floral transition of the rose. However, ABA content and ABA signal genes were gradually downregulated, suggesting that ABA passively regulates the rose floral transition by participating in sugar signaling. Furthermore, sugar content and sugar metabolism genes increased during floral transition in the rose, which may be a further florigenic signal that activates floral transition. Additionally, FRI, FY, DRM1, ELIP, COP1, CO, and COL16 are involved in the circadian clock and autonomous pathway, respectively, and they play a positively activating role in regulating floral transition. Overall, physiological changes associated with genes involved in the circadian clock or autonomous pathway collectively regulated the

  10. Immunomodulation by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: effect on the humoral and cellular immune response of Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Tandon, Vijay Lakshmi; Gupta, Rekha

    2012-03-15

    In West India, the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is traditionally used as tea as a natural diuretic. Extract of this plant contains Vitamin C and is used traditionally as a mild medicine. In spite of a long history of traditional medicinal value of H. rosa-sinensis still no data are available for immunomodulatory activity. In present investigation, aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis (AEHrs) (500 mg kg(-1) BW) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected to the male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate the immunomodulatory property of extract. In addition for evaluation of phytochemical constituents of flowers of H. rosa-sinensis HPTLC was performed. The crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis has immunomodulatory activity. After the 15 days treatment, the number of plaque forming cells increased by 0.6%, antibody titre was increased 38.15% and significant increase of 52% was observed in DTH response. At the same concentration of dose the level of serum IL-1alpha enhanced significantly (14.27%) whereas a considerable decrease (32.70%) in the concentration of IL-2 was observed among AEHrs treated mice in comparison to the control mice. HPTLC chromatogram revealed that H. rosa-sinensis posses alkaloid (Rf 0.93) and flavonoids (Rf 0.02, 0.06, 0.14) on the basis of Rf values. Results of investigation supports for the immunomodulatory activity of H. rosa-sinensis aqueous extract.

  11. Chlorine dioxide as an alternative antifouling biocide for cooling water systems: Toxicity to larval barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus (Utinomi).

    PubMed

    Venkatnarayanan, Srinivas; Sriyutha Murthy, P; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2017-01-19

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is seen as an effective alternative to chlorine, which is widely used as an antifouling biocide. However, data on its efficacy against marine macrofoulants is scanty. In this study, acute toxicity of ClO2 to larval forms of the fouling barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus was investigated. ClO2 treatment at 0.1mg/L for 20min elicited 45-63% reduction in naupliar metamorphosis, 70% inhibition of cyprid settlement and 80% inhibition of metamorphosis to juveniles. Increase in concentration to 0.2mg/L did not result in any significant difference in the settlement inhibition or metamorphosis. Treatment with 0.2mg/L of ClO2 elicited substantial reduction in the settlement of barnacle larvae compared to control. The study indicates the possibility of using ClO2 as an alternative antifouling biocide in power plant cooling water systems. However, more work needs to be done on the environmental effects of such switchover, which we are currently undertaking.

  12. Modular phenotypic plasticity: divergent responses of barnacle penis and feeding leg form to variation in density and wave-exposure.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Christopher J

    2011-06-15

    Traits can evolve both in response to direct selection and in response to indirect selection on other linked traits. Although the evolutionary significance of coupled traits (e.g., through shared components of developmental pathways, or through competition for shared developmental resources) is now well accepted, we know comparatively little about how developmental coupling may restrict the independent responses of two or more phenotypically plastic traits in response to conflicting environmental cues. Such studies are important because coupled development, if present, could act as an important limit to the evolution of functionally independent plasticity in multiple traits. I tested whether developmental coupling can restrict the direction of plastic responses by studying how penis form and leg form--both highly plastic traits of barnacles--varied in response to differences in conspecific density and water velocity. Penis length and leg length in Balanus glandula varied in parallel with variation in wave-exposure but varied in opposite directions with variation in conspecific density. This study represents one of the rare tests of developmental coupling between multiple (demonstrably adaptive) plastic traits: Barnacle legs and penises appear to exhibit modular development that can respond concurrently--yet in independent directions--to conflicting environmental cues. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Do tiny males grow up? Sperm competition and optimal resource allocation schedule of dwarf males of barnacles.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Ozaki, Yuki; Yusa, Yoichi; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2007-03-21

    Barnacles, marine crustaceans, have three sexual patterns: simultaneous hermaphroditism, dioecy and androdioecy. In dioecy and androdioecy, large individuals (females and hermaphrodites, respectively) are attached by dwarf males. Depending on species, some dwarf males grow up, others do not in their life time. To investigate which environmental conditions affect growth patterns of dwarf males of barnacles, we investigate the evolutionarily stable life history strategy of dwarf males using Pontryagin's maximum principle. Sperm competition among dwarf males and that among dwarf males and large hermaphrodites is taken into account. Dwarf males grow up in food-rich environments, while they do not grow at all in food-poor environments. ESS of the resource allocation schedule between reproduction and growth follows an "intermediate growth strategy" (simultaneous growth and reproduction) for dioecious species, in which sperm competition is not severe. On the other hand, it approaches "bang-bang control" (switching from allocating all resources toward growth then to reproduction), as sperm competition against surrounding large hermaphrodites becomes severe in androdioecious species.

  14. Fluorinated/siloxane copolymer blends for fouling release: chemical characterisation and biological evaluation with algae and barnacles.

    PubMed

    Marabotti, Ilaria; Morelli, Andrea; Orsini, Lorenzo M; Martinelli, Elisa; Galli, Giancarlo; Chiellini, Emo; Lien, Einar M; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Conlan, Sheelagh L; Mutton, Robert J; Clare, Anthony S; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Donik, Crtomir; Jenko, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Fouling-release coatings were prepared from blends of a fluorinated/siloxane copolymer with a poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix in order to couple the low modulus character of PDMS with the low surface tension typical for fluorinated polymers. The content of the surface-active copolymer was varied in the blend over a broad range (0.15-10 wt % with respect to PDMS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analyses were performed on the coatings to establish the distribution of specific chemical constituents throughout the coatings, and proved enrichment in fluorine of the outermost layers of the coating surface. Addition of the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer to the PDMS matrix resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in settlement of barnacle, Balanus amphitrite, cyprids. The release of young plants of Ulva, a soft fouling species, and young barnacles showed that adhesion strength on the fluorinated/siloxane copolymer was significantly lower than the siloxane control. However, differences in adhesion strength were not directly correlated with the concentration of copolymer in the blends.

  15. Effects of herbivorous snails and macroalgal canopy on recruitment and early survivorship of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.).

    PubMed

    Hancock, K M.; Petraitis, P S.

    2001-03-15

    This study investigated the effects of grazing by the herbivorous snail Littorina littorea (L.) and the presence of a macroalgal canopy on recruitment and early survivorship of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides (L.) at four sites of various distances from the mouth of Toothacher Cove on Swans Island in the Gulf of Maine in 1998. Recruitment plates were attached to the substrate at each site in all possible treatment combinations, including either presence of absence of macroalgal canopy, presence or absence of the herbivore, and presence or absence of a cage. Significant differences in recruitment were observed among sites in April and May, but not in June. The average number of recruits also varied significantly among herbivore treatments in May and June, and in the May macroalgaexherbivore interaction. Survivorship did not differ among sites, but did vary significantly among herbivore treatments. These differences were due almost entirely to consistently low recruitment and survival in the uncaged or open controls. Comparisons of the caged and open treatments explained between 88 and 99% of the variation in the respective main effects tests. The presence or absence of L. littorea or of macroalgal canopy had little effect on S. balanoides recruitment or survivorship. Results support previous conclusions that recruitment is greater on more exposed shores and suggest that exclusion cages may protect barnacle recruits from factors such as desiccation and the whiplash effect of macroalgal fronds.

  16. Load carrying during locomotion in the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis): the effect of load placement and size.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Richardson, Mark F; Codd, Jonathan R

    2010-07-01

    Load carrying has been used to study the energetics and mechanics of locomotion in a range of taxa. Here we investigated the energetic and kinematic effects of trunk and limb loading in walking barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). A directly proportional relationship between increasing back-load mass and metabolic rate was established, indicating that the barnacle goose can carry back loads (up to 20% of body mass) more economically than the majority of mammals. The increased cost of supporting and propelling the body during locomotion is likely to account for a major proportion of the extra metabolic cost. Sternal loads up to 15% of body mass were approximately twice as expensive to carry as back loads. Given the key role in dorso-ventral movement of the sternum during respiration we suggest that moving this extra mass may account for the elevated metabolic rate. Loading the distal limb with 5% extra mass incurred the greatest proportional rise in metabolism, and also caused increases in stride length, swing duration and stride frequency during locomotion. The increased work required to move the loaded limb may explain the high cost of walking.

  17. Isolation and characterization of 2-nitroimidazole produced by Streptomyces species as an inhibitor of both carbonic anhydrase and shell formation in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Mari; Ozaki, Noriaki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Furihata, Keiko; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Sakuda, Shohei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2002-03-01

    Carbonic anhydrase is thought to be involved in the process of calcium carbonate deposition in calcified tissues of many organisms. Barnacles form hard calcified shells for protection against predation, and represent a class of marine-fouling animals. In order to inhibit barnacle growth by inhibiting shell formation, we searched for carbonic anhydrase inhibitors from microbial secondary metabolites. A simple assay for assessing carbonic-anhydrase-inhibiting activity was developed. Screening of many microorganisms isolated from soil with this assay resulted in a microbial strain that produced a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. This strain was identified as Streptomyces eurocidicus mf294. The inhibitor was isolated through 4 purification steps and identified as 2-nitroimidazole on the basis of spectroscopic data. 2-Nitroimidazole inhibited barnacle carbonic anhydrase dose-dependently and complete inhibition was reached at the concentration of 1 x 10(-5) M. 2-Nitroimidazole did not affect settlement or metamorphosis of barnacle larvae, but inhibited shell formation at concentrations higher than 1 x 10(-4) M. These findings strongly support the idea that carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification.

  18. Regional decoupling between NW Atlantic barnacle recruit and adult density is related to changes in pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen W. B.; Scrosati, Ricardo A.; Tam, Jamie C.; Sussmann, Andrea V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the regional variation in barnacle ( Semibalanus balanoides) recruit and adult abundance on the NW Atlantic coast. At the end of the recruitment season (June-July), we sampled wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites in two regions on the open Atlantic coast (Maine, AM, and Nova Scotia, AN) and in two regions on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (Northumberland Strait, GN, and Cape Breton Island, GC). Recruit density was highest in the southernmost region (AM), followed by GN and, then, by AN and GC. Regional values of nearshore primary productivity (satellite data of chlorophyll- a concentration, a surrogate for phytoplankton abundance) were highest for AM and GN, suggesting that food supply (barnacles are filter feeders) is an important factor determining regional recruitment patterns. Adult barnacle density was regionally decoupled from recruit density. Adults occurred in very low abundances on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast (GN and GC) and were relatively abundant on the Atlantic coast (AM and AN), although always in much lower abundances than recruits. The low adult densities on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast seem to result mainly from intense ice scour, as this coast freezes extensively every winter, as opposed to the ice-free Atlantic coast. Ice scour thus appears to override regional recruitment differences in determining adult density. Therefore, our data suggest that both pelagic food supply and benthic disturbance contribute to setting regional patterns in barnacle population structure on the NW Atlantic coast.

  19. Cuticular hydrocarbons corroborate the distinction between lowland and highland Natal fruit fly (Tephritidae, Ceratitis rosa) populations

    PubMed Central

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Pompeiano, Antonio; Ekesi, Sunday; Meyer, Marc De

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs) and morphology of two Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations, putatively belonging to two cryptic taxa, were analysed. The chemical profiles were characterised by two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. CHs of Ceratitis rosa that originated from the lowlands and highlands of Kenya comprised of n-alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons in the range of the carbon backbone from C14 to C37. Hydrocarbons containing C29, C31, C33 and C35 carbon atoms predominated in these two populations. 2-Methyltriacontane was the predominant compound in both populations. Quantitative differences in the distribution of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths, mainly the C22, C32, C33 and C34 compounds of these two populations, were observed despite indistinct qualitative differences in these hydrocarbons. Morphological analyses of male legs confirmed that the flies belong to different morphotypes of Ceratitis rosa previously labelled as R1 and R2 for lowland and highland populations, respectively. A statistical analysis of the CH compositions of the putative R1 and R2 species showed distinct interspecific identities, with several CHs specific for each of the lowland and highland populations. This study supports a hypothesis that the taxon Ceratitis rosa consists of at least two biological species. PMID:26798275

  20. SEDIMENT AND PLANT PHOSPHORUS IN TWO THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BEDS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND, NW FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated phosphorus concentrations in the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, and the supporting quartz sediments of two meadows in Santa Rosa Sound. One meadow was sampled during 2002, and the other during 2003. Triplicate sediment and biomass cores were obtained from beneath...

  1. Is Rosa Still Tired? Revisiting Kohl's Myths in Contemporary Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groce, Eric; Bellows, M. Elizabeth; McClure, Greg; Daigle, Elizabeth; Heafner, Tina; Fox, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, Herbert Kohl argued against the inaccurate and incomplete story of Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott that appeared prominently within texts and trade books of that era (Kohl 1991). He contended the biased perspective stripped Montgomery's African American community of their courage, intelligence, and moral conviction. Kohl…

  2. First report of Rose rosette virus associated with rose rosette disease in Rosa hybrida in Minnesota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Rosa hybrida plant was identified with rose rosette disease symptoms and was positive for Rose rosette virus (RRV) by reverse transcription PCR. It is important to monitor routinely roses for RRV symptoms and to test and rogue symptomatic plants. This is the first report of RRV infecting roses in ...

  3. Hydrodynamics and Marine Optics during Cold Fronts at Santa Rosa Island, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Journal of Coastal Research 28 S 1073-1087 Coconut Creek, Florida September 2012 Hydrodynamics and Marine Optics during Cold Fronts at Santa Rosa...Research, 28ɝ), 1073-1087. Coconut Creek (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. Observations of optical and hydrodynamic processes were made on the open beach on

  4. SEDIMENT AND PLANT PHOSPHORUS IN TWO THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BEDS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND, NW FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated phosphorus concentrations in the seagrass, Thalassia testudinum, and the supporting quartz sediments of two meadows in Santa Rosa Sound. One meadow was sampled during 2002, and the other during 2003. Triplicate sediment and biomass cores were obtained from beneath...

  5. "Ishica, de quien sos tu?": Nostalgia for a Mother Tongue in Rosa Nissan's Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhard, Tabea Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Judeo-Spanish in the Rosa Nissan's novels "Novia que te vea" (1992) and "Hisho que te nazca" (1996) and reveals the ways in which the presence of this language interrupts the otherwise linear coming-of-age narrative. An analysis of the main character's relationship with Judeo-Spanish establishes a critical dialogue…

  6. A novel Xanthomonas sp. causes bacterial spot of rose (Rosa spp.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A severe bacterial spot of rose (Rosa spp.) caused by a xanthomonad was observed in Florida and Texas. A total of 11 strains were collected from the two states. Multilocus sequence typing and analysis (MLST/MLSA) and pathogenicity tests were conducted to characterize the Xanthomonas strains. The MLS...

  7. Size Class Distribution of Quercus engelmannii (Engelmann Oak) on the Santa Rosa Plateau, Riverside County, California

    Treesearch

    Earl W. Lathrop; Chris Osborne; Anna Rochester; Kevin Yeung; Samuel Soret; Rochelle Hopper

    1991-01-01

    Size class distribution of Quercus engelmannii (Engelmann oak) on the Santa Rosa Plateau was studied to understand whether current recruitment of young oaks is sufficient to maintain the population in spite of high natural mortality and impacts of development in some portions of the plateau woodland. Sapling-size oaks (1-10 cm dbh) made up 5.56 pct...

  8. Estimating the population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California’s Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Because of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, there was an urgent need to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on the Islands. In 2009 and 2010, biologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers, where units were selected under a stratified random sampling design. Shrike abundance was estimated to be 169 in 2009 and 240 in 2010 for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 and 42 in 2010 for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of non-native herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies. In view of this circumstance and the still-low numbers of shrikes, additional intensive demographic and habitat-use studies are critical for obtaining information vital for the perpetuation of this subspecies.

  9. Photograph-based ergonomic evaluations using the Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA).

    PubMed

    Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. ROSA: A High-cadence, Synchronized Multi-camera Solar Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Damian Joseph; Jess, D. B.; Mahtioudakis, M.; Keenan, F. P.

    2011-05-01

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument is a synchronized, six-camera high-cadence solar imaging instrument developed by Queen's University Belfast and recently commissioned at the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico, USA, as a common-user instrument. Consisting of six 1k x 1k Peltier-cooled frame-transfer CCD cameras with very low noise (0.02 - 15 e/pixel/s), each ROSA camera is capable of full-chip readout speeds in excess of 30 Hz, and up to 200 Hz when the CCD is windowed. ROSA will allow for multi-wavelength studies of the solar atmosphere at a high temporal resolution. We will present the current instrument set-up and parameters, observing modes, and future plans, including a new high QE camera allowing 15 Hz for Halpha. Interested parties should see https://habu.pst.qub.ac.uk/groups/arcresearch/wiki/de502/ROSA.html

  11. First report about pharmaceutical properties and phytochemicals analysis of Rosa abyssinica R. Br. ex Lindl. (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mahmoud Fawzy; Alrumman, Sulaiman Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of seven solvent extracts from leaves and hips of Saudi Arabian weed Rosa abyssinica against a variety of human pathogenic bacteria and Candida species have been evaluated using well diffusion methods. Phytochemicals present in the leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica has been characterized using Gas Chromatogram Mass spectrometry analysis. The extracts comparative efficacy against tested microbes gained from the fresh and dry leaves exhibited more prominent activity than fresh and dry hips. The methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, acetone and diethyl ether extracts have a greater lethal effect on pathogenic microbes than hot water extracts, while cold-water extracts showed no activity. Twenty-four phytochemicals have been characterized from ethanol extract of the leaves of Rosa abyssinica and fifteen from hips by GC-MS. The major compounds detected in the leaves were squalene (38.21%), ethane, 1,1-diethoxy- (9.65%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.55%), furfural (5.50%) and 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (5.19%). The major compounds in the hips were 2-furancarboxaldehyde 5-(hydroxymethyl)- (51.27%), β-D-glucopyranose, 1,6-anhydro- (8.18%), 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl- (7.42%), 2,5-furandione, dihydro-3-methylene- (6.79%) and furfural (5.99%). Current findings indicate that extract from leaves and hips of Rosa abyssinica and the bioactive components present could be used as pharmaceutical agents.

  12. "Ishica, de quien sos tu?": Nostalgia for a Mother Tongue in Rosa Nissan's Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhard, Tabea Alex

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Judeo-Spanish in the Rosa Nissan's novels "Novia que te vea" (1992) and "Hisho que te nazca" (1996) and reveals the ways in which the presence of this language interrupts the otherwise linear coming-of-age narrative. An analysis of the main character's relationship with Judeo-Spanish establishes a critical dialogue…

  13. Subsurface petroleum geology of Santa Rosa sandstone (Triassic), northeast New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadhead, R. F.

    The Santa Rose Sandstone (Triassic) occurs at depths of less than 2,000 ft over most of northeast New Mexico. Two major petroleum accumulations are known to exist in it. These outcrops of oil impregnated sandstone are known as the Santa Rosa tar sands. The oil in the tar sands is viscous and heavy. The other known petroleum accumulation is a pool of heavy oil that occurs at depths of 400 ft to 800 ft in northeast Guadalupe County. Attempts are being made to recover the heavy oil with steamflooding in two small pilot fields. The lower and upper sandstone units are blanket deposits composed mostly of fine to medium grained porous sandstones and minor red siliciclastic mudstones. The middle mudstone unit is a blanket deposit composed chiefly of red siliciclastic mudstones and minor lenticular sandstones. Stratigraphic and petrographic studies indicate that good reservoirs are widespread in the lower and upper sandstone unit. The blanket geometry of the lower and upper sandstone units indicates that structure probably plays an important or even dominant role in the trapping of any undiscovered hydrocarbons in the Santa Rosa. Oil proximal to the outcrop belt of the Santa Rosa Sandstone has probably been flushed by recently recharged fresh ground water. Although the source of the oil in Santa Rosa Sandstone is not definitely known, geochemical studies point to the San Andres Formation (Permian) or possibly Pennsylanian rocks.

  14. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742.

    PubMed

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Fayazfar, Setareh; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation.

  15. Suppressive effects of rosa damascena essential oil on naloxone- precipitated morphine withdrawal signs in male mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Maleki, Navid; Abbasi Maleki, Saeid; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This research was done to test the effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on withdrawal signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine in male mice. Morphine dependence was induced by injection (IP) three times daily at doses of 50, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 days. On day 4, after the last administration of morphine, Rosa damascena essential oil was administered at different concentrations (5, 2 and 40%, IP) 30 min before administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg, IP). The following actions were taken as signs of withdrawal and records taken for jumping as a number and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, writing, diarrhea, wet dog shakes and climbing during a 30 min period. Results showed that different concentrations of Rosa damascena essential oil significantly reduced signs of morphine withdrawal compared to the control group in terms of number of jumps (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, climbing, wet dog shakes and writhing, but not for diarrhea (p < 0.05). In conclusion it seems that GABAergic activity induced by flavonoids from Rosa damascena essential oil can alleviate signs of morphine withdrawal, but further studies need to be done to better understand this mechanism.

  16. The effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on the amygdala electrical kindling seizures in rat.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Roohollah; Moghimi, Ali; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Ejtehadi, Hamid; Kheirabadi, Masoumeh

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the effect of Rosa damascena Mill, essential oil on the development of induced amygdala kindling seizures. Male Wistar rats were implanted with one tripolar and two monopolar electrodes in right basolateral amygdala and dura surface, respectively. The control group was injected solvent of essential oil and two experimental groups were injected 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of essential oil (ip), 30 min before a daily kindling stimulation. The number of stimulations required for the first appearance of seizure stages was significantly larger in two experimental groups than in control group. Mean after discharge duration was significantly different and essential oil reduced the increase of after discharge duration. Mean after discharge amplitude was also shorter in the groups treated with essential oil than in control group. Duration time for 5th stage of seizure at fully-kindled rats was significantly shorter in two experimental groups than control group. These results suggest that Rosa damascena essential oil significantly retarded the development of seizure stages and possesses the ability to counteract kindling acquisition. The flavonoids of Rosa damascena may act via GABAA receptors as previous studies have proposed for flavonoids of other medicinal plants. More detailed studies are recommended to define the effective component(s) of Rosa on different types of epilepsy.

  17. Suppressive Effects of Rosa Damascena Essential Oil on Naloxone- Precipitated Morphine Withdrawal Signs in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi Maleki, Navid; Abbasi Maleki, Saeid; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This research was done to test the effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on withdrawal signs of naloxone-precipitated morphine in male mice. Morphine dependence was induced by injection (IP) three times daily at doses of 50, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 days. On day 4, after the last administration of morphine, Rosa damascena essential oil was administered at different concentrations (5, 2 and 40%, IP) 30 min before administration of naloxone (5 mg/kg, IP). The following actions were taken as signs of withdrawal and records taken for jumping as a number and scores of 0 to 3 were given for incidences of grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, writing, diarrhea, wet dog shakes and climbing during a 30 min period. Results showed that different concentrations of Rosa damascena essential oil significantly reduced signs of morphine withdrawal compared to the control group in terms of number of jumps (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), grooming, teeth chattering, rearing, climbing, wet dog shakes and writhing, but not for diarrhea (p < 0.05). In conclusion it seems that GABAergic activity induced by flavonoids from Rosa damascena essential oil can alleviate signs of morphine withdrawal, but further studies need to be done to better understand this mechanism. PMID:24250642

  18. Effect of essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line SW742

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie-Tavirani, Mostafa; Heydari-Keshel, Saeid; Rezaee, Mohamad Bagher; Zamanian-Azodi, Mona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Majid; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Aim In this study, we report the effect of the essential oil of Rosa Damascena on human colon cancer cell line (SW742) and human fibroblast cells. Background Colon cancer is the second most common fatal malignancy. Owing to the existence of many side effects and problems related to common treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, alternative treatments are being investigated. Some herbal medicines have shown promising results against different types of cancers. Herbal medicines used have included the use naturally occurring essential oils. Patients and methods The essential oil of Rosa Damascena was obtained by distillation and its effect on SW742 cell-line and fibroblast cells were investigated with cell culture. The cells were cultured and different volumes of essential oil were induced to the cells. After48hincubation, cell survival was measured and using statistical analysis, the findings were evaluated and reported. Results This study showed that soluble part of Rosa Damascena oil increases cell proliferation in high volumes and the non-soluble component decreases cell proliferation. Conclusion The effects of essential oils, such as Rosa Damascena, on cell proliferation require more thorough investigation. PMID:24834241

  19. Susceptibility of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Malan, Antoinette P; Manrakhan, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and Steinernema khoisanae, to infect pupariating larvae, pupae and adults of Ceratitis capitata and Ceratitis rosa was investigated in laboratory bioassays. Pupariating larvae and adult flies were susceptible to nematode infection, with no infection recorded for the pupae. Pupariating larvae of C. capitata were generally more susceptible to infection than those of C. rosa. Significantly more larvae of C. capitata were infected by H. bacteriophora. For C. rosa, highest infectivity of larvae was obtained with H. zealandica. In contrast, adults of both species were highly infected by S. khoisanae.

  20. Population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California's Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands (USA). This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. The combination of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, prompted us to undertake a study to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. During the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons, we surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers to estimate joint detection probabilities (p), where we selected units under a stratified random sampling design. We estimated shrike abundance to be 169 in 2009 (p = 0.476) and 240 in 2010 (p = 0.825) for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 (p = 0.816) and 42 in 2010 (p = 0.710) for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of nonnative herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies and, therefore, we suggest that intensive demographic and habitat use research be initiated immediately to obtain additional information vital for the management of this subspecies. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Geologic and Geophysical Framework of the Santa Rosa 7.5' Quadrangle, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Fleck, R.J.; McPhee, D.K.; Roberts, C.W.; McCabe, C.A.; Wan, Elmira

    2008-01-01

    The geologic and geophysical maps of Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and accompanying structure sections portray the sedimentary and volcanic stratigraphy and crustal structure of the Santa Rosa 7.5? quadrangle and provide a context for interpreting the evolution of volcanism and active faulting in this region. The quadrangle is located in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay and is traversed by the active Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Maacama Fault Zones. The geologic and geophysical data presented in this report, are substantial improvements over previous geologic and geophysical maps of the Santa Rosa area, allowing us to address important geologic issues. First, the geologic mapping is integrated with gravity and magnetic data, allowing us to depict the thicknesses of Cenozoic deposits, the depth and configuration of the Mesozoic basement surface, and the geometry of fault structures beneath this region to depths of several kilometers. This information has important implications for constraining the geometries of major active faults and for understanding and predicting the distribution and intensity of damage from ground shaking during earthquakes. Secondly, the geologic map and the accompanying description of the area describe in detail the distribution, geometry and complexity of faulting associated with the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg and Bennett Valley Fault Zones and associated faults in the Santa Rosa quadrangle. The timing of fault movements is constrained by new 40Ar/39Ar ages and tephrochronologic correlations. These new data provide a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the extensive sedimentary and volcanic cover in the area and, in particular, clarify the formational affinities of Pliocene and Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary units in the map area. Thirdly, the geophysics, particularly gravity data, indicate the locations of thick sections of sedimentary and volcanic fill within ground water basins of the Santa Rosa plain and

  2. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  3. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005-2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance.

    PubMed

    Scrosati, Ricardo A; Ellrich, Julius A

    2016-01-01

    On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm(-2)) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm(-2)). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm(-2) (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm(-2) (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5-6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration -Chl-a-) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March-April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance.

  4. A 12-year record of intertidal barnacle recruitment in Atlantic Canada (2005–2016): relationships with sea surface temperature and phytoplankton abundance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), recruitment of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides occurs in May and June. Every year in June between 2005 and 2016, we recorded recruit density for this barnacle at the same wave-exposed rocky intertidal location on this coast. During these 12 years, mean recruit density was lowest in 2015 (198 recruits dm−2) and highest in 2007 (969 recruits dm−2). The highest recruit density observed in a single quadrat was 1,457 recruits dm−2 (in 2011) and the lowest was 34 recruits dm−2 (in 2015). Most barnacle recruits appear during May, which suggests that most pelagic larvae (which develop over 5–6 weeks before benthic settlement) are in the water column in April. An AICc-based model selection approach identified sea surface temperature (SST) in April and the abundance of phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae, measured as chlorophyll-a concentration –Chl-a–) in April as good explanatory variables. Together, April SST and April Chl-a explained 51% of the observed interannual variation in recruit density, with an overall positive influence. April SST was positively related to March–April air temperature (AT). April Chl-a was negatively related to the April ratio between the number of days with onshore winds (which blow from phytoplankton-limited offshore waters) and the number of days with alongshore winds (phytoplankton is more abundant on coastal waters). Therefore, this study suggests that climatic processes affecting April SST and April Chl-a indirectly influence intertidal barnacle recruitment by influencing larval performance. PMID:27812421

  5. Genetic variation in the acorn barnacle from allozymes to population genomics.

    PubMed

    Flight, Patrick A; Rand, David M

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (F(ST) ~ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An F(ST) outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. F(ST) values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic F(ST) for mtDNA. The majority of F(ST) outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  6. Competing species in a changing climate: effects of recruitment disturbances on two interacting barnacle species.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Carl Johan; Johansson, Emmeli; Aberg, Per

    2006-05-01

    1. The climate is changing and data-based simulation models can be a valuable tool for predicting population response to such changes and investigate the mechanisms of population change. In this study, a data-based two-species matrix model was constructed to explore the possible effects of elevated sea surface temperature (i.e. climate change) on the interaction between open populations of the south Atlantic barnacle species Chthamalus montagui and the boreal species Semibalanus balanoides in the north-east Atlantic. 2. First, the model was used to perform an elasticity analysis to determine the relative importance of recruitment and survival in the interaction. Further, three scenarios of changes in recruitment, related to climate change, were investigated with model simulations: (i) increased frequencies of low recruitment for S. balanoides; (ii) increased frequencies of high recruitment for C. montagui; (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii). 3. Model simulations showed that in present environmental conditions, S. balanoides occupied most of the space and dominated the interaction through high recruitment and survival. These results matched independent field observations, which validated the model for further analyses. 4. The elasticity analyses showed that although free space was available there was competition for space during recruitment intervals. It was also shown that both populations were sensitive to changes in recruitment. 5. Introducing the three scenarios of recruitment disturbances led to large changes in species abundance and free space. The most significant changes were found when scenario (i) and (ii) were combined, producing a shift in species dynamics towards C. montagui dominance. This demonstrates that recruitment can be an important mechanism in the interaction between populations and that the population response to changes in recruitment depends on the added response of interacting species. 6. In a more general context, this model shows that

  7. Genetic Variation in the Acorn Barnacle from Allozymes to Population Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Flight, Patrick A.; Rand, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of genetic variation within and among populations is a central problem in population and evolutionary genetics. We examine this question in the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, in which the allozyme loci Mpi and Gpi have been implicated in balancing selection due to varying selective pressures at different spatial scales. We review the patterns of genetic variation at the Mpi locus, compare this to levels of population differentiation at mtDNA and microsatellites, and place these data in the context of genome-wide variation from high-throughput sequencing of population samples spanning the North Atlantic. Despite considerable geographic variation in the patterns of selection at the Mpi allozyme, this locus shows rather low levels of population differentiation at ecological and trans-oceanic scales (FST ∼ 5%). Pooled population sequencing was performed on samples from Rhode Island (RI), Maine (ME), and Southwold, England (UK). Analysis of more than 650 million reads identified approximately 335,000 high-quality SNPs in 19 million base pairs of the S. balanoides genome. Much variation is shared across the Atlantic, but there are significant examples of strong population differentiation among samples from RI, ME, and UK. An FST outlier screen of more than 22,000 contigs provided a genome-wide context for interpretation of earlier studies on allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites. FST values for allozymes, mtDNA and microsatellites are close to the genome-wide average for random SNPs, with the exception of the trans-Atlantic FST for mtDNA. The majority of FST outliers were unique between individual pairs of populations, but some genes show shared patterns of excess differentiation. These data indicate that gene flow is high, that selection is strong on a subset of genes, and that a variety of genes are experiencing diversifying selection at large spatial scales. This survey of polymorphism in S. balanoides provides a number of

  8. Biogeography, Competition, and Microclimate: The Barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England.

    PubMed

    Wethey, David S

    2002-08-01

    Geographic limits of species are commonly associated with climatic or physical boundaries, but the mechanisms of exclusion at the limits of distribution are poorly understood. In some intertidal populations, the strengths of interactions with natural enemies are mediated by microclimate, and determine geographic limits. The northern limit of the barnacle Chthamalus fragilis in New England is the south side of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. South of the cape, Chthamalus has a refuge from competition in the high intertidal, which is too hot for survival of its superior competitor Semibalanus balanoides. North of the cape, the high intertidal is cooler, and Semibalanus survives, so Chthamalus has no refuge. Thus, geographic variation in the strength of competition may determine the geographic limit of Chthamalus. Intolerance of cold by Chthamalus cannot account for the geographic limit: transplants of Chthamalus 80 km beyond its northern limit survived up to 8 yr in the absence of competition with Semibalanus. At the geographic limit of Chthamalus in the Cape Cod Canal there are two bridges, 5 km apart. On the southern bridge, Chthamalus is abundant and occupies a refuge above Semibalanus. On the northern bridge in 2001, only 7 individual Chthamalus were present. Despite the proximity of the bridges, their microclimates are very different. The southern bridge, where Chthamalus is abundant, is up to 8°C hotter than the northern bridge. This higher temperature creates a refuge in the high intertidal for Chthamalus. On the cooler northern bridge, there is no refuge for Chthamalus. Because of the difference in temperatures of the water masses that meet in the canal, heat storage in the rock of the bridge piers causes the temperatures to differ between the bridges. Thus, geographic change in microclimate alters the strength of competition, and determines the geographic limit."When we travel from south to north, or from a damp region to a dry, we invariably see some species

  9. Simultaneous bidirectional magnesium ion flux measurements in single barnacle muscle cells by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, J.G.; Sjodin, R.A.; Yergey, A.L.; Vieira, N.E. )

    1989-09-01

    Stable isotopes of Mg were used to measure bidirectional magnesium ion fluxes in single barnacle giant muscle fibers immersed in Ca- and Na-free, isosmotic media. Measurements were made using a mass spectrometric technique, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), in conjunction with atomic absorption spectroscopy. Kinetic relations based on a first-order model were developed that permit the determination of unidirectional rate coefficients for Mg influx, ki, and efflux, ke, in the same experiment from knowledge of initial conditions and the initial and final ratios of 26Mg/24Mg and 25Mg/24Mg in ambient solutions (i.e., by isotope dilution). Such determinations were made for three values of the external Mg ion concentration: 5, 25, and 60 mM. At the concentration (Mg+2)o = 5 mM, ki and ke were about equal at a value of 0.01 min-1. At the higher values of (Mg+2)o, the values of ke increased along a curve suggesting saturation, whereas the values of ki remained essentially constant. As could be expected on the basis of a constant ki, the initial influx rate varied in direct linear proportion to (Mg+2)o, and was 11.8 pmol/cm2s when (Mg+2)o was 5 mM. However, the initial efflux rate appeared to increase nonlinearly with (Mg+2)o, varying from 13.4 pmol/cm2s (( Mg+2)o = 5 mM) to approximately 80 pmol/cm2s ((Mg+2)o = 60 mM). The results are consistent with a model that assumes Mg influx to be mainly an electrodiffusive inward leak with PMg = 0.07 cm/s and Mg efflux to be almost entirely by active transport processes. Where comparisons can be made, the rate coefficients determined from stable isotope measurements agree with those previously obtained using radioactive Mg. The rate coefficients can be used to correctly predict time-dependent changes in total fiber Mg content.

  10. Pressure variations in the Monte Rosa nappe, Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luisier, Cindy; Vaughan-Hammon, Joshua; Baumgartner, Lukas; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Monte Rosa nappe is part of the Penninic nappe stack of the Western Alps. It represents the southern-most European continental basement involved in the alpine orogeny. It consists of a pre-Variscan basement complex, made of mostly metapelites and paragneisses, which were intruded by a Permian-age granitic body (Pawlig, 2001). The nappe is heterogeneously deformed, with localized high strain domains separating low strain domains. The metamorphic record is tightly linked to deformation. Different thermodynamic data bases and approaches were used in the past to estimate the peak alpine metamorphic conditions. They range from 1.2 to 2.7 GPa and 490 to 650˚C, based on metagranite, metapelite, metamafic and whiteschist assemblages. The peak alpine metamorphic assemblage of zoisite, phengite and albite symplectites pseudomorphing magmatic plagioclase is preserved only in the less deformed portions of the nappe. Phengite, garnet and titanite coronas surrounding biotite, quartz and igneous K-feldspar make up the rest of the rock. The metagranite locally grades into 10 to 50 meters whiteschist bodies, consisting of talc-chloritoid-kyanite-phengite-quartz, which can contain carbonate and garnet. Their chemistry is interpreted as a metasomatic product of the late magmatic hydrothermal alteration of the granite, whereas their mineralogy results from the alpine high pressure metamorphism (Pawlig and Baumgartner, 2001; Luisier et al., 2015). We performed a phase petrology and textural study to consistently estimate peak alpine metamorphic conditions in the granite and the related whiteschists. Textural observations were used to select the best-preserved high-pressure metagranite samples. Inherited magmatic feldspar textures indicate that jadeite was never formed in these granites, confirmed independently by Si in phengite barometer (1.2 to 1.5 GPa). Note that the granite contains the phengite buffer assemblage of Massonne and Schreyer (1987). Thermodynamic calculations using

  11. Small RNA and transcriptome deep sequencing proffers insight into floral gene regulation in Rosa cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Roses (Rosa sp.), which belong to the family Rosaceae, are the most economically important ornamental plants—making up 30% of the floriculture market. However, given high demand for roses, rose breeding programs are limited in molecular resources which can greatly enhance and speed breeding efforts. A better understanding of important genes that contribute to important floral development and desired phenotypes will lead to improved rose cultivars. For this study, we analyzed rose miRNAs and the rose flower transcriptome in order to generate a database to expound upon current knowledge regarding regulation of important floral characteristics. A rose genetic database will enable comprehensive analysis of gene expression and regulation via miRNA among different Rosa cultivars. Results We produced more than 0.5 million reads from expressed sequences, totalling more than 110 million bp. From these, we generated 35,657, 31,434, 34,725, and 39,722 flower unigenes from Rosa hybrid: ‘Vital’, ‘Maroussia’, and ‘Sympathy’ and Rosa rugosa Thunb. , respectively. The unigenes were assigned functional annotations, domains, metabolic pathways, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Plant Ontology (PO) terms, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat) terms. Rose flower transcripts were compared with genes from whole genome sequences of Rosaceae members (apple, strawberry, and peach) and grape. We also produced approximately 40 million small RNA reads from flower tissue for Rosa, representing 267 unique miRNA tags. Among identified miRNAs, 25 of them were novel and 242 of them were conserved miRNAs. Statistical analyses of miRNA profiles revealed both shared and species-specific miRNAs, which presumably effect flower development and phenotypes. Conclusions In this study, we constructed a Rose miRNA and transcriptome database, and we analyzed the miRNAs and transcriptome generated from the flower tissues of four Rosa cultivars. The database provides a comprehensive genetic

  12. Simulation of groundwater and surface-water resources of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Water managers in the Santa Rosa Plain face the challenge of meeting increasing water demand with a combination of Russian River water, which has uncertainties in its future availability; local groundwater resources; and ongoing and expanding recycled water and water from other conservation programs. To address this challenge, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, the cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, the town of Windsor, the California American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma, undertook development of a fully coupled groundwater and surface-water model to better understand and to help manage the hydrologic resources in the Santa Rosa Plain watershed. The purpose of this report is to (1) describe the construction and calibration of the fully coupled groundwater and surface-water flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, referred to as the Santa Rosa Plain hydrologic model; (2) present results from simulation of the Santa Rosa Plain hydrologic model, including water budgets, recharge distributions, streamflow, and the effect of pumping on water-budget components; and (3) present the results from using the model to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of climate change and variability without pumpage for water years 2011-99 and with projected pumpage for water years 2011-40.

  13. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  14. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria.

  15. Protective effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on renal disturbances induced by reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Najafi, Houshang; Jalalvandi, Sepeideh; Hosseinei, Fatemeh

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Rosa canina L fruit extracts on histological damages, oxidative stress, and functional disturbances induced by bilateral renal ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemia and reperfusion were induced on the kidneys of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats in the reperfusion and Rosa canina groups were administered extract solvent and Rosa canina extract, respectively. In addition, in the sham group, surgery was done without ischemia. In the last 6 hours of the reperfusion period, urine sample were collected using metabolic cage and at the end of this period, blood samples were taken from the descending aorta. The kidney tissues were collected and subjected to microscopic study for histological damages, while oxidative stress was measured by determining malondialdehyde and ferric reducing/antioxidant power levels. The comparison between the reperfusion and sham groups indicated reductions in creatinine clearance, absolute excretion of potassium, urine osmilarity, and increase in absolute excretion of sodium in the reperfusion group. These changes were less pronounced with Rosa canina fruit extract. In addition, blood creatinine and urea concentrations which increased in the reperfusion group, were significantly lower in the Rosa canina group. In this group, the degree of histological damages and the level of malondialdehyde were lower than the reperfusion group, while ferric reducing/antioxidant power level was significantly higher. The findings of this study showed that Rosa canina fruit extract possesses protective effects against kidney function disturbances, oxidative stress, and histological damages.

  16. Infestation and morphological identification of the stalked epizoic barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab Portunus pelagicus from the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi Khattab, Rafat

    2017-09-01

    The intensity of infestation of the epizoic stalked barnacle Octolasmis on the blue crab was calculated for a total of 180 individuals collected around Jeddah, the western Red Sea Saudi coast. More than 90% of the crabs were found bearing the Octolasmis at a prevalence rate of 92% and mean intensity of 18.5±18.6 (0-127 epibiont per host). The intensity of infestation increased with host size in the range 90-135 mm. Generally, females were more infested (69%) than the males (31%). Octolasmis angulata occurred mostly on the gills, and the lower side of the gill chambers was more infested (84%) than the upper side (16%) and the left side of gills was also more infested than the right side in both males and females. Further studies are still needed to examine the commensal relationship and its impact on the fishery market of the Red Sea blue crab populations.

  17. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  18. Assessing the sustainability and adaptive capacity of the gooseneck barnacle co-management system in Asturias, N. Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Antonella; Gelcich, Stefan; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    The gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias (N. Spain) has undergone three important changes: (1) the early implementation of a co-management system based on Territorial User Rights for Fishing, (2) a change in management measures (due to a decrease in landings), and (3) an economic crisis. This has allowed us to analyze the systems' sustainability in time through examining five critical variables: landings, effort, catch per unit effort (CPUE), mean market prices, and annual revenue. Additionally, we used focus groups and questionnaires to determine the response of the system to these three changes. Co-management has succeeded in maintaining or increasing CPUE throughout all management areas and produced stable mean market prices. This was achieved through flexible management policies and adaptive strategies adopted by the fishers, such as increased selectivity and diversification. The analysis of this fishery provides important lessons regarding the need to understand the evolutionary dynamics of co-management and the importance of embracing adaptive capacity.

  19. Spatial variation in larval concentrations as a cause of spatial variation in settlement for the barnacle, Balanus glandula.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Steven; Brown, Stephen; Roughgarden, Jonathan

    1985-09-01

    Settlement rates of the high intertidal barnacle, Balanus glandula, were monitored at three sites in the rocky intertidal zone in Central California simultaneously with measurements of larval concentrations in the adjacent water column. In both 1983 and 1984, settlement rates onto vacant substrate differed among the sites by nearly two orders of magnitude. For all sampling dates, this spatial variation in settlement mirrored the spatial distribution of Balanus glandula cyprid concentration in the water column. A perfect rank correlation was found between cyprid concentrations near a site and subsequent settlement. A noteworthy observation was that the sites switched rank in their settlement rates from 1983 to 1984. This change in settlement rankings matched a switch in rankings for cyprid concentrations.Settlement itself appears to be an important cause of the spatial pattern of cyprid concentrations. Comparing the rates of settlement to estimates of the number of cyprids available at a site suggests that settlement causes a large drain on the cyprid population as a water mass passes over successive sites. No consistent spatial patterns were found in the distribution of other major plankton groups (calanoid copepods) that are similar in size to Balanus cyprids but do not settle.The large differences in settlement rates among these sites were previously shown to be a leading cause of large differences in the structure of benthic barnacle populations. The close correspondence shown here between these large differences in settlement and differences in larval concentrations suggests that nearshore oceanic processes affecting larval arrival contribute to the control of benthic community structure.

  20. The Story of a Hitchhiker: Population Genetic Patterns in the Invasive Barnacle Balanus(Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854

    PubMed Central

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Charrier, Gregory; Thonig, Anne; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Blomberg, Anders; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its worldwide distribution, little is known about the phylogeography of this species. Here, we characterize the population genetic structure and model dispersal dynamics of the barnacle B. improvisus, and describe how human-mediated spreading via shipping as well as natural larval dispersal may have contributed to observed genetic variation. We used both mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I: COI) and nuclear microsatellites to characterize the genetic structure in 14 populations of B. improvisus on a global and regional scale (Baltic Sea). Genetic diversity was high in most populations, and many haplotypes were shared among populations on a global scale, indicating that long-distance dispersal (presumably through shipping and other anthropogenic activities) has played an important role in shaping the population genetic structure of this cosmopolitan species. We could not clearly confirm prior claims that B. improvisus originates from the western margins of the Atlantic coasts; although there were indications that Argentina could be part of a native region. In addition to dispersal via shipping, we show that natural larval dispersal may play an important role for further colonisation following initial introduction. PMID:26821161

  1. Differential tolerance to copper, but no evidence of population-level genetic differences in a widely-dispersing native barnacle.

    PubMed

    Gall, Mailie L; Holmes, Sebastian P; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L

    2013-07-01

    Despite many estuaries having high levels of metal pollution, species are found to persist in these stressful environments. Populations of estuarine invertebrates exposed to toxic concentrations of such metals may be under selection. However, in species with a wide-dispersal potential, any short-term results of localized selection may be counteracted by external recruitment from populations not under selection. The barnacle Amphibalanus variegatus is found in nearshore coastal environments as well as sheltered embayments and estuaries, including metal-impacted estuaries, from New South Wales, Australia to Western Australia. The fertilised eggs of A. variegatus are brooded internally and released as larvae (nauplii), which remain in the water-column for ~14 days before settling. Hence the species has a considerable dispersal capacity. The purpose of this study was to examine whether populations of A. variegatus from metal-impacted sites, displayed a greater tolerance to a toxicant (copper) than reference populations. Adult barnacles where collected from twenty sites within two metal-impacted and fourteen sites within two reference estuaries. Within 24 h, adults were induced to spawn and the offspring were exposed to copper in a laboratory assay. Larvae collected from the metal-impacted estuaries demonstrated a greater tolerance to copper compared to those from reference sites. To determine if selection/localised in the metal impacted sites was occurring, the genetic structure of populations at three sites was examined using an AFLP methodology. No evidence of unique population identity and or selection (outlier loci) was detected suggesting that: (1) the tolerance displayed in the assay was derived from acclimation during development; and/or (2) that the populations are open preventing the fixation of any unique alleles.

  2. Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project: GEO-98-001. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, Edwin Jr.; Carlson, Daniel C.

    2002-10-01

    The Geysers steamfields in northern Sonoma County have produced reliable ''green'' power for many years. An impediment to long-term continued production has been the ability to provide a reliable source of injection water to replace water extracted and lost in the form of steam. The steamfield operators have historcially used cooling towers to recycle a small portion of the steam and have collected water during the winter months using stream extraction. These two sources, however, could not by themselves sustain the steamfield in the long term. The Lake County Reclaimed Water Project (SEGEP) was inititated in 1997 and provides another source of steamfield replenishment water. The Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project provides another significant step in replenishing the steamfield. In addition, the Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project has been built with capacity to potentially meet virtually all injection water requirements, when combined with these other sources. Figure 2.1 graphically depicts the combination of injection sources.

  3. Botanical origin of mei-gui hua (petal of a Rosa species).

    PubMed

    Ochir, Sarangowa; Ishii, Kouta; Park, ByoungJae; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Nishizawa, Makoto; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Funaki, Minoru; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    Mei-gui hua has been used as a crude drug in traditional medicine and as herbal tea in China. The scientific name of Mei-gui is Rosa rugosa thunb. However, the morphological characteristics and botanical ecology of Mei-gui were different from those of R. rugosa. Since the botanical origins of Mei-gui cultivated in China have not yet been clarified, we compared Mei-gui and R. rugosa in terms of their morphological characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, and phytochemical studies. Our research suggested that Mei-gui cultivated around Tarim Basin in Xinjiang Province showed homology to Rosa gallica, while those cultivated in the northeastern parts of China are considered to be hybrids of R. rugosa.

  4. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded.

  5. Outdated Language: Use of "Mental Retardation" in Medicaid HCBS Waivers Post-Rosa's Law.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carli

    2016-10-01

    Rosa's Law, which changed references of "mental retardation" to "intellectual disability" within federal legislation, marked recognition by the federal government that the term "mental retardation" is outdated and pejorative. However, Rosa's Law did not apply to many notable federal programs related to disability, such as Medicaid. This article explores if and how the term "mental retardation" was used within Medicaid Home and Community Based Services 1915(c) waivers, as they are the most prevalent provider of long-term services and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Waivers provide some of the most advanced community services and the language used in them should reflect this. Although an overwhelming majority of waivers used "mental retardation," we found that the term was used less for later benchmark dates.

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases.

  7. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Emerald Breeze Resort, Santa Rosa Island, Fort Walton Beach, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-11

    nesting on Santa Rosa Island is rare, due primarily to heavy predation from feral cats . While most colonies have been documented on the easternmost...disturbed. Vehicular and foot traffic, storms, and predation by feral cats are considered the primary causes of nest failure. Eglin AFB controls...tracking tube protocol. Current threats to this population include predation by feral cats and loss of dune habitat from recreational foot traffic and

  8. Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?

    PubMed

    Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E

    2014-11-01

    Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans.

  9. Flavonol glycosides in the petal of Rosa species as chemotaxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Sarangowa, Ochir; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Nishizawa, Makoto; Myoda, Takao; Bai, Changxi; Yamagishi, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Thirteen flavonol glycosides were isolated from the petals of Rosa species belonging to the section Gallicanae, and their structures were identified from their spectroscopic data. These flavonol glycosides, along with two flavonol glycosides isolated from Rosa rugosa, in the petals of 31 Rosa species belonging to sections Gallicanae, Cinnamomeae, Caninae, and Synstylae were quantitatively analyzed by UPLC. The results indicated that the species belonging to these sections could be classified into four types (Type A, B, C and D) based on the pattern of flavonol glycoside contents, whereas the R. rugosa flavonol glycosides were detected only in section Cinnamomeae. A principal components analysis (PCA) calculated from the 15 flavonol glycosides contained in these samples supported the presence of four types. The distribution of the species in Type D (a group of Cinnamomeae) was shown to reflect close interrelationships, but species in Type B (one group of Gallicanae) could be subdivided into two groups, one of which contained species in section Synstylae. Moreover, the flavonol glycosides were grouped by sugar moieties: a disaccharide composed of two hexoses (S1), a hexose (S2), including a hexose with galloyl group, a pentose (S3), and a disaccharide composed of a hexose and a pentose (S4). The ratios of the amounts of S1-S4 to total flavonol glycoside content indicated that differences among the four sections were more distinctive than the amounts of the 15 flavonol glycosides. The 31 samples were divided into Type B, composed of one type of Gallicanae and Synstylae, Type A+C, composed of another type of Gallicanae and Caninae, and Type D, composed of Cinnamomeae. The R. rugosa flavonol glycosides were shown to be important chemotaxonomic markers for the classification of species in Cinnamomeae, and this method of using flavonol glycosides as chemotaxonomic markers could be useful for the identification of Rosa species belonging to sections Gallicanae, Cinnamomeae

  10. The efflux of calcium from single crab and barnacle muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, C. C.; Caldwell, P. C.; Lowe, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    1. The efflux of calcium, as the isotope 45Ca, has been investigated from single muscle fibres from the barnacle Balanus nubilus and from the crab Maia squinado. 2. If the isotope was initially injected with sufficient calcium (5-65 mM) to cause a contraction, the efflux did not follow first order kinetics. There was an early rapid phase which reached a peak after 5-10 min and then declined slowly over a period of 50-150 min to a low residual value. 3. Injection of the isotope with the calcium-binding agent EGTA, so that the injected free calcium concentration was ca. 2 × 10-8 M, abolished the initial rapid loss of calcium. The efflux rose to give a steady value after 10-15 min and its magnitude was similar to the value of the residual efflux. 4. The rate constant for the low residual loss was ca. 7 × 10-4 min-1 for Maia and ca. 17 × 10-4 min-1 for Balanus. The rate constant predicted a calcium efflux of 0·4 p-mole/cm2.sec for Maia and 1-2 p-mole/cm2.sec for Balanus at 16-25° C based on the total fibre calcium concentration. 5. The residual calcium efflux was not affected by 0·5 mM ouabain or 0 potassium salines applied externally. It was stimulated, some 10-15 times in Maia and to a lesser extent in Balanus, by salines containing 600 mM potassium or 2-5 mM caffeine. The increased efflux was associated with a brisk contraction. 6. External application of salines containing 20, 40 or 60 mM potassium or 0·5 mM caffeine in Maia produced some stimulation of the residual efflux but no visible contraction. 7. Pre-treatment of Maia fibres with 40 mM potassium or 0·5 mM caffeine salines abolished the ability of the fibres to respond to higher concentrations of these agents. A depletion of a releasable calcium fraction by these subthreshold stimuli could explain this phenomenon. 8. Electrical stimulation, the injection of 50 mM calcium chloride or 50 mM caffeine produced an elevated calcium efflux which was associated with a contraction. 9. Intracellular injections

  11. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

  13. Survey of Ungulate Abundance on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, March 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Paul C.; Schoenecker, Kate A.; Gogan, Peter J.P.; Lubow, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable estimates of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) abundance on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, are required to assess the success of management actions directed at these species. We conducted a double-observer aerial survey of elk on a large portion of Santa Rosa Island on March 19, 2009. All four persons on the helicopter were treated as observers. We used two analytical approaches: (1) with three capture occasions corresponding to three possible observers, pooling the observations from the two rear-seat observers, and (2) with four capture occasions treating each observer separately. Approach 1 resulted in an estimate of 483 elk in the survey zone with a 95-percent confidence interval of 479 to 524 elk. Approach 2 resulted in an estimate of 489 elk in the survey zone with a 95-percent confidence interval of 471 to 535 elk. Approximately 5 percent of the elk groups that were estimated to have been present in the survey area were not seen by any observer. Fog prevented us from collecting double-observer observations for deer as intended on March 20. However, we did count 434 deer during the double-observer counts of elk on March 19. Both the calculated number of elk and the observed number of deer are minimal estimates of numbers of each ungulate species on Santa Rosa Island as weather conditions precluded us from surveying the entire island.

  14. Potential geographical distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis cosyra, and Ceratitis rosa in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baini; Ma, Jun; Hu, Xuenan; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Runjie

    2009-10-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to model the distributions of the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis cosyra (Walker), and Ceratitis rosa Karsch in China, but the geographic distributions of these species are of considerable concern in terms of biosecurity. In this study, two different modeling methods (genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction [GARP] and maximum entropy species distribution modeling [Maxent]) were used to predict the potential distributions of these three fly species in China, by using distribution records and a set of environmental predictor variables. The results showed that Maxent performed well, compared with modeling by GARP, at each test threshold. For all three species, the results predicted by Maxent agreed with the observed distributions in Africa and in other parts of the world. In China, C. capitata seems to have the highest number of favorable habitat areas, relative to C. cosyra and C. rosa, i.e., Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Sichuan and Chongqing, whereas C. cosyra has the smallest range of suitable areas, i.e., Yunnan, some parts of Hainan and Sichuan. The suitable areas for C. rosa are mainly restricted to Yunnan, Hainan, southern Guangdong, and a few areas of Sichuan. The indications are that on the whole, Southwest and South China are the areas with the highest risk for establishment from these three fly species. Jackknife tests reveal that environmental variables associated with temperature have the strongest influence on the potential distributions of all three species relative to other variables.

  15. Investigations of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Piper cubeba, Physalis angulata and Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2003-11-01

    The anti-inflammatory activities of Piper cubeba (fruit), Physalis angulata (flower) and Rosa hybrida (flower) were determined by carrageenan-induced paw edema, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema and formaldehyde-induced arthritis in mice. The anti-allergic and analgesic activities of these plants were also studied by using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact hypersensitivity reaction (type IV) and hot plate test in mice, respectively. These plant extracts clearly exhibited inhibitory effects against acute and subacute inflammation by oral administration (200 mg/kg). Also, administration (200 mg/kg, p.o.) of plant extracts for 1 week significantly inhibited type IV allergic reaction in mice (P<0.05). Rosa hybrida showed an analgesic effect against hot plate-induced thermal stimulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These results provide support for the use of Rosa hybrida in relieving inflammatory pain, and insight into the development of new agents for treating inflammatory diseases.

  16. Rosa canina Extracts Have Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Effects on Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Sandra; Gascón, Sonia; Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano; Ancin-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Rodríguez-Yoldi, María Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of different fractions of Rosa canina hips on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2) was studied. The compounds tested were total extract (fraction 1), vitamin C (fraction 2), neutral polyphenols (fraction 3) and acidic polyphenols (fraction 4). All the extracts showed high cytotoxicity after 72 h, both low and high concentrations. The flow cytometric analysis revealed that all the fractions produce disturbances in the cell cycle resulting in a concomitant cell death by an apoptotic pathway. Changes in the redox status of Caco-2 cells in response to Rosa canina hips were determined. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide in presence of plant fractions and the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was significantly decreased. Therefore, our data demonstrate that rosehip extracts are a powerful antioxidant that produces an antiproliferative effect in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, these results predict a promising future for Rosa canina as a therapeutic agent. Thus, this natural plant could be an effective component of functional foods addressed towards colorectal carcinoma. PMID:27467555

  17. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  18. Light controls shoot meristem organogenic activity and leaf primordia growth during bud burst in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Girault, Tiffanie; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Combes, Didier; Viemont, Jean-Daniel; Leduc, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Light controls bud burst in many plants, which subsequently affects their architecture. Nevertheless, very little is known about this photomorphogenic process. This study ascertains the effects of light on bud burst and on two of its components, i.e. growth of preformed leaves and meristem organogenesis in six cultivars from three Rosa species (R. hybrida L., R. chinensis L., R. wichurana L.). Defoliated plants were severed above the third basal bud and exposed, either to darkness or to different intensities of white light, to blue, red or to FR, at constant temperature. Bud bursting was inhibited in darkness in the six cultivars of Rosa, but not in Arabidopsis, tomato and poplar plants under the same condition. In all Rosa cultivars, bud burst, growth of preformed leaves and meristem organogenesis were triggered by blue and red lights, and extended by increasing light intensities. FR was inhibitory of bud burst. Partial shading experiments demonstrated that bud and not stem was the active site for light perception in bud burst.

  19. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis during flower blooming in Rosa chinensis 'Pallida'.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Min; Jian, Hongying; Baudino, Sylvie; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Li, Shubin; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Ningning; Qiu, Xianqin; Wang, Qigang; Tang, Kaixue

    2014-04-25

    Rosa chinensis 'Pallida' (Rosa L.) is one of the most important ancient rose cultivars originating from China. It contributed the 'tea scent' trait to modern roses. However, little information is available on the gene regulatory networks involved in scent biosynthesis and metabolism in Rosa. In this study, the transcriptome of R. chinensis 'Pallida' petals at different developmental stages, from flower buds to senescent flowers, was investigated using Illumina sequencing technology. De novo assembly generated 89,614 clusters with an average length of 428bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known proteins, 62.9% of total clusters were annotated. Out of these annotated transcripts, 25,705 and 37,159 sequences were assigned to gene ontology and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. The dataset provides information on transcripts putatively associated with known scent metabolic pathways. Digital gene expression (DGE) was obtained using RNA samples from flower bud, open flower and senescent flower stages. Comparative DGE and quantitative real time PCR permitted the identification of five transcripts encoding proteins putatively associated with scent biosynthesis in roses. The study provides a foundation for scent-related gene discovery in roses.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers.

    PubMed

    Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Mbora, Lovina O; Adu, Matthew E; Adeyi, Ameh A

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Okoduwa, Stanley I. R.; Mbora, Lovina O.; Adu, Matthew E.; Adeyi, Ameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly. PMID:26819757

  2. The mitochondrial genome of Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 (Cirripedia: Sessilia): the first report from the coral-inhabiting barnacles family Pyrgomatidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan; Tsang, Ling Ming

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the coral-inhabiting barnacle Nobia grandis Sowerby, 1839 complete mitochondrial genome, which is the first report from the family Pyrgomatidae (Cirripedia: Sessilia). The N. grandis mitochondrial genome is 15,032 bp in length, containing a total of 469 bp of non-coding nucleotides spreading in 11 intergenic regions (with the largest region of 376 bp). Compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the N. grandis mitochondrial genome. Gene overlaps are founded in eight places. Nine PCGs (COX1-3, ATP6, ATP8, CYTB, ND2, ND3 and ND6) are encoded on the heavy strand while the remaining 4 PCGs and the two rRNAs are located on the light strand. As the first representative from the family Pyrgomatidae, the N. grandis mitochondrial genome will help us to explore the evolutionary history and molecular evolution of coral barnacles and Sessilia in future studies.

  3. Molecular Characterization of the α-Subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase from the Euryhaline Barnacle Balanus improvisus Reveals Multiple Genes and Differential Expression of Alternative Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Ulrika; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Sundell, Kristina S.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl; Havenhand, Jonathan; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus has one of the broadest salinity tolerances of any barnacle species. It is able to complete its life cycle in salinities close to freshwater (3 PSU) up to fully marine conditions (35 PSU) and is regarded as one of few truly brackish-water species. Na+/K+ ATPase (NAK) has been shown to be important for osmoregulation when marine organisms are challenged by changing salinities, and we therefore cloned and examined the expression of different NAKs from B. improvisus. We found two main gene variants, NAK1 and NAK2, which were approximately 70% identical at the protein level. The NAK1 mRNA existed in a long and short variant with the encoded proteins differing only by 27 N-terminal amino acids. This N-terminal stretch was coded for by a separate exon, and the two variants of NAK1 mRNAs appeared to be created by alternative splicing. We furthermore showed that the two NAK1 isoforms were differentially expressed in different life stages and in various tissues of adult barnacle, i.e the long isoform was predominant in cyprids and in adult cirri. In barnacle cyprid larvae that were exposed to a combination of different salinities and pCO2 levels, the expression of the long NAK1 mRNA increased relative to the short in low salinities. We suggest that the alternatively spliced long variant of the Nak1 protein might be of importance for osmoregulation in B. improvisus in low salinity conditions. PMID:24130836

  4. Crustacean parasites associated with hermit crabs from the western Mediterranean Sea, with first documentation of egg predation by the burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica: Trypetesidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason D; Gallardo, Alejandra; Murphy, Angela E

    2011-03-01

    Parasitic isopods (family Bopyridae) and burrowing barnacles (family Trypetesidae) infesting hermit crabs were investigated from shallow subtidal collections made along the southeastern coast of Spain in 2009. A total of 713 specimens of Clibanarius erythropus (Latreille, 1818) and 82 Calcinus tubularis (L., 1767) were examined. Gastropod shells and worm tubes inhabited by hermit crabs were collected by hand while snorkeling and were cracked to determine host species, size, sex and presence of eggs. Two species of bopyrid isopods were found on C. erythropus: the branchial parasite Bopyrissa fraiseii (Carayon, 1943) and the abdominal parasite Parathelges cardonae Codreanu and Codreanu in Codreanu, 1968. Among all C. erythropus examined, Bopyrissa fraiseii was found on 0.6% of hermit crabs and P. cardonae was found on 0.3%. A redescription of P. cardonae is provided and the species is documented with light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time. No Calcinus tubularis harbored parasitic isopods, but one specimen was parasitized by an unidentified rhizocephalan barnacle of the genus Septosaccus (1.2%). The burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Hancock, 1849) was found associated with both hermit crab species and evidence of predation on host eggs by this barnacle is shown for the first time. Trypetesa lampas was found in 4.2% of the shells collected. The present study expands our knowledge of the parasite fauna of hermit crabs from the Mediterranean Sea and indicates that additional research is needed to determine the impact of trypetesid egg predators on hermit crab populations. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  5. Dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil decreases the growth rates of meroplanktonic barnacle nauplii (Amphibalanus improvisus) and tornaria larvae (Schizocardium sp.).

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Bona, Shawn; Foster, Charles R; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Our knowledge of the lethal and sublethal effects of dispersants and dispersed crude oil on meroplanktonic larvae is limited despite the importance of planktonic larval stages in the life cycle of benthic invertebrates. We determined the effects of Light Louisiana Sweet crude oil, dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-treated crude oil on the survival and growth rates of nauplii of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus and tornaria larvae of the enteropneust Schizocardium sp. Growth rates of barnacle nauplii and tornaria larvae were significantly reduced after exposure to chemically dispersed crude oil and dispersant Corexit 9500A at concentrations commonly found in the water column after dispersant application in crude oil spills. We also found that barnacle nauplii ingested dispersed crude oil, which may have important consequences for the biotransfer of petroleum hydrocarbons through coastal pelagic food webs after a crude oil spill. Therefore, application of chemical dispersants increases the impact of crude oil spills on meroplanktonic larvae, which may affect recruitment and population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Barnacle distribution in Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: a new baseline and an account of invasion by the introduced Australasian species Elminius modestus Darwin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Jennifer; Davenport, John; Whitaker, Alan

    2004-08-01

    The distribution and abundances of the following species of barnacles were established in autumn 2001 within the Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve: Cthamalus stellatus, Cthamalus montagui, Semibalanus balanoides, Elminius modestus, Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia. The results of the survey showed a clear distinction between the vertical distribution and the abundance of barnacle species inside Lough Hyne, and those sites sampled in the Rapids and outside the Lough. The Lough is now dominated by the introduced Australasian species E. modestus. This species was first recorded outside Lough Hyne in 1956. By 1988 it was found occasionally throughout the Lough, and appreciable numbers were recorded in 1990-1991. It has now replaced all other species in some parts of the North Basin. At sites subject to freshwater influence it is totally dominant, including in the highly sheltered Goleen site where intertidal barnacles have not previously been recorded. It is suggested that, once established in the North Basin, the sheltered nature of the Lough, combined with high summer temperatures and limited circulation, fostered retention of larvae and heavy spatfall of E. modestus.

  7. Estimating strength differences within the Monte Rosa nappe using a combination of field observations and 2D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan Hammon, Joshua; Luisier, Cindy; Schmalholz, Stefan; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The Monte Rosa nappe is a major high-pressure (HP) tectonic unit within the Western Alps. However, the tectono-metamorphic evolution during subduction and subsequent exhumation still remains ambiguous. One reason for this ambiguity is that the published estimates of peak metamorphic pressure and temperature vary significantly between 1.2 - 2.7 GPa and 490 - 650 ˚C, respectively. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the exhumation of this HP nappe: i) synconvergent return flow within a subduction channel, ii) lithospheric extension associated with slab rollback, and iii) buoyancy driven Stokes flow during subduction or associated with slab detachment. This study will consider exhumation of the Monte Rosa nappe by buoyancy driven processes. Field observation of the Monte Rosa basement complex show remarkable differences in deformation intensity between: relatively undeformed granite with undistributed igneous textures, variably deformed HP 'whiteschist' lenses, and highly deformed metapelites. These differences in deformation intensity provide a unique setting to quantify strength differences within an exhuming tectonic body. Assuming that the Monte Rosa peak and retrogressive pressure relates directly to lithostatic pressure, it is possible to estimate an exhumation velocity using age estimates for the respective pressures. This estimate provides an exhumation velocity of approximately 1 to 2 cm/yr. Using this velocity to solve Stokes' law for a rising sphere enables a first-order viscosity estimate for the lithology surrounding the Monte Rosa nappe, which is in the order of 102⁰ Pas. Implementing this viscosity within a simple 2D Stokes numerical model for buoyant rise of a circle, mimicking the granitic Monte Rosa unit, can produce viscosity estimates for the Monte Rosa unit by requiring that the unit does not deform significantly during its rise. Both linear and non-linear flow laws are applied together with reasonable model conditions. The

  8. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat

    PubMed Central

    Gauthaman, Karunakaran K; Saleem, Mohamed TS; Thanislas, Peter T; Prabhu, Vinoth V; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan K; Devaraj, Niranjali S; Somasundaram, Jayaprakash S

    2006-01-01

    Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose) have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms) in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. PMID:16987414

  9. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin......

  10. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  11. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  12. Temporal and spatial variability in the recruitment of barnacles and the local dominance of Elminius modestus Darwin in SW Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Douglas I.; O'Riordan, Ruth M.; Barnes, David K. A.; Cross, Tom

    2005-04-01

    Deployment of processed natural substrata is a common method of investigating early settlement and recruitment processes, but has been under-utilised as a multi-depth method for barnacle study and analysis. Replicate, machined-slate panels (15 cm×15 cm×1 cm) were placed at 0 m (lower portion of the intertidal with ≈2 h emersion per tidal cycle), 6 m and 12 m at two sites of differing flow rate in Lough Hyne, SW Ireland. These panels were replaced serially every 30-60 days for a period of 3 years (2000-2003) to give monthly recruitment rates. Panels were also submersed for 60-120 days (Whirlpool Cliff, two locations) to show seasonal patterns and 370-400 days (Labhra Cliff) to show annual recruitment and survival patterns. The number, percentage cover and identity of all cirripede recruits were recorded. The greatest source of variability was with depth: between the intertidal (with many recruits) and the subtidal zones (few recruits). In general, intertidal recruitment was dominated by the introduced barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin. The high degree of water retention in Lough Hyne, combined with the high reproductive potential of E. modestus, has led to it becoming a self-perpetuating and locally dominant population. Balanus crenatus and Verruca stroemia dominated the longer immersed panels, highlighting the importance of post-recruitment processes to the survival of E. modestus recruits in the subtidal. Although E. modestus were found on subtidal monthly and seasonal panels, none were present on the subtidal annual panels. Temporally, month, season and time of placement were all found to be significant in explaining recruit number variability. Spatially, depth explained most variability of recruit numbers (6 m spatial separation), whilst site (≈200 m spatial separation) only ever being significant in combination with other factors, as was location (≈50 m spatial separation). The work highlights the importance of examining both temporal and spatial scales

  13. Further observations on the behaviour of ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux towards proctolin in barnacle muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Bittar, E E; Nwoga, J

    1989-01-01

    1. A further study has been made of the stimulatory action of proctolin on the ouabain-insensitive Na+ efflux in single muscle fibres from the barnacle, Balanus nubilus. 2. (i) Strontium (Sr2+) behaves as a substitute for external Ca2+. In this case, however, the response to proctolin fails to decay. (ii) Injection of Sr2+ stimulates the ouabain-insensitive Na+ efflux. This effect is mimicked by injecting Ca2+. 3. Depolarization of the fibre membrane with 30 and 100 mM-external K+ augments the response to proctolin. 4. Pre-injection of GTP or Gpp(NH)p (sodium 5-guanylylimidodiphosphate) prevents the response to proctolin from completely decaying. 5. Pre-injection of guanine nucleotides in conjunction with membrane depolarization stops the response to proctolin from decaying. 6. Measurements of Em before and during treatment with proctolin indicate a prompt but small and reversible fall in the membrane potential. 7. (i) The aequorin response of fibres pre-treated with ouabain to proctolin is monophasic or multiphasic, and concentration dependent, the minimal effective concentration being in the nanomolar range. (ii) The duration of these signals is usually less than 5 min; this is about half the time it takes for the stimulated Na+ efflux to reach a maximum. (iii) The aequorin response to proctolin occurs quite often in fibres suspended in nominally Ca2(+)-free artificial sea water. (iv) Sudden graded elevations in external K+ following complete decay of the aequorin response to proctolin are rapidly followed by stepwise transitory increments in light emission. (v) The aequorin response to 100 mM-external K+ is frequently a triplet. 8. (i) Together, these results are in line with the view that the action of proctolin on the ouabain-insensitive Na+ efflux is the result of a temporary fall in internal pCa and that its point of action is the Ca2+ channel, where a putative G protein in the presence of GTP or Gpp(NH)p is able to maintain constancy of the hormonal effect

  14. Effects of spatial structure of population size on the population dynamics of barnacles across their elevational range.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Okuda, Takehiro; Nakaoka, Masahiro; Noda, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Explanations for why population dynamics vary across the range of a species reflect two contrasting hypotheses: (i) temporal variability of populations is larger in the centre of the range compared to the margins because overcompensatory density dependence destabilizes population dynamics and (ii) population variability is larger near the margins, where populations are more susceptible to environmental fluctuations. In both of these hypotheses, positions within the range are assumed to affect population variability. In contrast, the fact that population variability is often related to mean population size implies that the spatial structure of the population size within the range of a species may also be a useful predictor of the spatial variation in temporal variability of population size over the range of the species. To explore how population temporal variability varies spatially and the underlying processes responsible for the spatial variation, we focused on the intertidal barnacle Chthamalus dalli and examined differences in its population dynamics along the tidal levels it inhabits. Changes in coverage of barnacle populations were monitored for 10.5 years at 25 plots spanning the elevational range of this species. Data were analysed by fitting a population dynamics model to estimate the effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes on population growth. We also examined the temporal mean-variance relationship of population size with parameters estimated from the population dynamics model. We found that the relative variability of populations tended to increase from the centre of the elevational range towards the margins because of an increase in the magnitude of stochastic fluctuations of growth rates. Thus, our results supported hypothesis (2). We also found that spatial variations in temporal population variability were well characterized by Taylor's power law, the relative population variability being inversely related to the mean

  15. Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Arullappan, Sangeetha; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of H. rosa sinesis extract using a disc diffusion method. Crude petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract from the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant were prepared using a cold extraction technique. These extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 4 mg/disc to 0.017 mg/disc against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The petroleum ether extract from the leaves, stems and flowers and methanol extract from the leaves showed inhibition zones with diameters > 12 mm against MRSA. Overall, the petroleum ether extract from flowers at concentrations of 4 mg/disc and 2 mg/disc displayed the strongest inhibition zones of 18.6 ± 2.85 mm and 18.5 ± 0.29 mm, respectively, as compared to vancomycin (30 μg/ml), which did not differ significantly from the 18.0 ± 0.10 mm size of the vancomycin (30 μg/ml) inhibition zone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. rosa sinensis extract is a potential antibacterial agent for treating MRSA infection. PMID:24575183

  16. The comparative accuracy of the ROSA stereotactic robot across a wide range of clinical applications and registration techniques.

    PubMed

    Brandmeir, Nicholas J; Savaliya, Sandip; Rohatgi, Pratik; Sather, Michael

    2017-05-08

    Robot-assisted stereotactic neurosurgery is an emerging technology with a growing range of applications. The ROSA system is a robotic stereotactic system that has been shown to be accurate in laboratory studies and large case series. The goal of this study was to examine the accuracy of the ROSA across different registration methods as well as different clinical applications. Sixteen patients with one hundred and seventeen stereotactic trajectories were examined. Accuracy was compared by measuring the distance between the trajectory target and the actual termination of the device as determined by imaging. Entry error and angular deviation were also measured. Variables included bone fiducials vs. laser facial scanning, the clinical indication for stereotactic surgery, and the effect of lead deflection on accuracy. Bone fiducials did not offer an accuracy benefit over laser facial scanning (mean target error 4.5-3.9 mm, p = 0.34) in these clinical scenarios. Laser interstitial thermal therapy, responsive neurostimulation, and stereo electroencephalography were equally accurate when placed by the ROSA (mean target error 4.4-4.3-4.0 mm, respectively, p = 0.69). Deflection did not affect lead accuracy (mean target error 4.4-3.9 mm, p = 0.11). Similar results are seen for entry error and angular deviation. ROSA is a highly accurate stereotactic system. Laser facial scanning provides the same accuracy as bone fiducials in these stereotactic applications. The ROSA is equally accurate across a wide spectrum of applications. The ROSA is effective at limiting lead deflection, and when it does occur, it does not impact target accuracy in a significant way.

  17. Antispasmodic and antidiarrhoeal activity of the fruit of Rosa moschata (J).

    PubMed

    Ali, Niaz; Alam, Hina; Khan, Aslam; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Wadood Ali; Nabi, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2014-12-13

    The fruit of Rosa moschata has traditionally been used for the treatment of abdominal spasm and diarrhoea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate mechanism(s) responsible for its medicinal use in gut spasm and diarrhea. Hydro-methanolic extract of Rosa moschata (Rm.Cr) was studied in isolated rabbit's jejunal preparations for possible antispasmodic activity. Based upon in vitro relaxant activity in isolated gut preparations, in vivo antidiarrheal activity was carried out in mice to confirm its antidiarrheal effect. Acute toxicity study was performed to determine safe dose range before in vivo experiments. In isolated rabbits' jejunal preparations, Rm.Cr inhibited the spontaneous and high K+-induced contractions with respective EC50 values of 0.66 (0.44-0.97; n = 5) and 2.28 mg/mL (1.43-3.62; n = 5), like that of verapamil. This suggests the presence of calcium channel blocking (CCB) activity as a possible mode of action. The Ca++ channel blocking activity was further confirmed when pre-treatment of isolated jejunums with Rm.Cr (1-5 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs), similar to verapamil. Rm.Cr was safe up to 2000 mg/kg for in vivo acute toxicity. Rm.Cr provided 55% and 80% protection from diarrhoea in respective doses of 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg. These data indicates that the crude extract of Rosa moschata possesses Ca++ antagonist-like constituent(s), which explains its inhibitory effect on gut motility; a mechanism that underlies its antidiarrheal and antispasmodic activities. The study shows that the crude extract of fruits of Rosa moschata possesses antispasmodic effects mediated possibly through voltage gated Ca++ channel blockade, which provides sound pharmacological base to its medicinal use in gut spasms and diarrhoea, though additional mechanism(s) cannot be ruled out.

  18. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae).

    PubMed

    Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 - Metagovealigiae sp. n. - is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovealigiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family.

  19. Hydrologic data for Okaloosa, Walton, and southeastern Santa Rosa counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Hayes, L.R.; Lewis, C.E.; Barr, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic and water-quality data collected within Okaloosa, Walton, and southeastern Santa Rosa Counties in northwest Florida. The data are presented in graphs and tables. Groundwater data include descriptions of wells and test holes, analyses of water quality, water level measurements, hydrographs of water levels and chloride concentrations in wells open to the upper part of the Floridan aquifer, and municipal and federal facilities pumpage. Surface-water data include streamflow measurements, streamflow hydrographs and analyses of water quality at selected stations. Maps of the area show locations of wells and surface-water stations. (USGS)

  20. A new species of Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 from Napo Province, Ecuador (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi, Neogoveidae)

    PubMed Central

    Giupponi, Alessandro P. L.; Kury, Adriano Brilhante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a result of an expedition to Ecuador in 2014, a new species of mite harvestman was discovered. This new species belonging to the genus Metagovea Rosas Costa, 1950 – Metagovea ligiae sp. n. – is described, based on male and female specimens from Napo Province, Ecuador. This is the fourth species described for the genus and the second from Ecuador. A simple terminology is proposed for the microtrichiae of the spermatopositor and genital characters in the family are discussed. The genus Brasiliogovea Martens, 1969 is consistently misspelled in the literature as Brasilogovea. The description of Metagovea ligiae offered opportunity to discuss some aspects of systematics of the family. PMID:25685003

  1. Relaxant effects of Rosa damascena on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s).

    PubMed

    Boskabady, M H; Kiani, S; Rakhshandah, H

    2006-07-19

    Several therapeutic effects including hypnotic, antispasmodic, treatment of abdominal and chest pain and strengthening the heart have been described for the flowers of Rosa damascena. Therefore in the present study, the relaxant effects of ethanolic extract and essential oils of Rosa damascena on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined. The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of ethanolic extract (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0g%) and essential oils (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0vol.%) in comparison with saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0mM) were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60mM KCl (group 1, n=5) and 10microM methacholine in two different conditions including: non-incubated tissues (group 2, n=8) and incubated tissues with 1microM propranolol and 1microM chlorpheniramine (group 3, n=5). In group 1 experiments two final concentrations of essential oil and theophylline and only final concentration of ethanolic extract showed relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.01-0.001). In group 2 three higher concentrations of ethanolic extract and theophylline and all concentrations of essential oil showed concentration dependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05-0.001). In addition, the effect of 0.25 and 0.5g% of essential oils in group 2 was significantly higher than those of theophylline and ethanolic extract (p<0.01 for all cases). However, in group 3 experiments the extract and essential oil of Rosa damascena did not show any significant relaxant effect. There were significant correlations between the relaxant effects and concentrations for ethanolic extract and essential oil and theophylline in groups 1 and 2. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Rosa damascena on tracheal chains of guinea pigs that was comparable to that of theophylline at concentrations used.

  2. Locating the barnacle settlement pheromone: spatial and ontogenetic expression of the settlement-inducing protein complex of Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Dreanno, Catherine; Kirby, Richard R; Clare, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Barnacles are prominent members of hard substratum benthic communities and their study has been important to advances in experimental ecology and contemporary ecological theory. Having recently characterized the cue to gregarious settlement of Balanus amphitrite, the settlement-inducing protein complex (SIPC), we use two polyclonal antibodies to examine the tissue distribution and ontogenetic expression of this glycoprotein. These antibodies were raised against two separate peptides located near the N- and C-termini of the SIPC and were used to detect the glycoprotein by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization we also show that the SIPC mRNA co-occurs with the expressed glycoprotein in the cuticles of both nauplius and cypris larval stages and the adult. In the larvae, the SIPC is expressed most strongly in the mouthparts and the hindgut of the stage 2 nauplius and in the thoracopods, antennules and bivalved carapace of the cyprid. In adult B. amphitrite, the expressed SIPC is present in protein extracts of the shell and in all organs that are lined by cuticular tissues. We suggest that the SIPC is produced by the epidermal cells that secrete the cuticle and discuss these observations with regard to earlier studies and the role of the SIPC as a contact pheromone. PMID:17015319

  3. Population genetic analysis of a recent range expansion: mechanisms regulating the poleward range limit in the volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Stuart, Yoel E; Sanford, Eric

    2010-04-01

    As range shifts coincident with climate change have become increasingly well documented, efforts to describe the causes of range boundaries have increased. Three mechanisms-genetic impoverishment, migration load, or a physical barrier to dispersal-are well described theoretically, but the data needed to distinguish among them have rarely been collected. We describe the distribution, abundance, genetic variation, and environment of Tetraclita rubescens, an intertidal barnacle that expanded its northern range limit by several hundreds of kilometres from San Francisco, CA, USA, since the 1970s. We compare geographic variation in abundance with abiotic and biotic patterns, including sea surface temperatures and the distributions of 387 co-occurring species, and describe genetic variation in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial noncoding region, and nine microsatellite loci from 27 locations between Bahia Magdalena (California Baja Sur, Mexico) and Cape Mendocino (CA, USA). We find very high gene flow, high genetic diversity, and a gradient in physical environmental variation coincident with the range limit. We infer that the primary cause of the northern range boundary in T. rubescens is migration load arising from flow of maladapted alleles into peripheral locations and that environmental change, which could have reduced selection against genotypes immigrating into the newly colonized portion of the range, is the most likely cause of the observed range expansion. Because environmental change could similarly affect all taxa in a region whose distributional limits are established by migration load, these mechanisms may be common causes of range boundaries and largely synchronous multi-species range expansions.

  4. Predicting Free-Space Occupancy on Novel Artificial Structures by an Invasive Intertidal Barnacle Using a Removal Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bracewell, Sally A.; Robinson, Leonie A.; Firth, Louise B.; Knights, Antony M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial structures can create novel habitat in the marine environment that has been associated with the spread of invasive species. They are often located in areas of high disturbance and can vary significantly in the area of free space provided for settlement of marine organisms. Whilst correlation between the amount of free space available and recruitment success has been shown in populations of several marine benthic organisms, there has been relatively little focus on invasive species, a group with the potential to reproduce in vast numbers and colonise habitats rapidly. Invasion success following different scales of disturbance was examined in the invasive acorn barnacle, Austrominiusmodestus, on a unique art installation located in Liverpool Bay. Population growth and recruitment success were examined by comparing recruitment rates within disturbance clearings of 4 different sizes and by contrasting population development with early recruitment rates over a 10 week period. Disturbed areas were rapidly recolonised and monocultures of A. modestus formed within 6 weeks. The size of patch created during disturbance had no effect on the rate of recruitment, while a linear relationship between recruit density and patch size was observed. Density-dependent processes mediated initial high recruitment resulting in population stability after 8-10 weeks, but densities continued to greatly exceed those reported in natural habitats. Given that artificial structures are likely to continue to proliferate in light of climate change projections, free-space is likely to become more available more frequently in the future supporting the expansion of fast-colonising species. PMID:24023944

  5. Atomic force microscopy of the morphology and mechanical behaviour of barnacle cyprid footprint proteins at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Phang, In Yee; Aldred, Nick; Ling, Xing Yi; Huskens, Jurriaan; Clare, Anthony S.; Vancso, G. Julius

    2010-01-01

    Barnacles are a major biofouler of man-made underwater structures. Prior to settlement, cypris larvae explore surfaces by reversible attachment effected by a ‘temporary adhesive’. During this exploratory behaviour, cyprids deposit proteinaceous ‘footprints’ of a putatively adhesive material. In this study, footprints deposited by Balanus amphitrite cyprids were probed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in artificial sea water (ASW) on silane-modified glass surfaces. AFM images obtained in air yielded better resolution than in ASW and revealed the fibrillar nature of the secretion, suggesting that the deposits were composed of single proteinaceous nanofibrils, or bundles of fibrils. The force curves generated in pull-off force experiments in sea water consisted of regions of gradually increasing force, separated by sharp drops in extension force manifesting a characteristic saw-tooth appearance. Following the relaxation of fibrils stretched to high strains, force–distance curves in reverse stretching experiments could be described by the entropic elasticity model of a polymer chain. When subjected to relaxation exceeding 500 ms, extended footprint proteins refolded, and again showed saw-tooth unfolding peaks in subsequent force cycles. Observed rupture and hysteresis behaviour were explained by the ‘sacrificial bond’ model. Longer durations of relaxation (>5 s) allowed more sacrificial bond reformation and contributed to enhanced energy dissipation (higher toughness). The persistence length for the protein chains (LP) was obtained. At high elongation, following repeated stretching up to increasing upper strain limits, footprint proteins detached at total stretched length of 10 µm. PMID:19570797

  6. Host-Specific Phenotypic Plasticity of the Turtle Barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria: A Widespread Generalist Rather than a Specialist

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ka Hou; Cheng, I-Jiunn; Chan, Benny K. K.

    2013-01-01

    Turtle barnacles are common epibionts on marine organisms. Chelonibia testudinaria is specific on marine turtles whereas C. patula is a host generalist, but rarely found on turtles. It has been questioned why C. patula, being abundant on a variety of live substrata, is almost absent from turtles. We evaluated the genetic (mitochondrial COI, 16S and 12S rRNA, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)) and morphological differentiation of C. testudinaia and C. patula from different hosts, to determine the mode of adaptation exhibited by Chelonibia species on different hosts. The two taxa demonstrate clear differences in shell morphology and length of 4–6th cirri, but very similar in arthropodal characters. Moreover, we detected no genetic differentiation in mitochondrial DNA and AFLP analyses. Outlier detection infers insignificant selection across loci investigated. Based on combined morphological and molecular evidence, we proposed that C. testudinaria and C. patula are conspecific, and the two morphs with contrasting shell morphologies and cirral length found on different host are predominantly shaped by developmental plasticity in response to environmental setting on different hosts. Chelonibia testudinaria is, thus, a successful general epibiotic fouler and the phenotypic responses postulated can increase the fitness of the animals when they attach on hosts with contrasting life-styles. PMID:23469208

  7. Predicting free-space occupancy on novel artificial structures by an invasive intertidal barnacle using a removal experiment.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Sally A; Robinson, Leonie A; Firth, Louise B; Knights, Antony M

    2013-01-01

    Artificial structures can create novel habitat in the marine environment that has been associated with the spread of invasive species. They are often located in areas of high disturbance and can vary significantly in the area of free space provided for settlement of marine organisms. Whilst correlation between the amount of free space available and recruitment success has been shown in populations of several marine benthic organisms, there has been relatively little focus on invasive species, a group with the potential to reproduce in vast numbers and colonise habitats rapidly. Invasion success following different scales of disturbance was examined in the invasive acorn barnacle, Austrominiusmodestus, on a unique art installation located in Liverpool Bay. Population growth and recruitment success were examined by comparing recruitment rates within disturbance clearings of 4 different sizes and by contrasting population development with early recruitment rates over a 10 week period. Disturbed areas were rapidly recolonised and monocultures of A. modestus formed within 6 weeks. The size of patch created during disturbance had no effect on the rate of recruitment, while a linear relationship between recruit density and patch size was observed. Density-dependent processes mediated initial high recruitment resulting in population stability after 8-10 weeks, but densities continued to greatly exceed those reported in natural habitats. Given that artificial structures are likely to continue to proliferate in light of climate change projections, free-space is likely to become more available more frequently in the future supporting the expansion of fast-colonising species.

  8. The main work of astronomer Christoph Scheiner SJ "Rosa Ursina sive Sol" - a summary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daxecker, F.

    1996-10-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born on 25 July 1573 or 1575 in Markt Wald near Mindelheim in the Bavarian part of Swabia. He died on 18 July 1650. In Rome he wrote his main work Rosa Ursina sive Sol and had it printed with the help of a patron, Duke Paulus Jordanus II of Bracciano. The ducal family bore a rose, likened to the Sun in Scheiner's book, on its coat of arms. Rosa Ursina is divided into four volumes. In volume I Scheiner tackles the issue of who was first to discover the sunspots; he also proves that Galilei made errors of observation. Volume II shows illustrations of telescopes, projection methods and the helioscope and compares the optics of a telescope with that of the human eye. In volume III, observations on sunspots are illustrated by 70 copper engravings by David Widemann. Volume IV consists of two parts. The first part again deals with the phenomena of the Sun, such as sunspots and prominences, its period of revolution of 27 days, and the tilt of its axis; the second part is a collection of passages and quotations from the Scriptures, from Church Fathers and philosophers, all designed to prove that Scheiner's interpretation of the geocentric system conformed to Catholic doctrine.

  9. Systemic RNAi Delivery to the Muscles of ROSA26 Mice Reduces lacZ Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jessica; Chamberlain, Joel R.

    2014-01-01

    RNAi has potential for therapeutically downregulating the expression of dominantly inherited genes in a variety of human genetic disorders. Here we used the ROSA26 mouse, which constitutively expresses the bacterial lacZ gene in tissues body wide, as a model to test the ability to downregulate gene expression in striated muscles. Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) were generated that express short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) able to target the lacZ mRNA. Systemic delivery of these rAAV6 vectors led to a decrease of β-galactosidase expression of 30–50-fold in the striated muscles of ROSA26 mice. However, high doses of vectors expressing 21 nucleotide shRNA sequences were associated with significant toxicity in both liver and cardiac muscle. This toxicity was reduced in cardiac muscle using lower vector doses. Furthermore, improved knockdown in the absence of toxicity was obtained by using a shorter (19 nucleotide) shRNA guide sequence. These results support the possibility of using rAAV vectors to deliver RNAi sequences systemically to treat dominantly inherited disorders of striated muscle. PMID:25127128

  10. Cytotoxic and genotoxic studies of essential oil from Rosa damascene Mill., Kashan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Habibi, Emran; Modanloo, Mona

    2017-08-01

    Aim Rosa damascene Mill. belongs to the family of Roseaceae and its essential oil is produced in large amounts in Iran. The wide application of rose oil has raised questions about potential adverse health effects. We have investigated cytotoxic activity and genotoxic effects of Rosa oil from Kashan, Iran. Methods The cytotoxic effect and IC50 of the essential oil on the cell lines was studied followed by MTT assay. In this assay mitochondrial oxidoreductase enzymes with reducing the tetrazolium dye MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reflect the number of viable cells. Genotoxic effect of the oil was evaluated by micronucleus assay by evaluating produced micronuclei due to cytogenetic damage in binucleated lymphocytes. Results The results showed that essential oil significantly had cytotoxic and genotoxic effects at doses over 10µg/mL (p<0.05). Also, essential oil of Rose showed lower IC50 in cancer cell line (A549) in comparison with the normal cell line (NIH3T3). Conclusion Cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of essential oil of Rose in Kashan, Iran, are safe at a dose of 10µg/mL. Also, a good cytotoxic effect was shown and could be introduced as an anticancer compound. Further studies are needed with regard to anti-cancer effects of Rose essential oil. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  11. Rotavirus disease burden among children <5 years of age--Santa Rosa, Guatemala, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Jennifer; Arvelo, Wences; Lopez, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Kerin, Tara; Gautam, Rashi; Patel, Manish; Parashar, Umesh; Lindblade, Kim A

    2012-02-01

    To assess the burden of rotavirus disease in Guatemala, in view of the recent introduction of a national rotavirus vaccination programme. We examined data from an active, facility-based surveillance system in Santa Rosa, Guatemala, from October 2007 through September 2009 among children <5years of age presenting to the hospital or ambulatory clinics with diarrhoea (≥3 loose stools in 24 h during the last 7 days). Demographic and epidemiological data were collected, and specimens were tested for rotavirus via enzyme immunoassay. Genotyping was performed via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We enrolled 347 hospitalized patients <5 years of age with diarrhoea and 1215 from ambulatory clinics. Specimens from 275 (79%) hospitalized children and 662 (54%) from ambulatory visits were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus accounted for 32% of hospitalizations and 9% of ambulatory visits for diarrhoea, resulting in adjusted annual rates of 36 hospitalizations and 372 ambulatory visits per 10 000 children. Ninety-one per cent of hospitalizations and 81% of ambulatory visits for rotavirus diarrhoea occurred in children <2 years. G1P8 represented 71% and 95% of rotavirus genotypes for 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rotavirus seasons, respectively. Rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in children <5 years of age in Santa Rosa, Guatemala, highlighting the potential health benefits of vaccination and the need for continued surveillance to assess impact and effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccination programme in Guatemala. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The non-native plant Rosa multiflora expresses shade avoidance traits under low light availability.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Daniel M; Collins, Hilary; Bartelme, Elise M; Drenovsky, Rebecca E

    2015-08-01

    • Shade tolerance is a key trait promoting invasive plant performance in forest interiors. Rosa multiflora is a problematic invasive shrub in the northeastern United States, occurring in edge habitats and encroaching into forests. Our objective was to evaluate the shade tolerance of R. multiflora to assess how ecophysiological traits may facilitate its spread into forest interiors.• In the field, we documented shrub and seed bank density, fecundity, phenology, and seasonal photosynthetic rates of R. multiflora in contrasting light environments. In the greenhouse, we exposed seedlings to simulated canopy treatments by altering spectral quantity and quality, mimicking habitats ranging from open fields to forest interiors.• In the field, shrub density and fecundity of R. multiflora sharply increased with light availability. However, no differences were observed between forest edge and interior seed banks. Rosa multiflora initiated leaf growth earlier and retained leaves longer than canopy vegetation and tended to have higher photosynthetic rates in spring and fall. In the greenhouse, plants displayed shade-avoidance traits, decreasing relative growth rate and reducing branching, while increasing elongation and showing no change in light response curve parameters.• In deciduous forest understories, R. multiflora appears to make use of a lengthened growing season in spring and fall, and therefore, substantial growth and spread through intact forests appears dependent on canopy gaps. Management should focus on reducing edge populations to reduce spread into the interior and on monitoring newly created canopy gaps. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  13. Unusually low rates of slip on the Santa Rosa Range fault zone, northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Personius, S.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Range fault zone (SRRFZ) is one of the most topographically prominent normal fault systems in the northern Basin and Range province of the western United States. It has been assigned high rates of vertical slip by others and has been identified as a possible site of the future extension of the central Nevada seismic belt (CNSB). We use detailed trench mapping and luminescence dating to estimate displacements and timing of the last several large-magnitude paleoearthquakes on the southern part of the SRRFZ at a trench site near Orovada, Nevada. Coseismic vertical displacements ranged from 1 to 2.8 m for each of the last four events. Luminescence ages provide time limits for the last three events of 125-155 ka, 90-108 ka, and 11-16 ka. These data yield recurrence intervals of 17-65 k.y. and 74-97 k.y. and an elapsed time of 11-16 k.y. since the youngest event. Slip-rate determinations at the Orovada site are complicated by multiple fault strands, but rates calculated from a variety of data are surprisingly low (0.01-0.16 mm/yr), given the topographic prominence of the Santa Rosa Range. A lack of compelling patterns in a comparison of paleoseismic parameters indicate that the SRRFZ is no more likely a location for a large-magnitude earthquake than previously identified seismic gaps or along faults that lie directly north of the CNSB.

  14. Mammoths and Humans as Late Pleistocene Contemporaries on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agenbroad, L. D.; Johnson, J.; Morris, D.; Stafford, T. W.

    2007-05-01

    AMS radiocarbon dating of a pygmy mammoth (Mammuthus exilis) thoracic vertebra and associated charcoal has provided evidence for the contemporaneity of the pygmy mammoth and early human remains on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California. Charcoal associated with the vertebra dated 11,010 ±70 RC yr B.P. (B-133594). That date was significantly close to the extinction date for continental mammoths to warrant a date directly on the bone. The vertebral centrum was drilled and submitted for bone collagen dating by Stafford. The resultant date was 11,030 ±50 RC yr. B P (CAMS-71697), only 20 14C years older than the charcoal date. The significance of the dates was immediately apparent, because a date from human remains from the Arlington Springs Site (CA-SRI-173), Santa Rosa Island was 10,960 ±80 RC yr B.P. (CAMS-16810) (Johnson et al., 1999) - a date nearly identical with the M. exilis measurement. The contemporaneity of the mammoth bone date and human bone date indicates that mammoths were still extant on the islands when humans arrived. These data are from only one mammoth and one human ... more research needs to be done on the mammoth and human remains on the island. Was the contemporaneity coincidence, or the prelude to extinction?

  15. Phylogeny of Rosa sections Chinenses and Synstylae (Rosaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Gao, Xin-Fen; Fougère-Danezan, Marie

    2015-06-01

    Rosa sections Chinenses and Synstylae contain approximately 39 wild species mainly distributed in East Asia and are closely related according to previous studies. But the specific relationships within these two sections were still obscure due to limited sampling, low genetic variation of molecular markers, and complex evolutionary histories. In this study, we used four chloroplast (ndhC-trnV, ndhF-rpl32, ndhJ-trnF and psbJ-petA) and two nuclear (ribosomal ITS and GAPDH) markers with an extensive geographic and taxonomic sampling to explore their evolutionary history. Our phylogenetic analyses suggested that Rosa sections Chinenses and Synstylae defined in traditional taxonomic system are not monophyletic and close to sections Caninae and Gallicanae. Additionally, our results showed incongruence between chloroplast and nuclear markers, and the patterns of incongruence might be due to ancient hybridization (genetic introgression). One putative hybrid species and three samples identified as interspecific hybrids are further discussed in terms of topological incongruence, biological characters and distribution patterns.

  16. Isolation of immunomodulatory triterpene acids from a standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.).

    PubMed

    Saaby, Lasse; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Moesby, Lise; Hansen, Erik Wind; Christensen, Søren Brøgger

    2011-02-01

    A previously published systematic review and a metaanalysis have concluded that the consumption of standardized rose hip powder (Rosa canina L.) can reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients. Synovial inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis and mainly to involve infiltration of the synovial membrane by macrophages. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effect of standardized rose hip powder of Rosa canina L. was investigated and active principles isolated using the Mono Mac 6 cell line as a model for human macrophages. Treatment of Mono Mac 6 cells with the residue of a crude dichloromethane extract of rose hip powder significantly and concentration dependently inhibited the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release. Through bioassay-guided fractionation the immunomodulatory effect of the dichloromethane extract was correlated to a mixture of three triterpene acids; oleanolic acid, betulinic acid and ursolic acid (IC(50) 21 ± 6 µm). Further studies revealed that only oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, but not betulinic acid, could inhibit the lipopolysaccharide induced interleukin-6 release from Mono Mac 6 cells when tested separately. Combination of either oleanolic acid or ursolic acid with betulinic acid enhanced the immunomodulatory effect of the two triterpene acids.

  17. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

  18. Preliminary 3-Dimensional Geologic Map of the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, C. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Valin, Z. C.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Langenheim, V. E.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have constructed a preliminary 3-dimensional geologic map of the Santa Rosa Plain as a tool to address earthquake hazard and groundwater issues. The map allows integration of diverse datasets to produce a stratigraphic and structural architecture for the region. This framework can then be used to predict pathways of ground water flow and potential areas of enhanced or focused seismic shaking beneath the Santa Rosa Plain. The 3D map also allows us to identify relations which will require further refinement to develop a coherent 3D image of the crust. The 3D map, built using EarthVision 3D geologic mapping software, consists of three bounding components: fault surfaces, stratigraphic surfaces, and a basement upper surface. Fault surfaces are derived from geologic mapping, subsurface projection of fault dips from the surface geology and earthquake hypocenters. Stratigraphic surfaces are derived from the mapped geology, a digital elevation model and stratigraphic information from wells. A basement surface, predominantly composed of Mesozoic rocks of the Franciscan Complex, the mafic Coast Range Ophiolite and strata of the Great Valley Sequence, is derived from inversion of regional gravity measurements and constrained by well data. The preliminary 3D map of the Santa Rosa Plain area highlights two large basins (>2 km deep): the Windsor and Cotati basins. These basins are divided by a structural high associated with the W-NW-trending, NE-dipping Trenton thrust fault. The Cotati basin is further subdivided by a deeper basement ridge subparallel to the Trenton fault, which separates the basin beneath Cotati from the basin of Petaluma Valley to the southeast. Neither of the basement ridges breaks the surface, yet faults associated with the ridges could displace or truncate aquifers, provide channelways for groundwater flow between aquifers, or create zones of impermeability that disrupt the vertical and lateral continuity of groundwater flow. The complex configuration

  19. Hydrosols of orange blossom (Citrus aurantium), and rose flower (Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia) support the growth of a heterogeneous spoilage microbiota.

    PubMed

    Labadie, Cécile; Ginies, Christian; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; Renard, Catherine M G C; Cerutti, Céline; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Hydrosols are hydrodistillation products of aromatic plants. They contain less than 1g/L of dispersed essential oils giving organoleptic properties. Hydrosols are subjected to microbial proliferation. Reasons for spoilage have to be found in the nature of substrates supporting growth and of microbiological contaminants. The composition in essential oils and the microbiota of 22 hydrosol samples of Citrus aurantium L. ssp. amara L. (orange blossom), Rosa damascena Miller (rose D.), and Rosa centifolia L. (rose C.) flowers were analyzed to determine the factors responsible for decay. The median concentrations in essential oils were 677mg/L for orange blossom hydrosols, 205mg/L for rose D. hydrosols, and 116mg/L for rose C. hydrosols. The dry matter content of these hydrosols varied between 4.0mg/L and 702mg/L, and the carbohydrate content varied between 0.21mg/L and 0.38mg/L. These non-volatile compounds were likely carried over during distillation by a priming and foaming effect, and could be used as nutrients by microorganisms. A microbial proliferation at ambient temperature and also at 5°C has been observed in all studied hydrosols when stored in a non-sterile container. In contaminated hydrosols, maximal counts were about 7log10CFU/mL, while the French pharmacopeia recommends a maximal total bacterial count of 2log10CFU/mL. Neither yeast nor mold was detected. The isolated microbial population was composed of environmental Gram-negative bacteria, arranged in four major genera: Pseudomonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, and presumably two new genera belonging to Acetobacteraceae and Rhodospirillaceae. Among those bacteria, Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Novosphingobium capsulatum were able to metabolize volatile compounds, such as geraniol to produce 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one or geranic acid, or phenylethyl acetate to produce 2-phenylethanol. EO concentrations in hydrosols or cold storage are not sufficient to insure microbiological stability. Additional

  20. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort Walton Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of Independence...

  1. 3 CFR 8932 - Proclamation 8932 of February 1, 2013. 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Rosa Parks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... been planning to make history, but her defiance spurred a movement that advanced our journey toward... protest when ordinary men, women, and children sent the extraordinary message that second-class... desegregation of public transportation systems across our country. Rosa Parks's story did not end with...

  2. Rapid assessment of the needs and health status in Santa Rosa and Escambia counties, Florida, after Hurricane Ivan, September 2004.

    PubMed

    Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy; Oberst, Kathleen; Young, Stacy; Sanchez, Carlos; Phelps, Annette; Schulte, Joann; Rubin, Carol; Batts, Dahna

    2006-01-01

    Hurricane Ivan, a Category 3 storm, devastated the Florida panhandle on September 16, 2004, causing extensive property damage and 24 deaths. The Florida Department of Health requested assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to conduct a rapid assessment in Santa Rosa and Escambia counties to determine the health impact of the hurricane and needs of the affected population. A questionnaire was administered 6 days after the hurricane made landfall. The survey instrument elicited information about house damage, illness/injury, and access to utilities. A modified cluster sampling method was used to select 30 clusters in each county. Seven households were interviewed in each cluster and reported weighted frequencies. Three quarters of houses in each county were damaged. Households in Santa Rosa and Escambia lacked basic utilities, including regular garbage pick-up, telephone service, and electricity. Fifty-four percent of households in Santa Rosa and 27% in Escambia reported using a generator. The most commonly self-reported health conditions were sleep disturbances in Santa Rosa (54%) and upper respiratory problems in Escambia (46%). Injuries were reported in fewer than 15% of households in each county. Rapid restoration of power, telephone services, and debris pick-up remained a priority 1 week after the event. Findings demonstrated the need for (1) mental health and primary care services, (2) information about safe generator use, and (3) ways to access medical care and medications.

  3. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Villiers, Marelize; Manrakhan, Aruna; Addison, Pia; Hattingh, Vaughan

    2013-10-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Ceratitis rosa Karsch, and Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) are fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) of economic importance in South Africa. These pests cause direct damage to a number of commercially produced fruit and are of phytosanitary concern. A study was conducted to determine the distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal occurrence of the three species in different climatic regions of South Africa. The relative abundance and seasonal phenology of C. capitata and C. rosa were also compared between production areas and home gardens in Stellenbosch, Western Cape. Yellow bucket traps baited with Biolure were used to trap the flies over a 2-yr period in the different sampling areas. Different fruit types were sampled in Stellenbosch to determine fruit fly infestation. C. capitata was found to have a widespread distribution in South Africa, whereas C. rosa were absent from or only present in low numbers in the drier regions. C. cosyra was restricted to the North East and East coast, following a similar pattern to the distribution of marula, Sclerocarrya birrea, an important wild host. Fruit in home gardens provided a breeding ground for C. capitata and C. rosa and a source for infestation of orchards when fruit started to mature, highlighting the need for an area-wide strategy for the control of fruit flies.

  4. Germination Characteristics of Engelmann Oak and Coast Live Oak from the Santa Rosa Plateau, Riverside County, California

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over 2,000 acorns of Quercus agrifolia (coast live oak) and over 500 acorns of Q. engelmannii (Engelmann oak) were collected in the Jim Knight pasture area of the Santa Rosa Plateau. These were used to test for temperature and moisture conditions on germination of viable acorns in the laboratory under controlled environmental...

  5. Combined Effects of Retinoic Acid and Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rosa Damascena Mill on Wound in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Hardani, Ameneh; Afzalzadeh, Mohamad Reza; Amir zargar, Ashraf; Meamar, Zakiaeh

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid and Rosa damascena are compounds that have considerable effects in the cellular proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix. The present study was designed to assess the combined effects of retinoic acid and Rosa damascena mill on wound in diabetic rats. Seventy-two rats were used in this study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg. Kg-1). Then, a full thickness wound was created on dorsal surface of all animals. After that, rats were divided, into three groups; control (normal saline), positive control (Phenytoin), and  case (combined of 0.1% Tretinoein lotion and hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena mill). Afterward, wounds were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically on days 5, 10 and 15. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed a significant improvement (p<0.05) of wounds in case group on 5th and 10th days when compared to positive control and control groups. The combination of Retinoic acid and hydro-alcholic extract of Rosa damascena mill can accelerate wound healing in diabetic rats. PMID:27642329

  6. Barnacle-dominated limestone with giant cross-beds in a non-tropical, tide-swept, Pliocene forearc seaway, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Peter J. J.; Harmsen, Fraka J.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Boyle, Susan F.

    1988-11-01

    Pliocene, non-tropical, widespread and locally thick (up to 100 m) limestones occur in Hawke's Bay, eastern North Island, where they are intimately associated with very thick ( > 5 km), terrigenous-dominated, Neogene sequences that formed in a tectonically active convergent margin setting. The non-tropical character of the limestones is shown unequivocally by (1) the complete dominance of skeletal calcarenites and calcirudites, (2) the occurrence of oyster banks as the only in situ organic structures, (3) the dominance of barnacles, epifaunal molluscs, bryozoans, echinoderms, foraminifers, brachiopods and calcareous red algae as skeletal components, and (4) the preponderance of calcite over aragonite in the mineralogy of the skeletal grains and cements. The abundance of barnacle fragments in the limestones, and the related exclusive occurrence of only one major organic association, a barnacle-(epifaunal) bivalve-bryozoan assemblage, is striking and unusual given the extent of the limestones. Pecten and oyster valves acted as substrates for barnacle attachment, and their growth was promoted by strong tidal paleocurrents that swept the depositional setting: a long (450 km), narrow (30-50 km) forearc basin seaway, which formed between an actively deforming subduction complex to the east and an uplifting structural ridge to the west. Synsedimentary deformation promoted limestone formation on the margins of the seaway by creating current-swept, clastic-free submarine ridges that acted as the sites of carbonate production. Tidal flows dispersed the carbonate constituents and organised them into a wide spectrum of tide-influenced, cross-bedded and horizontal structures. Most spectacular are occurrences of giant tabular cross-beds, with sets 10-40 m thick and foreset dips of 7-36°, some interpreted as the deposits of major sand bars on carbonate deltas marginal to the mouths of saddles traversing the rising antiforms, and others analogous to modern linear sand ridges. The

  7. Insertion of the βGeo Promoter Trap into the Fem1c Gene of ROSA3 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schlamp, Cassandra L.; Thliveris, Andrew T.; Li, Yan; Kohl, Louis P.; Knop, Claudia; Dietz, Joel A.; Larsen, Inna V.; Imesch, Pascal; Pinto, Lawrence H.; Nickells, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    ROSA3 mice were developed by retroviral insertion of the βGeo gene trap vector. Adult ROSA3 mice exhibit widespread expression of the trap gene in epithelial cells found in most organs. In the central nervous system the highest expression of βGeo is found in CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and ganglion cells of the retina. Characterization of the genomic insertion site for βGeo in ROSA3 mice shows that the trap vector is located in the first intron of Fem1c, a gene homologous to the sex-determining gene fem-1 of Caenorhabditis elegans. Transcription of the Rosa3 allele (R3) yields a spliced message that includes the first exon of Fem1c and the βGeo coding region. Although normal processing of the Fem1c transcript is disrupted in homozygous Rosa3 (Fem1cR3/R3) mice, some tissues show low levels of a partially processed transcript containing exons 2 and 3. Since the entire coding region of Fem1c is located in these two exons, Fem1cR3/R3 mice may still be able to express a putative FEM1C protein. To this extent, Fem1cR3/R3 mice show no adverse effects in their sexual development or fertility or in the attenuation of neuronal cell death, another function that has been attributed to both fem-1 and a second mouse homolog, Fem1b. Examination of βGeo expression in ganglion cells after exposure to damaging stimuli indicates that protein levels are rapidly depleted prior to cell death, making the βGeo reporter gene a potentially useful marker to study early molecular events in damaged neurons. PMID:15082774

  8. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment.

  9. Insertion of the beta Geo promoter trap into the Fem1c gene of ROSA3 mice.

    PubMed

    Schlamp, Cassandra L; Thliveris, Andrew T; Li, Yan; Kohl, Louis P; Knop, Claudia; Dietz, Joel A; Larsen, Inna V; Imesch, Pascal; Pinto, Lawrence H; Nickells, Robert W

    2004-05-01

    ROSA3 mice were developed by retroviral insertion of the beta Geo gene trap vector. Adult ROSA3 mice exhibit widespread expression of the trap gene in epithelial cells found in most organs. In the central nervous system the highest expression of beta Geo is found in CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and ganglion cells of the retina. Characterization of the genomic insertion site for beta Geo in ROSA3 mice shows that the trap vector is located in the first intron of Fem1c, a gene homologous to the sex-determining gene fem-1 of Caenorhabditis elegans. Transcription of the Rosa3 allele (R3) yields a spliced message that includes the first exon of Fem1c and the beta Geo coding region. Although normal processing of the Fem1c transcript is disrupted in homozygous Rosa3 (Fem1c(R3/R3)) mice, some tissues show low levels of a partially processed transcript containing exons 2 and 3. Since the entire coding region of Fem1c is located in these two exons, Fem1c(R3/R3) mice may still be able to express a putative FEM1C protein. To this extent, Fem1c(R3/R3) mice show no adverse effects in their sexual development or fertility or in the attenuation of neuronal cell death, another function that has been attributed to both fem-1 and a second mouse homolog, Fem1b. Examination of beta Geo expression in ganglion cells after exposure to damaging stimuli indicates that protein levels are rapidly depleted prior to cell death, making the beta Geo reporter gene a potentially useful marker to study early molecular events in damaged neurons.

  10. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment. PMID:23248396

  11. Zoogeography of intertidal communities in the West Indian Ocean as determined by ocean circulation systems: patterns from the Tetraclita barnacles.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region.

  12. Water in barnacle muscle. III. NMR studies of fresh fibers and membrane-damaged fibers equilibrated with selected solutes.

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, E E; Clark, M E; Hinke, J A; Chapman, N R

    1981-01-01

    Water in barnacle muscle has been studied using NMR techniques. Fresh fibers are compared with membrane-damaged fibers treated with solutes that greatly alter fixed charge and total water content. Both water (97%) and solute (3%) protons are visible in continuous wave spectra of oriented fresh fibers. No local field inhomogeneities were detected, nor are cell solutes significantly bound. In pulse experiments, all cell water is visible and exhibits a single exponential decay. In fresh fibers, T2 approximately or equal to 40 ms; faster decaying signals are assigned to immobile and mobile protons on macromolecules. T1 and T1p are frequency dependent. Using equations derived for a two-compartment model with fast exchange, we calculate the following: tau b, the correlation time for anisotropic rotational motion of bound water; Sb, its order parameter; tau ex, the correlation time for exchange between bound and free fractions; f, the fraction of water bound; and Hr, the grams of water bound per gram of macromolecule. Whereas f varies inversely with total water content, the other parameters are virtually constant, with values: tau b approximately or equal to 1.3 X 10(-8) S; tau ex approximately or equal to 8 X 10(-6) s; Sb approximately or equal to 0.06; and Hr approximately or equal to 0.1g H2O/g macromolecule. Thus, the NMR relaxation detectable properties of water bound to macromolecules are unaffected by solutes that greatly alter the macromolecular surface charge. PMID:7272435

  13. Zoogeography of Intertidal Communities in the West Indian Ocean as Determined by Ocean Circulation Systems: Patterns from the Tetraclita Barnacles

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Achituv, Yair; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Indian Ocean is the least known ocean in the world with the biogeography of marine species in the West Indian Ocean (WIO) understudied. The hydrography of WIO is characterized by four distinct oceanographic systems and there were few glacial refugia formations in the WIO during the Pleistocene. We used the widely distributed intertidal barnacle Tetraclita to test the hypothesis that the distribution and connectivity of intertidal animals in the WIO are determined by the major oceanographic regime but less influenced by historical events such as Pleistocene glaciations. Tetraclita were studied from 32 locations in the WIO. The diversity and distribution of Tetraclita species in the Indian Ocean were examined based on morphological examination and sequence divergence of two mitochondrial genes (12S rDNA and COI) and one nuclear gene (histone 3, H3). Divergence in DNA sequences revealed the presence of seven evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) of Tetraclita in WIO, with most of them recognized as valid species. The distribution of these ESUs is closely tied to the major oceanographic circulation systems. T. rufotincta is distributed in the Monsoonal Gyre. T. ehsani is present in the Gulf of Oman and NW India. Tetraclita sp. nov. is associated with the Hydrochemical Front at 10°S latitude. T. reni is confined to southern Madagascan and Mauritian waters, influenced by the West Wind Drift. The endemic T. achituvi is restricted to the Red Sea. Tetraclita serrata consists of two ESUs (based on mtDNA analysis) along the east to west coast of South Africa. The two ESUs could not be distinguished from morphological analysis and nuclear H3 sequences. Our results support that intertidal species in the West Indian Ocean are associated with each of the major oceanographic circulation systems which determine gene flow. Geographical distribution is, however, less influenced by the geological history of the region. PMID:23024801

  14. Cleft, crevice, or the inner thigh: 'another place' for the establishment of the invasive barnacle Austrominius modestus (Darwin, 1854).

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Sally A; Spencer, Matthew; Marrs, Rob H; Iles, Matthew; Robinson, Leonie A

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of anthropogenic infrastructure in the marine environment has aided the establishment and spread of invasive species. These structures can create novel habitats in areas normally characterised as void of suitable settlement sites. The habitat requirements of the invasive acorn barnacle Austrominius modestus (Darwin, 1854) were assessed using a novel sampling site at Crosby Beach, Liverpool. Austrominius modestus has spread rapidly around the UK since its initial introduction, becoming locally dominant in many estuarine areas including the Antony Gormley art installation, 'Another Place', at Crosby Beach. The installation consists of 100 replicate solid cast-iron life-size human figures, located at a range of heights on the shore. We recorded the distribution and abundance of A. modestus present on all of the statues at various positions during the summer of 2006. The positions varied in location, exposure, direction, and rugosity. Although parameters such as rugosity and exposure did influence patterns of recruitment, they were less important than interactions between shore height and direction, and specific location on the beach. The addition of a suitable substrate to a sheltered and estuarine region of Liverpool Bay has facilitated the establishment of A. modestus. Understanding the habitat requirements of invasive species is important if we are to make predictions about their spread and the likelihood of invasion success. Austrominius modestus has already become locally dominant in some regions of the UK and, with projections of favourable warming conditions and the global expansion of artificial structures, the continued spread of this species can be expected. The implications of this on the balance between native and invasive species dominance should be considered.

  15. Distribution of 45S rDNA in Modern Rose Cultivars (Rosa hybrida), Rosa rugosa, and Their Interspecific Hybrids Revealed by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Liu; Xu, Ting-Liang; Wang, Jing; Luo, Le; Yu, Chao; Dong, Gui-Min; Pan, Hui-Tang; Zhang, Qi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of the location and number of rDNA loci in the process of polyploidization in the genus Rosa, we examined 45S rDNA sites in the chromosomes of 6 modern rose cultivars (R. hybrida), 5 R. rugosa cultivars, and 20 hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Variation in the number of rDNA sites in parents and their interspecific hybrids was detected. As expected, 4 rDNA sites were observed in the genomes of 4 modern rose cultivars, while 3 hybridization sites were observed in the 2 others. Two expected rDNA sites were found in 2 R. rugosa cultivars, while in the other 3 R. rugosa cultivars 4 sites were present. Among the 20 R. hybrida × R. rugosa offspring, 13 carried the expected number of rDNA sites, and 1 had 6 hybridization sites, which exceeded the expected number by far. The other 6 offspring had either 2 or 3 hybridization sites, which was less than expected. Differences in the number of rDNA loci were observed in interspecific offspring, indicating that rDNA loci exhibit instability after distant hybridization events. Abnormal chromosome pairing may be the main facto