Science.gov

Sample records for barnyard millet grain

  1. The genetic makeup of a global barnyard millet germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.) is an important crop for many smallholder farmers in southern and eastern Asia. It is valued for its drought tolerance, rapid maturation, and superior nutritional qualities. Despite these characteristics there are almost no genetic or genomic resources for this cro...

  2. Comparative study on nutritional and sensory quality of barnyard and foxtail millet food products with traditional rice products.

    PubMed

    Verma, Suman; Srivastava, Sarita; Tiwari, Neha

    2015-08-01

    Millets have the potential to contribute to food security and nutrition, but still these are underutilized crops. The present study was undertaken with a view to analyse the physico-chemical, functional and nutritional composition of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice and to compare the sensory quality and nutritive value of food products from foxtail and barnyard millet with rice. Analysis of physico- chemical and functional characteristics revealed that the thousand kernel weight of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 2.5, 3.0 and 18.3 g, respectively and thousand kernel volume was 1.6, 13 2.0 and 7.1 ml, respectively. The water absorption capacity of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 1.90, 1.96 and 1.98 ml/g, respectively and water solubility index was 2.8, 1.2 and 1.0 %, respectively. Viscosity was measured for foxtail millet (1650.6 cps), barnyard millet (1581 cps) and rice (1668.3 cps). Analysis of nutritional composition showed that the moisture content of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 9.35, 11.93 and 11.91 %, respectively. The total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate of foxtail millet were 3.10, 10.29, 3.06, 4.25 and 69.95 %, respectively, for barnyard millet were 4.27, 6.93, 2.02, 2.98 and 71.87 %, respectively and the corresponding values for rice were 0.59, 6.19, 0.53, 0.21 and 80.58 %, respectively. The energy value for foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 349, 407 and 352 Kcal, respectively. The foxtail millet contained 30.10 mg/100 g calcium and 3.73 mg/100 g iron whereas barnyard millet contained 23.16 mg/100 g calcium and 6.91 mg/100 g iron. Values of 10 mg/100 g calcium and 0.10 mg/100 g iron were observed for rice. The formulated products viz. laddu, halwa and biryani from foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice (control) were analysed for their sensory qualities. Among the products prepared, there was non significant difference with regard to the

  3. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on pasting, rheological and viscoelastic properties of milk-barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) blends meant for spray drying.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Arun; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Simha, H V Vikram; Nath, B Surendra

    2016-10-01

    The influence of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on the pasting properties of barnyard millet was studied using a rheometer. The effects of blending hydrolyzed barnyard millet wort with milk at different ratios (0:1, 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2) on flow and viscoelastic behavior were investigated. From the pasting curves, it was evident that enzymatically-hydrolyzed starch did not exhibit typical pasting characteristics expected of normal starch. The Herschel-Bulkley model fitted well to the flow behaviour data, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.942 to 0.988. All milk-wort blends demonstrated varying degree of shear thinning with flow behavior index (n) ranging from 0.252 to 0.647. Stress-strain data revealed that 1:1 blend of milk to wort had the highest storage modulus (7.09-20.06Pa) and an elastically-dominant behavior (phase angle <45°) over the tested frequency range. The crossover point of G' and G" shifted to higher frequencies with increasing wort content. From the flow and viscoelastic behavior, it was concluded that the 1:1 blend of milk to wort would have least phase separation and better flowability during spray drying.

  4. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of minor millets.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db.

  5. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2015-02-15

    The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  6. Biofortification in Millets: A Sustainable Approach for Nutritional Security

    PubMed Central

    Vinoth, A.; Ravindhran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world’s population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition. HarvestPlus group realized the importance of millet biofortification and released conventionally bred high iron pearl millet in India to tackle iron deficiency. Molecular basis of waxy starch has been identified in foxtail millet, proso millet, and barnyard millet to facilitate their use in infant foods. With close genetic-relatedness to cereals, comparative genomics has helped in deciphering quantitative trait loci and genes linked to protein quality in finger millet. Recently, transgenic expression of zinc transporters resulted in the development of high grain zinc while transcriptomics revealed various calcium sensor genes involved in uptake, translocation, and accumulation of calcium in finger millet. Biofortification in millets is still limited by the presence of antinutrients like phytic acid, polyphenols, and tannins. RNA interference and genome editing tools [zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)] needs to be employed to reduce these antinutrients. In this review paper, we discuss the strategies to accelerate biofortification in millets by summarizing the opportunities and challenges to increase the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients. PMID:28167953

  7. Biofortification in Millets: A Sustainable Approach for Nutritional Security.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, A; Ravindhran, R

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world's population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition. HarvestPlus group realized the importance of millet biofortification and released conventionally bred high iron pearl millet in India to tackle iron deficiency. Molecular basis of waxy starch has been identified in foxtail millet, proso millet, and barnyard millet to facilitate their use in infant foods. With close genetic-relatedness to cereals, comparative genomics has helped in deciphering quantitative trait loci and genes linked to protein quality in finger millet. Recently, transgenic expression of zinc transporters resulted in the development of high grain zinc while transcriptomics revealed various calcium sensor genes involved in uptake, translocation, and accumulation of calcium in finger millet. Biofortification in millets is still limited by the presence of antinutrients like phytic acid, polyphenols, and tannins. RNA interference and genome editing tools [zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)] needs to be employed to reduce these antinutrients. In this review paper, we discuss the strategies to accelerate biofortification in millets by summarizing the opportunities and challenges to increase the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients.

  8. Grain yield and component traits of pearl millet genotypes at different row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), a semi-arid tropical crop, is spreading beyond conventional production areas. It is finding markets in USA in ethnic food, wildlife recreation markets, poultry feed, and has potential for biofuels. Fourteen diverse genotypes of the A1 MS cytopl...

  9. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    PubMed

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  10. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha−1 reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha−1 and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha−1 (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha−1. With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha−1, Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21. PMID:26565992

  11. Effect of Forage and Grain Pearl Millet on Pratylenchus penetrans and Potato Yields in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, G.; Dauphinais, N.; Fournier, Y.; Dangi, O. P.; Clément, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Rotation crop experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 to assess the impact of forage and grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Pratylenchus penetrans populations in three potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) fields in Quebec. These crops were compared to oats and(or) barley. Forage millet had a suppressive effect on P. penetrans populations after a 1 year rotation. The following year, marketable potato yields were negatively correlated with initial P. penetrans densities on two experimental sites (r = -0.454, P = 0.044; r = -0.426, P = 0.017). Average marketable and total yields were increased by 10% in plots previously grown in forage millet hybrid CFPM 101 when compared to oats (P = 0.017). Damage functions between preplant nematode density (Pi) and marketable yield (y = 42.0 -4.091 log₁₀ [Pi + 1]) and total yield (y = 43.9 -4.039 log₁₀ [Pi + 1]) of potato were established on pooled yield data. Forage pearl millet is an efficient and economically viable alternative for managing root-lesion nematodes and improving potato yields in Quebec. PMID:19262846

  12. An expression profiling analysis of hybrid millet and its parents at grain filling stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Zhang, H M; Li, G L; Zhang, Y M; Li, H C; Guo, X L

    2015-07-14

    Heterosis has been widely used in crop breeding and production. However, a shortage of genes known to function in heterosis significantly limits our understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis. Here, we report 740 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the leaves of the hybrid millet Zhang No.5 and its parents at the grain filling stage determined using Solexa Illumina digital gene expression. Of the 740 DEGs, 546 were from the hybrid and its parents and most were up-regulated in the hybrid. Particularly, a large number of DEGs related to starch and carbohydrate metabolism and 2 DEGs encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins were up-regulated in hybrid millet. Moreover, all DEGs were enriched in the biological process and molecular function, and no DEGs were found to be enriched in the cellular component of GO terms. Pathway enrichment using KEGG showed that several DEGs were enriched in the circadian rhythm pathway. Further analysis revealed that the altered circadian rhythm, which mediates photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation, may play an important role in heterosis of the hybrid millet.

  13. Gas emissions from dairy barnyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cattle spend considerable time in outside barnyards. Nine barnyards were constructed to examine impacts of surface materials (bark, sand, soil) and timing of cattle corralling (before and after 3 to 14 day corralling periods) on fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), nit...

  14. Effect of traditional fermentation and malting on phytic acid and mineral availability from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) grain varieties grown in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makokha, Anselimo O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Njoroge, Simon M; Kamar, Oliver K

    2002-09-01

    Sorghum and finger millet grains are traditional staple foods in Kenya. However, they have naturally occurring anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, that decrease their dietary availability. This work determined the effect of fermentation and malting on the phytic acid content of, and mineral availability in five varieties of sorghum and four varieties of finger millet grain grown in Kenya. Phytic acid ranged from 875.1 to 2,211.9 mg/100 g in sorghum. The levels in finger millet ranged from 851.6 to 1,419.4 mg/100 g grain. Fermentation resulted in a mean decrease of phytic acid in of 64.8% after 96 hours and 39.0% after 72 hours in sorghum grain. In finger millet, there was a mean decrease of 72.3% and 54.3% after 96 and 72 hours, respectively. Malting also resulted in a mean decrease of 23.9 and 45.3% after 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The extent of decrease of phytic acid differed among the grain varieties. Fermentation increased the rate of available iron, manganese, and calcium in both sorghum and finger millet. The available minerals were generally higher in finger millet than in sorghum after fermentation. Fermentation was also more effective than malting in reducing phytic acid in sorghum and finger millet. Simple traditional food processing methods can therefore be used to increase mineral availability.

  15. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    PubMed

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  16. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process. PMID:26536839

  17. Barnyard grasses were processed with rice around 10000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Fuller, Dorian Q; Huan, Xiujia; Perry, Linda; Li, Quan; Li, Zhao; Zhang, Jianping; Ma, Zhikun; Zhuang, Yijie; Jiang, Leping; Ge, Yong; Lu, Houyuan

    2015-11-05

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is regarded as the only grass that was selected for cultivation and eventual domestication in the Yangtze basin of China. Although both macro-fossils and micro-fossils of rice have been recovered from the Early Neolithic site of Shangshan, dating to more than 10,000 years before present (BP), we report evidence of phytolith and starch microfossils taken from stone tools, both for grinding and cutting, and cultural layers, that indicating barnyard grass (Echinochloa spp.) was a major subsistence resource, alongside smaller quantities of acorn starches (Lithocarpus/Quercus sensu lato) and water chestnuts (Trapa). This evidence suggests that early managed wetland environments were initially harvested for multiple grain species including barnyard grasses as well as rice, and indicate that the emergence of rice as the favoured cultivated grass and ultimately the key domesticate of the Yangtze basin was a protracted process.

  18. Rheological properties of refined wheat - millet flour based dough under thermo-mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subir K; Tiwari, Anu; Mishra, Atishay; Singh, Alok

    2015-05-01

    Designed experiments were conducted to study the rheological properties of baking dough prepared from different refined wheat flour (RWF) - barnyard millet blends with varying amount of water (WA), salt and sugar. Dough was subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in Mixolab, in which rheological properties were recorded in terms of five different torques. Second order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to understand the effect of input variables (WA, barnyard millet, salt and sugar; all expressed as per cent of base flour) on torques recorded by Mixolab. Optimum values of input variables were obtained with constraints based on torque values which represented the qualities of acceptable bread dough. The models predicted that a dough with 57, 26, 1.8 and 3.3% of water, barnyard millet, salt and sugar, respectively, can be used for bread baking purposes.

  19. Aflatoxin contamination of pearl millet during field and storage conditions with reference to stage of grain maturation and insect damage.

    PubMed

    Raghavender, C R; Reddy, B N; Shobharani, G

    2007-12-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in five varieties of pearl millet (ICMH-451, ICMP-50I, ICTP-8203, WCC-75 and ICMV-155) was studied from field and storage conditions in three districts of Andhra Pradesh State, India and the inter-relationships between various parameters such as stage of grain maturation in the field and insect pest infestation in storage in relation to aflatoxin production were evaluated. Aflatoxin contamination was more frequent in the seed samples collected from the fields during rainy season than winter season. All major aflatoxins were isolated from one or the other varieties of pearl millet, whereas aflatoxin G2 was not commonly observed in the seed samples collected during winter. Among all the varieties tested, ICMH-451 was vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination whereas ICMV-155 was the least susceptible variety. The higher amount of aflatoxins was observed in the matured seed samples followed by pre-matured and milky stage. Among all the toxins reported in the field, aflatoxin B1 was found in higher concentration (185 (μg/kg) followed by B2 (105 μg/kg). The four major types of aflatoxins with higher levels (35, 40, 140, 190 μg/kg of G1, G2, B2, B1 were reported in the rainy season seed samples after six months of storage, whereas aflatoxin G1 was not observed in any variety of stored seed sample from winter. Statistical analysis revealed that the aflatoxin incidence in relation to different parameters studied was significantly different for each factor. The relationship between aflatoxin contamination and insect damaged-grain clearly indicated that the seed samples with 16-40% of insect damage contained higher amounts of aflatoxins (758 μg/kg).

  20. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling High Iron and Zinc Content in Self and Open Pollinated Grains of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, Charles T.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Singh, Govind; Rajaram, Vengaldas; Rathore, Abhishek; Senapathy, Senthilvel; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D.; Yadav, Rattan S.; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet is a multipurpose grain/fodder crop of the semi-arid tropics, feeding many of the world’s poorest and most undernourished people. Genetic variation among adapted pearl millet inbreds and hybrids suggests it will be possible to improve grain micronutrient concentrations by selective breeding. Using 305 loci, a linkage map was constructed to map QTLs for grain iron [Fe] and zinc [Zn] using replicated samples of 106 pearl millet RILs (F6) derived from ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2. The grains of the RIL population were evaluated for Fe and Zn content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Grain mineral concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 124.0 ppm for Fe and 28.7 to 119.8 ppm for Zn. Similarly, grain Fe and Zn in open pollinated seeds ranged between 22.4–77.4 and 21.9–73.7 ppm, respectively. Mapping with 305 (96 SSRs; 208 DArT) markers detected seven linkage groups covering 1749 cM (Haldane) with an average intermarker distance of 5.73 cM. On the basis of two environment phenotypic data, two co-localized QTLs for Fe and Zn content on linkage group (LG) 3 were identified by composite interval mapping (CIM). Fe QTL explained 19% phenotypic variation, whereas the Zn QTL explained 36% phenotypic variation. Likewise for open pollinated seeds, the QTL analysis led to the identification of two QTLs for grain Fe content on LG3 and 5, and two QTLs for grain Zn content on LG3 and 7. The total phenotypic variance for Fe and Zn QTLs in open pollinated seeds was 16 and 42%, respectively. Analysis of QTL × QTL and QTL × QTL × environment interactions indicated no major epistasis. PMID:27933068

  1. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)

    PubMed Central

    Senapathy, Senthilvel; Chandra, Subhash; Muthiah, Arunachalam; Dhanapal, Arun Prabhu; Hash, Charles Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i) to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu) 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii) to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG) 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI) strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection. PMID:24526909

  2. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  3. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  4. Transcriptome Wide Identification and Validation of Calcium Sensor Gene Family in the Developing Spikes of Finger Millet Genotypes for Elucidating Its Role in Grain Calcium Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Uma M.; Chandra, Muktesh; Shankhdhar, Shailesh C.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background In finger millet, calcium is one of the important and abundant mineral elements. The molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation in plants remains poorly understood. Transcriptome sequencing of genetically diverse genotypes of finger millet differing in grain calcium content will help in understanding the trait. Principal Finding In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of spike tissues of two genotypes of finger millet differing in their grain calcium content, were performed for the first time. Out of 109,218 contigs, 78 contigs in case of GP-1 (Low Ca genotype) and out of 120,130 contigs 76 contigs in case of GP-45 (High Ca genotype), were identified as calcium sensor genes. Through in silico analysis all 82 unique calcium sensor genes were classified into eight calcium sensor gene family viz., CaM & CaMLs, CBLs, CIPKs, CRKs, PEPRKs, CDPKs, CaMKs and CCaMK. Out of 82 genes, 12 were found diverse from the rice orthologs. The differential expression analysis on the basis of FPKM value resulted in 24 genes highly expressed in GP-45 and 11 genes highly expressed in GP-1. Ten of the 35 differentially expressed genes could be assigned to three documented pathways involved mainly in stress responses. Furthermore, validation of selected calcium sensor responder genes was also performed by qPCR, in developing spikes of both genotypes grown on different concentration of exogenous calcium. Conclusion Through de novo transcriptome data assembly and analysis, we reported the comprehensive identification and functional characterization of calcium sensor gene family. The calcium sensor gene family identified and characterized in this study will facilitate in understanding the molecular basis of calcium accumulation and development of calcium biofortified crops. Moreover, this study also supported that identification and characterization of gene family through Illumina paired-end sequencing is a potential tool for generating the genomic information of

  5. The Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Biofortification of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) with Elevated Levels of Grain Iron and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, Hanna R; Bligh, H F J; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as iron and zinc are the cause of extensive health problems in developing countries. They adversely affect performance, productivity and are a major hindrance to economic development. Since many people who suffer from micronutrient deficiencies are dependent on staple crops to meet their dietary requirements, the development of crop cultivars with increased levels of micronutrients in their edible parts is becoming increasingly recognized as a sustainable solution. This is largely facilitated by genetics and genomic platforms. The cereal crop pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), is an excellent candidate for genetic improvement due to its ability to thrive in dry, semi-arid regions, where farming conditions are often unfavorable. Not only does pearl millet grow in areas where other crops such as maize and wheat do not survive, it contains naturally high levels of micronutrients, proteins and a myriad of other health benefitting characteristics. This review discusses the current status of iron and zinc deficiencies and reasons why interventions such as fortification, supplementation, and soil management are neither practicable nor affordable in poverty stricken areas. We argue that the most cost effective, sustainable intervention strategy is to biofortify pearl millet with enhanced levels of bioavailable iron and zinc. We discuss how naturally occurring genetic variations present in germplasm collections can be incorporated into elite, micronutrient rich varieties and what platforms are available to drive this research. We also consider the logistics of transgenic methods that could facilitate the improvement of the pearl millet gene pool.

  6. The Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Biofortification of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) with Elevated Levels of Grain Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Manwaring, Hanna R.; Bligh, H. F. J.; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as iron and zinc are the cause of extensive health problems in developing countries. They adversely affect performance, productivity and are a major hindrance to economic development. Since many people who suffer from micronutrient deficiencies are dependent on staple crops to meet their dietary requirements, the development of crop cultivars with increased levels of micronutrients in their edible parts is becoming increasingly recognized as a sustainable solution. This is largely facilitated by genetics and genomic platforms. The cereal crop pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), is an excellent candidate for genetic improvement due to its ability to thrive in dry, semi-arid regions, where farming conditions are often unfavorable. Not only does pearl millet grow in areas where other crops such as maize and wheat do not survive, it contains naturally high levels of micronutrients, proteins and a myriad of other health benefitting characteristics. This review discusses the current status of iron and zinc deficiencies and reasons why interventions such as fortification, supplementation, and soil management are neither practicable nor affordable in poverty stricken areas. We argue that the most cost effective, sustainable intervention strategy is to biofortify pearl millet with enhanced levels of bioavailable iron and zinc. We discuss how naturally occurring genetic variations present in germplasm collections can be incorporated into elite, micronutrient rich varieties and what platforms are available to drive this research. We also consider the logistics of transgenic methods that could facilitate the improvement of the pearl millet gene pool. PMID:28066495

  7. Effectiveness of barnyard best management practices in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    1998-01-01

    In 1978, the Wisconsin Legislature committed to protecting water quality by enacting the Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program. Through this program, cost-share money is provided within priority watersheds to control sources of nonpoint pollution. Most of the cost-share dollars for rural watersheds have been used to implement barnyard Best Management Practices (BMPs) because barnyards are believed to be a major source of pollutants, most notably phosphorus. Reductions in phosphorus loads of as much as 95 percent have been predicted for the barnyard BMPs recommended for priority watersheds.

  8. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Goron, Travis L.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed “orphan cereals.” Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. PMID:25852710

  9. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  10. [Salinity effect on germination, growth, and grain production of some autochthonous pear millet ecotypes (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)].

    PubMed

    Radhouane, Leila

    2008-04-01

    This study compared the behaviour of six autochthonous pear millet ecotypes collected through the Tunisian territory under salt stress from germination to maturity. It showed that salt has little effect on germination rate and coleoptile emergence. However, this effect is more significant for radicular growth and between ecotypes. Salinity did not influence plant height, which seems to be a varietal characteristic, but revealed a positive effect on the foliar expansion. On the productivity level, salinity did not exert a prejudicial effect over the length of the principal candle, but improved the yield component. This adaptation to salinity is mainly due to its root system. This effect varied according to stress intensity and ecotype. Vegetative growth and yield of high-straw ecotypes was decreased by severe salinity, while ecotypes with low or medium height appear very stable on the productivity level. Such ecotypes can play an important role in the conservation and development of fragile grounds, and also be useful as a source of desirable genes for genetic improvement in salinity conditions.

  11. Population genetics and structure of a global foxtail millet germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foxtail millet is one among the most ancient crops of dryland agriculture. It is the second most important crop among millets, grown for grains or forage. Foxtail millet germplasm resources provide reservoirs of novel alleles and genes for crop improvement that have remained mostly unexplored. We ge...

  12. Early millet use in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Zhiwei; Perry, Linda; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Chaohong; Li, Jun; Xie, Fei; Yu, Jincheng; Cui, Tianxing; Wang, Tao; Li, Mingqi; Ge, Quansheng

    2012-01-01

    It is generally understood that foxtail millet and broomcorn millet were initially domesticated in Northern China where they eventually became the dominant plant food crops. The rarity of older archaeological sites and archaeobotanical work in the region, however, renders both the origins of these plants and their processes of domestication poorly understood. Here we present ancient starch grain assemblages recovered from cultural deposits, including carbonized residues adhering to an early pottery sherd as well as grinding stone tools excavated from the sites of Nanzhuangtou (11.5–11.0 cal kyBP) and Donghulin (11.0–9.5 cal kyBP) in the North China Plain. Our data extend the record of millet use in China by nearly 1,000 y, and the record of foxtail millet in the region by at least two millennia. The patterning of starch residues within the samples allow for the formulation of the hypothesis that foxtail millets were cultivated for an extended period of two millennia, during which this crop plant appears to have been undergoing domestication. Future research in the region will help clarify the processes in place. PMID:22355109

  13. Development of high density SNP-based linkage map in pearl millet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is a gluten free grain crop which is additionally gaining importance in the USA due to the increased demand for pearl millet flour by many ethnic groups. As a result, efforts are underway in the Southeast to develop high grain yielding adapted pearl mi...

  14. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-05-06

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  15. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oct 11,2016 Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, corn, or another cereal is a grain ... wheat, oats/oatmeal, rye, barley, corn, popcorn, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat, triticale, bulgur (cracked wheat), millet, ...

  16. Nutritional value of pearl millet for lactating and growing goats.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, S; Terrill, T; Amoah, E A; Miller, S; Gates, R N; Hanna, W W

    1997-05-01

    Studies were conducted to assess nutritional value of pearl millet grain (Pennisetum glaucum [L] R. Br.) for lactating and growing goats. Three complete diets containing either 40% corn, 40% pearl millet, or 40% corn and pearl millet mixed 1:1 (wt/wt) were balanced to contain 16% crude protein and 2.24 Mcal DE/kg on an air-dry basis. Forty-five does were blocked by kidding date and randomly assigned to diets for a 7-wk investigation. Feed intake and milk production were unaffected (P > .25) by treatment, and they averaged 2.86 and 2.47 kg daily, respectively. Thirty-three growing goats were blocked by sex and fed the same diets for 15 wk. Daily growth rate and feed to gain ratio were depressed (P < .05) by 25.4 and 19.0%, respectively, when corn was completely replaced with pearl millet. Digestion coefficients for DM, GE, CP, and NDF were reduced by over 10 percentage units with partial or complete replacement of corn by pearl millet. Ruminal acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate increased (P < .05) but butyrate, propionate, and ammonia were depressed (P < .05) with the pearl millet diets. Growing goats consumed 43 meals daily. They consumed 26.9, 32.6, 27.4, and 13.1% of their ration during the morning (0600 to 1200), afternoon (1200 to 1800), evening (1800 to 2400), and night (2400 to 0600), respectively. Pearl millet is a useful energy feed for mature, but not for growing, goats.

  17. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  18. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutritional quality and shelf-life of pearl millet based extrusion cooked supplementary foods.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, A; Ushakumari, S R; Malleshi, N G

    2007-08-01

    The process variables for extrusion cooking of pearl millet were standardized and some of the physicochemical characteristics of the millet extrudates and also the nutritional qualities of the millet and legume-based extruded supplementary foods were determined. The millet grits less than 355 microm in size, equilibrated to 18+/-1% moisture content, extruded at 150+/-5 degrees C temperature and at 200+/-10 rpm of the barrel of a twin-screw extruder yielded the extrudates of 1.75+/-0.21 expansion ratio and 7.5+/-1.5 kg breaking strength. The cold and cooked paste viscosity, the melt energy and also the carbohydrate digestibility of the extrudates indicated that the products were pre-cooked and were of ready-to-eat nature. The millet was blended with grain legumes (30%) and also with defatted soy (15%) separately and extruded to prepare ready-to-eat nutritious foods suitable as food supplements to children and mothers. The foods based on the millet and legumes and also the millet and soy contained 14.7% and 16.0% protein with 2.0 and 2.1 protein efficiency ratio values, respectively. The shelf-life of the foods was about 6 months in different flexible pouches at ambient storage conditions. The study showed that applications of extrusion cooking technology to pearl millet have promise for preparation of diversified and value-added food products from the millet.

  19. Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratrichodorus minor, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Hanna, W. W.

    2005-01-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) has potential as a grain crop for dryland crop production in the southeastern United States. Whether or not pearl millet will be compatible in rotation with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) will depend, in part, on its host status for important plant-parasitic nematodes of these crops. The pearl millet hybrid 'TifGrain 102' is resistant to both Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1; however, its host status for other plant-parasitic nematodes was unknown. In this study, the reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Meloidogyne javanica race 3 on pearl millet ('HGM-100' and TifGrain 102) was compared relative to cotton, corn, and peanut. Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted for each nematode species. Reproduction of B. longicaudatus was lower on peanut and the two millet hybrids than on cotton and corn. Reproduction of P. minor was lower on peanut and TifGrain 102 than on cotton, corn, and HGM-100. Reproduction of P. brachyurus was lower on both millet hybrids than on cotton, corn, and peanut. Reproduction of M. javanica race 3 was greater on peanut than on the two millet hybrids and corn. Cotton was a nonhost. TifGrain 102 was more resistant than HGM-100 to reproduction of B. longicaudatus, P. minor, and M. javanica. Our results demonstrated that TifGrain 102 was a poor host for B. longicaudatus and P. brachyurus (Rf < 1) and, relative to other crops tested, was less likely to increase densities of P. minor and M. javanica. PMID:19262863

  20. Culinary archaeology: Millet noodles in Late Neolithic China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Houyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Maolin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xia, Zhengkai; Ren, Xiaoyan; Cai, Linhai; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Tung-Sheng

    2005-10-13

    Noodles have been a popular staple food in many parts of the world for at least 2,000 years, although it is debatable whether the Chinese, the Italians or the Arabs invented them first. Here we analyse a prehistoric sample of noodles contained in a well preserved, sealed earthenware bowl discovered in the Late Neolithic archaeological site of Lajia in northwestern China. We identify millet as the source of the abundant seed-husk phytoliths and starch grains present in the vessel. This shows that the conversion of ground millet flour into dough that could be repeatedly stretched into long, thin strands for the preparation of boiled noodles was already established in this region 4,000 years ago.

  1. Comparative analysis of solid-state bioprocessing and enzymatic treatment of finger millet for mobilization of bound phenolics.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Singh, Anshu; Bhattacharya, Patrali; Yuvraj, Jude; Banerjee, Rintu

    2013-11-01

    The present work investigates the probable bioprocessing technique to mobilize the bound phenolics naturally found in finger millet cell wall for enriching it with dietary antioxidants. Comparative study was performed between the exogenous enzymatic treatment and solid-state fermentation of grain (SSF) with a food grade organism Rhizopus oryzae. SSF results indicated that at the 6th day of incubation, total phenolic content (18.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/gds) and antioxidant property (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 39.03 %, metal chelating ability of 54 % and better reducing power) of finger millet were drastically enhanced when fermented with GRAS filamentous fungi. During the enzymatic bioprocessing, most of the phenolics released during the hydrolysis, leached out into the liquid portion rather than retaining them within the millet grain, resulting in overall loss of dietary antioxidant. The present study establishes the most effective strategy to enrich the finger millet with phenolic antioxidants.

  2. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste.

  3. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

    2009-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  4. Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) contains XIP but not TAXI and TLXI type xylanase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Hind; Gebruers, Kurt; Beaugrand, Johnny; Proost, Paul; Nadjemi, Boubekeur; Belhanèche-Bensemra, Naima; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-06-24

    An XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein) type xylanase inhibitor was purified from Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains and characterized for the first time. Cation exchange and affinity chromatography with immobilized Trichoderma longibrachiatum glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase resulted in electrophoretically pure protein with a molecular mass of 27-29 kDa and a pI value of 6.7. The experimentally determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified XIP protein is 87.5%, identical to that of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) XIP and 79.2% identical to that of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) XIP-I. The biochemical properties of pearl millet XIP are comparable to those described earlier for sorghum XIP, except for the higher specific activity toward a T. longibrachiatum GH family 11 xylanase. On the basis of immunoblot neither TAXI nor TLXI type xylanase inhibitors were detected in pearl millet grains.

  5. Transmission of avian influenza A viruses among species in an artificial barnyard.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Jenna E; Bowen, Richard A

    2011-03-31

    Waterfowl and shorebirds harbor and shed all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses and interact in nature with a broad range of other avian and mammalian species to which they might transmit such viruses. Estimating the efficiency and importance of such cross-species transmission using epidemiological approaches is difficult. We therefore addressed this question by studying transmission of low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses from infected ducks to other common animals in a quasi-natural laboratory environment designed to mimic a common barnyard. Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) recently infected with H5N2 or H7N3 viruses were introduced into a room housing other mallards plus chickens, blackbirds, rats and pigeons, and transmission was assessed by monitoring virus shedding (ducks) or seroconversion (other species) over the following 4 weeks. Additional animals of each species were directly inoculated with virus to characterize the effect of a known exposure. In both barnyard experiments, virus accumulated to high titers in the shared water pool. The H5N2 virus was transmitted from infected ducks to other ducks and chickens in the room either directly or through environmental contamination, but not to rats or blackbirds. Ducks infected with the H7N2 virus transmitted directly or indirectly to all other species present. Chickens and blackbirds directly inoculated with these viruses shed significant amounts of virus and seroconverted; rats and pigeons developed antiviral antibodies, but, except for one pigeon, failed to shed virus.

  6. Hybrid and proximate composition effects on ethanol yield from pearl millet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investors have committed to the construction of new ethanol plants in the southeast in spite of the grain-deficit status of this region. Pearl millet is likely to be a viable supplemental feedstock. The DDGS has a greater nutritional value, resulting in a lower net cost of ethanol production from pe...

  7. Application of pathological principles to evaluating pearl millet for chinch bug resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinch bug [Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say) (Heteroptera: Blissidae)] is one of the most important insect pests on forage and grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.) in the southern US. Insect feeding damage is expressed as plant mortality, stunting, leaf sheath necrosis, and tiller ...

  8. Exploration of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet is one of the most important small-grained C4 Panicoid crops with a large genome size (∼2352 Mb), short life cycle and outbreeding nature. It is highly resilient to areas with scanty rain and high temperature. Pearl millet is a nutritionally superior staple crop for people inhabiting hot, drought-prone arid and semi-arid regions of South Asia and Africa where it is widely grown and used for food, hay, silage, bird feed, building material, and fuel. Having excellent nutrient composition and exceptional buffering capacity against variable climatic conditions and pathogen attack makes pearl millet a wonderful model crop for stress tolerance studies. Pearl millet germplasm show a large range of genotypic and phenotypic variations including tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Conventional breeding for enhancing abiotic and biotic stress resistance in pearl millet have met with considerable success, however, in last few years various novel approaches including functional genomics and molecular breeding have been attempted in this crop for augmenting yield under adverse environmental conditions, and there is still a lot of scope for further improvement using genomic tools. Discovery and use of various DNA-based markers such as EST-SSRs, DArT, CISP, and SSCP-SNP in pearl millet not only help in determining population structure and genetic diversity but also prove to be important for developing strategies for crop improvement at a faster rate and greater precision. Molecular marker-based genetic linkage maps and identification of genomic regions determining yield under abiotic stresses particularly terminal drought have paved way for marker-assisted selection and breeding of pearl millet cultivars. Reference collections and marker-assisted backcrossing have also been used to improve biotic stress resistance in pearl millet specifically to downy mildew. Whole genome sequencing of pearl millet genome will give new insights for processing of functional

  9. Differential Gene Expression in Foxtail Millet during Incompatible Interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li; Bai, Hui; Quan, Jian Zhang; Liu, Lei; Dong, Zhi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant’s defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE) library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet. PMID:25885767

  10. Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Its Potential for Cultivation in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B.; D’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M.; Whiteman, Michael R.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.; Murphy, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60–100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets. PMID:28119699

  11. Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Its Potential for Cultivation in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.: A Review.

    PubMed

    Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B; D'Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M; Whiteman, Michael R; Kidwell, Kimberlee K; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60-100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets.

  12. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop. PMID:28004742

  13. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  14. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels.

    PubMed

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-12-22

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  15. Evaluation of a method for comparing phosphorus loads from barnyards and croplands in Otter Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wierl, Judy A.; Giddings, Elise M.P.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    1998-01-01

    Control of phosphorus from rural nonpoint sources is a major focus of current efforts to improve and protect water resources in Wisconsin and is recommended in almost every priority watershed plan prepared for the State's Nonpoint Source (NFS) Program. Barnyards and crop- lands usually are identified as the primary rural sources of phosphorus. Numerous questions have arisen about which of these two sources to control and about the method currently being used by the NFS program to compare phosphorus loads from barnyards and croplands. To evaluate the method, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, used phosphorus-load and sediment-load data from streams and phosphorus concentrations in soils from the Otter Creek Watershed (located in the Sheboygan River Basin: fig. 1) in conjunction with two computer-based models. 

  16. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P < 0.05) and the treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  17. The extent of variation in salinity tolerance of the minicore collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Upadhyaya, Hari Deo; Purushothaman, Ramamoorthy; Gowda, Cholenahalli Lakkegowda Laxmipathi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Dwivedi, Sangam Lal; Singh, Sube; Vadez, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) ranks third in production among the dry land cereals. It is widely cultivated in Africa and South Asia where soil salinization is a major production constraint. It is a potential crop for salt affected soils. To identify salt tolerant germplasm, the minicore finger millet germplasm (n=80) was screened for grain yield performance in a soil saturated with NaCl solution of 100 or 125mM. Genotype effect was significant for most traits, while salinity×genotype interaction was significant only in one year. Salinity delayed phenology, marginally reduced shoot biomass and grain yield. There was a large range of genotypic variation in grain yield under salinity and other traits. The yield loss was higher in accessions with prolific growth and yield potential was associated with saline yields. Based on saline yields, accessions were grouped in to four groups and the top tolerant group had 22 accessions with IE 4797 remaining at the top. Salinity had no adverse impact on grain yield of five accessions. Root anatomy in selected genotype of pearl and finger millet showed presence of porous cortex and well fortified endodermis in finger millet that can exclude Na(+) and enhance N absorption.

  18. Evaluating barnyard Best Management Practices in Wisconsin using upstream-downstream monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.

    1995-01-01

    The Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program was created in 1978 by the Wisconsin Legislature. The goal of the program is to improve and protect the water quality of lakes, streams, wetlands, and ground water within selected priority watersheds by controlling sources of nonpoint pollution. For each selected watershed, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources drafts a management plan that guides the implementation of pollution-control strategies known as Best Management Practices (BMP's). This plan summarizes resource and land-use inventories, describes the results of pollution-source modeling, and suggests pollution reduction goals. The U.S. Geological Survey, through a cooperative effort with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, is monitoring water-quality improvements that result from the implementation of BMP's. The data collected are then compared to the watershed plans to assess progress and determine whether goals are being realized. This fact sheet describes the data-collection efforts, preliminary results, and planned data-analysis techniques of monitoring projects for pre-BMP conditions at two barnyards, one each on Otter Creek and Halfway Prairie Creek.

  19. Inhibitory activities of soluble and bound millet seed phenolics on free radicals and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-01-12

    Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is responsible for modulating several pathological conditions and aging. Soluble and bound phenolic extracts of commonly consumed millets, namely, kodo, finger (Ravi), finger (local), foxtail, proso, little, and pearl, were investigated for their phenolic content and inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS, namely, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Inhibition of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals was detrmined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The peroxyl radical inhibitory activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The scavenging of H(2)O(2), HOCl, and (1)O(2) was evaluated using colorimetric methods. The results were expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram of grain on a dry weight basis. In addition, major hydroxycinnamic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). All millet varieties displayed effective radical and ROS inhibition activities, which generally positively correlated with phenolic contents, except for hydroxyl radical. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids as major hydroxycinnamic acids in phenolic extract and responsible for the observed effects. Bound extracts of millet contributed 38-99% to ROS scavenging, depending on the variety and the test system employed. Hence, bound phenolics must be included in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of millets and other cereals.

  20. The Genetic Basis for Inflorescence Variation Between Foxtail and Green Millet (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Andrew N.; Devos, Katrien M.; Gadberry, Mike D.; Gale, Mike D.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Grass species differ in many aspects of inflorescence architecture, but in most cases the genetic basis of the morphological difference is unknown. To investigate the genes underlying the morphology in one such instance, we undertook a developmental and QTL analysis of inflorescence differences between the cereal grain foxtail millet and its presumed progenitor green millet. Inflorescence differences between these two species are the result of changes in primary branch number and density, spikelet number, and bristle (sterile branchlet) number; these differences also account for inflorescence variation within the clade of 300+ species that share the presence of bristles in the inflorescence. Fourteen replicated QTL were detected for the four inflorescence traits, and these are suggested to represent genes that control differences between the species. Comparative mapping using common markers from rice and maize allowed a number of candidate genes from maize to be localized to QTL regions in the millet genome. Searches of regions of the sequenced rice genome orthologous to QTL regions on foxtail millet identified a number of transcription factors and hormone pathway genes that may be involved in control of inflorescence branching. PMID:15654107

  1. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] Genomics—An Important Nutri-Cereal of Future

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil; Babu, B. Kalyana; Gaur, Vikram S.; Pandey, Dinesh; Kant, Lakshmi; Pattnayak, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat) of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologs from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2–4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet. PMID:27881984

  2. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  3. No-Cook Process for Ethanol Production Using Indian Broken Rice and Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Gohel, Vipul; Duan, Gang

    2012-01-01

    No-cook process using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) was evaluated for Indian broken rice and pearl millet. One-factor-at-a-time optimization method was used in ethanol production to identify optimum concentration of GSHE, under yeast fermentation conditions using broken rice and pearl millet as fermentation feedstocks. An acid fungal protease at a concentration of 0.2 kg per metric ton of grain was used along with various dosages of GSHE under yeast fermentation conditions to degrade the grain proteins into free amino nitrogen for yeast growth. To measure the efficacy of GSHE to hydrolyze no-cook broken rice and pearl millet, the chemical composition, fermentation efficiency, and ethanol recovery were determined. In both feedstocks, fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery obtained through single-step no-cook process were higher than conventional multistep high-temperature process, currently considered the ideal industrial process. Furthermore, the no-cook process can directly impact energy consumption through steam saving and reducing the water cooling capacity needs, compared to conventional high-temperature process. PMID:22518148

  4. Identification of SNP and SSR Markers in Finger Millet Using Next Generation Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Gimode, Davis; Odeny, Damaris A.; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Wanyonyi, Solomon; Dida, Mathews M.; Mneney, Emmarold E.; Muchugi, Alice; Machuka, Jesse; de Villiers, Santie M.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is an important cereal crop in eastern Africa and southern India with excellent grain storage quality and unique ability to thrive in extreme environmental conditions. Since negligible attention has been paid to improving this crop to date, the current study used Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies to develop both Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genomic DNA from cultivated finger millet genotypes KNE755 and KNE796 was sequenced using both Roche 454 and Illumina technologies. Non-organelle sequencing reads were assembled into 207 Mbp representing approximately 13% of the finger millet genome. We identified 10,327 SSRs and 23,285 non-homeologous SNPs and tested 101 of each for polymorphism across a diverse set of wild and cultivated finger millet germplasm. For the 49 polymorphic SSRs, the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.42, ranging from 0.16 to 0.77. We also validated 92 SNP markers, 80 of which were polymorphic with a mean PIC of 0.29 across 30 wild and 59 cultivated accessions. Seventy-six of the 80 SNPs were polymorphic across 30 wild germplasm with a mean PIC of 0.30 while only 22 of the SNP markers showed polymorphism among the 59 cultivated accessions with an average PIC value of 0.15. Genetic diversity analysis using the polymorphic SNP markers revealed two major clusters; one of wild and another of cultivated accessions. Detailed STRUCTURE analysis confirmed this grouping pattern and further revealed 2 sub-populations within wild E. coracana subsp. africana. Both STRUCTURE and genetic diversity analysis assisted with the correct identification of the new germplasm collections. These polymorphic SSR and SNP markers are a significant addition to the existing 82 published SSRs, especially with regard to the previously reported low polymorphism levels in finger millet. Our results also reveal an unexploited finger millet genetic resource that can be included in the regional

  5. [Comparison of growth and field microclimate characteristics of broomcorn millet under different fertilization conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan-pan; Zhou, Yu; Song, Hui; Qiao, Zhi-jun; Wang, Hai-gang; Zheng, Dian-feng; Feng, Bai-li

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment with two broomcorn millet varieties Longmi 8 (strong drought-resistant variety) and Jinmi 4 (drought-sensitive variety) was conducted to compare their differences in growth, field microclimate and photosynthetic capacity from anthesis to maturity under different fertility conditions. The results showed that, fertilization decreased canopy temperature, air temperature, soil temperature, illumination, but improved the relative humidity among broomcorn millet plants compared with the non-fertilization treatment. With an increase of the fertilizer level, the plant height, SPAD, LAI, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration in broomcorn millet showed an increasing trend, which of the high fertilization treatment were 9.2%, 15.1%, 56.6%, 17.8%, 24.6%, 14.2%, 29.7% higher than those of non-fertilization treatment, respectively. Compared with Jinmi 4, Longmi 8 showed a cold wet characteristic, with lower canopy temperature, air temperature, soil temperature; illumination, and higher plant height, LAI, SPAD and relative humidity during grain filling. Moreover, each photosynthetic index of Longmi 8 slowly decreased and extended the period of leaf photosynthetic function so as to accumulate more photosynthetic products.

  6. Development of high-density linkage map and tagging leaf spot resistance in pearl millet using genotyping-by-sequencing markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet is an important forage and grain crop in many parts of the world. Genome mapping studies are a prerequisite for tagging agronomically important traits. Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) markers can be used to build high density linkage maps even in species lacking a reference genome. A re...

  7. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2015-01-01

    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  8. Whole grain gluten-free pastas and flatbreads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain gluten-free products were formulated and evaluated for acceptance by volunteer tasters. The tastes judged acceptance of whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pastas for corn 83%, sorghum 79%, brown rice 77% and millet 50%. The acceptance for similar high protein pasta was corn-garbanzo 70...

  9. FmMDb: A Versatile Database of Foxtail Millet Markers for Millets and Bioenergy Grasses Research

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gopal; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html), a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity. PMID:23951158

  10. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops.

  11. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M.; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca2+) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops. PMID:28144246

  12. Phytochemical and antiproliferative activity of proso millet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhen; Liu, Ruihai; Niu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20) to 151.14 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20) to 305.81 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6) to 147.32 (Gumi20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52) to 136.48 (Gumi 20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties.

  13. Phytochemical and Antiproliferative Activity of Proso Millet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhen; Liu, Ruihai; Niu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20) to 151.14 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20) to 305.81 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6) to 147.32 (Gumi20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52) to 136.48 (Gumi 20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties. PMID:25098952

  14. Total Iron Absorption by Young Women from Iron-Biofortified Pearl Millet Composite Meals Is Double That from Regular Millet Meals but Less Than That from Post-Harvest Iron-Fortified Millet Meals123

    PubMed Central

    Cercamondi, Colin I.; Egli, Ines M.; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Iron biofortification of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a promising approach to combat iron deficiency (ID) in the millet-consuming communities of developing countries. To evaluate the potential of iron-biofortified millet to provide additional bioavailable iron compared with regular millet and post-harvest iron-fortified millet, an iron absorption study was conducted in 20 Beninese women with marginal iron status. Composite test meals consisting of millet paste based on regular-iron, iron-biofortified, or post-harvest iron-fortified pearl millet flour accompanied by a leafy vegetable sauce or an okra sauce were fed as multiple meals for 5 d. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Fractional iron absorption from test meals based on regular-iron millet (7.5%) did not differ from iron-biofortified millet meals (7.5%; P = 1.0), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the meals based on iron-biofortified millet (1125 vs. 527 μg; P < 0.0001). Fractional iron absorption from post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (10.4%) was higher than from regular-iron and iron-biofortified millet meals (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (1500 μg; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Results indicate that consumption of iron-biofortified millet would double the amount of iron absorbed and, although fractional absorption of iron from biofortification is less than that from fortification, iron-biofortified millet should be highly effective in combatting ID in millet-consuming populations. PMID:23884388

  15. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value added products.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  16. Selection of suitable reference genes for assessing gene expression in pearl millet under different abiotic stresses and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-03-14

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] a widely used grain and forage crop, is grown in areas frequented with one or more abiotic stresses, has superior drought and heat tolerance and considered a model crop for stress tolerance studies. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target stress-responsive gene expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of improved stress tolerance. For precise normalization of gene expression data in pearl millet, ten candidate reference genes were examined in various developmental tissues as well as under different individual abiotic stresses and their combinations at 1 h (early) and 24 h (late) of stress using geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed EF-1α and UBC-E2 as the best reference genes across all samples, the specificity of which was confirmed by assessing the relative expression of a PgAP2 like-ERF gene that suggested use of these two reference genes is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization under different stress conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different individual and multiple abiotic stresses in pearl millet. The study can further facilitate fastidious discovery of stress-tolerance genes in this important stress-tolerant crop.

  17. Cloning and structural analysis of an Indian little millet (Panicum sumatrense) zein-like storage protein: implications for molecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Franco, O L; Thayumanavan, B; Murad, A M; Manickam, A; Mohan, M; Mridula, M

    2006-11-01

    Zeins are prolamin storage proteins that accumulate in kernel endosperm of several cereals. For cloning of genes coding for zein-like proteins that accumulate in enhanced quantities in the filling stages of little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth.) developing grains, RT-PCR was performed using specific primers. A 750-bp cDNA was directly sequenced and in silico analysis showed high identity degree to alpha-prolamins. This family is composed of zeins from Zea mays, coixins from Coix lachryma-jobi, and alpha-kafirins from Sorghum bicolor. The putative conserved domain of zein-like proteins was identified by primary structure comparisons. Furthermore, threading analyses indicated that the millet zein-like protein forms an anti-parallel alpha-helical hairpin with two opposite surfaces: one hydrophobic and the other hydrophilic that probably could be involved in protein storage assembly. Knowledge about zein-like alpha-prolamins in little millet will lead to cloning and transfer of this gene to other major food crops, such as cereals and legumes, with inferior nutritional quality for monogastric animals.

  18. Selection of suitable reference genes for assessing gene expression in pearl millet under different abiotic stresses and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] a widely used grain and forage crop, is grown in areas frequented with one or more abiotic stresses, has superior drought and heat tolerance and considered a model crop for stress tolerance studies. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target stress-responsive gene expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of improved stress tolerance. For precise normalization of gene expression data in pearl millet, ten candidate reference genes were examined in various developmental tissues as well as under different individual abiotic stresses and their combinations at 1 h (early) and 24 h (late) of stress using geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed EF-1α and UBC-E2 as the best reference genes across all samples, the specificity of which was confirmed by assessing the relative expression of a PgAP2 like-ERF gene that suggested use of these two reference genes is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization under different stress conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different individual and multiple abiotic stresses in pearl millet. The study can further facilitate fastidious discovery of stress-tolerance genes in this important stress-tolerant crop. PMID:26972345

  19. Glycemic index and quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) flakes with enhanced shelf life.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kavita B; Chimmad, Bharati V; Itagi, Sunanda

    2015-09-01

    Little millet is a minor cereal crop contains several nutraceutical components. Ready To Cook (RTC) flakes of the millet exhibited higher total dietary fiber content (22.40 %) compared to dehulled grain (15.80 %). One serving (30 g) of RTC flakes provided 2.25 g of protein, 0.13 g of fat, 0.13 g of total minerals, 9.67 mg of iron and zero trans fats. The flakes possessed a medium Glycemic Index (GI) of 52.11 ranging from 41.57 to 61.80 among normal volunteers. Glycemic Load (GL) of the flakes was a low of 9.24. The RTC flakes exhibited an acceptability index of 81.11. The flakes possessed a shelf life of more than 6 months with an acceptability index of 67.55, moisture content of 11.82 per cent and Free fatty acid content of 18.02 per cent at the end of sixth month of storage period.

  20. Biology, Genetics, and Management of Ergot (Claviceps spp.) in Rye, Sorghum, and Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Miedaner, Thomas; Geiger, Hartwig H.

    2015-01-01

    Ergot is a disease of cereals and grasses caused by fungi in the genus Claviceps. Of particular concern are Claviceps purpurea in temperate regions, C. africana in sorghum (worldwide), and C. fusiformis in pearl millet (Africa, Asia). The fungi infect young, usually unfertilized ovaries, replacing the seeds by dark mycelial masses known as sclerotia. The percentage of sclerotia in marketable grain is strictly regulated in many countries. In winter rye, ergot has been known in Europe since the early Middle Ages. The alkaloids produced by the fungus severely affect the health of humans and warm-blooded animals. In sorghum and pearl millet, ergot became a problem when growers adopted hybrid technology, which increased host susceptibility. Plant traits reducing ergot infection include immediate pollination of receptive stigmas, closed flowering (cleistogamy), and physiological resistance. Genetic, nonpollen-mediated variation in ergot susceptibility could be demonstrated in all three affected cereals. Fungicides have limited efficacy and application is weather dependent. Sorting out the sclerotia from the harvest by photocells is expensive and time consuming. In conclusion, molecular-based hybrid rye breeding could improve pollen fertility by introgressing effective restorer genes thus bringing down the ergot infection level to that of conventional population cultivars. A further reduction might be feasible in the future by selecting more resistant germplasm. PMID:25723323

  1. Effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein of foxtail millet after extruding or fermenting and the raw foxtail millet was extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive protea...

  2. [Effects of mulching patterns on soil water, broomcorn millet growth, photosynthetic charac- teristics and yield in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China].

    PubMed

    Su, Wang; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Qu, Yang; Li, Cui; Miao, Jia-Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Li; Liu, Jian-Hua; Feng, Bai-Li

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of mulching patterns on soil water, growth, photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of broomcorn millet in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China. In a three-year field experiment from 2011 to 2013, we compared four different mulching patterns with traditional plat planting (no mulching) as the control (CK). The mulching patterns included W ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (SG), common ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (LM), double ridges covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (QM), and the traditional plat planting covered with straw (JG). The results showed that the soil water storage in 0-100 cm layer was significantly higher in all mulching patterns than in CK, particularly in SG then followed by LM, QM and JG, and the differences among the mulching patterns reached a significant level at the different growth stages of broomcorn millet. Among all mulching patterns, SG had the greatest effect on the growth and photosynthesis of broomcorn millet, respectively increasing the yield and WUE by 55.9% and 64.9% over CK, and the differences among the mulching patterns also reached a significant level. Therefore, SG was recommended as an efficient planting pattern for broomcorn millet production in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China.

  3. Apomictic and sexual pearl millet X Pennisetum squamulatum hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Dujardin, M.; Hanna, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen, an apomictic East African grass (2n = 54) was crossed to tetraploid (2n = 28) sexual pearl millet, P. americanum L. Leeke to study the potential for germplasm exchange. Twenty interspecific hybrids (2n = 41) with 14 pearl millet and 27 P. squamulatum chromosomes were obtained. All resembled P. squamulatum in perennial growth habit and inflorescence characteristics and resembled pearl millet in leafiness and pencillate anther tips. Seventeen of these hybrids were more vigorous than either parent. The most common chromosome association at metaphase I was 18 bivalents plus 5 univalents. At anaphase I and telophase I laggards, fragments, and unequal chromosome distribution were observed. Fifteen of 17 interspecific hybrids reproduced by facultative apomixis, one was sexual and one was an obligate apomict. Ovules with aposporous embryo sacs ranged from 1 to 93% in facultative apomictic plants. Morphological characteristics and chromosome numbers of open-pollinated progeny from the apomictic interspecific hybrid were identical to those of the seed parent indicating obligate apomictic reproduction. Both sexual and apomictic hybrids were partially male fertile with pollen stainability ranging from 29 percent to 79 percent and seed-set ranging from 1 to 60 seed per inflorescence under open-pollination. Development of fertile apomictic pearl millet-P. squamulatum interspecific hybrids appears to be a very useful tool for the transfer of genes for apomixis from the wild species to pearl millet.

  4. In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic response of foxtail millet and its products.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin; Chen, Jing; Molla, Mohammad Mainuddin; Wang, Chao; Diao, Xianmin; Shen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet, as a leading variety in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa, can provide broad potential benefits to human health. However, its digestion properties have not been reported. So in this study, the in vitro starch digestibilities and in vivo glycemic indices (GI) of foxtail millet and pure millet products were investigated. The results showed that starch digestibility of the foxtail millet flour is obviously lower than that of wheat flour. However, deproteinization and heating significantly increased its rapidly digestible starch and decreased its slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. The GIs of pure millet products were in the following order: millet porridge (93.6 ± 11.3) > millet steamed bread (89.6 ± 8.8) > No. 1 millet pancake (75.0% millet flour and 25.0% extrusion flour, 83.0 ± 9.6) > No. 2 millet pancake (without extrusion flour, 76.2 ± 10.7) > cooked millet (64.4 ± 8.5). They were significantly positively correlated with the rapidly digestible starch (r = 0.959), degree of gelatinization (r = 0.967) and estimated glycemic index (r = 0.988). Both in vitro and in vivo tests suggested that boiling, steaming and extrusion enhanced the formation of digestible starch and subsequently increased the GI values. Additionally, the No. 1 millet pancake and cooked millet had a relatively gentle stimulation on β-cell. Therefore, foxtail millet, especially the cooked millet, may serve as a potential source of nutraceutical and functional food that could delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Dominant gene for rust resistance in pearl millet

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Wells, H.D.; Burton, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Rust (Puccinia substriata var. indica) resistance was discovered in three Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke subspecies monodii (Maire) Brunken accessions from Senegal. Resistant plant were free of rust, although the bottom one or two leaves of some plants did develop a brown discoloration without pustules. Resistance was controlled by a dominant gene assigned the gene symbol Rr1. Backcrossing has been effective in transferring resistance from the wild grassy, monodii to cultivated pearl millet. The Rr1 gene should be useful in the production of rust resistant pearl millet hybrids and cultivars. 6 references, 1 table.

  6. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P.; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops. PMID:27965689

  7. Effects of raw and diluted municipal sewage effluent with micronutrient foliar sprays on the growth and nutrient concentration of foxtail millet in southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Asgharipour, Mohammad Reza; Reza Azizmoghaddam, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the effect of irrigation with raw or diluted municipal sewage effluent accompanied by foliar micronutrient fertilizer sprays was examined on the growth, dry matter accumulation, grain yield, and mineral nutrients in foxtail millet plants. The experimental design was a split plot with three irrigation sources: raw sewage, 50% diluted sewage, and well water comprising the main treatments, and four combinations of Mn and Zn foliar sprays as sub-treatments that were applied with four replications. The experiment was conducted in 2009 at the Zabol University research farm in Zabol, south Iran. The applied municipal sewage effluent contained higher levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and exhibited greater degrees of electrical conductivity compared to well water. Because of the small scale of industrial activities in Zabol, the amount of heavy metals in the sewage was negligible (below the limits set for irrigation water in agricultural lands); these contaminants would not be severely detrimental to crop growth. The experimental results indicated that irrigation of plants with raw or diluted sewage stimulates the measured growth and productivity parameters of foxtail millet plants. The concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients were also positively affected. These stimulations were attributed to the presence of high levels of such essential nutrients as N, P, and organic matter in wastewater. Supplied in sewage water alone, Mn and Zn were not able to raise the productivity of millet to the level obtained using fertilizers at the recommended values; this by itself indicated that additional nutrients from fertilizers are required to obtain higher levels of millet productivity with sewage farming. Despite the differences in nutrient concentrations among the different irrigation water sources, the micronutrient foliar sprays did not affect the concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients in foxtail millet plants. These results suggested

  8. Producing and Marketing Proso Millet in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proso millet is a short-season summer crop that produces well in the semi-arid western Great Plains and is suitable for diversifying and intensifying dryland production systems. Proso allows transition back to winter wheat in cropping rotations. No-till methods work well with proso establishment. Pr...

  9. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Gemenet, Dorcus C.; Leiser, Willmar L.; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H.; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F. W.; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T.; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I. G.

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  10. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time.

  11. Evaluation of dough rheological properties and bread texture of pearl millet-wheat flour mix.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Moulis, Claire; Hajji, Hejer; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making.

  12. Phenolic and carotenoid profiles and antiproliferative activity of foxtail millet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Zhen; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-05-01

    Commonly consumed foxtail millet varieties Jingu28 and Jingu34 were compared in terms of phytochemical composition, antioxidant property, and antiproliferative activity. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was evaluated based on HepG2 cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties against HepG2 and MDA cell were assayed by methylene blue assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was 78.79 and 114.22 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW in Jingu28 and Jingu34. Both varieties contained ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid. Xanthophylls and zeaxanthin were also detected. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the foxtail millet were 228.13 (Jingu28) and 355.03 (Jingu34) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g, respectively. CAA values of the foxtail millet varieties ranged from 1.52 to 8.97 μmol quercetin equiv/100 g DW. The proliferation of MDA and HepG2 cancer cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to Jingu28 and Jingu34 extractions.

  13. Effect of drought stress on gas exchange in channel millet (Echinochloa turneriana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum)

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.G.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on well-watered and droughted plants of the drought resistant pearl millet and of channel millet, a potential new crop for semi-arid regions. Photosynthesis and water use efficiency were similar for controls of both species at atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and were reduced similarly by drought in both species. The CO{sub 2} saturated rate and the carboxylation efficiency were lowered by drought in both species, while stomatal limitation was increased by drought. Autoradiograms indicated that photosynthesis occurs evenly over the surface of well-watered control leaves of both species, but not in leaves of droughted plants. This could result in an overestimate of the effect of nonstomatal inhibition of photosynthesis by drought.

  14. [Effects of climate warming and drying on millet yield in Gansu Province and related countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Wang, Qiang; Deng, Zhen-yong; Guo, Xiao-qin; Ma, Xing-xiang; Ning, Hui-fang

    2010-11-01

    Based on the data of air temperature, precipitation, and millet yield from Ganzhou, Anding, and Xifeng, the representative stations in Hexi moderate arid oasis irrigation area, moderate sub-arid dry area in middle Gansu, and moderate sub-humid dry area in eastern Gansu, respectively, this paper calculated the regional active accumulated temperature of > or = 0 degrees C, > or =5 degrees C, > or =10 degrees C, > or =15 degrees C, and > or =20 degrees C in millet growth period, and the average temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages. The millet climatic yield was isolated by orthogonal polynomial, and the change characteristics of climate and millet climatic yield as well as the effects of climate change on millet yield were analyzed by statistical methods of linear tendency, cumulative anomaly, and Mann-Kendall. The results showed that warming and drying were the main regional features in the modern climatic change of Gansu. The regional temperature had a significant upward trend since the early 1990s, while the precipitation was significantly reduced from the late 1980s. There were significant correlations between millet yield and climatic factors. The millet yield in dry areas increased with the increasing temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages, and that in Hexi Corridor area increased with increasing temperature. Warming and drying affected millet yield prominently. The weather fluctuation index of regional millet yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou accounted for 73%, 72%, and 54% of real output coefficient variation, respectively, and the percentages increased significantly after warming. Warming was conducive to the increase of millet production, and the annual increment of millet climatic yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou after warming was 30.6, 43.1, and 121.1 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Aiming at the warming and drying trend in Gansu Province in the future, the millet planting area in the Province should be further

  15. Biofortification of pearl millet with iron and zinc in a randomized controlled trial increases absorption of these minerals above physiologic requirements in young children.

    PubMed

    Kodkany, Bhalchandra S; Bellad, Roopa M; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Westcott, Jamie E; Krebs, Nancy F; Kemp, Jennifer F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-09-01

    Millet is unusually drought resistant and consequently there is a progressive increase in the use of these grains as a human food staple, especially in large areas of India and sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorption of iron and zinc from pearl millet biofortified with 2 micronutrients that are typically deficient in nonfortified, plant-based diets globally. The study was undertaken in 40 children aged 2 y in Karnataka, India (n = 21 test/19 controls). Three test meals providing ∼84 ± 17 g dry pearl millet flour were fed on a single day for zinc and 2 d for iron between 0900 and 1600 h. The quantities of zinc and iron absorbed were measured with established stable isotope extrinsic labeling techniques and analyses of duplicate diets. The mean (± SD) quantities of iron absorbed from test and control groups were 0.67 ± 0.48 and 0.23 ± 0.15 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.001). The quantities of zinc absorbed were 0.95 ± 0.47 and 0.67 ± 0.24 mg/d, respectively (P = 0.03). These data did not include absorption of the modest quantities of iron and zinc contained in snacks eaten before and after the 3 test meals. In conclusion, quantities of both iron and zinc absorbed when iron and zinc biofortified pearl millet is fed to children aged 2 y as the major food staple is more than adequate to meet the physiological requirements for these micronutrients.

  16. Higher iron pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) provides more absorbable iron that is limited by increased polyphenolic content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Our objective was to compare the capacity of iron (Fe) biofortified and standard pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It is common primarily in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and ...

  17. Hydration behaviour of food grains and modelling their moisture pick up as per Peleg's equation: Part I. Cereals.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Singh; Vishwanathan, K H; Aswathanarayana, K N; Indhudhara Swamy, Y M

    2010-01-01

    Cereals and millets generally hydrate at a moderate rate and their hydration behaviour differs in native and in processed state. The study was on the hydration of paddy, milled rice, parboiled rice, wheat, millets and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) on soaking at room temperature. Paddy hydrated very slowly, hydration rate was slow in brown rice but fast in milled rice and highest in waxy rice. In most of the rice varieties, maximum absorption occurred at the end of 30 min. In wheat hydration rate was slow and its EMC was highest (43%). Maize grits of big size hydrated slowly compared to small grits. In coarse cereals EMC varied from 28 to 38%. Foxtail millet hydration was slow whereas that of finger millet was fast. The data were tested on the Peleg's equation, which gave a reasonable fit to experimental data. Peleg's constants k1 and k2 were calculated for the above grains and their hydration behaviour has been predicted. The model fitted very well to milled rice hydration data where the coefficient of variance ranged from 0.9982 to 0.9995. With exception in some millet the hydration data fitted well with the Peleg's equation. Generalized equations have been formulated for prediction of moisture content of cereals and millets.

  18. Studies on long-term impact of STCR based integrated fertilizer use on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system in semi arid condition of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pandey, R N; Sharma, B M

    2015-01-01

    A long-term field experiment on pearl millet - wheat cropping system with soil test crop response correlation (STCR) based fertilizer application was initiated during kharif- 2003 on a sandy loam soil (Typic Halustept) at a research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The aim of the experiment was to study the impact of STCR based integrated fertilizer application for targeted yield of pearl millet - wheat cropping sequence yield and changes in soil health. The result showed a significant and positive impact of integrated use of the fertilizerwith FYM on productivity of the cropping sequence and soil fertility. The STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations with FYM produced significantly higher grain and straw yields of pearl millet and wheat crops as compared to other treatments. The highest average (2003 to 2010-11) grain and straw yield of pearl millet (2.85 and 6.59 t ha(-1)) and wheat (5.32 and 7.17 t ha(-1)) was recorded with the application of STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations (T2) for targeted level of yield 2.5 and 5.0 ha(-1), respectively. Average increase in grain and straw yield of pearl millet was 203 and 197% and 196 and 193% of wheat under T2 treatment over control (T4). After harvest of wheat crops (2010-11), the physical, biological properties and fertility status i.e. available N, P and K of soil were improved in the treatments where STCR based integrated fertilizer dose with 10 t FYM (T2) and FYM @20 t ha(-1)(T1) were applied in both the crops and were significantly higher as compared to T3 treatment except available phosphorus. Economic analysis based on average yield of eight cropping sequence (2003 to 2010-11), pearl millet - wheat cropping sequence gave maximum net return of Rs. 100,907 ha(-1) yr(-1) and total return of Rs. 64,992/ ha(-1)yr(-1) over control with STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations (T2). It is concluded that STCR based integrated fertilizer can be adopted by the farmers

  19. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits.

    PubMed

    Shobana, S; Krishnaswamy, K; Sudha, V; Malleshi, N G; Anjana, R M; Palaniappan, L; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Finger millet or ragi is one of the ancient millets in India (2300 BC), and this review focuses on its antiquity, consumption, nutrient composition, processing, and health benefits. Of all the cereals and millets, finger millet has the highest amount of calcium (344mg%) and potassium (408mg%). It has higher dietary fiber, minerals, and sulfur containing amino acids compared to white rice, the current major staple in India. Despite finger millet's rich nutrient profile, recent studies indicate lower consumption of millets in general by urban Indians. Finger millet is processed by milling, malting, fermentation, popping, and decortication. Noodles, vermicilli, pasta, Indian sweet (halwa) mixes, papads, soups, and bakery products from finger millet are also emerging. In vitro and in vivo (animal) studies indicated the blood glucose lowering, cholesterol lowering, antiulcerative, wound healing properties, etc., of finger millet. However, appropriate intervention or randomized clinical trials are lacking on these health effects. Glycemic index (GI) studies on finger millet preparations indicate low to high values, but most of the studies were conducted with outdated methodology. Hence, appropriate GI testing of finger millet preparations and short- and long-term human intervention trials may be helpful to establish evidence-based health benefits.

  20. Identification of the ``a'' Genome of Finger Millet Using Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hilu, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine corocana subsp. coracana), an important cereal in East Africa and India, is a tetraploid species with unknown genomic components. A recent cytogenetic study confirmed the direct origin of this millet from the tetraploid E. coracana subsp. africana but questioned Eleusine indica as a genomic donor. Chloroplast (ct) DNA sequence analysis using restriction fragment pattern was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships between E. coracana subsp. coracana (domesticated finger millet), E. coracana subspecies africana (wild finger millet), and E. indica. Eleusine tristachya was included since it is the only other annual diploid species in the genus with a basic chromosome number of x = 9 like finger millet. Eight of the ten restriction endonucleases used had 16 to over 30 restriction sites per genome and were informative. E. coracana subsp. coracana and subsp. africana and E. indica were identical in all the restriction sites surveyed, while the ct genome of E. tristachya differed consistently by at least one mutational event for each restriction enzyme surveyed. This random survey of the ct genomes of these species points out E. indica as one of the genome donors (maternal genome donor) of domesticated finger millet contrary to a previous cytogenetic study. The data also substantiate E. coracana subsp. africana as the progenitor of domesticated finger millet. The disparity between the cytogenetic and the molecular approaches is discussed in light of the problems associated with chromosome pairing and polyploidy. PMID:8608927

  1. Whole plant acclimation responses by finger millet to low nitrogen stress

    PubMed Central

    Goron, Travis L.; Bhosekar, Vijay K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Watts, Sophia; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    The small grain cereal, finger millet (FM, Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn), is valued by subsistence farmers in India and East Africa as a low-input crop. It is reported by farmers to require no added nitrogen (N), or only residual N, to produce grain. Exact mechanisms underlying the acclimation responses of FM to low N are largely unknown, both above and below ground. In particular, the responses of FM roots and root hairs to N or any other nutrient have not previously been reported. Given its low N requirement, FM also provides a rare opportunity to study long-term responses to N starvation in a cereal species. The objective of this study was to survey the shoot and root morphometric responses of FM, including root hairs, to low N stress. Plants were grown in pails in a semi-hydroponic system on clay containing extremely low background N, supplemented with N or no N. To our surprise, plants grown without deliberately added N grew to maturity, looked relatively normal and produced healthy seed heads. Plants responded to the low N treatment by decreasing shoot, root, and seed head biomass. These declines under low N were associated with decreased shoot tiller number, crown root number, total crown root length and total lateral root length, but with no consistent changes in root hair traits. Changes in tiller and crown root number appeared to coordinate the above and below ground acclimation responses to N. We discuss the remarkable ability of FM to grow to maturity without deliberately added N. The results suggest that FM should be further explored to understand this trait. Our observations are consistent with indigenous knowledge from subsistence farmers in Africa and Asia, where it is reported that this crop can survive extreme environments. PMID:26347768

  2. Apomictic interspecific hybrids between pearl millet and Pennisetum orientale L. C. Rich

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Dujardin, M.

    1982-07-01

    Pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke, is an important world food and forage crop. Pennisetum orientale L. C. Rich. has genes for apomixis, perennial growth habit, pest resistance, and drought tolerance which could be used to improve pearl millet. The objectives of this research were to determine the cytotaxonomic relationship of these two species and to explore the feasibility of interspecific germplasm transfer. Five interspecific hybrids, 2n = 25, with 7 large P. americanum millet (A) and 18 small P. orientale (O) chromosomes were produced by pollinating cytoplasmic male sterile pearl millet with P. orientale pollen. The O chromosomes paired mainly as bivalents and the A chromosomes remained as univalents. A low frequency of AO chromosome associations were observed. Although the possibility of germplasm exchange existed, the two species appeared to be not closely related. Among three hybrids examined, one was a facultative apomict, one was an obligate apomict and another was highly apomictic with 3% of ovules with sexual embryo sacs. Sixteen backcross progenies were established from interspecific hybrids pollinated with pearl millet pollen. Seven plants were 2n = 23 with 14 A + 9 O chromosomes, five were 2n = 27 with 7 A + 20 O chromosomes and four were 2n = 32 with 14 A and 18 O chromosomes. The balanced chromosome number for both species in these latter plants should provide a mechanism for restoring fertility in the interspecific hybrid thus enabling germplasm transfer. The interspecific hybrids were male sterile but set about 1% seed when pollinated with pearl millet pollen.

  3. Apomictic interspecific hybrids between pearl millet and Pennisetum orientale L. C. Rich

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Dujardin, M.

    1982-07-01

    Pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke, is an important world food and forage crop. Pennisetum orientale L.C. Rich. has genes for apomixis, perennial growth habit, pest resistance, and drought tolerance which could be used to improve pearl millet. The objectives of this research were to determine the cytotaxonomic relationship of these two species and to explore the feasibility of interspecific germplasm transfer. Five interspecific hybrids, 2n = 25, with 7 large P. americanum millet (A) and 18 small P. orientale (0) chromosomes were produced by pollinating cytoplasmic male sterile pearl millet with P. orientale pollen. Although the possibility of germplasm exchange existed, the two species appeared to be not closely related. Among three hybrids examined, one was a facultative apomict, one was an obligate apomict and another was highly apomictic with 3% of ovules with sexual embryo sacs. Sixteen backcross progenies were established from interspecific hybrids pollinated with pearl millet pollen. The balanced chromosome number for both species in these latter plants should provide a mechanism for restoring fertility in the interspecific hybrid thus enabling germplasm transfer. The interspecific hybrids were male sterile but set about 1% seed when pollinated with pearl millet pollen.

  4. Scytalidium thermophilum-colonized grain, corncobs and chopped wheat straw substrates for the production of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jose E; Royse, Daniel J

    2009-02-01

    We examined the possibility of cultivating Agaricus bisporus (Ab) on various grains and agricultural by-products, with the objective of improving yield capacity of substrate pre-colonized by Scytalidium thermophilum (St). Radial growth rate (RGR) of St at 45 degrees C ranged from no growth on sterile wheat grain to 14.9 mm/d on whole oats. The linear extension rate (LER) of Ab, grown on St-colonized substrate (4 days at 45 degrees C), ranged from a low of 2.7 mm/d on 100% corncobs to 4.7 mm/d on a 50/50 mixture of ground corncobs/millet grain. Several other substrates containing wheat straw+ground corncobs+boiled millet and pre-colonized by St (4 days at 42+/-3 degrees C), were evaluated for production of Ab. The biological efficiency (BE) of production increased linearly with the addition of millet to the formula. However, substrates with millet levels 84% often were contaminated before mushroom harvest. Maximum BE (99%) and yield (21.6 kg/m(2)) were obtained on St-colonized wheat straw+2% hydrated lime supplemented with 9% commercial supplement added both at spawning and at casing.

  5. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    PubMed

    Hema, Ramanna; Vemanna, Ramu S; Sreeramulu, Shivakumar; Reddy, Chandrasekhara P; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2014-01-01

    Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD), were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  7. Ectopic expression of foxtail millet zip-like gene, SiPf40, in transgenic rice plants causes a pleiotropic phenotype affecting tillering, vascular distribution and root development.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yunxia; Wang, Baosheng; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2010-12-01

    Plant architecture determines grain production in rice (Oryza sativa) and is affected by important agronomic traits such as tillering, plant height, and panicle morphology. Many key genes involved in controlling the initiation and outgrowth of axillary buds, the elongation of stems, and the architecture of inflorescences have been isolated and analyzed. Previous studies have shown that SiPf40, which was identified from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica) immature seed cDNA library, causes extra branches and tillers in SiPf40-transgenic tobacco and foxtail millet, respectively. To reconfirm its function, we generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing SiPf40 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. SiPf40-overexpressing transgenic plants have a greater tillering number and a wider tiller angle than wild-type plants. Their root architecture is modified by the promotion of lateral root development, and the distribution of xylem and phloem in the vascular bundle is affected. Analysis of hormone levels showed that the ratios of indole-3-acetic acid/zeatin (IAA/ZR) and IAA/gibberellic acid (IAA/GA) decreased in SiPf40-transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. These findings strongly suggest that SiPf40 plays an important role in plant architecture.

  8. Simulating the evolution of glyphosate resistance in grains farming in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thornby, David F.; Walker, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of resistance to herbicides is a substantial problem in contemporary agriculture. Solutions to this problem generally consist of the use of practices to control the resistant population once it evolves, and/or to institute preventative measures before populations become resistant. Herbicide resistance evolves in populations over years or decades, so predicting the effectiveness of preventative strategies in particular relies on computational modelling approaches. While models of herbicide resistance already exist, none deals with the complex regional variability in the northern Australian sub-tropical grains farming region. For this reason, a new computer model was developed. Methods The model consists of an age- and stage-structured population model of weeds, with an existing crop model used to simulate plant growth and competition, and extensions to the crop model added to simulate seed bank ecology and population genetics factors. Using awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) as a test case, the model was used to investigate the likely rate of evolution under conditions expected to produce high selection pressure. Key Results Simulating continuous summer fallows with glyphosate used as the only means of weed control resulted in predicted resistant weed populations after approx. 15 years. Validation of the model against the paddock history for the first real-world glyphosate-resistant awnless barnyard grass population shows that the model predicted resistance evolution to within a few years of the real situation. Conclusions This validation work shows that empirical validation of herbicide resistance models is problematic. However, the model simulates the complexities of sub-tropical grains farming in Australia well, and can be used to investigate, generate and improve glyphosate resistance prevention strategies. PMID:19567415

  9. Simulation Design of the Spiral Groove Precision Seed-Metering Device for Small Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongguang; Guo, Yuming

    At present, most of small grain crops such as millet and forage seeds are sown by external force feed in mainland China, which has some problems of wasting seeds, uneven seed distribution and so on. Therefore, it is needed to design a precise feed device for small grain corps. The author's of this paper seed-metering device using Pro/Engineer. The movement simulation and module. According to the analysis results, the defaults of the feed device were showed that this device is simple and suitable and suitable for the seeding requirements of small grains.

  10. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-02-01

    Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours). The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU). Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU), trough (442 RVU), breakdown viscosity (20 RVU), final viscosity (975 RVU), setback (533 RVU), peak time (5.47 min) and pasting temperature (89.60 °C). These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab) showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  11. Insights using the molecular model of Lipoxygenase from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.))

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) protein provides defense against pests and pathogens and its presence have been positively correlated with plant resistance against pathogens. Linoleate is a known substrate of lipoxygenase and it induces necrosis leading to the accumulation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins in plant leaves. Therefore, it is of interest to study the structural features of LOX-1 from Finger millet. However, the structure ofLOX-1 from Finger millet is not yet known. A homology model of LOX-1 from Finger millet is described. Domain architecture study suggested the presence of two domains namely PLAT (Phospho Lipid Acyl Transferase) and lipoxygenase. Molecular docking models of linoleate with lipoxygenase from finger millet, rice and sorghum are reported. The features of docked models showed that finger millet have higher pathogen resistance in comparison to other cereal crops. This data is useful for the molecular cloning of fulllength LOX-1 gene for validating its role in improving plant defense against pathogen infection and for various other biological processes. PMID:28149050

  12. Genomic valorization of the fine scale classification of small millet landraces in southern India.

    PubMed

    Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Dhivya, Shanmughanandhan; Jijo, Chitilappilly Joseph; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Patel, Kirit

    2013-02-01

    Our research seeks to investigate genomic diversity of landraces of millet, addressing a key uncertainty that will provide a framework for (i) a DNA barcode method that could be used for fast, sensitive, and accurate identification of millet landraces, and (ii) millet landrace conservation including biocultural diversity. We found considerable intraspecific variation among 15 landraces representing six species of small millets using nuclear regions (ITS, ITS1, and ITS2); there was no variation in plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA). An efficacious ITS2 DNA barcode was used to make 100% accurate landrace assignments for 150 blind samples representing 15 landraces. Our research revealed that genomic variation is aligned with a fine-scale classification of landraces using traditional knowledge (TK) of local farmers. The landrace classification was highly correlated with traits (morphological, agricultural, and cultural utility) associated with considerable factors such as yield, drought tolerance, growing season, medicinal properties, and nutrition. This could provide a DNA-based model for conservation of genetic diversity and the associated bicultural diversity (TK) of millet landraces, which has sustained marginal farming communities in harsh environments for many generations.

  13. Characterization of Pearl Millet Root Architecture and Anatomy Reveals Three Types of Lateral Roots

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Sixtine; Gnacko, Fatoumata; Moukouanga, Daniel; Lucas, Mikaël; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Ortega, Beatriz Moreno; Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Belko, Marème N.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Gantet, Pascal; Wells, Darren M.; Guédon, Yann; Vigouroux, Yves; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Muller, Bertrand; Laplaze, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet plays an important role for food security in arid regions of Africa and India. Nevertheless, it is considered an orphan crop as it lags far behind other cereals in terms of genetic improvement efforts. Breeding pearl millet varieties with improved root traits promises to deliver benefits in water and nutrient acquisition. Here, we characterize early pearl millet root system development using several different root phenotyping approaches that include rhizotrons and microCT. We report that early stage pearl millet root system development is characterized by a fast growing primary root that quickly colonizes deeper soil horizons. We also describe root anatomical studies that revealed three distinct types of lateral roots that form on both primary roots and crown roots. Finally, we detected significant variation for two root architectural traits, primary root lenght and lateral root density, in pearl millet inbred lines. This study provides the basis for subsequent genetic experiments to identify loci associated with interesting early root development traits in this important cereal. PMID:27379124

  14. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC).

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north.

  15. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700–500 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300–6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200–1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  16. Compositional Analysis of Whole Grains, Processed Grains, Grain Co-Products, and Other Carbohydrate Sources with Applicability to Pet Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Beloshapka, Alison N.; Buff, Preston R.; Fahey, George C.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed. Crude protein, amino acid, fat, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and mineral concentrations were highly variable among the respective fractions (i.e., barley flake vs. malted barley vs. steamed rolled barley) as well as among the various grains (i.e., barley flake vs. brown rice vs. canary grass seed). These ingredients not only provide a readily available energy source, but also a source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, essential amino acids, and macrominerals for pet diets. PMID:28231117

  17. Compositional Analysis of Whole Grains, Processed Grains, Grain Co-Products, and Other Carbohydrate Sources with Applicability to Pet Animal Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Buff, Preston R; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2016-03-25

    Our objective was to measure the proximate, starch, amino acid, and mineral compositions of grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with potential use in pet foods. Thirty-two samples from barley (barley flake, cut barley, ground pearled barley, malted barley, whole pearled barley, pearled barley flakes, and steamed rolled barley); oats (groats, ground oatmeal, ground steamed groats, instant oats, oat bran, oat fiber, oat flour, quick oats, regular rolled oats, steamed rolled oat groats, and steel cut groats); rice (brown rice, polished rice, defatted rice bran, and rice flour); and miscellaneous carbohydrate sources (canary grass seed, hulled millet, whole millet, quinoa, organic spelt hull pellets, potato flake, sorghum, whole wheat, and whole yellow corn) were analyzed. Crude protein, amino acid, fat, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and mineral concentrations were highly variable among the respective fractions (i.e., barley flake vs. malted barley vs. steamed rolled barley) as well as among the various grains (i.e., barley flake vs. brown rice vs. canary grass seed). These ingredients not only provide a readily available energy source, but also a source of dietary fiber, resistant starch, essential amino acids, and macrominerals for pet diets.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of elite foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] germplasm in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    China is among the countries that have the most severe water deficiency. Due to its excellent drought tolerance, foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] has become one of the important cereal crops in China. Information on genetic diversity and population structure of foxtail millet may faci...

  19. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  20. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    PubMed

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p < 0.05) than those fed the CTL diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p < 0.05) by raw pearl millet supplementation than CTL diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  1. Study through surveys and fermentation kinetics of the traditional processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) into ben-saalga, a fermented gruel from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tou, E H; Guyot, J P; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Rochette, I; Counil, E; Traoré, A S; Trèche, S

    2006-01-15

    Traditional cereal-based fermented foods are frequently used as complementary foods for infants and young children in Africa. This is the case for ben-saalga, a popular fermented gruel produced from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Burkina Faso. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and sanitary qualities of the corresponding foodstuff. In this work, the traditional processing of pearl millet into ben-saalga was investigated in 24 production units, and fermentation kinetics were studied in pilot scale experiments. Processing steps include: washing (optional), soaking of the grains (first fermentation step), grinding and sieving of the wet flour, settling (second fermentation step), and cooking. The soaking step was mainly characterized by alcoholic fermentation whereas lactic acid fermentation occurred during the settling step. Fermentation kinetics during settling indicates a temporal variation of metabolic activity. Initially, both homofermentative and heterofermentative pathways were simultaneously active, and later only a homofermentative pathway was active. The paste produced at the end of settling had a low pH (4.0+/-0.4) and its microflora was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with an amylolytic LAB/LAB ratio of 12%. Sucrose disappeared in the grains during soaking but was not detected in the soaking water, whereas glucose, fructose and maltose appeared transiently. Glucose and fructose were the main substrates observed for lactic acid fermentation during the settling step; however unbalanced fermentation led to the hypothesis that starch hydrolysis products may also serve as substrates for lactic acid formation. At the end of the processing, a 75% and 83% decrease was observed in phytate (IP6) and raffinose, respectively. The sour gruel ben-saalga resulting from cooking the sour paste had inadequate nutritional characteristics with respect to infants' and young

  2. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites.

  3. Proso Millet Yield and Residue Mass Following Direct Harvest with a Stripper-header

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (PM) is an important crop for dryland agricultural rotations in the central Great Plains. The crop is traditionally swathed prior to combining to promote uniform drying of the panicle and to minimize seed shattering losses. Direct harvesting of PM with a stripper ...

  4. Proso millet yield and residue mass following direct harvest with a stripper-header

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (PM) is an important crop for dryland agricultural rotations in the central Great Plains. The crop is traditionally swathed prior to combining to promote uniform drying of the panicle and to minimize seed shattering losses. Direct harvesting of PM with a stripper ...

  5. Genomic Tools in Pearl Millet Breeding for Drought Tolerance: Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Serba, Desalegn D.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production. PMID:27920783

  6. Evaluation of resistance to chinch bug in pearl millet in temperate and subtropical environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to chinch bug [Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say)] at Lincoln, NE and Tifton, GA in 2003 and 2004. Plant damage from insect feeding was assessed throughout the growing season. Differences plant mortali...

  7. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  8. Registration of ‘plateau’ waxy (amylose-free) proso millet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waxy (amylose-free starch) proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) cultivar ‘Plateau’ was developed by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. In addition, faculty and staff from University of Wyoming (UW), Colorado State University (CSU), and USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE and Akron, CO assisted in tr...

  9. Proso Millet Harvest: A Comparison of Conventional Harvest and Direct Harvest with a Stripper Header

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research was conducted to determine if proso millet can be harvested with a stripper header. Stripper headers use extremely fast rotating metal teeth to rip the seed off the plant and leave the majority of residue standing in the field as opposed to cutting off the entire plant and running tha...

  10. Genomic Tools in Pearl Millet Breeding for Drought Tolerance: Status and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Serba, Desalegn D; Yadav, Rattan S

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production.

  11. Identification of earl millet cultivars using both microsatellites and enzymatic markers.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Neto, R P; Von Pinho, E V R; Carvalho, B L; Pereira, G S

    2013-01-07

    The increasing number of protected and registered cultivars and problems involving seed commercialization make distinction and identification of cultivars imperative. Millet (Pennisetum glaucum), a crop species with protected cultivars in Brazil, has been the target of seed piracy. Thus, with the objective of identifying different lots with regard to origin, we characterized six cultivars of commercialized millet of proven origin by means of the electrophoretic patterns of the isoenzymes alcohol dehydrogenase, esterase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and by microsatellite markers, using primers specific for millet. The six cultivars were separated with four microsatellite loci. Based on this characterization, certification of genetic purity was undertaken for public domain commercialized seed lots. The isoenzymatic markers were also tested for stability of the patterns. Esterase patterns were altered in seeds with different physiological quality and health conditions, but this alteration did not hinder identification of the cultivars. It was observed that most of the millet seed lots commercialized in Brazil as being in public domain belong to other cultivars.

  12. Seeded-yet-sterile biomass feedstocks: Kinggrass and pearl millet-napiergrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. x P. glaucum [L.] R. Br.) and Pearl Millet-Napiergrass (PMN; P. glaucum x P. purpureum) are unique among energy grasses as 'Seeded-yet-Sterile' feedstocks, derived from fertile parents capable of producing significant quantities of hybrid seed while being st...

  13. Diapause initiation and incidence in the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): the role of the host plant.

    PubMed

    Tanzubil, P B; Mensah, G W; McCaffery, A R

    2000-08-01

    The role of the host plant in the development of larval diapause in the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson) was investigated in northern Ghana in 1996 and 1997. Surveys conducted in farmers' fields in the Guinea and Sudan savannah revealed that of all the upland cereals grown, the insect survived the dry season only in stalks and stubble of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum and late sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. This observation was confirmed by results from field trials conducted at the Manga Research Station. In these studies, C. ignefusalis larvae entered diapause only in late millet and late sorghum, with a higher incidence in the former. The insect neither attacked nor entered diapause in maize planted during the same period as the other crops. Results from controlled experiments showed that diapause incidence in the preferred host, millet, was higher in older than in younger plants, suggesting that host plant maturation is a key factor influencing the development of larval diapause in C. ignefusalis.

  14. Genotype and environment effects on ethanol yield from pearl millet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of rising feedstock costs and the grain-deficit status of the southeast, investors have committed to the construction of new ethanol plants in the region. The use of alternative feedstocks will help to alleviate market demand for corn both as a feedgrain and as an ethanol feedstock. As a dr...

  15. Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907

  16. The C-terminal motif of SiAGO1b is required for the regulation of growth, development and stress responses in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotong; Tang, Sha; Jia, Guanqing; Schnable, James C.; Su, Haixia; Tang, Chanjuan; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv), which belongs to the Panicoideae tribe of the Poaceae, is an important grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India. It is currently developing into a novel model species for functional genomics of the Panicoideae as a result of its fully available reference genome sequence, small diploid genome (2n=18, ~510Mb), short life cycle, small stature and prolific seed production. Argonaute 1 (AGO1), belonging to the argonaute (AGO) protein family, recruits small RNAs and regulates plant growth and development. Here, we characterized an AGO1 mutant (siago1b) in foxtail millet, which was induced by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The mutant exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects, including dwarfing stem, narrow and rolled leaves, smaller panicles and lower rates of seed setting. Map-based cloning analysis demonstrated that these phenotypic variations were attributed to a C–A transversion, and a 7-bp deletion in the C-terminus of the SiAGO1b gene in siago1b. Yeast two-hybrid assays and BiFC experiments revealed that the mutated region was an essential functional motif for the interaction between SiAGO1b and SiHYL1. Furthermore, 1598 differentially expressed genes were detected via RNA-seq-based comparison of SiAGO1b and wild-type plants, which revealed that SiAGO1b mutation influenced multiple biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell growth, programmed death and abiotic stress responses in foxtail millet. This study may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms by which SiAGO1b regulates the growth and development of crops. PMID:27045099

  17. Quality evaluation of millet-soy blended extrudates formulated through linear programming.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Singh, K K; Patil, R T; Onkar, Kolhe K

    2012-08-01

    Whole pearl millet, finger millet and decorticated soy bean blended (millet soy) extrudates formulations were designed using a linear programming (LP) model to minimize the total cost of the finished product. LP formulated composite flour was extruded through twin screw food extruder at different feed rate (6.5-13.5 kg/h), screw speed (200-350 rpm, constant feed moisture (14% wb), barrel temperature (120 °C) and cutter speed (15 rpm). The physical, functional, textural and pasting characteristics of extrudates were examined and their responses were studied. Expansion index (2.31) and sectional expansion index (5.39) was found to be was found maximum for feed rate and screw speed combination 9.5 kg/h and 250 rpm. However, density (0.25 × 10(-3) g/mm(3)) was maximum for 9.5 kg/h and 300 rpm combination. Maximum color change (10.32) was found for 9.5 kg/h feed rate and 200 rpm screw speed. The lower hardness was obtained for the samples extruded at lowest feed rate (6.5 kg/h) for all screw speed and feed rate at 9.5 kg/h for 300-350 rpm screw speed. Peak viscosity decreases with all screw speed of 9.5 kg/h feed rate.

  18. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    PubMed

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  19. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    PubMed Central

    Suma Pushparaj, Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively) on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K) and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB). The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA) owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA) reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components. PMID:26784663

  20. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2015-05-01

    The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total amount of the oil measured by using Soxhlet extraction), respectively. The effect of the extraction methods on the physicochemical properties (peroxide value, saponification value and color) was significant while the difference in fatty acid profile was negligible based on GC analysis. The major components of vitamin E in the obtained oils were identified as α- and β-tocopherols by HPLC, and SPE was superior to SE and SCE in the extraction of tocopherols. In Rancimat test, the oil obtained by SPE showed the highest oil oxidative stability, which could attribute to its high tocopherol content and low peroxide value. In view of oil quality, SPE employed smaller times and lower pressures compared to SE and SCE. SPE was a suitable and selective method for the extraction of the foxtail millet bran oil.

  1. Nutraceutical Value of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and Their Improvement Using Omics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Metwal, Mamta; Kaur, Sanveen; Gupta, Atul K.; Puranik, Swati; Singh, Sadhna; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Supriya; Babu, B. K.; Sood, Salej; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    The science of nutritional biology has progressed extensively over the last decade to develop food-based nutraceuticals as a form of highly personalized medicine or therapeutic agent. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is a crop with potentially tremendous but under-explored source of nutraceutical properties as compared to other regularly consumed cereals. In the era of growing divide and drawback of nutritional security, these characteristics must be harnessed to develop finger millet as a novel functional food. In addition, introgression of these traits into other staple crops can improve the well-being of the general population on a global scale. The objective of this review is to emphasize the importance of biofortification of finger millet in context of universal health and nutritional crisis. We have specifically highlighted the role that recent biotechnological advancements have to offer for enrichment of its nutritional value and how these developments can commission to the field of nutritional biology by opening new avenues for future research. PMID:27446162

  2. Nutraceutical Value of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and Their Improvement Using Omics Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Metwal, Mamta; Kaur, Sanveen; Gupta, Atul K; Puranik, Swati; Singh, Sadhna; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Supriya; Babu, B K; Sood, Salej; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    The science of nutritional biology has progressed extensively over the last decade to develop food-based nutraceuticals as a form of highly personalized medicine or therapeutic agent. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is a crop with potentially tremendous but under-explored source of nutraceutical properties as compared to other regularly consumed cereals. In the era of growing divide and drawback of nutritional security, these characteristics must be harnessed to develop finger millet as a novel functional food. In addition, introgression of these traits into other staple crops can improve the well-being of the general population on a global scale. The objective of this review is to emphasize the importance of biofortification of finger millet in context of universal health and nutritional crisis. We have specifically highlighted the role that recent biotechnological advancements have to offer for enrichment of its nutritional value and how these developments can commission to the field of nutritional biology by opening new avenues for future research.

  3. Analyzing millet price regimes and market performance in Niger with remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essam, Timothy Michael

    This dissertation concerns the analysis of staple food prices and market performance in Niger using remotely sensed vegetation indices in the form of normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI). By exploiting the link between weather-related vegetation production conditions, which serve as a proxy for spatially explicit millet yields and thus millet availability, this study analyzes the potential causal links between NDVI outcomes and millet market performance and presents an empirical approach for predicting changes in market performance based on NDVI outcomes. Overall, the thesis finds that inter-market price spreads and levels of market integration can be reasonably explained by deviations in vegetation index outcomes from the growing season. Negative (positive) NDVI shocks are associated with better (worse) than expected market performance as measured by converging inter-market price spreads. As the number of markets affected by negatively abnormal vegetation production conditions in the same month of the growing season increases, inter-market price dispersion declines. Positive NDVI shocks, however, do not mirror this pattern in terms of the magnitude of inter-market price divergence. Market integration is also found to be linked to vegetation index outcomes as below (above) average NDVI outcomes result in more integrated (segmented) markets. Climate change and food security policies and interventions should be guided by these findings and account for dynamic relationships among market structures and vegetation production outcomes.

  4. Presolar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, E. K.

    2003-12-01

    Traditionally, astronomers have studied the stars by using, with rare exception, electromagnetic radiation received by telescopes on and above the Earth. Since the mid-1980s, an additional observational window has been opened in the form of microscopic presolar grains found in primitive meteorites. These grains had apparently formed in stellar outflows of late-type stars and in the ejecta of stellar explosions and had survived the formation of the solar system. They can be located in and extracted from their parent meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. Their stellar origin is recognized by their isotopic compositions, which are completely different from those of the solar system and, for some elements, cover extremely wide ranges, leaving little doubt that the grains are ancient stardust.By the 1950s it had been conclusively established that the elements from carbon on up are produced by nuclear reactions in stars and the classic papers by Burbidge et al. (1957) and Cameron (1957) provided a theoretical framework for stellar nucleosynthesis. According to these authors, nuclear processes produce elements with very different isotopic compositions, depending on the specific stellar source. The newly produced elements are injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds or as supernova (SN) ejecta, enriching the galaxy in "metals" (all elements heavier than helium) and after a long galactic history the solar system is believed to have formed from a mix of this material. In fact, the original work by Burbidge et al. and Cameron was stimulated by the observation of regularities in the abundance of the nuclides in the solar system as obtained by the study of meteorites (Suess and Urey, 1956). Although providing only a grand average of many stellar sources, the solar system abundances of the elements and isotopes ( Anders and Grevesse, 1989; Grevesse et al., 1996; see Chapter 1.03; Lodders, 2003) remained an important test for nucleosynthesis

  5. Grain Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  6. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Cultivars and Landraces in China Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minxuan; Xu, Yue; He, Jihong; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Yinyue; Lu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), one of the first domesticated crops, has been grown in Northern China for at least 10,000 years. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 88 accessions of broomcorn millet collected from various provinces of China. Amplification with 67 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers revealed moderate levels of diversity in the investigated accessions. A total of 179 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.043 to 0.729 (mean = 0.376) and 0.045 to 0.771 (mean = 0.445), respectively. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method of mathematical averages separated the 88 accessions into four groups at a genetic similarity level of 0.633. A genetic structure assay indicated a close correlation between geographical regions and genetic diversity. The uncovered information will be valuable for defining gene pools and developing breeding programs for broomcorn millet. Furthermore, the millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study should serve as useful tools for assessment of genetic diversity and elucidation of population structure in broomcorn millet. PMID:26985894

  8. Inorganic arsenic and trace elements in Ghanaian grain staples.

    PubMed

    Adomako, Eureka E; Williams, Paul N; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2011-10-01

    A total of 549 samples of rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and millet were obtained from markets in Ghana, the EU, US and Asia. Analysis of the samples, originating from 21 countries in 5 continents, helped to establish global mean trace element concentrations in grains; thus placing the Ghanaian data within a global context. Ghanaian rice was generally low in potentially toxic elements, but high in essential nutrient elements. Arsenic concentrations in rice from US (0.22 mg/kg) and Thailand (0.15 mg/kg) were higher than in Ghanaian rice (0.11 mg/kg). Percentage inorganic arsenic content of the latter (83%) was, however, higher than for US (42%) and Thai rice (67%). Total arsenic concentration in Ghanaian maize, sorghum and millet samples (0.01 mg/kg) was an order of magnitude lower than in Ghanaian rice, indicating that a shift from rice-centric to multigrain diets could help reduce health risks posed by dietary exposure to inorganic As.

  9. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  10. Multiple origins of the phenol reaction negative phenotype in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., were caused by independent loss-of-function mutations of the polyphenol oxidase (Si7PPO) gene during domestication.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahiko; Yuo, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi; Hitomi, Eriko; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Kawase, Makoto; Taketa, Shin; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Foxtail millet shows variation in positive phenol color reaction (Phr) and negative Phr in grains, but predominant accessions of this crop are negative reaction type, and the molecular genetic basis of the Phr reaction remains unresolved. In this article, we isolated polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene responsible for Phr using genome sequence information and investigated molecular genetic basis of negative Phr and crop evolution of foxtail millet. First of all, we searched for PPO gene homologs in a foxtail millet genome database using a rice PPO gene as a query and successfully found three copies of the PPO gene. One of the PPO gene homologs on chromosome 7 showed the highest similarity with PPO genes expressed in hulls (grains) of other cereal species including rice, wheat, and barley and was designated as Si7PPO. Phr phenotypes and Si7PPO genotypes completely co-segregated in a segregating population. We also analyzed the genetic variation conferring negative Phr reaction. Of 480 accessions of the landraces investigated, 87 (18.1 %) showed positive Phr and 393 (81.9 %) showed negative Phr. In the 393 Phr negative accessions, three types of loss-of-function Si7PPO gene were predominant and independently found in various locations. One of them has an SNP in exon 1 resulting in a premature stop codon and was designated as stop codon type, another has an insertion of a transposon (Si7PPO-TE1) in intron 2 and was designated as TE1-insertion type, and the other has a 6-bp duplication in exon 3 resulting in the duplication of 2 amino acids and was designated as 6-bp duplication type. As a rare variant of the stop codon type, one accession additionally has an insertion of a transposon, Si7PPO-TE2, in intron 2 and was designated as "stop codon +TE2 insertion type". The geographical distribution of accessions with positive Phr and those with three major types of negative Phr was also investigated. Accessions with positive Phr were found in subtropical and tropical regions at

  11. Cereal Domestication and Evolution of Branching: Evidence for Soft Selection in the Tb1 Orthologue of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.)

    PubMed Central

    Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Lakis, Ghayas; Rekima, Samah; Leveugle, Magalie; Fontaine, Michaël C.; Langin, Thierry; Sarr, Aboubakry; Robert, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1) in maize. We investigate the role of the Tb1 orthologue (Pgtb1) in the domestication of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), an African outcrossing cereal. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene cloning, expression profiling, QTL mapping and molecular evolution analysis were combined in a comparative approach between pearl millet and maize. Our results in pearl millet support a role for PgTb1 in domestication despite important differences in the genetic basis of branching adaptation in that species compared to maize (e.g. weaker effects of PgTb1). Genetic maps suggest this pattern to be consistent in other cereals with reduced branching (e.g. sorghum, foxtail millet). Moreover, although the adaptive sites underlying domestication were not formerly identified, signatures of selection pointed to putative regulatory regions upstream of both Tb1 orthologues in maize and pearl millet. However, the signature of human selection in the pearl millet Tb1 is much weaker in pearl millet than in maize. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that some level of parallel evolution involved at least regions directly upstream of Tb1 for the domestication of pearl millet and maize. This was unanticipated given the multigenic basis of domestication traits and the divergence of wild progenitor species for over 30 million years prior to human selection. We also hypothesized that regular introgression of domestic pearl millet phenotypes by genes from the wild gene pool could explain why the selective

  12. Unexpected pattern of pearl millet genetic diversity among ethno-linguistic groups in the Lake Chad Basin.

    PubMed

    Naino Jika, A K; Dussert, Y; Raimond, C; Garine, E; Luxereau, A; Takvorian, N; Djermakoye, R S; Adam, T; Robert, T

    2017-01-25

    Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin. 69 pearl millet populations, representing 27 landraces collected in eight ethno-linguistic farmer groups, were analyzed. We found that the farmers' local taxonomy was not a good proxy for population's genetic differentiation as previously shown at smaller scales. Our results show the existence of a genetic structure of pearl millet mainly associated with ethno-linguistic diversity in the western side of the lake Chad. It suggests there is a limit to gene flow between landraces grown by different ethno-linguistic groups. This result was rather unexpected, because of the highly outcrossing mating system of pearl millet, the high density of pearl millet fields all along the green belt of this Sahelian area and the fact that seed exchanges among ethno-linguistic groups are known to occur. In the eastern side of the Lake, the pattern of genetic diversity suggests a larger efficient circulation of pearl millet genes between ethno-linguistic groups that are less numerous, spatially intermixed and, for some of them, more prone to exogamy. Finally, other historical and environmental factors which may contribute to the observed diversity patterns are discussed.Heredity advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.128.

  13. Sequential fermentation of pearl millet by yeasts and lactobacilli--effect on the antinutrients and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Khetarpaul, N; Chauhan, B M

    1991-10-01

    Sequential culture fermentation by yeasts (S. diastaticus or S. cerevisiae) at 30 degrees C for 72 hr and then followed by lactobacilli fermentation (L. brevis or L. fermentum) at 30 degrees C for 72 h more resulted in a significant reduction in phytic acid and polyphenol content of pearl millet flour. Fermentation by S. diastaticus and L. brevis combination almost eliminated phytic acid from pearl millet flour. The combinations of S. diastaticus with both the lactobacilli reduced phytic acid more effectively than those of S. cerevisiae. The products fermented by S. cerevisiae and L. brevis and by S. diastaticus and L. brevis combinations had the highest protein and starch digestibility (in vitro).

  14. Assessment of Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumx P. glaucum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) trap crops for the management of Chilo partellus on maize.

    PubMed

    Hari, N S; Jindal, J

    2009-04-01

    Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.

  15. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  16. Genome scan reveals selection acting on genes linked to stress response in wild pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Rhoné, Bénédicte; Mariac, Cédric; Ousseini, Issaka Salia; Couderc, Marie; Tenaillon, Maud I; Vigouroux, Yves

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering genomic regions involved in adaption is a major goal in evolutionary biology. High-throughput sequencing now makes it possible to tackle this challenge in nonmodel species. Yet, despite the increasing number of methods targeted to specifically detect genomic footprints of selection, the complex demography of natural populations often causes high rates of false positive in gene discoveries. The aim of this study was to identify climate adaptations in wild pearl millet populations, Cenchrus americanus ssp. monodii. We focused on two climate gradients, one in Mali and one in Niger. We used a two-step strategy to limit false-positive outliers. First, we considered gradients as biological replicates and performed RNA sequencing of four populations at the extremities. We combined four methods-three based on differentiation among populations and one based on diversity patterns within populations-to identify outlier SNPs from a set of 87 218 high-quality SNPs. Among 11 155 contigs of pearl millet reference transcriptome, 540 exhibited selection signals as evidenced by at least one of the four methods. In a second step, we genotyped 762 samples in 11 additional populations distributed along the gradients using SNPs from the detected contigs and random SNPs as control. We further assessed selection on this large data set using a differentiation-based method and a method based on correlations with environmental variables based. Four contigs displayed consistent signatures between the four extreme and 11 additional populations, two of which were linked to abiotic and biotic stress responses.

  17. Purification and characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from germinating millet seeds.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Fujimoto, Mikio; Kariya, Junji; Konno, Haruyoshi

    2005-04-01

    An alpha-glucosidase (alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.20) was isolated from germinating millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) seeds by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on CM-cellulofine/Fractogel EMD SO(3), Sephacryl S-200 HR and TSK gel Phenyl-5 PW, and preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was homogenous by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 86,000 based on its mobility in SDS-PAGE and 80,000 based on gel filtration with TSKgel super SW 3000, which showed that it was composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.3. The enzyme readily hydrolyzed maltose, malto-oligosaccharides, and alpha-1,4-glucan, but hydrolyzed polysaccharides more rapidly than maltose. The K(m) value decreased with an increase in the molecular weight of the substrate. The value for maltoheptaose was about 4-fold lower than that for maltose. The enzyme preferably hydrolyzed amylopectin in starch, but also readily hydrolyzed nigerose, which has an alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkage and exists as an abnormal linkage in the structure of starch. In particular, the enzyme readily hydrolyzed millet starch from germinating seeds that had been degraded to some extent.

  18. Dietary Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: How Millet Comes to Help

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jason; Puranik, Swati; Yadav, Rama; Manwaring, Hanna R.; Pierre, Sandra; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. It has contributed toward 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Management techniques for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals, beside medication, are mainly through changes in lifestyle and dietary regulation. Particularly, diet can have a great influence on life quality for those that suffer from, as well as those at risk of, diabetes. As such, considerations on nutritional aspects are required to be made to include in dietary intervention. This review aims to give an overview on the general consensus of current dietary and nutritional recommendation for diabetics. In light of such recommendation, the use of plant breeding, conventional as well as more recently developed molecular marker-based breeding and biofortification, are discussed in designing crops with desired characteristics. While there are various recommendations available, dietary choices are restricted by availability due to geo-, political-, or economical- considerations. This particularly holds true for countries such as India, where 65 million people (up from 50 million in 2010) are currently diabetic and their numbers are rising at an alarming rate. Millets are one of the most abundant crops grown in India as well as in Africa, providing a staple food source for many poorest of the poor communities in these countries. The potentials of millets as a dietary component to combat the increasing prevalence of global diabetes are highlighted in this review. PMID:27729921

  19. [cDNA library construction from panicle meristem of finger millet].

    PubMed

    Radchuk, V; Pirko, Ia V; Isaenkov, S V; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    The protocol for production of full-size cDNA using SuperScript Full-Length cDNA Library Construction Kit II (Invitrogen) was tested and high quality cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) was created. The titer of obtained cDNA library comprised 3.01 x 10(5) CFU/ml in avarage. In average the length of cDNA insertion consisted about 1070 base pairs, the effectivity of cDNA fragment insertions--99.5%. The selective sequencing of cDNA clones from created library was performed. The sequences of cDNA clones were identified with usage of BLAST-search. The results of cDNA library analysis and selective sequencing represents prove good functionality and full length character of inserted cDNA clones. Obtained cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle represents good and valuable source for isolation and identification of key genes regulating metabolism and meristematic development and for mining of new molecular markers to conduct out high quality genetic investigations and molecular breeding as well.

  20. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Selection of Genes Associated with Pearl Millet Varietal Quantitative Traits In situ

    PubMed Central

    Mariac, Cédric; Ousseini, Issaka S.; Alio, Abdel-Kader; Jugdé, Hélène; Pham, Jean-Louis; Bezançon, Gilles; Ronfort, Joelle; Descroix, Luc; Vigouroux, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing global climate changes imply new challenges for agriculture. Whether plants and crops can adapt to such rapid changes is still a widely debated question. We previously showed adaptation in the form of earlier flowering in pearl millet at the scale of a whole country over three decades. However, this analysis did not deal with variability of year to year selection. To understand and possibly manage plant and crop adaptation, we need more knowledge of how selection acts in situ. Is selection gradual, abrupt, and does it vary in space and over time? In the present study, we tracked the evolution of allele frequency in two genes associated with pearl millet phenotypic variation in situ. We sampled 17 populations of cultivated pearl millet over a period of 2 years. We tracked changes in allele frequencies in these populations by genotyping more than seven thousand individuals. We demonstrate that several allele frequencies changes are compatible with selection, by correcting allele frequency changes associated with genetic drift. We found marked variation in allele frequencies from year to year, suggesting a variable selection effect in space and over time. We estimated the strength of selection associated with variations in allele frequency. Our results suggest that the polymorphism maintained at the genes we studied is partially explained by the spatial and temporal variability of selection. In response to environmental changes, traditional pearl millet varieties could rapidly adapt thanks to this available functional variability. PMID:27507986

  2. Gamma radiation effects on microbiological, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Tunisian millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.R.Br.).

    PubMed

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Jerbi, Taïeb; Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Fattouch, Sami

    2014-07-01

    Hygienic quality of Tunisian pearl millet flour is always of major concern to consumers as well as all involved in the production, processing and distribution sectors. In the present study, the microbiological and biochemical properties of this food were examined following gamma-radiation. The D10-values for the Total Aerobic Plate Count, yeasts and moulds were respectively 1.5 and 3.7kGy. Furthermore, millet flour is commonly susceptible to mycotoxin contaminations, so the Ochratoxin A residues were also investigated; a reduction of 74% was observed with 10kGy. Moreover, the radiation process did not significantly alter fatty acids composition of the millet flour as obtained with Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector technic. The peroxide value had increased from 26.16 to 34.43meqO2/kg with 3kGy. At 1kGy, we noticed an important loss of vitamin A of about 88.6%. In contrast, the total phenolic content, the ABTS-RSA and the DPPH-RSA of the radiated millet flour exhibited non-significant changes (p<0.05).

  3. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  4. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  5. Successful application of new cost-effective procedures for genotyping pearl millets for genetic diversity and linkage mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of technology advancement, procedures of DNA extraction and genotyping of large plant populations are cumbersome and expensive. Therefore, in order to genotype large mapping populations for studying genetic diversity, and linkage/QTL mapping for disease and pest resistance in pearl millet (...

  6. A simplified, cost- and time-effective procedure for genotyping pearl millet in resource-limited laboratories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procedures for DNA extraction and genotyping of large plant populations are cumbersome and expensive for resource-limited laboratories. Through eliminating or changing several steps used in DNA extraction, PCR amplification and PAGE electrophoresis in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], w...

  7. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen. PMID:28322224

  8. Association of Shifting Populations in the Root Zone Microbiome of Millet with Enhanced Crop Productivity in the Sahel Region (Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Assigbetse, Komi; Bayala, Roger; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Dick, Richard P.; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized specific changes in the millet root zone microbiome stimulated by long-term woody-shrub intercropping at different sites in Senegal. At the two study sites, intercropping with woody shrubs and shrub residue resulted in a significant increase in millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] yield (P < 0.05) and associated patterns of increased diversity in both bacterial and fungal communities in the root zone of the crop. Across four experiments, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Chitinophaga were consistently significantly (P < 0.001) enriched in the intercropped samples, and “Candidatus Koribacter” was consistently significantly enriched in samples where millet was grown alone. Those OTUs belonging to Chitinophaga were enriched more than 30-fold in residue-amended samples and formed a distinct subgroup from all OTUs detected in the genus. Additionally, OTUs belonging to 8 fungal genera (Aspergillus, Coniella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, Lasiodiplodia, Penicillium, and Phoma) were significantly (P < 0.005) enriched in all experiments at all sites in intercropped samples. The OTUs of four genera (Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, and Haematonectria) were consistently enriched at sites where millet was grown alone. Those enriched OTUs in intercropped samples showed consistently large-magnitude differences, ranging from 30- to 1,000-fold increases in abundance. Consistently enriched OTUs in intercropped samples in the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium also formed phylogenetically distinct subgroups. These results suggest that the intercropping system used here can influence the recruitment of potentially beneficial microorganisms to the root zone of millet and aid subsistence farmers in producing higher-yielding crops. PMID:25681183

  9. Comparative Genomics and Association Mapping Approaches for Blast Resistant Genes in Finger Millet Using SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Babu, B. Kalyana; Dinesh, Pandey; Agrawal, Pawan K.; Sood, S.; Chandrashekara, C.; Bhatt, Jagadish C.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The major limiting factor for production and productivity of finger millet crop is blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea. Since, the genome sequence information available in finger millet crop is scarce, comparative genomics plays a very important role in identification of genes/QTLs linked to the blast resistance genes using SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 58 genic SSRs were developed for use in genetic analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes. The 58 SSRs yielded ninety five scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.186 to 0.677 at an average of 0.385. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.208 to 0.726 with an average of 0.487. Association mapping for blast resistance was done using 104 SSR markers which identified four QTLs for finger blast and one QTL for neck blast resistance. The genomic marker RM262 and genic marker FMBLEST32 were linked to finger blast disease at a P value of 0.007 and explained phenotypic variance (R2) of 10% and 8% respectively. The genomic marker UGEP81 was associated to finger blast at a P value of 0.009 and explained 7.5% of R2. The QTLs for neck blast was associated with the genomic SSR marker UGEP18 at a P value of 0.01, which explained 11% of R2. Three QTLs for blast resistance were found common by using both GLM and MLM approaches. The resistant alleles were found to be present mostly in the exotic genotypes. Among the genotypes of NW Himalayan region of India, VHC3997, VHC3996 and VHC3930 were found highly resistant, which may be effectively used as parents for developing blast resistant cultivars in the NW Himalayan region of India. The markers linked to the QTLs for blast resistance in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of blast resistant alleles into locally adapted cultivars. PMID:24915067

  10. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  11. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels.

  12. Efficient regeneration of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) from shoot tip cultures.

    PubMed

    Mythili, P K; Madhavi, A; Reddy, V D; Seetharama, N

    2001-12-01

    A simple, genotype-independent and efficient method for plant regeneration using shoot tip explants of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was established. Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (0. 2 mg l(-1)) was used for induction of embryogenic calli. Development of numerous somatic embryos was observed within 10 days after transferring onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyl aminopurine (2 mg l(-1)) and indole 3-butyric acid (0. 5 mg l(-1)) under light (16 hr photoperiod). Histological observations confirmed the origin of somatic pro-embryoids and globular embryoids. Regenerated plants established in soil, grew normally and produced fertile seeds. RAPD analysis also revealed genetic uniformity of the regenerants. The short duration of time taken for regeneration (30-35 days) and its high frequency (78-87%) makes this system highly suitable for applications such as genetic transformation.

  13. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products.

  14. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  15. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  16. Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Mark; Jarvis, Paul G.; Odongo, Julius C. W.

    1997-11-01

    The extent to which water use by trees and crops is complementary in agroforestry systems may be affected by the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. This may have important implications for the planning and management of agroforestry in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel of West Africa. A method of distinguishing uptake of water by plants from different sources was used, therefore, at locations with contrasting water table levels, to determine whether Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) trees in windbreaks utilised water from the same depths as adjacent crops of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Comparisons of ratios of the stable isotopes of oxygen ( 18O/ 16O) in plant sap, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile were made in the Majjia Valley, in south-central Niger, where groundwater was found at depths of 6-8 m, and at Sadoré in south-western Niger, where the water table was at a depth of 35 m. In the Majjia Valley, the trees obtained large portions of their water from surface layers of the soil only after rain, when water there was abundant. During dry periods, roots of the trees extracted groundwater or deep reserves of soil water, while the millet crop extracted water from closer to the top of the soil profile. In contrast, at Sadoré, both the trees and crop fulfilled their water requirements from the top 2-3 m of the soil throughout the year. Thus, utilisation of water by windbreak trees and crops is more complementary where groundwater is accessible to tree roots. Competition for water is likely reduced at such locations as a consequence, but may affect the productivity of windbreak systems where groundwater is inaccessible. To maximise the benefits of establishing windbreaks, therefore, it is important that planners recommend strategies for reducing competition for water between trees and crops at sites where groundwater cannot be reached by tree roots.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization and structural modeling of prolamin from maize and pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Bugs, Milton Roque; Forato, Lucimara Aparecida; Bortoleto-Bugs, Raquel Kely; Fischer, Hannes; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano; Ward, Richard John; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Biophysical methods and structural modeling techniques have been used to characterize the prolamins from maize ( Zea mays) and pearl millet ( Pennisetum americanum). The alcohol-soluble prolamin from maize, called zein, was extracted using a simple protocol and purified by gel filtration in a 70% ethanol solution. Two protein fractions were purified from seed extracts of pearl millet with molecular weights of 25.5 and 7 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The high molecular weight protein corresponds to pennisetin, which has a high alpha-helical content both in solution and the solid state, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy of both fractions indicated changes in the tryptophan microenvironments with increasing water content of the buffer. Low-resolution envelopes of both fractions were retrieved by ab initio procedures from small-angle X-ray scattering data, which yielded maximum molecular dimensions of about 14 nm and 1 nm for pennisetin and the low molecular weight protein, respectively, and similar values were observed by dynamic light scattering experiments. Furthermore, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of zein and pennisetin do not show any signal below 0.9 ppm, which is compatible with more extended solution structures. The molecular models for zein and pennisetin in solution suggest that both proteins have an elongated molecular structure which is approximately a prolate ellipsoid composed of ribbons of folded alpha-helical segments with a length of about 14 nm, resulting in a structure that permits efficient packing within the seed endosperm.

  18. Incorporation of whole, ancient grains into a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anjali A; Azar, Kristen Mj; Gardner, Christopher D; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population.

  19. Gluten contamination of grains, seeds, and flours in the United States: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Tricia; Lee, Anne Roland; Grace, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Under the Food Allergen and Consumer Protection Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) must issue a rule for the voluntary labeling of food as gluten-free. In the proposed rule, many single-ingredient foods, such as millet, are considered inherently free of gluten. Inherently gluten-free grains will be considered misbranded if they carry a gluten-free label and do not also state that all foods of the same type are gluten-free (eg, "all millet is gluten free"). Twenty-two inherently gluten-free grains, seeds, and flours not labeled gluten-free were purchased in June 2009 and sent unopened to a company who specializes in gluten analysis. All samples were homogenized and tested in duplicate using the Ridascreen Gliadin sandwich R5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with cocktail extraction. Thirteen of 22 (59%) samples contained less than the limit of quantification of 5 parts per million (ppm) for gluten. Nine of 22 (41%) samples contained more than the limit of quantification, with mean gluten levels ranging from 8.5 to 2,925.0 ppm. Seven of 22 samples (32%) contained mean gluten levels >/=20 ppm and would not be considered gluten-free under the proposed FDA rule for gluten-free labeling. Gluten contamination of inherently gluten-free grains, seeds, and flours not labeled gluten-free is a legitimate concern. The FDA may want to modify their proposed rule for labeling of food as gluten-free, removing the requirement that gluten-free manufacturers of inherently gluten-free grains, seeds, and flours must state on product labels that all foods of that type are gluten-free.

  20. Levels of antinutritional factors in pearl millet as affected by processing treatments and various types of fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kapoor, A C

    1996-04-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) was fermented with Lactobacilli or yeasts alone and in combination, and with natural microflora after various processing treatments, as grinding, soaking, debranning, dry heat treatment, autoclaving and germination. Fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C for 48 hours with Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and Rhodotorula (R) isolated from naturally fermented pearl millet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Candida utilis (CU) and natural microflora (NF). Germination and autoclaving, and debranning and autoclaving were the most effective processing treatments to reduce the phytic acid, amylase inhibitors and polyphenols. There was a further reduction in these antinutrients due to fermentation. Phytic acid and amylase inhibitors were completely eliminated after fermentation in some of the samples especially in soaked, debranned and germinated ones. Polyphenols were altered non-significantly in general but fermentation with Lp + R and NF caused a significant increase in polyphenols.

  1. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  2. Identification and classification of similar looking food grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anami, B. S.; Biradar, Sunanda D.; Savakar, D. G.; Kulkarni, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative study of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers by taking a case study of identification and classification of four pairs of similar looking food grains namely, Finger Millet, Mustard, Soyabean, Pigeon Pea, Aniseed, Cumin-seeds, Split Greengram and Split Blackgram. Algorithms are developed to acquire and process color images of these grains samples. The developed algorithms are used to extract 18 colors-Hue Saturation Value (HSV), and 42 wavelet based texture features. Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN)-based classifier is designed using three feature sets namely color - HSV, wavelet-texture and their combined model. SVM model for color- HSV model is designed for the same set of samples. The classification accuracies ranging from 93% to 96% for color-HSV, ranging from 78% to 94% for wavelet texture model and from 92% to 97% for combined model are obtained for ANN based models. The classification accuracy ranging from 80% to 90% is obtained for color-HSV based SVM model. Training time required for the SVM based model is substantially lesser than ANN for the same set of images.

  3. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  4. Whole grains in the renal diet--is it time to reevaluate their role?

    PubMed

    Williams, Caroline; Ronco, Claudio; Kotanko, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Organizations such as the National Kidney Foundation, the American Kidney Fund, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the US Department of Health and Human Services recommend not including whole grains as part of the renal diet. The rationale for this recommendation is the high phosphorus content in these foods. While the phosphorus content in whole grains may be indeed high, it is covalently bound to organic molecules (primarily phytate) and requires the enzyme phytase to be released and become available for absorption. While some phytase is contained in some whole grains (corn, oats, and millet have little to no phytase activity), the enzyme is decreased in milling, food preparation and over time. Since the human intestine does not express phytase, the enzyme required for the release of phosphorus from phytate is not present in the intestinal lumen when ingesting cooked food. Consequently, the bioavailability of phosphorus from whole grains is low. For the reasons presented here we believe that the 'grain ban' in the diet for kidney patients should be reconsidered. By doing this, the kidney diet would be enriched and it would provide needed fiber along with its health benefits, diversify the diet with low sodium choices, and possibly provide adequate protein without increasing phosphorous levels.

  5. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Nasiri Kokhdan, Syamak

    2015-02-05

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  6. Reticulate evolution in Panicum (Poaceae): the origin of tetraploid broomcorn millet, P. miliaceum.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Harriet V; Badakshi, Farah; Romanova, Olga; Howe, Christopher J; Jones, Martin K; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2014-07-01

    Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) is a tetraploid cereal, which was among the first domesticated crops, but is now a minor crop despite its high water use efficiency. The ancestors of this species have not been determined; we aimed to identify likely candidates within the genus, where phylogenies are poorly resolved. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences from P. miliaceum and a range of diploid and tetraploid relatives were used to develop phylogenies of the diploid and tetraploid species. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with genomic DNA as a probe was used to characterize the genomes in the tetraploid P. miliaceum and a tetraploid accession of P. repens. In situ hybridization showed that half the chromosomes of P. miliaceum hybridized more strongly with labelled genomic DNA from P. capillare, and half with labelled DNA from P. repens. Genomic DNA probes differentiated two sets of 18 chromosomes in the tetraploid P. repens. Our phylogenetic data support the allotetraploid origin of P. miliaceum, with the maternal ancestor being P. capillare (or a close relative) and the other genome being shared with P. repens. Our P. repens accession was also an allotetraploid with two dissimilar but closely related genomes, the maternal genome being similar to P. sumatrense. Further collection of Panicum species, particularly from the Old World, is required. It is important to identify why the water-efficient P. miliaceum is now of minimal importance in agriculture, and it may be valuable to exploit the diversity in this species and its ancestors.

  7. Expression of Finger Millet EcDehydrin7 in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Raghavendrarao, Sanagala; Phanindra, Mullapudi Lakshmi Venkata; Venkat Raman, K; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-09-01

    One of the critical alarming constraints for agriculture is water scarcity. In the current scenario, global warming due to climate change and unpredictable rainfall, drought is going to be a master player and possess a big threat to stagnating gene pool of staple food crops. So it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that enable the plants to cope with drought stress. In this study, effort was made to prospect the role of EcDehydrin7 protein from normalized cDNA library of drought tolerance finger millet in transgenic tobacco. Biochemical and molecular analyses of T0 transgenic plants were done for stress tolerance. Leaf disc assay, seed germination test, dehydration assay, and chlorophyll estimation showed EcDehydrin7 protein directly link to drought tolerance. Northern and qRT PCR analyses shows relatively high expression of EcDehydrin7 protein compare to wild type. T0 transgenic lines EcDehydrin7(11) and EcDehydrin7(15) shows superior expression among all lines under study. In summary, all results suggest that EcDehydrin7 protein has a remarkable role in drought tolerance and may be used for sustainable crop breeding program in other food crops.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide and proline cooperate to alleviate cadmium stress in foxtail millet seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baohua; Qiao, Zengjie; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Pei, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and some functional amino acids in crops have been involved in the defense system against heavy-metal pollution. Here we report the relationships and functions of H2S and proline to cadmium (Cd) stress. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) pretreatment decreased the electrolytic leakage and the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents while enhancing photosynthesis in Cd-treated seedlings. Furthermore, pretreatment with NaHS markedly exacerbated Cd-induced alterations in proline content, the activities of proline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH), and the transcript levels of P5CR and PDH. When endogenous H2S was scavenged or inhibited by various H2S modulators, the Cd-induced increase in endogenous proline was weakened. Combined pretreatment with H2S and proline was moderately higher in the Cd-stressed growth status, stomata movements and oxidative damage of seedlings compared to a single treatment with H2S or proline. These results suggest that H2S and proline cooperate to alleviate Cd-damage in foxtail millet.

  9. Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet

    PubMed Central

    Satyavathi, Valluri V; Manga, V.; Rao, Muktinutalapati V. Subba; Chittibabu, Malladi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reciprocal differences persist in nature because of the unequal contribution of cytoplasmic determinants from male and female gametes to the zygote. The inheritance of genetic differences is an important factor that influences various traits, including somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in vitro. In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually recognizable characteristics. The phenotypic nature of dwarf parents (green dwarf with long narrow leaves) with a genetic basis for a given character controlled by nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants can be exploited for other breeding programs. PMID:27007899

  10. Mechanical response of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds under quasi-static compression: Experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning

    2017-01-06

    The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression.

  11. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri

    2015-02-01

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  12. De novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) for Gene Discovery and Marker Development

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Le; Liu, Hui; Yue, Wenjie; Du, Xianghong; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world’s oldest cultivated cereals, which is well-adapted to extreme environments such as drought, heat, and salinity with an efficient C4 carbon fixation. Discovery and identification of genes involved in these processes will provide valuable information to improve the crop for meeting the challenge of global climate change. However, the lack of genetic resources and genomic information make gene discovery and molecular mechanism studies very difficult. Here, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of broomcorn millet using Illumina sequencing technology. After sequencing, a total of 45,406,730 and 51,160,820 clean paired-end reads were obtained for two genotypes Yumi No. 2 and Yumi No. 3. These reads were mixed and then assembled into 113,643 unigenes, with the length ranging from 351 to 15,691 bp, of which 62,543 contings could be assigned to 315 gene ontology (GO) categories. Cluster of orthologous groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses assigned could map 15,514 unigenes into 202 KEGG pathways and 51,020 unigenes to 25 COG categories, respectively. Furthermore, 35,216 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 27,055 unigene sequences, of which trinucleotides were the most abundant repeat unit, accounting for 66.72% of SSRs. In addition, 292 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two genotypes, which were significantly enriched in 88 GO terms and 12 KEGG pathways. Finally, the expression patterns of four selected transcripts were validated through quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our study for the first time sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of broomcorn millet, which not only provided a rich sequence resource for gene discovery and marker development in this important crop, but will also facilitate the further investigation of the molecular mechanism of its favored agronomic traits and beyond. PMID

  13. Crop Monitoring as a Tool for Modelling the Genesis of Millet Prices in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, D.; Marinho, E.; Defourny, P.; Waldner, F.; d'Andrimont, R.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in Sahelian countries strongly relies on the ability of markets to transfer staplesfrom surplus to deficit areas. Market failures, leading to the inefficient geographical allocation of food,are expected to emerge from high transportation costs and information asymmetries that are commonin moderately developed countries. As a result, important price differentials are observed betweenproducing and consuming areas which damages both poor producers and food insecure consumers. Itis then vital for policy makers to understand how the prices of agricultural commodities are formed byaccounting for the existing market imperfections in addition to local demand and supply considerations. To address this issue, we have gathered an unique and diversified set of data for Senegal andintegrated it in a spatially explicit model that simulates the functioning of agricultural markets, that isfully consistent with the economic theory. Our departure point is a local demand and supply modelaround each market having its catchment areas determined by the road network. We estimate the localsupply of agricultural commodities from satellite imagery while the demand is assumed to be a functionof the population living in the area. From this point on, profitable transactions between areas with lowprices to areas with high prices are simulated for different levels of per kilometer transportation costand information flows (derived from call details records i.e. mobile phone data). The simulated prices are then comparedwith the actual millet prices. Despite the parsimony of the model that estimates only two parameters, i.e. the per kilometertransportation cost and the information asymmetry resulting from low levels of mobile phone activitybetween markets, it impressively explains more than 80% of the price differentials observed in the 40markets included in the analysis. In one hand these results can be used in the assessment of the socialwelfare impacts of the further development of

  14. Improvement of resistance to rust through recurrent selection in pearl millet

    SciTech Connect

    Tapsoba, H.; Wilson, J.P.; Hanna, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Two pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. = P. typhoides (Burm.) Staff & Hubb., P. americanum (L.) K. Schum.] bulk populations, Tift No. 2 and Tift No. 5, served as base populations for four cycles of recurrent selection against susceptibility to Puccinia substriata Ell. & Barth, var. indica Ramachar & Cumm. A bulk inoculum of the pathogen was used. The objectives were to evaluate the progress achieved regarding overall resistance to the pathogen in the field and resistance to different races of the pathogen, and also to evaluate changes in unselected traits. During selection, the frequency of rust resistant plants continuously increased from about 30% in each base population to more than 85% by the third cycle of selection in both populations. An average increase of about 21 and 18% per cycle was obtained in Tift No. 2 and Tift No. 5, respectively. A continuous increase of the frequency of plants resistant to some races of the pathogen was also obtained. In Tift No. 5, 80% of the plants were resistant to eight races by the third cycle of selection. The accumulation of resistance observed in the seedlings was manifested in the field, both in 1993 and 1994, by a reduction of the final rust severity from the base population to the fourth selection cycle of both populations. This improvement in resistance to the rust pathogen was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of plants resistant to Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc. only in Tift No. 2. Despite the improvement in the selected character, genetic variability for agronomic traits such as plant height, number of culms/plant, flowering date, and panicle length was successfully maintained within each population. 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. Origins of GEMS Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  16. Plant Growth Substances Produced by Azospirillum brasilense and Their Effect on the Growth of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) †

    PubMed Central

    Tien, T. M.; Gaskins, M. H.; Hubbell, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium found in the rhizosphere of various grass species, was investigated to establish the effect on plant growth of growth substances produced by the bacteria. Thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and bioassay were used to separate and identify plant growth substances produced by the bacteria in liquid culture. Indole acetic acid and indole lactic acid were produced by A. brasilense from tryptophan. Indole acetic acid production increased with increasing tryptophan concentration from 1 to 100 μg/ml. Indole acetic acid concentration also increased with the age of the culture until bacteria reached the stationary phase. Shaking favored the production of indole acetic acid, especially in a medium containing nitrogen. A small but biologically significant amount of gibberellin was detected in the culture medium. Also at least three cytokinin-like substances, equivalent to about 0.001 μg of kinetin per ml, were present. The morphology of pearl millet roots changed when plants in solution culture were inoculated. The number of lateral roots was increased, and all lateral roots were densely covered with root hairs. Experiments with pure plant hormones showed that gibberellin causes increased production of lateral roots. Cytokinin stimulated root hair formation, but reduced lateral root production and elongation of the main root. Combinations of indole acetic acid, gibberellin, and kinetin produced changes in root morphology of pearl millet similar to those produced by inoculation with A. brasilense. Images PMID:16345372

  17. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites.

  18. Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Bruntha Devi; Rajendran, Vijayabharathi; Sathyaseelan, Sathyabama; Bhat, Rajeev; Venkatesan, Brindha Priyadarisini

    2012-02-01

    Co-fermentation of finger millet with horse gram was carried out to produce inexpensive protein-rich food (dosa-an Indian breakfast food). Natural fermentation of finger millet-horse gram flour blend in different proportions (2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1) was performed for 24 h. Biochemical analysis showed reasonable drop in pH (6.6-4.2) and starch content (25.52%) with considerable augment in titratable acidity (0.168-1.046%), soluble proteins (1.1-fold) and free amino acids (2.6-fold) at 16 h. Lactic acid bacteria dominated yeast counts throughout the fermentation accompanied by a decrease in total soluble and reducing sugars. Total essential amino acids increased 1.1-fold at 16-h fermentation with protein containing 48.68% of essential amino acids over total amino acids. Lysine increased from 5.87 to 6.73 g of amino acid/100 g of total amino acids. Dosa, prepared from 16-h fermented batter, showed better sensory attributes for 4:1 ratio. The formulated new product might be used to overcome the protein-energy malnutrition problems.

  19. Detection of insects in grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detecting insects hidden inside kernels of grain is important to grain buyers because internal infestations can result in insect fragments in products made from the grain, or, if the grain is stored before use, the insect population can increase and damage the grain further. In a study in the Unite...

  20. Waxy-phenotype evolution in the allotetraploid cereal broomcorn millet: Mutations at the GBSSI locus in their functional and phylogenetic context

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waxy mutants, in which endosperm starch contains ~100% amylopectin rather than the wild-type composition of ~70% amylopectin and ~30% amylose, occur in many domesticated cereals. The cultivation of waxy varieties of broomcorn (proso) millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is restricted to east Asia, where t...

  1. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  2. Convection in grain refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fluid flow phenomena, nucleation, and grain refinement in solidifying metals both in the presence and in the absence of a gravitational field was investigated. The reduction of grain size in hard-to-process melts; the effects of undercooling on structure in solidification processes, including rapid solidification processing; and control of this undercooling to improve structures of solidified melts are considered. Grain refining and supercooling thermal modeling of the solidification process, and heat and fluid flow phenomena in the levitated metal droplets are described.

  3. All About the Grains Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Grains Group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is ... bulgur (cracked wheat), oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice. Refined grains have been milled, a process that ...

  4. Transcriptome changes in foxtail millet genotypes at high salinity: identification and characterization of a PHGPX gene specifically upregulated by NaCl in a salt-tolerant line.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Miranda, Manoela; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy; Wobus, Ulrich; Weschke, Winfriede

    2004-04-01

    Using a macro array filter with 711 cDNA inserts representing 620 unigenes selected from a barley EST collection, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in salt (NaCl)-treated tolerant (cv. Prasad) and sensitive (cv. Lepakshi) seedlings of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). Transcripts of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes such as phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase 1 (CAT1) in addition to some genes of cellular metabolism were found to be especially up-regulated at high salinity in the tolerant line. To analyse this process at the protein level we examined protein expression patterns under various stress conditions. A 25 kD protein with a pI of 4.8 was found to be induced prominently under high salt concentrations (250 mmol/L). This salt-induced 25 kD protein has been purified and identified by peptide sequencing as PHGPX protein. The increase of the PHGPX protein level under salt stress in the tolerant line parallels the PHGPX mRNA results of array analysis but was more pronounced. We cloned and characterized the foxtail millet PHGPX cDNA, which shows 85% and 95% homology at the DNA and protein level, respectively, to one stress-induced member of the small barley PHGPX gene family encoding non-selenium glutathione peroxidases. As shown by Southern blot analysis, a small family of PHGPX genes exists in foxtail millet, too. The specific expression pattern of the PHGPX gene in salt-induced tolerant millet seedlings suggests that its product plays an important role in the defense reaction against salt-induced oxidative damage and that the characterized glutathione peroxidase is one of the components conferring resistance against salt to the tolerant foxtail millet cultivar.

  5. Geographical origin of cereal grains based on element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuluan; Luo, Donghui; Dong, Hao; Wan, Juan; Luo, Haiying; Xian, Yanping; Guo, Xindong; Qin, Fangfang; Han, Wanqing; Wang, Li; Wang, Bin

    2015-05-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ(13)C and δ(13)N) of different cereal grains from different regions were determined, using element analyser-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-SIRMS) as the key method. Systematically, δ(13)C and δ(13)N of 5 kinds of cereal grains of different origins, 30 wheat samples from different cultivation areas and 160 rice samples of different cultivars from Guangdong province of China were examined. The results indicated that the δ(13)C values of rice, soybean, millet, wheat and corn were significantly (P < 0.05) different within different origins (Heilongjiang, Shandong and Jiangsu province of China), respectively, while δ(13)N values were not. Interestingly, there exists discrimination between these 5 kinds of cereals grains, no matter C-3 or C-4 plants. Further study showed that the δ(13)C values of wheat from Australia, the USA, Canada, and Jiangsu and Shandong province of China were also significantly (P < 0.01) different. Furthermore, the P-value test for 160 rice samples of 5 cultivars was not significant (P > 0.05), which indicated that the cultivar of cereal grains was not significant based on δ(13)C value. Thus, the comparison of δ(13)C would be potentially useful for rapid and routine discrimination of geographical origin of cereal grains.

  6. Optimizing rainwater partitioning and millet production on degraded land in Niger using Water and Soil Conservation practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien C. J.; Garba, Maman; Al-Barri, Bashar; Sabiou, Mahamane; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2015-04-01

    As a result of growing population pressure and severe soil erosion, farmers in the Sahel increasingly rely on degraded lands for millet production. The adverse Sahelian rainfall distribution and imbalanced rainfall partitioning over the rootzone of these degraded lands therefore calls for sustainable land management strategies that are water resource efficient. This study evaluates the soil-water balance of promising Nigerien Water and Soil Conservation (WSC) techniques (i.e., zaï pits, demi-lune microcatchments and scarification with standing crop residue) and their impact on millet yield by means of an in-situ field experiment (2011-2013) on degraded laterite soil classified as Plinthosol with a 1% slope. All WSC practices received the same amount of fertilizer and were compared to two control practices, one with and one without fertilizer. Soil-water content was recorded with a neutron probe till 105 cm depth and runoff by means of a cemented gutter directing runoff water with a multi-pipe divisor into a collector drum. WSC techniques proved to significantly reduce runoff (blue water) with overall runoff coefficients beings reduced from 25% (control practice) to 5-10%. Consequently, significantly more water was stored inside the catchments of the zaï pits and demi-lunes (green water). With the scarification treatment, no considerable differences in soil-water storage were found with the control. On the other hand, WSC practices had little impact on soil evaporation, which was only 12% of rainfall by the self-mulching soil. Crop transpiration increased with WSC and highest millet yields were found with zaï pits (4 to 5 times higher than under the fertilized control). Although rainwater was better partitioned in case of demi-lune microcatchments resulting in highest amounts of water stored in the soil, yield was only 40-60% of that with zaï pits. This was due to a higher plant density within each demi-lune microcatchment in an attempt to attain similar plant

  7. Assessing climate change impacts on sorghum and millet yields in the Sudanian and Sahelian savannas of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, B.; Roudier, P.; Quirion, P.; Alhassane, A.; Muller, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Ciais, P.; Guimberteau, M.; Traore, S.; Baron, C.

    2013-03-01

    Sub-Saharan West Africa is a vulnerable region where a better quantification and understanding of the impact of climate change on crop yields is urgently needed. Here, we have applied the process-based crop model SARRA-H calibrated and validated over multi-year field trials and surveys at eight contrasting sites in terms of climate and agricultural practices in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger. The model gives a reasonable correlation with observed yields of sorghum and millet under a range of cultivars and traditional crop management practices. We applied the model to more than 7000 simulations of yields of sorghum and millet for 35 stations across West Africa and under very different future climate conditions. We took into account 35 possible climate scenarios by combining precipitation anomalies from -20% to 20% and temperature anomalies from +0 to +6 °C. We found that most of the 35 scenarios (31/35) showed a negative impact on yields, up to -41% for +6 °C/ - 20% rainfall. Moreover, the potential future climate impacts on yields are very different from those recorded in the recent past. This is because of the increasingly adverse role of higher temperatures in reducing crop yields, irrespective of rainfall changes. When warming exceeds +2 °C, negative impacts caused by temperature rise cannot be counteracted by any rainfall change. The probability of a yield reduction appears to be greater in the Sudanian region (southern Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Togo and Benin), because of an exacerbated sensitivity to temperature changes compared to the Sahelian region (Niger, Mali, northern parts of Senegal and Burkina Faso), where crop yields are more sensitive to rainfall change. Finally, our simulations show that the photoperiod-sensitive traditional cultivars of millet and sorghum used by local farmers for centuries seem more resilient to future climate conditions than modern cultivars bred for their high yield potential (-28% versus -40% for

  8. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  9. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  10. Grain fever syndrome induced by inhalation of airborne grain dust.

    PubMed

    doPico, G A; Flaherty, D; Bhansali, P; Chavaje, N

    1982-05-01

    To study the clinical and physiologic manifestations of the grain fever syndrome and the potentially pathogenic role of complement activation, 12 subjects (six grain workers and six healthy non-grain workers) underwent inhalation provocations with airborne grain dust. The clinical response was characterized by facial warmth, headache, malaise, myalgias, feverish sensation, chilliness, throat and tracheal burning sensation, chest tightness, dyspnea, cough, and expectoration. Fever developed in four grain workers and two controls. Leukocytosis, ranging between 11,700 and 24,300 leukocytes/mm3 with left shift, developed in five grain workers and five controls. There was no evidence of complement activation by the classical or alternate pathway. None of the subjects had serum precipitins to grain dust. The pulmonary response was characterized by a decrease in FEV1, FVC, MMF, Vmax50, and Vmax75, with significant rise in pulmonary resistance and consistent change in dynamic compliance but without changes in static compliance or diffusing capacity. Hence, grain dust inhalation induced diffuse airways obstruction without detectable parenchymal reaction. The airways response to high concentrations of grain dust inhalation were unrelated to the presence of immediate skin hypersensitivity. Although we cannot exclude the etiopathogenetic role of an immunologic reaction to grain dust, our data do not support the hypothesis that the grain fever syndrome is a precipitin-mediated allergic pneumonitis. More likely, the manifestations of grain fever probably reflect the host reaction to grain dust bacterial endotoxins and/or nonallergic mediator release by grain or grain dust constituents.

  11. Effect of dry heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and structure of proso millet flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-09-22

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) flour and starch were heated in a dry state at 130°C for 2 or 4 h. The effects of dry heat treatment (DHT) on the pasting, morphological and structural properties of the samples were evaluated. Dry heat treatment had a more significant effect on the pasting viscosity of flour than starch; it increased the pasting viscosity of the flour while it only increased the final viscosity of the starch. After dry heating, the onset of gelatinization and the peak temperatures of the samples increased significantly while the endothermic enthalpy decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the gel structure of the samples became more compact and the particles were plumper when compared with the native ones. Crystallinity of the samples decreased while the X-ray diffraction patterns remained the same after DHT.

  12. Twin screw extrusion of kodo millet-chickpea blend: process parameter optimization, physico-chemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Geetha, R; Mishra, H N; Srivastav, P P

    2014-11-01

    Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80-150 °C), screw speed (250-300 rpm) and feeder speed (15-30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.

  13. High frequency embryoid and plantlet formation from tissue cultures of the Finger millet-Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Sivadas, P; Kothari, S L; Chandra, N

    1990-07-01

    Compact nodulated embryogenic callus differentiated from cultured seeds of Eleusine coracana (Finger Millet) on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.0, 3.0 mg (l)). This embryogenic callus was maintained on a medium with a lower level of 2,4 - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. At every subculture the embryogenic callus had some preexisting embryoids in it. With this method of subculture the callus has retained its morphogenic potential for four years. Following transfer to media with different levels of auxins and cytokinins, the callus showed varied patterns of growth and morphogenesis. Embryoids could be germinated in profusion to form plantlets which could be transferred to the field. Shoot buds also differentiated from the whole surface of the embryoid or from the flattened meristemoids.

  14. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. [Pennisetum glaucum; Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Masojidek, M.; Trivedi, S.; Halshaw, L.; Alexiou, A.; Hall, D.O. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought stress and high irradiance and their combination were studied under laboratory conditions using young plants of a very drought-resistant variety, ICMH 451, of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and three varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) - one drought-resistant from India, one drought-tolerant from Texas, and one drought-sensitive variety from France. CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and photosystem II fluorescence in leaves were analyzed in parallel with photosynthetic electron transport, photosystem II fluorescence, and chlorophyll-protein composition in chloroplasts isolated from these leaves. High irradiance slightly increased CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and electron transport activities of irrigated plants but not fluorescence. Drought stress (less than {minus}1 megapascal) depressed CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effect of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport activities and fluorescence in chloroplasts (but not photosystem I activity). The synergistic or distinctive effect of drought and high irradiance is discussed. The experiments with pearl millet and three varieties of sorghum showed that different responses of plants to drought and light stresses can be monitored by plant physiological and biochemical techniques. Some of these techniques may have a potential for selection of stress-resistant varieties using seedlings.

  15. De novo Transcriptome Sequencing to Dissect Candidate Genes Associated with Pearl Millet-Downy Mildew (Sclerospora graminicola Sacc.) Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Zala, Harshvardhan N.; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Shukla, Yogesh M.; Kumar, Sushil; Fougat, Ranbir S.; Patel, Mruduka S.; Narayanan, Subhash; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the plant-pathogen interactions is of utmost importance to design strategies for minimizing the economic deficits caused by pathogens in crops. With an aim to identify genes underlying resistance to downy mildew, a major disease responsible for productivity loss in pearl millet, transcriptome analysis was performed in downy mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes upon infection and control on 454 Roche NGS platform. A total of ~685 Mb data was obtained with 1 575 290 raw reads. The raw reads were pre-processed into high-quality (HQ) reads making to ~82% with an average of 427 bases. The assembly was optimized using four assemblers viz. Newbler, MIRA, CLC and Trinity, out of which MIRA with a total of 14.10 Mb and 90118 transcripts proved to be the best for assembling reads. Differential expression analysis depicted 1396 and 936 and 1000 and 1591 transcripts up and down regulated in resistant inoculated/resistant control and susceptible inoculated/susceptible control respectively with a common of 3644 transcripts. The pathways for secondary metabolism, specifically the phenylpropanoid pathway was up-regulated in resistant genotype. Transcripts up-regulated as a part of defense response included classes of R genes, PR proteins, HR induced proteins and plant hormonal signaling transduction proteins. The transcripts for skp1 protein, purothionin, V type proton ATPase were found to have the highest expression in resistant genotype. Ten transcripts, selected on the basis of their involvement in defense mechanism were validated with qRT-PCR and showed positive co-relation with transcriptome data. Transcriptome analysis evoked potentials of hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance as possible mechanism operating in defense mechanism in pearl millet against downy mildew infection. PMID:27446100

  16. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in response to salt stress in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Ananthi; Puranik, Swati; Rai, Neeraj Kumar; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Lata, Charu; Prasad, Manoj

    2008-11-01

    Plant growth and productivity are affected by various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, salinity, etc. The mechanism of salt tolerance is one of the most important subjects in plant science as salt stress decreases worldwide agricultural production. In our present study we used cDNA-AFLP technique to compare gene expression profiles of a salt tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) in response to salt stress to identify early responsive differentially expressed transcripts accumulated upon salt stress and validate the obtained result through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profile was compared between a salt tolerant (Prasad) and susceptible variety (Lepakshi) of foxtail millet in both control condition (L0 and P0) and after 1 h (L1 and P1) of salt stress. We identified 90 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) that are differentially expressed, out of which 86 TDFs were classified on the basis of their either complete presence or absence (qualitative variants) and 4 on differential expression pattern levels (quantitative variants) in the two varieties. Finally, we identified 27 non-redundant differentially expressed cDNAs that are unique to salt tolerant variety which represent different groups of genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, seed development and storage, etc. The expression patterns of seven out of nine such genes showed a significant increase of differential expression in tolerant variety after 1 h of salt stress in comparison to salt-sensitive variety as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The direct and indirect relationship of identified TDFs with salinity tolerance mechanism is discussed.

  17. Celiac Disease Diet: How Do I Get Enough Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you. These include brown, black or wild rice, quinoa, amaranth, pure buckwheat, corn, cornmeal, popcorn, millet, gluten- ... from corn (hominy, grits), rice, pure buckwheat, amaranth, quinoa or gluten-free oats Gluten-free puffed rice ...

  18. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  19. Grain quality inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

  20. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  1. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  2. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  3. Edible grain legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  4. Interstellar Grain Mantles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, F.; Goebel, J.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Dhendecourt, L. B.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for determining the composition of small dust grains in interstellar matter are discussed. The best way to study the composition of interstellar grain mantles is by infrared spectroscopy. The absorption features in a complete infrared spectrum from 2 to 15 microns can be used as fingerprints to identify the absorbing molecule. Ground-based observations around 3 microns confirmed the presence of H2O ice in interstellar grain mantles, through the detection of the 3.08 micron OH stretching vibration. The detection of other molecules, in particular the carbon bearing molecules, is however hampered by atmospheric absorption in the 5-8 micron region and the presence of the strong ice and silicate bands, which dominate the 3 and 10 micron region respectively. Kuiper Airborne Observatory observations of the 5-8 micron region of the spectrum are therefore extremely important to determine the composition of interstellar grain mantles. The 5 to 8 micron spectra of molecular cloud sources was obtained using a 24 detector grating spectrometer. An important characteristic of this spectrometer is that the whole spectrum is obtained simultaneously. It is therefore relatively easy to correct for atmospheric transmission.

  5. Interstellar Grain Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Chemistry on grain surfaces plays an Important role in the formation of interstellar Ices, It can also influence the composition of the gas phase through outgassing near luminous, newly formed stars. This paper reviews the chemical processes taking place on Interstellar grain surfaces with the emphasis on those transforming CO into other hydrocarbons. At low, molecular cloud temperatures (approximately equal to 10K), physisorption processes dominate interstellar grain surface chemistry and GO is largely hydrogenated through reactions with atomic H and oxidized through reactions with atomic O. The former will lead to the formation of H2CO and CH3OH ices, while the latter results in CO2 ice. The observational evidence for these ices in molecular clouds will be discussed. Very close to protostars, the gas and grain temperatures are much higher (approximately equal to 500K) and chemisorption processes, including catalytic surface reactions, becomes important. This will be illustrated based upon our studies of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of CH4 from CO on metallic surfaces. Likely, this process has played an important role in the early solar nebula. Observational consequences will be pointed out.

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Multi-Mycotoxins in Cereal Grains Collected from South Korea by LC/MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kang, Jea Woo; Cho, Sung Min; Lee, Kyu Ri; An, Tae Kyung; Lee, Chan; Chung, Soo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    An improved analytical method compared with conventional ones was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetylnivalenol, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, T-2, HT-2, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A) in cereal grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after a single immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method showed a good linearity, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in mycotoxin determination by LC/MS/MS. The levels of 13 mycotoxins in 5 types of commercial grains (brown rice, maize, millet, sorghum, and mixed cereal) from South Korea were determined in a total of 507 cereal grains. Mycotoxins produced from Fusarium sp. (fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone) were more frequently (more than 5%) and concurrently detected in all cereal grains along with higher mean levels (4.3–161.0 ng/g) in positive samples than other toxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (less than 9% and below 5.2 ng/g in positive samples) from other fungal species. PMID:28300780

  7. Spatial distribution pattern analysis of Dof1 transcription factor in different tissues of three Eleusine coracana genotypes differing in their grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Gupta, Atul Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2012-03-01

    In the present study Dof1 gene of finger millet was cloned and sequenced. In silico analysis reveals 61% identity with the Sorghum bicolor and 57% identity with the Oryza sativa Dof1 sequence. A comparative analysis of gene sequences from different crops and three finger millet genotypes {Brown (PRM-1), Golden (PRM-701) and White (PRM-801)} differing in grain colour, yield and photosynthetic efficiency showed a high degree of sequence identity of Dof1 sequence gene ranging from 22 to 70% as evident from distance matrix of the built phylogenetic tree showing two major clusters. A total of five conserved motifs were observed in Dof1 sequences of different cereals. Motif 1 with multilevel consensus sequence CKNCRRYWTKGGAMRNVPVG contains zinc finger Dof domain. Motif 3 and motif 5 contains protein kinase phosphorylation site. Motif 2 contains Dof domain and zinc finger N-glycosylation site while motif 4 is involved in Zinc finger type profiling. Further, we studied the spatial distribution of Dof1 gene in three vegetative tissues (root, stem and flag leaf) as well as four stages of developing spikes (S1, S2, S3 and S4) of the three finger millet genotypes using qualitative and quantitative PCR based approaches. Physiological parameters (plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, SPAD value and photosynthetic efficiency) at the time of flowering was found to be highest in white (PRM-801) genotype followed by golden (PRM-701) and brown (PRM-1) genotype. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of Dof1 is highest in leaves and lowest in roots, which suggests its role in regulation of photosynthesis-related genes and carbon skeleton synthesis. Also at grain maturity stage, expression of Dof1 was higher in white (PRM-801) genotype followed by golden (PRM-701) and brown (PRM-1) genotype. The result is suggestive of Dof1 role in the accumulation of grain protein and yield attribute through regulation of key enzymes

  8. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrients and health benefits Print Share Why is it important to eat grains, especially whole grains? Eating ... diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods ...

  9. Fine-mapping and identification of a candidate gene underlying the d2 dwarfing phenotype in pearl millet, Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone.

    PubMed

    Parvathaneni, Rajiv K; Jakkula, Vinod; Padi, Francis K; Faure, Sebastien; Nagarajappa, Nethra; Pontaroli, Ana C; Wu, Xiaomei; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Devos, Katrien M

    2013-03-01

    Pearl millet is one of the most important subsistence crops grown in India and sub-Saharan Africa. In many cereal crops, reduced height is a key trait for enhancing yield, and dwarf mutants have been extensively used in breeding to reduce yield loss due to lodging under intense management. In pearl millet, the recessive d2 dwarfing gene has been deployed widely in commercial germplasm grown in India, the United States, and Australia. Despite its importance, very little research has gone into determining the identity of the d2 gene. We used comparative information, genetic mapping in two F2 populations representing a total of some 1500 progeny, and haplotype analysis of three tall and three dwarf inbred lines to delineate the d2 region by two genetic markers that, in sorghum, define a region of 410 kb with 40 annotated genes. One of the sorghum genes annotated within this region is ABCB1, which encodes a P-glycoprotein involved in auxin transport. This gene had previously been shown to underlie the economically important dw3 dwarf mutation in sorghum. The cosegregation of ABCB1 with the d2 phenotype, its differential expression in the tall inbred ICMP 451 and the dwarf inbred Tift 23DB, and the similar phenotype of stacked lower internodes in the sorghum dw3 and pearl millet d2 mutants suggest that ABCB1 is a likely candidate for d2.

  10. Disorientation of Suprathermally Rotating Grains and the Grain Alignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.; Draine, B. T.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the dynamics of dust grains subjected to torques arising from H2 formation. In particular, we discuss grain dynamics when a grain spins down and goes through a ``crossover'' event. As first pointed out by Spitzer & McGlynn, the grain angular momentum before and after a crossover event are correlated, and the degree of this correlation critically affects the alignment of dust grains by paramagnetic dissipation. We calculate the correlation including the important effects of thermal fluctuations within the grain material. These fluctuations limit the degree to which the grain angular momentum J is coupled with the grain principal axis a1 of maximal inertia. We show that this imperfect coupling of a1 with J plays a critical role during crossovers and can substantially increase the efficiency of paramagnetic alignment for grains larger than 0.1 μm. As a result, we show that for reasonable choices of parameters, the observed alignment of a >~ 0.1 μm grains could be achieved by paramagnetic dissipation in suprathermally rotating grains, if radiative torques caused by starlight were not present. We also show that the efficiency of mechanical alignment in the limit of long alignment times is not altered by the thermal fluctuations in the grain material. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Lyman Spitzer, Jr.

  11. History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

  12. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  13. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  14. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    time at elevated temperature for 7475 aluminum alloy 5 2 Optical micrographs of 7075 aluminum alloy after exposure to 5160C (960oF) for times...applied to Al-Zn-Mg-Cu ( 7075 Al) alloy. Subsequent developments by Waldman et al. (refs. 8-11) resulted in the demonstration that 7000 series alloys...a number of aluminum alloys. With such a fine grain structure, high temperature deformation character- istics approaching superplastic behavior

  15. Predictive coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöberl, Markus; Zabaras, Nicholas; Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios

    2017-03-01

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method [1] and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo - Expectation-Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  16. Foxtail Millet NF-Y Families: Genome-Wide Survey and Evolution Analyses Identified Two Functional Genes Important in Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; He, Guan-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Lu, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ming; Gong, Ya-Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC) expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam) NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD, or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC) and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5, and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies.

  17. Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615 cM, 690 cM, 428 cM and 276 cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899 cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ≤ 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this

  18. Foxtail Millet NF-Y Families: Genome-Wide Survey and Evolution Analyses Identified Two Functional Genes Important in Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; He, Guan-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Lu, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ming; Gong, Ya-Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC) expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam) NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD, or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC) and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5, and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies. PMID:26734043

  19. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  20. Grain-grain interaction in stationary dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, Martin; Joyce, Glenn

    2015-02-15

    We present a particle-in-cell simulation study of the steady-state interaction between two stationary dust grains in uniform stationary plasma. Both the electrostatic force and the shadowing force on the grains are calculated explicitly. The electrostatic force is always repulsive. For two grains of the same size, the electrostatic force is very nearly equal to the shielded electric field due to a single isolated grain, acting on the charge of the other grain. For two grains of unequal size, the electrostatic force on the smaller grain is smaller than the isolated-grain field, and the force on the larger grain is larger than the isolated-grain field. In all cases, the attractive shadowing force exceeds the repulsive electrostatic force when the grain separation d is greater than an equilibrium separation d{sub 0}. d{sub 0} is found to be between 6λ{sub D} and 9λ{sub D} in all cases. The binding energy is estimated to be between 19 eV and 900 eV for various cases.

  1. Further evidence that a terminal drought tolerance QTL of pearl millet is associated with reduced salt uptake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parbodh C; Singh, Dhananjay; Sehgal, Deepmala; Singh, Gurbachan; Hash, C T; Yadav, Rattan S

    2014-06-01

    Earlier, we established that a major drought tolerance QTL on linkage group 2 of pearl millet is also associated with reduced salt uptake and enhanced growth under salt stress. Present study was undertaken to re-assess the performance of drought tolerant (PRLT 2/89-33) and drought sensitive (H 77/833-2) parents along with two QTL-NILs (ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01040), under salinity stress specifically imposed during post-flowering growth stages when plants had developed their ion sinks in full. Time course changes in ionic accumulation and their compartmentalization in different plant parts was studied, specifically to monitor and capture changes conferred by the two alleles at this QTL, at small intervals. Amongst different plant parts, higher accumulation of toxic ion Na(+) was recorded in roots. Further, the Na(+) concentration in roots of the testcross hybrid of the drought-sensitive parent (H 77/833-2) reached its maximum at ECiw 15 dS m(-1) within 24 h after salinity imposition, whereas it continued to increase with time in the testcross hybrids of the drought tolerant parent PRLT 2/89-33 as well as those of its QTL-NILs (ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004) and reached at its maximum at 120 h stage. Comparison of differential distribution of toxic ions in individual leaves revealed that Na(+) ions were not uniformly distributed in the leaves of the drought-tolerant parent and drought-tolerant QTL-NILs; but accumulated preferentially in the older leaves, whereas the hybrid of the drought-sensitive parent showed significantly higher Na(+) concentration in all main stem leaves irrespective of their age. Dynamics of chlorophyll and proline concentration variation studied under salt stress at late flowering stages revealed a greater reduction, almost twice, in both leaf chlorophyll and proline concentrations in younger leaves in the hybrids of the sensitive parent as compared to the tolerant parent and QTL NILs. Imposition of salinity stress even at flowering stage

  2. Whole grains and human health.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne

    2004-06-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, CVD, diabetes, and obesity. Despite recommendations to consume three servings of whole grains daily, usual intake in Western countries is only about one serving/d. Whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals with known health benefits. Whole grains have high concentrations of dietary fibre, resistant starch, and oligosaccharides. Whole grains are rich in antioxidants including trace minerals and phenolic compounds and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Other protective compounds in whole grains include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. Published whole-grain feeding studies report improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood-lipid improvement, and antioxidant protection. Although it is difficult to separate the protective properties of whole grains from dietary fibre and other components, the disease protection seen from whole grains in prospective epidemiological studies far exceeds the protection from isolated nutrients and phytochemicals in whole grains.

  3. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  4. Evolution of Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Lou J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    During the past two decades observations combined with laboratory simulations, have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar ice and dust, the raw materials from which planets, comets and stars form. Most interstellar material is concentrated in large molecular clouds where simple molecules are formed by dust-grain and gas-phase reactions. Gaseous species striking the cold (10K) dust stick, forming an icy grain mantle. This accretion, coupled with UV photolysis, produces a complex chemical mixture containing volatile, non-volatile, and isotopically fractionated species. Ices in molecular clouds contain the very simple molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, CO2, H2, and perhaps some NH3 and H2CO, as well as more complex species. The evidence for these compounds, as well as carbon-rich materials, will be reviewed and the possible connections with comets and meteorites will be presented in the first part of the talk . The second part of the presentation will focus on interstellar/precometary ice photochemical evolution and the species likely to be found in comets. The chemical composition and photochemical evolution of realistic interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs will be discussed. Ultraviolet photolysis of these ices produces H2, H2CO, CO2, CO, CH4, HCO, and more complex molecules. When ices representative of interstellar grains and comets are exposed to UV radiation at low temperature a series of moderately complex organic molecules are formed in the ice including: CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C=N (nitriles). Several of these are already known to be in the interstellar medium, and their presence indicates the importance of grain processing. After warming to room temperature an organic residue remains. This is composed primarily of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), with lesser amounts of polyoxymethylene-related species (POMs), amides, and ketones. This is in sharp contrast to the organic residues produced by

  5. Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 Using Pearl Millet and Its Structural Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Bijay K.; Jana, Arijit; Nanda, Prativa K.; DasMohapatra, Pradeep K.; Sahoo, Santi L.; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid state (SSF) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. One-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol) was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM) as substrate by SSF (19.19 ± 0.9 Ug−1) and also in presence of 1 mM magnesium sulfate, 0.025% (w/v) gibberellic acid, and 30 mg/100 ml (w/v) of vitamin E (~60-fold higher production of amylase) with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. The enzyme comprised of a typical secondary structure containing α-helix (12.2%), β-pleated sheet (23.6%), and β-turn (27.4%). Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications. PMID:27242841

  6. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively.

  7. Three alpha-amylases from malted finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15)--purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, M; Muralikrishna, G

    2003-01-01

    Three alpha-amylases (E.C. 3.2.1.1) were purified to apparent homogeneity from 72 h finger millet malt by three step purification via fractional acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel permeation chromatographies with a recovery of 6.5, 2.9, 9.6% and fold purification of 26, 17 and 31, respectively. alpha-Nature of these amylases was identified by their ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of starch solution and also in liberating oligosaccharides of higher D.P. and were accordingly designated as amylases alpha-1((b)), alpha-2 and alpha-3, respectively. These amylases, having a molecular weight of 45+/-2 kDa were found to be monomeric. The pH and temperature optima of these alpha-amylases were found to be in the range of 5.0-5.5 and 45-50 degrees C, respectively. K(m) values of these amylases for various cereal starches varied between 0.59 and 1.43%. Carbodiimide (50 mM) and metal ions such as Al(3+), Fe(2+), and Hg(2+) (5 mM) have completely inhibited these enzymes at 45 degrees C. Amino acid analysis of these enzymes indicated high amounts of glycine which is an unusual feature of these enzymes.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Presolar Silicate Grains; Presolar Silicates from Primitivr Chondrites; Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Ratios of Presolar Spinel Grains; Study of Two New Presolar Grains from Bishunpur Ordinary Chondrite; Extinct Technetium in Presolar Grains; etc.

  9. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food.

  10. Immuno-affinity purification of PglPGIP1, a polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein from pearl millet: studies on its inhibition of fungal polygalacturonases and role in resistance against the downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Wagenknecht, Martin; Melvin, Prasad; Gnanesh Kumar, Belur Shivappa; Veena, Mariswamy; Shailasree, Sekhar; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2015-06-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) are important plant defense proteins which modulate the activity of microbial polygalacturonases (PGs) leading to elicitor accumulation. Very few studies have been carried out towards understanding the role of PGIPs in monocot host defense. Hence, present study was taken up to characterize a native PGIP from pearl millet and understand its role in resistance against downy mildew. A native glycosylated PGIP (PglPGIP1) of ~43 kDa and pI 5.9 was immunopurified from pearl millet. Comparative inhibition studies involving PglPGIP1 and its non-glycosylated form (rPglPGIP1; recombinant pearl millet PGIP produced in Escherichia coli) against two PGs, PG-II isoform from Aspergillus niger (AnPGII) and PG-III isoform from Fusarium moniliforme, showed both PGIPs to inhibit only AnPGII. The protein glycosylation was found to impact only the pH and temperature stability of PGIP, with the native form showing relatively higher stability to pH and temperature changes. Temporal accumulation of both PglPGIP1 protein (western blot and ELISA) and transcripts (real time PCR) in resistant and susceptible pearl millet cultivars showed significant Sclerospora graminicola-induced accumulation only in the incompatible interaction. Further, confocal PGIP immunolocalization results showed a very intense immuno-decoration with highest fluorescent intensities observed at the outer epidermal layer and vascular bundles in resistant cultivar only. This is the first native PGIP isolated from millets and the results indicate a role for PglPGIP1 in host defense. This could further be exploited in devising pearl millet cultivars with better pathogen resistance.

  11. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  12. Dehumidification Grain Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-05-13

    A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels.Approximately 250 million automotive and truck tires are discarded each year in the U.S. The very properties that ensure a safe ride and long service life make the disposal of these scrap tires difficult. In spite of this, scrap tire recycling/reuse has rapidly grown from 10% in 1985 to over 90% today. The majority of scrap tires that are recycled/reused are burned for fuel in power plants and cement kilns. Since tires have somewhat higher heating value than coal, this would at first seem to be an acceptable option. But burning scrap tires recovers only 25% of the energy originally used to manufacture the rubber. An alternative is to use the scrap tires in the form of crumb rubber, by which 98% of the original energy is recovered. This project sought to explore potential formulations of crumb rubber with various thermoplastic binders, with one goal being developing a material for a low-cost, high-performance roofing composition. What was the state-of-the-art of the product/process prior to initiation of the project? Why was the project needed (e.g., performance, quality, cost, time to market)? Describe the strengths and interests of each party and how they are complementary with respect to the project. What KCP expertise was needed and how did it complement the partner's capabilities?

  13. Grain dust and the lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  14. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of traditional fonio millet (Digitaria spp.) landraces from different agro-ecological zones of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Adoukonou-Sagbadja, H; Wagner, C; Dansi, A; Ahlemeyer, J; Daïnou, O; Akpagana, K; Ordon, F; Friedt, W

    2007-11-01

    Fonio millets (Digitaria exilis Stapf, D. iburua Stapf) are valuable indigenous staple food crops in West Africa. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and population differentiation in these millets, a total of 122 accessions from five countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Togo) were analysed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Genetic distance-based UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear-cut differentiation between the two species and a clustering of D. exilis accessions in three major genetic groups fitting to their geographical origins. Shannon's diversity index detected in D. iburua was low (H = 0.02). In D. exilis, the most widespread cultivated species, moderate levels of genetic diversity (Shannon's diversity H = 0.267; Nei's gene diversity H' = 0.355) were detected. This genetic diversity is unequally distributed with the essential part observed in the Upper Niger River basin while a very low diversity is present in the Atacora mountain zone. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that a large part of the genetic variation resides among the genetic groups (70%) and the country of origin (56%), indicating a clear genetic differentiation within D. exilis. Influence of mating system (inbreeding or apomixis), agricultural selection and ecological adaptations as well as founding effects in the genetic make-up of the landraces were visible and seemed to jointly contribute to the genetic structure detected in this species. The genetic variability found between the analysed accessions was weakly correlated with their phenotypic attributes. However, the genetic groups identified differed significantly in their mean performance for some agro-morphologic traits. The results obtained are relevant for fonio millets breeding, conservation and management of their genetic resources in West Africa.

  15. Molecular cloning of a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat gene from pearl millet and its expression pattern in response to the downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Veena, Mariswamy; Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Shailasree, Sekhar; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-03-01

    Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a devastating disease of pearl millet. Based on candidate gene approach, a set of 22 resistance gene analogues were identified. The clone RGPM 301 (AY117410) containing a partial sequence shared 83% similarity to rice R-proteins. A full-length R-gene RGA RGPM 301 of 3552 bp with 2979 bp open reading frame encoding 992 amino acids was isolated by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. It had a molecular mass of 113.96 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.71. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it to a non-TIR NBS LRR group. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed higher accumulation of the transcripts following inoculation with S. graminicola in the resistant cultivar (IP18296) compared to susceptible cultivar (7042S). Further, significant induction in the transcript levels were observed when treated with abiotic elicitor β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and biotic elicitor Pseudomonas fluorescens. Exogenous application of phytohormones jasmonic acid or salicylic acid also up-regulated the expression levels of RGA RGPM 301. The treatment of cultivar IP18296 with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed the levels of RGA RGPM 301. A 3.5 kb RGA RGPM 301 which is a non-TIR NBS-LRR protein was isolated from pearl millet and its up-regulation during downy mildew interaction was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. These studies indicate a role for this RGA in pearl millet downy mildew interaction.

  16. Enhancement of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by the G_app7 bioactive compound produced by Ganoderma applanatum.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S. graminicola, as well as the effects of seed treatment with G_app7 on protection of pearl millet from downy mildew. G_app7 consistently demonstrated remarkable effects against S. graminicola by recording significant inhibition of sporangium formation (41.4%), zoospore release (77.5%) and zoospore motility (91%). Analyses of G_app7 compound using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed its close resemblance to metominostrobin, a derivative of strobilurin group of fungicides. Furthermore, the G_app7 was shown to stably maintain the inhibitory effects at different temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. In addition, the anti-oomycete activity of G_app7 was fairly stable for a period of at least 12 months at 4 °C and was only completely lost after being autoclaved. Seed treatment with G_app7 resulted in a significant increase in disease protection (63%) under greenhouse conditions compared with water control. The identification and isolation of this novel and functional anti-oomycete compound from G. applanatum provide a considerable agrochemical importance for plant protection against downy mildew in an environmentally safe and economical manner.

  17. Phosphate Concentration and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonisation Influence the Growth, Yield and Expression of Twelve PHT1 Family Phosphate Transporters in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica)

    PubMed Central

    Ceasar, S. Antony; Hodge, Angela; Baker, Alison; Baldwin, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet) is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12) in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet. PMID:25251671

  18. The physics of grain-grain collisions and gas-grain sputtering in interstellar shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Mckee, C. F.; Seab, C. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Grain-grain collisions and ion sputtering destroy dust grains in interstellar shocks. An analytical theory is developed for the propagation of shock waves in solids driven by grain-grain collisions, which compares very favorably with detailed numerical calculations. This theory is used to determine the fraction of grain vaporized by a grain-grain collision. Our results predict much less vaporization of colliding grains in interstellar shocks than previous estimates. This theory can also be used to determine the fraction of a colliding grain that melts, shatter, or undergoes a phase transformation to a higher density phase. In particular, the latter two processes can be much more important in interstellar shocks than vaporization. The sputtering of grains by impacting gas ions is reanalyzed based upon extensive laboratory studies and a theoretically derived 'universal'sputtering relation. The analytical results are compared to available experimental studies of sputtering of graphite/amorphous carbon, SiO2, SiC, Fe, and H2O. Sputtering yields for astrophysically relevant materials as a function of impact energy and ion mass are derived. These yields are also averaged over thermal impact spectrum and simple polynomial fits to the resulting yields as a function of temperature are presented. The derived sputtering yields are similar to those adopted in previous studies, except for graphite near threshold where the new yields are much larger due to a lower adopted binding energy. The ion bombardment will amorphitize the surface layers of interstellar grains. It will also convert graphite into hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) to a depth of 10-20 A. It is suggested that these HAC surfaces are the carriers of the 3.4 micrometer absorption feature in the interstellar medium.

  19. No Excess of Cis-Regulatory Variation Associated with Intraspecific Selection in Wild Pearl Millet (Cenchrus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Rhoné, Bénédicte; Mariac, Cédric; Couderc, Marie; Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Ousseini, Issaka Salia

    2017-01-01

    Several studies suggest that cis-regulatory mutations are the favorite target of evolutionary changes, one reason being that cis-regulatory mutations might have fewer deleterious pleiotropic effects than protein-coding mutations. A review of the process also suggests that this bias towards adaptive cis-regulatory variation might be less pronounced at the intraspecific level compared with the interspecific level. In this study, we assessed the contribution of cis-regulatory variation to adaptation at the intraspecific level using populations of wild pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus ssp. monodii) sampled along an environmental gradient in Niger. From RNA sequencing of hybrids to assess allele-specific expression, we identified genes with cis-regulatory divergence between two parental accessions collected in contrasted environmental conditions. This revealed that ∼15% of transcribed genes showed cis-regulatory variation. Intersecting the gene set exhibiting cis-regulatory variation with the gene set identified as targets of selection revealed no excess of cis-acting mutations among the selected genes. We additionally found no excess of cis-regulatory variation among genes associated with adaptive traits. As our approach relied on methods identifying mainly genes submitted to strong selection pressure or with high phenotypic effect, the contribution of cis-regulatory changes to soft selection or polygenic adaptive traits remains to be tested. However our results favor the hypothesis that enrichment of adaptive cis-regulatory divergence builds up over time. For short evolutionary time-scales, cis-acting mutations are not predominantly involved in adaptive evolution associated with strong selective signal. PMID:28137746

  20. Autonomous grain combine control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  1. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and grain growth, which are coupled in a two-way process. Aims: We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension Df = 2. Methods: Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. Results: The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the charging state of grains. The greater the difference between the thermal velocities of the metal and the dominant molecular ion, the greater the change in the mean grain charge. Agglomerates have more negative excess charge on average than compact spherical particles of the same mass. The rise in the mean grain charge is proportional to N1/6 in the ion-dust limit. We find that grain charging in a non-stationary disc environment is expected to lead to similar results. Conclusions: The results indicate that the dust growth and settling in regions where the dust growth is limited by the so-called "electro-static barrier" do not prevent the dust material from remaining the dominant charge carrier.

  2. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. FDA allows label health claims for food containing 11 g and 51% whole grains. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain products. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads were prepared with cor...

  3. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children.

    PubMed

    Songré-Ouattara, Laurencia T; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, Bréhima; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a sample obtained from spontaneously fermented traditional pearl millet slurry obtained from a small scale processing unit in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). Starter cultures thrived on the slurry as shown by counts on MRS agar, TTGE fingerprints, and fermentation patterns. The fermentation of precooked slurries inoculated by back slopping or with mixed cultures containing the amylolytic strain Lb. plantarum A6 enabled partial starch hydrolysis. Corresponding gruels had a suitable consistency for young child feeding at high dry matter content, and a high energy density: 88.7 +/- 4.2 and 75.8 +/- 5.1 kcal/100 g of sweetened gruel, for the gruels inoculated by back slopping or with Lb. plantarum A6, respectively. Unexpectedly, no decrease in phytates was observed in any of the experiments, suggesting the presence of one or more inhibitory compounds in soybean. Furthermore, preprocessing conditions before fermentation affect the carbohydrate composition of slurry and have a more profound effect than fermentation on the reduction of the alpha-GOS content.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of heat shock proteins in C4 model, foxtail millet identifies potential candidates for crop improvement under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Jaishankar, Jananee; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Shweta, Shweta; Dangi, Anand; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27586959

  5. A new raw-starch-digesting α-amylase: production under solid-state fermentation on crude millet and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Kamoun, Amel; Moulis, Claire; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ghribi, Dhouha; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2013-04-01

    A new Bacillus strain degrading starch, named Bacillus sp. UEB-S, was isolated from a southern Tunisian area. Amylase production using solid-state fermentation on millet, an inexpensive and available agro-resource, was investigated. Response surface methodology was applied to establish the relationship between enzyme production and four variables: inoculum size, moisture-to-millet ratio, temperature, and fermentation duration. The maximum enzyme activity recovered was 680 U/g of dry substrate when using 1.38 × 10(9) CFU/g as inoculation level, 5.6:1 (ml/g) as moisture ratio (86%), for 4 days of cultivation at 37 degrees C, which was in perfect agreement with the predicted model value. Amylase was purified by Q-Sepharose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography with a 14-fold increase in specific activity. Its molecular mass was estimated at 130 kDa. The enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 5 and 70 degrees C, and efficiently hydrolyzed starch to yield glucose and maltose as end products. The enzyme proved its efficiency for digesting raw cereal below gelatinization temperature and, hence, its potentiality to be used in industrial processes.

  6. Quantitative reconstruction of summer precipitation using a mid-Holocene δ13C common millet record from Guanzhong Basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Xinying; Zhao, Keliang; Sun, Nan

    2016-12-01

    To quantitatively reconstruct Holocene precipitation for particular geographical areas, suitable proxies and faithful dating controls are required. The fossilized seeds of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are found throughout the sedimentary strata of northern China and are suited to the production of quantitative Holocene precipitation reconstructions: their isotopic carbon composition (δ13C) gives a measure of the precipitation required during the growing season of summer (here the interval from mid-June to September) and allows these seeds to be dated. We therefore used a regression function, as part of a systematic study of the δ13C of common millet, to produce a quantitative reconstruction of mid-Holocene summer precipitation in the Guanzhong Basin (107°40'-107°49' E, 33°39'-34°45' N). Our results showed that mean summer precipitation at 7.7-3.4 ka BP was 353 mm, ˜ 50 mm or 17 % higher than present levels, and the variability increased, especially after 5.2 ka BP. Maximum mean summer precipitation peaked at 414 mm during the period 6.1-5.5 ka BP, ˜ 109 mm (or 36 %) higher than today, indicating that the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) peaked at this time. This work can provide a new proxy for further research into continuous paleoprecipitation sequences and the variability of summer precipitation, which will promote the further research into the relation between early human activity and environmental change.

  7. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  8. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-05

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy.

  9. Quantitative characterisation of sedimentary grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunwal, Mohit; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of sedimentary texture helps in determining the formation, transportation and deposition processes of sedimentary rocks. Grain size analysis is traditionally quantitative, whereas grain shape analysis is largely qualitative. A semi-automated approach to quantitatively analyse shape and size of sand sized sedimentary grains is presented. Grain boundaries are manually traced from thin section microphotographs in the case of lithified samples and are automatically identified in the case of loose sediments. Shape and size paramters can then be estimated using a software package written on the Mathematica platform. While automated methodology already exists for loose sediment analysis, the available techniques for the case of lithified samples are limited to cases of high definition thin section microphotographs showing clear contrast between framework grains and matrix. Along with the size of grain, shape parameters such as roundness, angularity, circularity, irregularity and fractal dimension are measured. A new grain shape parameter developed using Fourier descriptors has also been developed. To test this new approach theoretical examples were analysed and produce high quality results supporting the accuracy of the algorithm. Furthermore sandstone samples from known aeolian and fluvial environments from the Dingle Basin, County Kerry, Ireland were collected and analysed. Modern loose sediments from glacial till from County Cork, Ireland and aeolian sediments from Rajasthan, India have also been collected and analysed. A graphical summary of the data is presented and allows for quantitative distinction between samples extracted from different sedimentary environments.

  10. Optical properties of cometary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Tadashi

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of visible/near IF polarimetry of Comet Halley leads to a variation of the complex refractive index m = n - i x k of grain material with wavelength, i.e., a slight decrease of n from 1.39 at lambda = 0.37 micrometer to 1.37 at lambda = 2.2 micrometers, in constrast to an increase of k from 0.024 at lambda = 0.37 micrometer to 0.042 at lambda 2.2 micrometers. The mass distribution of grains reported by Mazets et al. from in situ measurements of Vega 2 was applied in the analysis. Combining these optical constants with those of astronomical silicate proposed by Draine, cometary silicate is presented as a candidate for cometary grains. The complex refractive index of the proposed cometary silicate is shown. Based on Mie theory, an emission coefficiency of each of the grains in computed as well as its temperature, as functions of grain radius and sun comet (grain) distance. It is found that the tentative thermal spectrum from these cometary silicates, where the mass distribution of grains reported by Mazets from Vega 2 was applied, fits very well to the IR spectrum of Comet Halley. This means that cometary silicate can explain not only the phase angle and wavelength dependences of visible/near IF polarization, but also the thermal emission.

  11. Fluctuation effects in grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Gyoon; Park, Yong Bum

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to clarify the roles of fluctuation effects in grain growth. To capture the persistent nature in both space and time of fluctuations due to variations in the local surroundings of individual grains, we developed a local mean-field model. The fluctuation strength in this model is arbitrarily controlled by employing an artificial number, n , of nearest neighbor grains. Large-scale numerical computations of the model for various n values and initial GSDs were carried out to follow transient behaviors and determine the steady states. This study reveals that, in the classical mean-field model with no fluctuation effects, the steady state is not unique but is strongly dependent upon the initial GSD. However, a small fluctuation drives the mean-field model to reach the Hillert solution, independent of the fluctuation strength and initial GSD, as long as the fluctuation strength is sufficiently small. On the other hand, when the fluctuation is sufficiently strong, the fluctuation pushes the steady state of the mean-field model out of the Hillert solution, and its strength determines a unique steady state independent of the initial GSD. The strong fluctuation makes the GSD more symmetric than the Hillert distribution. Computations designed to mimic actual 2 and 3D grain growth were carried out by taking the number of nearest neighbors of each grain as a function of the scaled grain size. The resultant GSDs in two and three dimensions were compared with the direct simulations of ideal grain growth.

  12. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewedpublicationsbytheauthorand/orFredHoyle. Theprevailingreluctancetoaccepttheseclear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance - a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  13. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  14. Balancing green and grain trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Kaibo; Lin, Yishan; Shi, Weiyu; Song, Yi; He, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    Since 1999, China's Grain for Green project has greatly increased the vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau. Now that erosion levels have returned to historic values, vegetation should be maintained but not expanded further as planned.

  15. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  16. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  17. Dust grains in planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, D.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2011-10-01

    Micrometeoroid impacts on small moons or ring particles generate dusty debris of all sizes. Grains launched from parent bodies on Kepler orbits become electrically charged due to interactions with the plasma environment and solar photons. The tenuous dusty rings are essentially collisionless systems and hence sub-micron grains, released and charged in the rotating magnetic field of their host planet, follow trajectories under the combined forces of electromagnetism and gravity. Depending on their launch distance and charge-to-mass ratio, some grains can be unstable to either radial perturbations (positively-charged grains only), or vertical perturbations (both positive and negative charges). These instabilities act on short timescales and cause grains to collide with the planet or escape in less than an orbit. [5] compiled numerical data and analytical solutions to the boundaries between stable and unstable trajectories, for the idealized case of a planet with an aligned dipolar magnetic field. The effect of a vertically offset or moderately tilted dipolar magnetic field configuration increases the class of grains that are vertically unstable, but has little effect on the short-term radial instability. We present numerical stability maps for each of the giant planets.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) using genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation and population structure in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet using 87 genomic SSR primers. The 128 finger millet genotypes were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Eighty-seven genomic SSR primers with 60-70 % GC contents were used for PCR analysis of 128 finger millet genotypes. The PCR products were separated and visualized on a 6 % polyacrylamide gel followed by silver staining. The data were used to estimate major allele frequency using Power Marker v3.0. Dendrograms were constructed based on the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. Statistical fitness and population structure analyses were performed to find the genetic diversity. The mean major allele frequency was 0.92; the means of polymorphic alleles were 2.13 per primer and 1.45 per genotype; the average polymorphism was 59.94 % per primer and average PIC value was 0.44 per primer. Indian genotypes produced an additional 0.21 allele than non-Indian genotypes. Gene diversity was in the range from 0.02 to 0.35. The average heterozygosity was 0.11, close to 100 % homozygosity. The highest inbreeding coefficient was observed with SSR marker UGEP67. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.011 to 0.836. The highest similarity value was 0.836 between genotypes DPI009-04 and GPU-45. Indian genotypes were placed in Eleusine coracana major cluster (EcMC) 1 along with 6 non-Indian genotypes. AMOVA showed that molecular variance in genotypes from various geographical regions was 4 %; among populations it was 3 % and within populations it was 93 %. PCA scatter plot analysis showed that GPU-28, GPU-45 and DPI009-04 were closely dispersed in first component axis. In structural analysis, the genotypes were divided into three subpopulations (SP1, SP2 and SP3). All the three subpopulations had an admixture of alleles and no pure line was observed. These analyses confirmed that all the genotypes were genetically diverse and had been grouped based on

  19. The History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Below we summarize the results of our investigations into the history of presolar grains that were conducted in the last year. During this time we have expended much of our effort in the development of experimental techniques and sample preparation methods that are needed to laboratory in December, 2000. Specific information on this instrument is contained in the Full Proposal of PI Ernst Zinner and will not be repeated here. Our general strategy in the past year has been in large measure to explore novel sample handling methods for the very small (sub-micron), but more representative, presolar grains that can now be characterized isotopically in the NanoSIMS. We have developed experimental techniques that will permit NanoSIMS analyses of the very same ultramicrotome sections studied in the TEM, and we have developed grain dispersion, handling and mounting techniques that permit NanoSIMS isotopic analysis as well as field emission SEM, high energy TEM, and atomic force microscopy of pristine presolar grains. Although much of this has been slow and very difficult work that has no immediate payoff in terms of publishable results, we considered it absolutely necessary groundwork for future discoveries, especially in the realm of individual presolar grains that have been inaccessible to past studies due to size constraints. As discussed below, we have been largely successful in these endeavors, and expect to reap the benefits of this work in the next year. We also report on our continued morphologic studies of pristine presolar grains, on our investigations of presolar graphite grains from supernovae as well as on rarer types of presotar SIC, on the search for presolar silicates, and on our efforts to obtain direct size-distribution information on presolar SiC through X-ray mapping techniques.

  20. Sculpting sandcastles grain by grain: self-assembled sand towers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Moreau, F; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2012-11-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a wet sand bed. When the liquid content of the bed exceeds a threshold value W*, the impacting grains have a nonzero probability to stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The trapped grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow towers. The growth velocity is determined by the surface liquid content which decreases exponentially as the tower height augments. This self-assembly mechanism (only observed in the funicular and capillary regimes) could theoretically last while the capillary rise of water is possible; however, the structure collapses before reaching this limit. The collapse occurs when the weight of the tower surpasses the cohesive stress at its base. The cohesive stress increases as the liquid content of the bed is reduced. Consequently, the highest towers are found just above W*.

  1. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  2. The rotation of magnetic grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.

    1993-05-01

    It has been questioned whether magnetic remanence rotates as a rigid marker or as a passive marker (with no material properties) during tectonic strain. The remanence of a rock is actually the sum of the moments of individual grains, so we must first understand their rotation. Simple shear provides a simple strain history which may be used to distinguish between the two extreme possibilities. A passive marker cannot rotate through the shear plane but a rigid marker can: this is a useful criterion to distinguish between the two extreme models. However, for reasonable strains ( γ < 4 orRs < 18), it is only possible to distinguish between rigid marker and passive marker behaviour for grains of low aspect ratio ( R < 5), preferably making a low initial angle with the shear direction. For these conditions, rigid grains would rotate through the shear plane. Because natural hematite usually has high aspect ratios ( R > 10) the passive model is successful in explaining the rotation of these grains, even though their behaviour is mechanistically closer to that of a rigid marker. This explains the success of field studies in which the remanence of redbeds has been de-strained using the hypothesis of passive behaviour, notwithstanding the reality that the natural iron oxide grains do not rotate in that manner.

  3. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  4. Milk from cows grazing on cool-season pastures provides an enhanced profile of bioactive fatty acids compared to those grazed on a monoculture of pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Egolf, Emily; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2017-02-15

    The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein). The contents of CLA and n-3 FA in a serving of whole milk (3.25% fat) increased when cows grazed CSP compared to PM. A serving of whole milk from cows grazing PM had a higher content of saturated FA and branched-chain FA. In conclusion, the contents of various bioactive FA were higher in milk fat of cows grazing a CSP compared to PM.

  5. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  6. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  7. Drinking From the Same Straw: Crop Growth and Evidence of Water Transfer from Native Shrubs to Millet in a Sahelian Agro-Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Diedhiou, I.; Dick, R.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture, transpiration rate, crop growth and soil and leaf water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting deuterated water into the roots of three shrubs at one meter depth and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. Deuterium Enriched water was found in the shrubs of two out of three plots. Deuterium enriched water was found in the crops and shrubs in all three plots. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to larger differences in crop growth and strong evidence for the sharing of hydraulically redistributed water. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  8. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from rice, peanut and millet farms in peninsular India: Effects of water and nitrogen management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Loecke, T. D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.; Ahuja, R.; Hamburg, S.

    2013-12-01

    At Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), we recognize that any intervention to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should meet the interests of small scale farmers and low-carbon farming (LCF) is an integral component of our work on international climate. As a part of our Emissions Measurement and Methodology Development (EMD) Project, a joint undertaking with Indian NGO partners of the Fair Climate Network (FCN), five GHG measurement laboratories were set up across three states in peninsular (south) India. These labs represent different agro-ecological zones within the dryland agriculture belt in South India for which no reliable datasets on GHG emission have been available. Our approach for collecting gas samples was based on the Gracenet protocol. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions were made on approximately 50% of the total number of days in a growing season and once a week during fallow periods. In order to capture the peak emissions of nitrous oxide, samples were collected for 3-4 consecutive days after critical events like tillage, weeding, fertilization, and rainfall/irrigation. The research team collected field data at the time of sampling (temperature of the soil, water and air; and water levels). We also recorded parameters (e.g. water, fertilizer, labor and energy use; and yields) which were necessary for calculating farm profitability. Our data from 2012-2013 suggest that, for peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation techniques offer very large emission reduction potential (2-5 metric tons CO2e per acre per year), with smaller reductions from peanut and millet (0.15-0.5 metric ton CO2e per acre per season). The Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors 1) grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management and 2) overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies by a

  10. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  11. Grain Growth in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Munoz, Laura Maria

    The majority of young, low-mass stars are surrounded by optically thick accretion disks. These circumstellar disks provide large reservoirs of gas and dust that will eventually be transformed into planetary systems. Theory and observations suggest that the earliest stage toward planet formation in a protoplanetary disk is the growth of particles, from sub-micron-sized grains to centimeter- sized pebbles. Theory indicates that small interstellar grains are well coupled into the gas and are incorporated to the disk during the proto-stellar collapse. These dust particles settle toward the disk mid-plane and simultaneously grow through collisional coagulation in a very short timescale. Observationally, grain growth can be inferred by measuring the spectral energy distribution at long wavelengths, which traces the continuum dust emission spectrum and hence the dust opacity. Several observational studies have indicated that the dust component in protoplanetary disks has evolved as compared to interstellar medium dust particles, suggesting at least 4 orders of magnitude in particle-size growth. However, the limited angular resolution and poor sensitivity of previous observations has not allowed for further exploration of this astrophysical process. As part of my thesis, I embarked in an observational program to search for evidence of radial variations in the dust properties across a protoplanetary disk, which may be indicative of grain growth. By making use of high angular resolution observations obtained with CARMA, VLA, and SMA, I searched for radial variations in the dust opacity inside protoplanetary disks. These observations span more than an order of magnitude in wavelength (from sub-millimeter to centimeter wavelengths) and attain spatial resolutions down to 20 AU. I characterized the radial distribution of the circumstellar material and constrained radial variations of the dust opacity spectral index, which may originate from particle growth in these circumstellar

  12. What Controls Ooid Grain Size?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ooids are subspherical chemical sand grains composed of concentric layers of CaCO₃ surrounding a central nucleus. These grains represent a common mode of carbonate sedimentation, making them potentially powerful proxies for paleoenvironmental conditions, provided a mechanistic understanding of the physical, chemical, and perhaps biological conditions necessary for their formation. At a basic level, growth of an ooid reflects that precipitation has outpaced abrasion over the ooid's lifetime. We can describe change in ooid size over time (net growth rate) mechanistically as the sum of a growth rate (the rate of carbonate precipitation on the ooid surface) and an abrasion rate (the rate of removal of material through grain-grain and grain-bed collisions). Previous studies have addressed the growth rate, investigating the extent to which microbial activity affects and/or controls carbonate precipitation on ooid surfaces, and the net growth rate, using stepwise acid digestion and radiocarbon dating to determine the ages of cortical layers. We focused on the abrasion rate and designed an experimental study to measure abrasion rates of ooids as a function of grain size and sediment transport stage. Preliminary experiments with medium-sand-sized ooids at a Rouse number of ~1.2 yielded an abrasion rate of 0.04 g/hr (or ~40 ng/ooid/hr), which is four orders of magnitude greater than the fastest net growth rates reported in the recent high resolution ooid cortex radiocarbon dating study by Beaupre et al. (2015). This result requires that either: 1) ooids are essentially not moving and therefore not being abraded or 2) precipitation rates are also much more rapid than the net growth rates estimated by incremental radiocarbon dating. The former constraint is inconsistent with field observations that most marine ooids occur in high energy shoal environments, both in modern examples and in the rock record. Precipitation rates must therefore also be relatively rapid compared

  13. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon, John Anthony; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  14. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  15. AGB stars and presolar grains

    SciTech Connect

    Busso, M.; Trippella, O.; Maiorca, E.; Palmerini, S.

    2014-05-09

    Among presolar materials recovered in meteorites, abundant SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains of AGB origins were found. They showed records of C, N, O, {sup 26}Al and s-element isotopic ratios that proved invaluable in constraining the nucleosynthesis models for AGB stars [1, 2]. In particular, when these ratios are measured in SiC grains, they clearly reveal their prevalent origin in cool AGB circumstellar envelopes and provide information on both the local physics and the conditions at the nucleosynthesis site (the H- and He-burning layers deep inside the structure). Among the properties ascertained for the main part of the SiC data (the so-called mainstream ones), we mention a large range of {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios, extending below the solar value [3], and {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios ≳ 30. Other classes of grains, instead, display low carbon isotopic ratios (≳ 10) and a huge dispersion for N isotopes, with cases of large {sup 15}N excess. In the same grains, isotopes currently feeded by slow neutron captures reveal the characteristic pattern expected from this process at an efficiency slightly lower than necessary to explain the solar main s-process component. Complementary constraints can be found in oxide grains, especially Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals. Here, the oxygen isotopes and the content in {sup 26}Al are of a special importance for clarifying the partial mixing processes that are known to affect evolved low-mass stars. Successes in modeling the data, as well as problems in explaining some of the mentioned isotopic ratios through current nucleosynthesis models are briefly outlined.

  16. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  17. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding.

  18. Overexpression of the autophagy-related gene SiATG8a from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) confers tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and drought stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-wei; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Li; Liu, Jia-ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Zhou, Yong-Bin; Guo, Chang-Hong; Ma, You-Zhi

    2015-12-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process in all eukaryotes for the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling. Autophagy is known to be involved in responses to low nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis. Foxtail millet has strong abiotic stress resistance to both low nutrient and drought stress. However, to date, there have only been a few genes reported to be related with abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, SiATG8a, from foxtail millet. SiATG8a is mainly expressed in stems and its expression was dramatically induced by drought stress and nitrogen starvation treatments. SiATG8a was localized in the membrane and cytoplasm of foxtail millet. Overexpression of SiATG8a in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and to drought stress. Under nitrogen starvation conditions, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had larger root and leaf areas and accumulated more total nitrogen than wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had lower total protein concentrations than did the WT plants. Under drought stress, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had higher survival rates, chlorophyll content, and proline content, but had lower MDA content than wild type plants. Taken together, our results represent the first identified case where overexpression of autophagy related gene can simultaneously improve plant resistance to low nitrogen and drought stresses. These findings implicate plant autophagy in plant stress responses to low nitrogen and drought and should be helpful in efforts to improve stresses resistance to nitrogen starvation and drought of crops by genetic transformation.

  19. Grain boundary loops in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockayne, Eric; Rutter, Gregory M.; Guisinger, Nathan P.; Crain, Jason N.; First, Phillip N.; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    2011-05-01

    Topological defects can affect the physical properties of graphene in unexpected ways. Harnessing their influence may lead to enhanced control of both material strength and electrical properties. Here we present a class of topological defects in graphene composed of a rotating sequence of dislocations that close on themselves, forming grain boundary loops that either conserve the number of atoms in the hexagonal lattice or accommodate vacancy or interstitial reconstruction, while leaving no unsatisfied bonds. One grain boundary loop is observed as a “flower” pattern in scanning tunneling microscopy studies of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001). We show that the flower defect has the lowest energy per dislocation core of any known topological defect in graphene, providing a natural explanation for its growth via the coalescence of mobile dislocations.

  20. Positron trapping at grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dupasquier, A. ); Romero, R.; Somoza, A. )

    1993-10-01

    The standard positron trapping model has often been applied, as a simple approximation, to the interpretation of positron lifetime spectra in situations of diffusion-controlled trapping. This paper shows that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate, and presents a model based on the correct solution of the diffusion equation, in the version appropriate for studying positron trapping at grain boundaries. The model is used for the analysis of new experimental data on positron lifetime spectra in a fine-grained Al-Ca-Zn alloy. Previous results on similar systems are also discussed and reinterpreted. The analysis yields effective diffusion coefficients not far from the values known for the base metals of the alloys.

  1. Grain orientation in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmood, A.; Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III

    1974-01-01

    Orientation of lunar soil particles in a vertical plane, as seen in the radiographs of core tubes was characterized by preparing orientation diagrams for the different stratigraphic units. Radiographs of double-core drive tubes 64001/64002, 60009/60010, and 60013/60014 were used. The orientation results reinforced the stratigraphic differences. Another source of fabric data was the laboratory-deposited sample 14163,148. The artificial deposition results showed that the grain arrangements were dependent upon the method of deposition. These results from lunar soil and other data from a crushed basalt simulant can be a basis for the inference that lunar soil grain orientation and properties are useful in interpreting lunar surface history.

  2. Phenomenology of Abnormal Grain Growth in Systems with Nonuniform Grain Boundary Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the potential for nonuniform grain boundary mobility to act as a persistence mechanism for abnormal grain growth (AGG) using Monte Carlo Potts model simulations. The model system consists of a single initially large candidate grain embedded in a matrix of equiaxed grains, corresponding to the abnormal growth regime before impingement occurs. We assign a mobility advantage to grain boundaries between the candidate grain and a randomly selected subset of the matrix grains. We observe AGG in systems with physically reasonable fractions of fast boundaries; the probability of abnormal growth increases as the density of fast boundaries increases. This abnormal growth occurs by a series of fast, localized growth events that counteract the tendency of abnormally large grains to grow more slowly than the surrounding matrix grains. Resulting abnormal grains are morphologically similar to experimentally observed abnormal grains.

  3. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  4. Lunar soils grain size catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This catalog compiles every available grain size distribution for Apollo surface soils, trench samples, cores, and Luna 24 soils. Original laboratory data are tabled, and cumulative weight distribution curves and histograms are plotted. Standard statistical parameters are calculated using the method of moments. Photos and location comments describe the sample environment and geological setting. This catalog can help researchers describe the geotechnical conditions and site variability of the lunar surface essential to the design of a lunar base.

  5. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  6. Grain Boundary Energies in Copper.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Ramli

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The dependence of grain boundary energy on boundary orientation was studied in copper annealed at 1000 ^circC. Grain boundary orientations and the disorientations across the boundaries were measured. A rotation matrix notation is used to interpret selected area electron channelling patterns observed in a scanning electron microscope. The Herring and Shewmon torque terms were investigated using wire specimens having a "bamboo" structure. The Herring torque terms were determined using the Hess relation. The (110) section of the Sigma 11 gamma-plot (i.e. the variation of grain boundary energy with boundary orientation) was evaluated. In this plot, minima in energies were found at the (311) and (332) mirror planes. Sigma 3 and Sigma9 boundaries were investigated in sheet specimens. The (110) and (111) sections of the Sigma3 gamma -plot were evaluated. In addition to the sharp cusps occurring at the Sigma3 {111} planes, the further shallower cusps occur at the incoherent Sigma 3 boundaries with the interfacial planes approximately parallel to {322} in one crystal and {11.44} in the other crystal. Flat and curved Sigma9 boundaries were investigated. The break up of Sigma9 boundaries into two Sigma3 boundaries and the relation between the Sigma3 and Sigma 9 gamma-plots was also examined. The (110) section of the Sigma9 gamma-plot was constructed.

  7. Whole grains: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julie Miller; Engleson, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion of whole grains (WG) in the diet is recommended in dietary guidance around the world because of their associations with increased health and reduced risk of chronic disease. WGs are linked to reduced risk of obesity or weight gain; reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and stroke; improved gut health and decreased risk of cancers of the upper gut; perhaps reduced risk of colorectal cancer; and lower mortality rate. The 2005 United States Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee has recommended that consumers make "half their grains whole." Yet, whole grains are puzzling both consumers and scientists. Scientists are trying to determine whether their health benefits are due to the synergy of WG components, individual WG components, or the fact that WG eaters make many of the recommended diet and lifestyle choices. Consumers need to understand the WG benefits and how to identify WG foods to have incentive to purchase and use such foods. Industry needs to develop great-tasting, clearly-labeled products. With both these factors working together, it will be possible to change WG consumption habits among consumers.

  8. Grain boundary resistance to fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, QI; Liu, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an experimental study tracing the grain boundary effect on the fatigue crack growth rate are reported. Direct experimental evidence for the grain boundary blockage mechanism is presented. The orientation difference between two neighboring grains directly contributed to the extent of crack growth retardation.

  9. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  10. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-20

    thermodynamics . 2) Experimental verify the effectiveness of possible nucleating compounds. 3) Extend grain refinement theory and solidification...knowledge through experimental data. 4) Determine structure property relationships for the examined grain refiners. 5) Formulate processing techniques for...using grain refiners in the steel casting industry. During Fiscal Year 2010, this project worked on determining structure property -relationships

  11. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food health claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain gluten free (without yeast or chemicals) ...

  12. Radiographic techniques for investigating cereal grains

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    Radiographic examination of cereal grain can determine nondestructively the presence of internal structural damage and other defects, which can be correlated to associated problems such as disease and infestation. Radiographs of several representative grains demonstrate the capabilities of the radiographic technique to detect structural deviations in the grains.

  13. High resolution record of millet cultivation during the Bronze Age around Lake le Bourget (French Alps). Is there any climatic control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, J.; Disnar, J. R.; Arnaud, F.; Billaud, Y.; Chapron, E.; Sicre, M.-A.; Boscardin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Our understanding of past interactions between the development of human societies, the evolution of climate and associated changes in ecosystems and landscape dynamics is conditioned by the acquisition of high resolution records within which specific tracers allow us estimating variability. The recent development of a molecular biomarker (miliacin) specific of Panicum miliaceum (common millet) associated with the determination of a biomarker allowing to track soil erosion in the sediments of Lake le Bourget (French Alps; [1], [2]) expands the possibilities afforded by organic geochemistry applied to sedimentary archives to unravel these interactions. Within the frame of the Pygmalion project (ANR Blanc, France) we improved the previous miliacin record from Lake le Bourget sediments [1] to reach an infra-decadal resolution for the 2000-600 BC time period that covers the Bronze Age. Miliacin is detected for the first time in sediment samples dated back to ca. 1700 BC, in agreement with the supposed date of introduction of P. miliaceum in the region. Miliacin concentration is low (ca. 20 ng.g-1) during the 1700-1400 BC interval and then rises to values up to 300 ng.g-1 at 850 BC before the strong decrease to 20 ng.g-1 at 750 BC imputable to the abandonment of palaffitic habitats due to a climatic deterioration at the Bronze Age/Iron Age transition. In addition to this general trend, miliacin concentration shows century-scale variations in the 1700-800 BC interval that share similarities with other records. Two periods of miliacin high concentrations at 950 and 850 BC coincide with high densities of dendrochronological dates acquired on wooden piles and with two periods of lake level lowering. The comparison of miliacin evolution in Lake le Bourget with the high resolution alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) record obtained in the North Atlantic off Iceland [3] shows striking coincidences. Previous studies showed that periods of elevated SSTs in this area

  14. Electrical conduction of intrinsic grain and grain boundary in Mn-Co-Ni-O thin film thermistors: Grain size influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Ling, Z. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Mn1.85Co0.3Ni0.85O4 (MCN) thin films with pure spinel phase and different grain size were prepared on Al2O3 substrates by chemical deposition method. Temperature dependent ac impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze the grain size influence on the electrical conduction of intrinsic grain and grain boundary (GB) in MCN thin films. The conduction mechanisms of grain and GB both followed the small-polaron hopping model. It was found that the hopping types of GB (nearest-neighbor-hopping (NNH)) and grain (a transition from variable-range-hopping (VRH) to NNH) were not affected by the grain size, while the resistance, characteristic temperature, and activation energy of grain and GB were affected by the grain size in varying degrees. Additionally, the mechanisms concerning the dependence of electrical conduction of grain and GB on the grain size of MCN thin films were discussed in detail. These studies will also provide a comprehensive understanding of the conduction behaviors of a system with mixed NNH and VRH.

  15. Weighing in on whole grains: A review of evidence linking whole grains to body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. dietary guidelines support the consumption of whole grains in lieu of refined grains. On January 31, 2011, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) were released and the recommendations with respect to grains were for individuals to “Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains” a...

  16. Evolution of grain boundary structure in submicrometer-grained Al-Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, Zenji; Nemoto, Minoru; Smith, D.J.; Furukawa, Minoru; Valiev, R.Z.; Langdon, T.G.

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents high-resolution electron microscopy studies of grain boundary structures in a submicrometer-grained Al-3%Mg solid solution alloy produced by an intense plastic straining technique. The studies include the effect of static annealing on the grain boundary structure. Many grain boundaries are in a high-energy nonequilibrium state in the as-strained sample. The nonequilibrium character is retained on some grain boundaries in samples annealed at temperatures below the onset of significant grain growth. The effect of electron irradiation on the grain boundary structure also is examined.

  17. Experimental Study of Dust Grain Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, Richard H.; Mian, Abbas M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the charging mechanisms of micron size dust grains are presented. Individual dust grains are electrodynamically suspended and exposed to an electron beam of known energy and flux, and to far ultraviolet radiation of known wavelength and intensity. Changes in the charge-to-mass ratio of the grain are directly measured as a function of incident beam (electron and/or photon), grain size and composition. Comparisons of our results to theoretical models that predict the grain response are presented.

  18. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Ensuring the desired grain size in the pure Re strip employed by the SP-100 space nuclear reactor design entails the establishment of an initial grain size in the as-received strip and the avoidance of excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. Pure Re tapered tensile specimens have been fabricated and tested in order to quantify the effects of grain-boundary migration. Grain size could be rendered fine and uniform by means of a rolling procedure that uses rather large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The critical strain regime varies inversely with annealing temperature.

  19. Mechanism for diffusion induced grain boundary migration

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Cahn, J.W.

    1980-08-01

    Grain boundaries are found to migrate under certain conditions when solute atoms are diffused along them. This phenomenon, termed diffusion induced grain boundary migration (DIGM), has now been found in six systems. The observed phenomenon and empirical data are used to discard certain concepts for the driving force and the mechanism. A mechanism is proposed in which differences in the diffusion coefficients of the diffusing species along the grain boundary cause a self-sustaining climb of grain boundary dislocations and motion of their associated grain boundary steps.

  20. Spin-related magnetism of interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.; De, B. R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and internal magnetic fields due to the spin of electrically charged elongated nonmagnetic interstellar grains in kinetic equilibrium with their surroundings are computed for the grain-size range from 0.01 to 1.0 micron. It is shown that the induced magnetic moments and internal magnetic fields of charged spinning nonmagnetic grains of arbitrary composition and prolate spheroidal shape can be appreciable, possibly even exceeding 0.01 emu/cu cm for 0.01-micron grains. The results indicate that virtually all grains smaller than 0.1 micron in mean diameter, and all elongated grains smaller than about 1 micron in length, are immersed in local magnetic fields due to spin that are much larger than the ambient galactic field. Some implications of this effect are discussed in relation to the polarization of starlight by aligned dust grains and the primordial remanent magnetization found in primitive carbonaceous chondrites.

  1. Whole grains and health: from theory to practice--highlights of The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit 2012.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F; Seal, Chris J; de Vries, Jan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Clemens, Roger; Webb, Densie; Murphy, Lee Anne; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Topping, David; Murray, Robyn; Degeneffe, Dennis; Marquart, Leonard F

    2013-05-01

    The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit, held May 19-22, 2012 in Minneapolis, was the first meeting of its kind to convene >300 scientists, educators, food technologists, grain breeders, food manufacturers, marketers, health professionals, and regulators from around the world. Its goals were to identify potential avenues for collaborative efforts and formulate new approaches to whole-grains research and health communications that support global public health and business. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities that researchers and nutrition educators face in expanding the knowledge base on whole grains and health and in translating and disseminating that knowledge to consumers. The consensus of the summit was that effective, long-term, public-private partnerships are needed to reach across the globe and galvanize the whole-grains community to collaborate effectively in translating whole-grains science into strategies that increase the availability and affordability of more healthful, grain-based food products. A prerequisite of that is the need to build trust among diverse multidisciplinary professionals involved in the growing, producing, marketing, and regulating of whole-grain products and between the grain and public health communities.

  2. Roles of grain boundaries in improving fracture toughness of ultrafine-grained metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, T.; Tanaka, M.; Kinoshita, K.; Higashida, K.

    2011-06-01

    In order to improve the fracture toughness in ultrafine-grained metals, we investigate the interactions among crack tips, dislocations, and grain boundaries in aluminum bicrystal models containing a crack and <112> tilt grain boundaries using molecular dynamics simulations. The results of previous computer simulations showed that grain refinement makes materials brittle if grain boundaries behave as obstacles to dislocation movement. However, it is actually well known that grain refinement increases fracture toughness of materials. Thus, the role of grain boundaries as dislocation sources should be essential to elucidate fracture phenomena in ultrafine-grained metals. A proposed mechanism to express the improved fracture toughness in ultrafine-grained metals is the disclination shielding effect on the crack tip mechanical field. Disclination shielding can be activated when two conditions are present. First, a transition of dislocation sources from crack tips to grain boundaries must occur. Second, the transformation of grain-boundary structure into a neighboring energetically stable boundary must occur as dislocations are emitted from the grain boundary. The disclination shielding effect becomes more pronounced as antishielding dislocations are continuously emitted from the grain boundary without dislocation emissions from crack tips, and then ultrafine-grained metals can sustain large plastic deformation without fracture with the drastic increase of the mobile dislocation density. Consequently, it can be expected that the disclination shielding effect can improve the fracture toughness in ultrafine-grained metals.

  3. Both encouraging feeding style and high energy density may increase energy intakes from fermented millet gruels eaten by infants and toddlers in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Traoré, Tahirou; Soma, Adama; Kaboré, Claire; Trèche, Serge

    2016-04-01

    Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the children's nutritional needs.

  4. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A.; Hanna, Wayne W.; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen. PMID:27031857

  5. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A; Hanna, Wayne W; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  6. Comprehensive analysis of SET domain gene family in foxtail millet identifies the putative role of SiSET14 in abiotic stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Dangi, Anand; Shweta, Shweta; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    SET domain-containing genes catalyse histone lysine methylation, which alters chromatin structure and regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The present study identified 53 SET domain-containing genes in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and the genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic and structural analyses classified SiSET proteins into five classes (I–V). RNA-seq derived expression profiling showed that SiSET genes were differentially expressed in four tissues namely, leaf, root, stem and spica. Expression analyses using qRT-PCR was performed for 21 SiSET genes under different abiotic stress and hormonal treatments, which showed differential expression of these genes during late phase of stress and hormonal treatments. Significant upregulation of SiSET gene was observed during cold stress, which has been confirmed by over-expressing a candidate gene, SiSET14 in yeast. Interestingly, hypermethylation was observed in gene body of highly differentially expressed genes, whereas methylation event was completely absent in their transcription start sites. This suggested the occurrence of demethylation events during various abiotic stresses, which enhance the gene expression. Altogether, the present study would serve as a base for further functional characterization of SiSET genes towards understanding their molecular roles in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27585852

  7. Grain Growth in Collapsing Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, S. C. F.; Benevides-Soares, P.; Barbuy, B.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha considerado un proceso de coagulaci6n de granos en nubes colapsantes de diferentes metalicidades. Se aplicaron los calculos al intervalo de densidades n = lO to , forrespondiendo a la fase isotermica de contracci6n de nubes. A lo largo de esta fase en el colap- so, la temperatura es por lo tanto constante, en donde se alcanza T Q lOKpara nubes de metalicidad solar y T 100 K para nubes de baja metalicidad. El tamano final del grano es mayor para las mayores metali- cidades. ABSTRACT. A process of grain coagulation in collapsing clouds of different metallicities is considered. The calculations are applied to the density range n = 1O to , corresponding to the isothermal phase of cloud contraction. Along this phase in the collapse, the temperature is thus a constant, where T % 10 K for solar-metallicity clouds, and T % 100 K for low metallicity clouds is reached. The final grain size is larger for the higher metallicities. Keq : INTERSTELLAR-CLOUDS - INTERSTELLAR-CRAINS

  8. Directed network topologies of smart grain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David M.; Tordesillas, Antoinette; Nakamura, Tomomichi; Tanizawa, Toshihiro

    2013-03-01

    We employ a recent technique for building complex networks from time series data to construct a directed network embodying time structure to collate the predictive properties of individual granular sensors in a series of biaxial compression tests. For each grain, we reconstruct a static predictive model. This combines a subset selection algorithm and an information theory fitting criterion that selects which other grains in the assembly are best placed to predict a given grain's local stress throughout loading history. The local stress of a grain at each time step is summarized by the magnitude of its particle load vector. A directed network is constructed by representing each grain as a node, and assigning an in-link to a grain from another grain if the latter is selected within the best predictive model of the first grain. The grains with atypically large out-degree are thus the most responsible for predicting the stress history of the other grains: These turn out to be only a few grains which reside inside shear bands. Moreover, these “smart grains” prove to be strongly linked to the mechanism of force chain buckling and intermittent rattler events. That only a small number of grain sensors situated in the shear band are required to accurately capture the rheological response of all other grains in the assembly underlines the crucial importance of nonlocal interactions, espoused by extended continuum theories which posit nonlocal evolution laws. Findings here cast the spotlight on two specific mechanisms as being key to the formulation of robust evolution laws in deforming granular materials under compression and shear: the long held mechanism for energy dissipation of force chain buckling and the sudden switch in roles that a rattler plays as it enters in and out of force chains.

  9. Survival of carbon grains in shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seab, C. Gregory

    1990-01-01

    Supernova shocks play a significant part in the life of an interstellar grain. In a typical 10 to the 9th power year lifetime, a grain will be hit by an average of 10 shocks of 100 km s(sup -1) or greater velocity, and even more shocks of lower velocity. Evaluation of the results of this frequent shock processing is complicated by a number of uncertainties, but seems to give about 10 percent destruction of silicate grains and about half that for graphite grains. Because of the frequency of shocking, the mineralogy and sizes of the grain population is predominately determined by shock processing effects, and not by the initial grain nucleation and growth environment. One consequence of the significant role played by interstellar shocks is that a certain fraction (up to 5 percent) of the carbon should be transformed into the diamond phase. Diamond transformation is observed in the laboratory at threshold shock pressures easily obtainable in grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks. Yields for transforming graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon, and other nearly pure carbon solids into diamond are quite high. Impurities up to at least the 10 percent level (for oxygen) are tolerated in the process. The typical size diamond expected from shock transformation agrees well with the observed sizes in the Lewis et al. findings in meteoritic material. Isotropic anomalies already contained in the grain are likely to be retained through the conversion process, while others may be implanted by the shock if the grain is close to the supernova. The meteoritic diamonds are likely to be the results of transformation of carbon grains in grain-grain collisions in supernova shock waves.

  10. 7 CFR 810.801 - Definition of mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Terms Defined § 810.801 Definition of mixed grain. Any mixture of grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards...

  11. 7 CFR 810.801 - Definition of mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Terms Defined § 810.801 Definition of mixed grain. Any mixture of grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards...

  12. 7 CFR 810.801 - Definition of mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Terms Defined § 810.801 Definition of mixed grain. Any mixture of grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards...

  13. 7 CFR 810.801 - Definition of mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Terms Defined § 810.801 Definition of mixed grain. Any mixture of grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards...

  14. Stochastic modeling of grain-fabric formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, H.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we developed a stochastic model of the grain-fabric formation, and performed flume experiments and field observations to examine the model predictions. It has been suggested that the grain fabric (preferred orientation of grain long axes) of sand/sandstone provides significant sedimentological information such as paleocurrent direction, sediment-transport processes, and depositional environments . Grains orient along preferred directions because of interactions between fluids and sediment particles , and it has been known that there are two types of preferred grain orientations-a(p)a(i) and a(t)b(i). a(t)b(i)- and a(p)a(i)-type fabrics are preferred grain orientations that are perpendicular and parallel to the flow direction, respectively. River gravels tend to exhibit the a(t)b(i) fabric, whereas turbidite sandstones often exhibit the a(p)a(i) fabric; nonetheless, there exist many exceptions, and the grain-fabric tendency often fluctuates even in a single bed. The cause of the two types of grain fabric currently unknown, and the flow parameters that influence the fabric type have not yet been determined . Toward this end, we developed a stochastic model of grain-fabric formation that consider probabilistic density functions (PDFs) of the orientations of both influx and outflux grains to an active layer of surface sediments. Flume experiments using rice grains provided the PDFs of both influx and outflux grain orientation that can be well approximated by the von Mises distribution. On average, the orientations of influx and outflux grains were both perpendicular to the flow direction. This is because the projection area of a grain to the flow direction is maximized when the grain orients perpendicular to the flow. The proposed model predicts that larger grains or weaker flow (low Shields dimensionless stress) produces the a(t)b(i) fabric whereas an intense flow (high Shields dimensionless stress) produces the a(p)a(i) fabric. It also predicts that

  15. Grain-filling problem in 'super' rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Modern rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, especially the newly bred 'super' rice, have numerous spikelets on a panicle with a large yield capacity. However, these cultivars often fail to achieve their high yield potential due to poor grain-filling of later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to the earlier-flowering superior spikelets). Conventional thinking to explain the poor grain-filling is the consequence of carbon limitation. Recent studies, however, have shown that carbohydrate supply should not be the major problem because they have adequate sucrose at their initial grain-filling stage. The low activities of key enzymes in carbon metabolism may contribute to the poor grain-filling. Proper field practices, such as moderate soil drying during mid- and late grain-filling stages, could solve some problems in poor grain-filling. Further studies are needed by molecular approaches to investigate the signal transport, the hormonal action, the gene expressions, and the biochemical processes in inferior spikelets.

  16. Detecting grain rotation at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Lutker, Katie; Lei, Jialin; Yan, Jinyuan; Yang, Shizhong; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2014-01-01

    It is well-believed that below a certain particle size, grain boundary-mediated plastic deformation (e.g., grain rotation, grain boundary sliding and diffusion) substitutes for conventional dislocation nucleation and motion as the dominant deformation mechanism. However, in situ probing of grain boundary processes of ultrafine nanocrystals during plastic deformation has not been feasible, precluding the direct exploration of the nanomechanics. Here we present the in situ texturing observation of bulk-sized platinum in a nickel pressure medium of various particle sizes from 500 nm down to 3 nm. Surprisingly, the texture strength of the same-sized platinum drops rapidly with decreasing grain size of the nickel medium, indicating that more active grain rotation occurs in the smaller nickel nanocrystals. Insight into these processes provides a better understanding of the plastic deformation of nanomaterials in a few-nanometer length scale. PMID:24550455

  17. Ultrafine-grained titanium for medical implants

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Lowe, Terry C.; Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Stolyarov, Vladimir V.; Latysh, Vladimir V.; Raab, Georgy J.

    2002-01-01

    We disclose ultrafine-grained titanium. A coarse-grained titanium billet is subjected to multiple extrusions through a preheated equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) die, with billet rotation between subsequent extrusions. The resulting billet is cold processed by cold rolling and/or cold extrusion, with optional annealing. The resulting ultrafine-grained titanium has greatly improved mechanical properties and is used to make medical implants.

  18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  3. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  4. Grain orientation studies in superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sudhakar; Schulze, Walter A.

    1990-01-01

    Grain oriented fabrication of ceramics utilizes the presence of some form of anisotropy in the particles of the starting material to obtain textured microstructures. The molten salt, or flux method, a popular technique for growing crystals and particles with anisotropic morphology, is utilized in this study. The formation of Ba2YCu3O(7-x) in the presence of molten salts of Na, K, Li belonging to chloride and sulfate systems does not appear feasible in the temperature range up to 900 C. Researchers also present the results of studies in using BaY2CuO5 as seed crystals in the formation of Ba2YCu3O(7-x) wherein BaY2CuO5 has been observed to have better stability in water and against most of the salts as compared to Ba2YCu3O(7-x). Additional results of molten salt processing of bismuth systems are also presented.

  5. World grain takes a spill.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1992-01-01

    World grain production decreased 5% in 1991, which combined with the 90 million in population increase resulted in a 6.4% decline/person. This is the largest drop ever recorded. Currently world production is off 9% from the all time high in 1984 of 757 pounds/person. There are many signs that this trend will continue. Soil erosion continues to decrease the amount of available farm land, irrigation water logs fields, deforestation and desertification, air pollution, acid rain and increased ultra violet light form depleting ozone are all adding to the problem. Currently in the US 28 million acres idle as part of commodity supply management and 34 million acres are designated threatened and are in Conservation Reserve. However, even with this area put into production, the total area worldwide is still smaller than it was in 1984.

  6. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne

    2003-02-01

    Epidemiological studies find that whole-grain intake is protective against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Potential mechanisms for this protection are diverse since whole grains are rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. First, whole grains are concentrated sources of dietary fibre, resistant starch and oligosaccharides, carbohydrates that escape digestion in the small intestine and are fermented in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA lower colonic pH, serve as an energy source for the colonocytes and may alter blood lipids. These improvements in the gut environment may provide immune protection beyond the gut. Second, whole grains are rich in antioxidants, including trace minerals and phenolic compounds, and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Additionally, whole grains mediate insulin and glucose responses. Although lower glycaemic load and glycaemic index have been linked to diabetes and obesity, risk of cancers such as colon and breast cancer have also been linked to high intake of readily-available carbohydrate. Finally, whole grains contain many other compounds that may protect against chronic disease. These compounds include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals. As a consequence of the traditional models of conducting nutrition studies on isolated nutrients, few studies exist on the biological effects of increased whole-grain intake. The few whole-grain feeding studies that are available show improvements in biomarkers with whole-grain consumption, such as weight loss, blood lipid improvement and antioxidant protection.

  7. The Effects of Grain Size and Texture on Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2016-10-01

    This is the first report of abnormal grain morphologies specific to a Mo sheet material produced from a commercial-purity arc-melted ingot. Abnormal grains initiated and grew during plastic deformation of this material at temperatures of 1793 K and 1813 K (1520 °C and 1540 °C). This abnormal grain growth during high-temperature plastic deformation is termed dynamic abnormal grain growth, DAGG. DAGG in this material readily consumes nearly all grains near the sheet center while leaving many grains near the sheet surface unconsumed. Crystallographic texture, grain size, and other microstructural features are characterized. After recrystallization, a significant through-thickness variation in crystallographic texture exists in this material but does not appear to directly influence DAGG propagation. Instead, dynamic normal grain growth, which may be influenced by texture, preferentially occurs near the sheet surface prior to DAGG. The large grains thus produced near the sheet surface inhibit the subsequent growth of the abnormal grains produced by DAGG, which preferentially consume the finer grains near the sheet center. This produces abnormal grains that span the sheet center but leave unconsumed polycrystalline microstructure near the sheet surface. Abnormal grains are preferentially oriented with the < 110rangle approximately along the tensile axis. These results provide additional new evidence that boundary curvature is the primary driving force for DAGG in Mo.

  8. A New Grain Harvesting System for Single Pass Grain Harvest, Biomass Collection, Crop Residue Sizing and Grain Segregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cereal grain harvesting system is introduced that combines existing technologies in a unique way to improve cereal grain harvest performance, profitability and efficiently collect biomass. The harvesting system is comprised of three machines – one to gather the crop and prepare the residue for no...

  9. A New Grain Harvesting System for Single-Pass Grain Harvest, Biomass Collection, Crop Residue Sizing, and Grain Segregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cereal grain harvesting system is introduced that combines existing technologies in a unique way to improve cereal grain harvest performance, profitability and efficiently collect biomass. The harvesting system is comprised of three machines – one to gather the crop and prepare the residue for no...

  10. The Role of Grain Boundary Energy on Grain Boundary Complexion Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bojarski, Stephanie A.; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2014-09-01

    Grain boundary complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain boundary and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed boundaries and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain boundary energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). The current work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain boundary character and energy. Furthermore, the current work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain boundary energy distribution.

  11. Supercube grains leading to a strong cube texture and a broad grain size distribution after recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. X.; Zhang, Y. B.; Pantleon, W.; Jensen, D. Juul

    2015-08-01

    This work revisits the classical subject of recrystallization of cold-rolled copper. Two characterization techniques are combined: three-dimensional X-ray diffraction using synchrotron X-rays, which is used to measure the growth kinetics of individual grains in situ, and electron backscatter diffraction, which is used for statistical analysis of the microstructural evolution. As the most striking result, the strong cube texture after recrystallization is found to be related to a few super large cube grains, which were named supercube grains. These few supercube grains become large due to higher growth rates. However, most other cube grains do not grow preferentially. Because of the few supercube grains, the grain size distribution after recrystallization is broad. Reasons for the higher growth rates of supercube grains are discussed, and are related to the local deformed microstructure.

  12. Effect of Grain Size and Grain Orientation on the Raman Spectra of Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Chio, C. H.; Deb, P.; Lucey, P. G.; Domergue-Schmidt, N.; Horton, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined effects of grain size and grain orientation on the Raman spectra of quartz and olivine to evaluate the effect of these parameters on in situ and remote analysis of planetary surface rocks.

  13. Dynamics of Dust Grains Near the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakova, L. I.; Tambovtseva, L. V.

    The orbital motion of interplanetary dust grains in sublimation zone near the Sun is revised in detail for grains of obsidian, basalt, astronomical silicate and graphite. Effects of gravity, radiation pressure for a spherical source with limb darkening, and solar wind pressure on dust grains were taken into account. The influence of sputtering, thermal velocity and tangential velocity component of the solar wind particles on lifetime of the grains moving on prograde and retrograde orbits is investigated. It is obtained that = radiation pressure/gravity is constant everywhere including the region close to the Sun. It is shown that the temperature of submicron dust grains does not exceed 1500 K for silicate grains and 2000 K for graphite ones anywhere in solar corona. Both the dust rings observed near 9r and the dust free zone near 6.5r can be explained by basalt-like grains. These dust rings and those observed earlier near 4r, formed by obsidian-like grains, were not found during the solar eclipse in 1991. This is possible if the bulk of the grains belong to population II (Le Sergeant D'Hendecourt and Lamy, 1980) (in this case small particles with radii s < 0.5 m do not form a region of high concentration) of if dust have a cometary origin. Dust grains with optical properties similar to astronomical silicate sublimating far from the Sun, go onto elliptic orbits and reach the Earth. These grains can be candidates for -meteoroids) ("apex" particles) with the mass 10-12 g which were observed in the inner Solar System during Helios ½ missions.

  14. Grain Unloading of Arsenic Species in Rice

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Charnock, John M.; Feldmann, Joerg; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2010-01-11

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). To investigate how As species are unloaded into grain rice, panicles were excised during grain filling and hydroponically pulsed with arsenite, arsenate, glutathione-complexed As, or DMA. Total As concentrations in flag leaf, grain, and husk, were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and As speciation in the fresh grain was determined by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. The roles of phloem and xylem transport were investigated by applying a {+-} stem-girdling treatment to a second set of panicles, limiting phloem transport to the grain in panicles pulsed with arsenite or DMA. The results demonstrate that DMA is translocated to the rice grain with over an order magnitude greater efficiency than inorganic species and is more mobile than arsenite in both the phloem and the xylem. Phloem transport accounted for 90% of arsenite, and 55% of DMA, transport to the grain. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence mapping and fluorescence microtomography revealed marked differences in the pattern of As unloading into the grain between DMA and arsenite-challenged grain. Arsenite was retained in the ovular vascular trace and DMA dispersed throughout the external grain parts and into the endosperm. This study also demonstrates that DMA speciation is altered in planta, potentially through complexation with thiols.

  15. Plagioclase-Rich Itokawa Grains: Space Weathering, Exposure Ages, and Comparison to Lunar Soil Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berge, E.

    2017-01-01

    Regolith grains returned by the Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa provide the only samples currently available to study the interaction of chondritic asteroidal material with the space weathering environment. Several studies have documented the surface alterations observed on the regolith grains, but most of these studies involved olivine because of its abundance. Here we focus on the rarer Itokawa plagioclase grains, in order to allow comparisons between Itokawa and lunar soil plagioclase grains for which an extensive data set exists.

  16. O(minus 2) grain boundary diffusion and grain growth in pure dense MgO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapadia, C. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Grain growth behavior in fully dense compacts of MgO of very high purity was studied, and the results compared with other similar behaving materials. The activation energy for the intrinsic self-diffusion of Mg(2minus) is discussed along with the grain boundary diffusion of O(2minus). Grain boundary diffusion of O(2minus) is proposed as the controlling mechanism for grain growth.

  17. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheat flour, whole-grain corn, whole-grain brown rice, and whole rye. Foods that say “multi-grain,” “ ... certified gluten-free oats or oatmeal, popcorn, brown rice, wild rice, and quinoa that fit gluten-free ...

  18. Phloem Transport Of Arsenic Species From Flag Leaf To Grain During Grain Filling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was ...

  19. (110) grain growth and magnetic properties of thin grain-oriented 3% silicon steel sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Ishiyama, Kazushi; Arai, Ken Ichi

    1999-09-01

    (110) grain growth and magnetic properties in thin grain-oriented silicon sheets with ultimately low loss were investigated. A final-annealing at 1150 C for 20 min enables us to obtain the thin sheets covered with only (110) grains and consequently the magnetic induction at 800 A/m, B{sub 8} reached 1.9 T.

  20. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James A; Holesinger, Terry G; Uberuaga, Blas P; Ditto, Jeff J; Drazin, John W; Castro, Ricardo H R

    2016-06-22

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observed to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.

  1. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; ...

    2016-05-27

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here, in this study, we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observedmore » to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.« less

  2. Irradiation-induced grain growth and defect evolution in nanocrystalline zirconia with doped grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Sanchita; Mardinly, John; Wang, Yongqiang; Valdez, James Anthony; Holesinger, Terry George; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Ditto, Jeff J.; Drazin, John W.; Castro, Ricardo H. R.

    2016-05-27

    Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here, in this study, we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observed to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.

  3. Exogenous Trehalose Treatment Enhances the Activities of Defense-Related Enzymes and Triggers Resistance against Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Sharathchandra R.; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Shetty, Hunthrike S.; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants. Commercially procured trehalose was applied to seeds of susceptible pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar “HB3,” and tested for its ability to reduce downy mildew disease incidence by induction of resistance. Seed treatment with trehalose at 200 mM for 9 h recorded 70.25% downy mildew disease protection, followed by those with 100 and 50 mM trehalose which offered 64.35 and 52.55% defense, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, under field conditions treatment with 200 mM trehalose for 9 h recorded 67.25% downy mildew disease protection, and reduced the disease severity to 32.75% when compared with untreated control which displayed 90% of disease severity. Trehalose did not affect either sporangial formation or zoospore release from sporangia, indicating that the reduction in disease incidence was not due to direct inhibition but rather through induction of resistance responses in the host. Additionally, trehalose was shown to enhance the levels of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and peroxidase, which are known as markers of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Our study shows that osmoregulators like trehalose could be used to protect plants against pathogen attacks by seed treatment, thus offering dual benefits of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27895647

  4. Modelling of evaporation in a sparse millet crop using a two-source model including sensible heat advection within the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, M. R.; Soegaard, H.

    2003-09-01

    During two successive growing seasons meteorological measurements were made in a pearl millet field in the Sahel to investigate the evaporation process in relation to crop growth. The evaporation was measured by eddy correlation and simulated using the Shuttleworth Wallace (SW) model [Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 111 (1985) 839-855]. To take sun height and multi-layer scattering into account a radiation balance model was formulated. The model indicates that partitioning of the net radiation between the vegetation and the soil may be estimated ( r2=0.94) from the fraction of diffuse radiation, the leaf area index and an attenuation coefficient, but that the attenuation coefficient may not be similar in different locations. To solve the SW-model with respect to the soil resistance an iterative solution was employed with the total evaporation estimated from the Bowen-ratio calculated from eddy correlation measurements. The procedure made it possible to derive stable estimates of soil resistance at soil evaporation rates down to 25 W m -2. The soil resistance was found to be in accordance with evaporation through a dry surface layer. The SW-model indicates, that advection of sensible heat from the dry soil to the plants, increases transpiration considerably. This will cause management techniques, such as mulching and dry farming, aimed at reducing soil evaporation to be less effective than might be anticipated. The effects of raising the leaf area index to improve the microclimate is discussed in relation to management of the available water and crop security.

  5. Exogenous Trehalose Treatment Enhances the Activities of Defense-Related Enzymes and Triggers Resistance against Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet.

    PubMed

    Govind, Sharathchandra R; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Shetty, Hunthrike S; Tran, Lam Son P

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants. Commercially procured trehalose was applied to seeds of susceptible pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar "HB3," and tested for its ability to reduce downy mildew disease incidence by induction of resistance. Seed treatment with trehalose at 200 mM for 9 h recorded 70.25% downy mildew disease protection, followed by those with 100 and 50 mM trehalose which offered 64.35 and 52.55% defense, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, under field conditions treatment with 200 mM trehalose for 9 h recorded 67.25% downy mildew disease protection, and reduced the disease severity to 32.75% when compared with untreated control which displayed 90% of disease severity. Trehalose did not affect either sporangial formation or zoospore release from sporangia, indicating that the reduction in disease incidence was not due to direct inhibition but rather through induction of resistance responses in the host. Additionally, trehalose was shown to enhance the levels of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and peroxidase, which are known as markers of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Our study shows that osmoregulators like trehalose could be used to protect plants against pathogen attacks by seed treatment, thus offering dual benefits of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

  6. Uptake of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements (La, Gd, Er, Nd) by white mustard (Brassica alba L.) and common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) as affected by Phosphorus Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zill, Juliane; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The effect of phosphate nutrition is important due to the future usage of fertilizer treatment in phytomining experiments e.g. in accumulation of the economically important rare earth elements (REE). It is expected that the trivalent charge of REE will result in complexation with phosphate and REEs could be immobilized and not further bioavailable for plants which would cause losses of REE concentration in biomass. To investigate this influence on lanthanum, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium two plant species Brassica alba (white mustard) and Panicum miliaceum (common millet) were cultured in a greenhouse study. The plants were cultivated onto two different substrates and were poured with modified REE and phosphate solutions within an eight-week period. The concentrations of REE in soil, soil solution and plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show an increase of concentration of REE with increasing levels of element solution applied for both species. REE accumulations are elevated in roots and decrease in the order of roots> leaves> stem> fruit/blossom. Brassica accumulated more REE in root whereas Panicum showed higher REE concentrations in leaves. Exposure to increased phosphate addition did not significantly change the concentrations of REE in both plant species yet the REE concentrations in leaves slightly decreased with increasing phosphate addition. For root and stem no precise trend could be determined. It is most likely that REEs precipitate with phosphate on root surfaces and in the roots. The bioavailability of REE to plants is affected by complexation processes of REEs with phosphate in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that phosphate application plays an important role on REE uptake by roots and accumulation in different parts of a plant and it might have an influence on translocation of REE within the plant.

  7. Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Cousins, Asaph B; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-15

    Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (g(s)) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (A(net)), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid sensing techniques based on thermal imaging and visual-near infrared spectroscopy for assessing water-use efficiency (WUE) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) was evaluated. The visible-near infrared spectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) and thermal (7.5-14 µm) data were collected at regular intervals from well-watered and drought-stressed plants in combination with other leaf physiological parameters (transpiration rate-E, A(net), g(s), leaf carbon isotopic signature-δ(13)C(leaf), WUE). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to predict leaf physiological measures based on the spectral data. The PLSR modeling on the hyperspectral data yielded accurate and precise estimates of leaf E, gs, δ(13)C(leaf), and WUE with coefficient of determination in a range of 0.85-0.91. Additionally, significant differences in average leaf temperatures (~1°C) measured with a thermal camera were observed between well-watered plants and drought-stressed plants. In summary, the visible-near infrared reflectance data, and thermal images can be used as a potential rapid technique for evaluating plant physiological responses such as WUE.

  8. Small grains of truth. [solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joe

    1991-01-01

    The evidence concerning the formation of the solar nebula from preexisting clouds found in the chemical composition of solar system grains is discussed. Evidence for sequential star formation in the grains is examined. It is argued that there is no model for the origin of the solar system which can account for the increasing complexity of the evidence.

  9. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  10. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  11. Grain transport mechanics in shallow overland flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flow. The two phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a disper...

  12. Grain transport mechanics in shallow flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A physical model based on continuum multiphase flow is described to represent saltating transport of grains in shallow overland flows. The two-phase continuum flow of water and sediment considers coupled St.Venant type equations. The interactive cumulative effect of grains is incorporated by a dispe...

  13. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  14. Analysis of grain quality at receival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an emphasis on wheat and to a lesser extent, barley, we describe the series of post harvest transfer stages of grain between the first point of sale and the export terminal. At each transfer point, a document accompanies a grain consignment that pertains to its quality (class, purity, sanitatio...

  15. Reducing grain storage losses in developing countries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the use of insecticide-treated material and modified atmosphere storage for reducing insect damage in stored maize. Results showed that insecticide treated netting and insecticide treated seed bags protected grain from insect damage for up to nine months if the grain was free from i...

  16. Asymmetric grain distribution in phthalocyanine thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, K. Paul; Gredig, Thomas; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2009-11-01

    Many electronic and optical properties of organic thin films depend on the precise morphology of grains. Iron phthalocyanine thin films are grown on sapphire substrates at different temperatures to study the effect of grain growth kinematics and to experimentally quantify the grain size distribution in organic thin films. The grain size is measured with an atomic force microscope and the data is processed and analyzed with well-known image segmentation algorithms. For relevant statistics, over 3000 grains are evaluated for each sample. The data show pronounced asymmetric grain growth with increasing deposition temperature from almost spherical grains at room temperature to elongated needlelike shapes at 260 deg. C. The average size along the major axis increases from 35 to 200 nm and along the minor axis from 25 to 90 nm. The distribution is almost symmetric at low-deposition temperatures, but becomes lognormal at higher temperatures. Strikingly, the major axis and minor axis of the elliptically shaped grains have different distributions at all temperatures due to the planar asymmetry of the molecule.

  17. Porous dust grains in circumstellar disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the impact of porous dust grains on the structure and observable appearance of circumstellar disks (Kirchschlager & Wolf 2013). Our study is motivated by observations and laboratory studies which indicate that dust grains in various astrophysical environments are porous. In addition, the modeling of the spatial structure and grain size distribution of debris disks reveals that under the assumption of spherical compact grains the resulting minimum grain size is often significantly larger than the blowout size, which might be a hint for porosity. Using the discrete dipole approximation, we compute the optical properties of spherical, porous grains (Draine & Flatau 1994, 2010). Subsequently, we calculate the blowout sizes for various debris disk systems and grain porosities. We find that the blowout size increases with particle porosity and stellar temperature. In addition, the lower dust equilibrium temperature of porous particles results in a shift of the maximum of the thermal reemission of debris disks towards longer wavelengths. For our studies of the impact of dust grain porosity in protoplanetary disks we use the radiative transfer software MC3D, which is based on the Monte-Carlo method and solves the radiative transfer problem self-consistently (Wolf et al. 1999, Wolf 2003). We find that the spectral energy distribution of protoplanetary disks shows significant differences between the cases of porous and compact grains. In particular, the flux in the optical wavelength range is increased for porous grains. Furthermore, the silicate peak at ~9.8 microns exhibits a strong dependence on the degree of grain porosity. We also investigate the temperature distribution in the disk. In the midplane no influence of porosity is detectable, but in the vertical direction minor changes of a few Kelvin are found. To complete our study we outline the differences between the two grain types in maps of the linear polarization. We detect a polarization reversal in

  18. Recent Progress in Presolar Grain Studies.

    PubMed

    Amari, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Presolar grains are stardust that condensed in stellar outflows or stellar ejecta, and was incorporated in meteorites. They remain mostly intact throughout the journey from stars to the earth, keeping information of their birthplaces. Studies of presolar grains, which started in 1987, have produced a wealth of information about nucleosynthesis in stars, mixing in stellar ejecta, and temporal variations of isotopic and elemental abundances in the Galaxy. Recent instrumental advancements in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) brought about the identification of presolar silicate grains. Isotopic and mineralogical investigations of sub-μm grains have been performed using a combination of SIMS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. Two instruments have been developed to study even smaller grains (∼50 nm) and measure isotopes and elements of lower abundances than those in previous studies.

  19. Recent Progress in Presolar Grain Studies

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Presolar grains are stardust that condensed in stellar outflows or stellar ejecta, and was incorporated in meteorites. They remain mostly intact throughout the journey from stars to the earth, keeping information of their birthplaces. Studies of presolar grains, which started in 1987, have produced a wealth of information about nucleosynthesis in stars, mixing in stellar ejecta, and temporal variations of isotopic and elemental abundances in the Galaxy. Recent instrumental advancements in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) brought about the identification of presolar silicate grains. Isotopic and mineralogical investigations of sub-μm grains have been performed using a combination of SIMS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. Two instruments have been developed to study even smaller grains (∼50 nm) and measure isotopes and elements of lower abundances than those in previous studies. PMID:26819886

  20. Stabilizing Nanocrystalline Grains in Ceramic-Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceramic-oxides are prone to grain growth rendering their highly attractive properties practically unusable. Using atomistic simulations ofon ceria as a model material system, we elucidate a framework to design dopant-pinned grain boundaries that prevent this grain growth. While in metallic systems it has been shown that a large mismatch between host and dopant atomic size prevents grain growth, in ceramic-oxides we find that this concept is not applicable. Instead, we find that dopant-oxygen vacancy interaction, i.e., dopant migration energy in the presence of oxygen vacancy, and dopant-oxygen vacancy binding energy are the controlling factors in grain growth. Our prediction agrees with and explains previous experimental observations.

  1. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination.

  2. Aging embrittlement and grain boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thauvin, G.; Lorang, G.; Leymonie, C.

    1992-08-01

    “Clean” 3.5NiCrMoV steels with limited contents in trace elements (P, Sn, As, Sb) are commonly provided for manufacturing big rotor shafts. The possible increase in temperature in future steam turbines has promoted the development of “superclean” steels characterized by an extra drastic decrease of manganese and silicon contents. Their higher cost in comparison to “clean” steels leads to concern above which temperature they must be considered as mandatory for resisting aging embrittlement in operation. 3.5NiCrMoV “clean” steel samples (Mn = 0.30 pct; Si = 0.10 pct) were aged at 300 °C, 350 °C, and 400 °C for 10,000 hours up to 30,000 hours. No embrittlement results from aging at 300 °C and 350 °C, but holding at 400 °C is highly detrimental. Auger spectroscopy confirms that, when aging at 400 °C, phosphorus is the main embrittling trace element. It is suggested that grain boundary embrittlement is associated with the building of a layer that contains, on the one hand, Ni and P and, on the other hand, Mo and Cr.

  3. Grains and grain boundaries in single-layer graphene atomic patchwork quilts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pinshane Y; Ruiz-Vargas, Carlos S; van der Zande, Arend M; Whitney, William S; Levendorf, Mark P; Kevek, Joshua W; Garg, Shivank; Alden, Jonathan S; Hustedt, Caleb J; Zhu, Ye; Park, Jiwoong; McEuen, Paul L; Muller, David A

    2011-01-20

    The properties of polycrystalline materials are often dominated by the size of their grains and by the atomic structure of their grain boundaries. These effects should be especially pronounced in two-dimensional materials, where even a line defect can divide and disrupt a crystal. These issues take on practical significance in graphene, which is a hexagonal, two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms. Single-atom-thick graphene sheets can now be produced by chemical vapour deposition on scales of up to metres, making their polycrystallinity almost unavoidable. Theoretically, graphene grain boundaries are predicted to have distinct electronic, magnetic, chemical and mechanical properties that strongly depend on their atomic arrangement. Yet because of the five-order-of-magnitude size difference between grains and the atoms at grain boundaries, few experiments have fully explored the graphene grain structure. Here we use a combination of old and new transmission electron microscopy techniques to bridge these length scales. Using atomic-resolution imaging, we determine the location and identity of every atom at a grain boundary and find that different grains stitch together predominantly through pentagon-heptagon pairs. Rather than individually imaging the several billion atoms in each grain, we use diffraction-filtered imaging to rapidly map the location, orientation and shape of several hundred grains and boundaries, where only a handful have been previously reported. The resulting images reveal an unexpectedly small and intricate patchwork of grains connected by tilt boundaries. By correlating grain imaging with scanning probe and transport measurements, we show that these grain boundaries severely weaken the mechanical strength of graphene membranes but do not as drastically alter their electrical properties. These techniques open a new window for studies on the structure, properties and control of grains and grain boundaries in graphene and other two

  4. ISOCHRONS IN PRESOLAR GRAPHITE GRAINS FROM ORGUEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, Ernst; Jadhav, Manavi

    2013-05-10

    Primitive meteorites contain tiny dust grains that condensed in stellar outflows and explosions. These stardust grains can be extracted from their host meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. We investigated depth profiles of the Al-Mg, Ca-K, and Ti-Ca isotopic systems obtained during NanoSIMS isotopic analysis of presolar graphite grains from the CI carbonaceous meteorite Orgueil. Large {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca, and {sup 44}Ti/{sup 48}Ti ratios, inferred from {sup 26}Mg, {sup 41}K, and {sup 44}Ca excesses from the decay of the short-lived radioisotopes {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 44}Ti, indicate a supernova (SN) origin. From the depth distribution of the radiogenic isotopes and the stable isotopes of their parent elements we constructed isochron-type correlation plots. The plots indicate quantitative retention of radiogenic {sup 26}Mg, {sup 41}K, and {sup 44}Ca in most grains. Deviations from straight lines in the Al-Mg and Ca-K plots can be explained by contamination with {sup 27}Al and isotopically normal Ca, respectively. For the Ti-Ca system in some grains, the lack of parent-daughter correlation indicates either redistribution of radiogenic {sup 44}Ca or heterogeneity in the initial {sup 44}Ti/{sup 48}Ti ratio. We also obtained Si isotopic depth profiles in three graphite grains with large {sup 29}Si and {sup 30}Si excesses, for which a SN origin has been proposed. In two grains no Si-rich subgrains are observed; in the third grain with an apparent Si-rich subgrain the anomalous Si isotopic ratios in the subgrain are the same as in the rest of the graphite host. Our studies show that by measuring depth profiles, information on presolar grains can be obtained that cannot be obtained by whole-grain analysis.

  5. Enantioselective effects of optically active alpha-methylbenzyl-s-triazine on the root growth of rice and Echinochloa plants and their herbicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Omokawa, Hiroyoshi; Tabei, Akiko

    2002-09-01

    The chiral requirement on the alpha-methylbenzyl moiety of 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-s-triazine for sufficient inhibition of root growth was similar towards both rice and barnyard millet. With the monoalkylamino series, the most suitable configuration was markedly changed by the substituent on the other amino moiety. However, for the dialkylamino series, the (S)-enantiomer was an active inhibitor. Clear species selectivity between rice and barnyard millet was observed in the series for the (R)-enantiomers, providing high herbicidal activity toward Echinochloa plants and safety toward rice. The enantioselectivity against barnyard millet increased with increasing inhibitory activity of the active enantiomers, following Pfeiffer's rule. R-EtNH (3) controlled the growth of barnyardgrass with leaf-burning (LB) under paddy conditions, and S-EtNH (4) and S-Et2N (20) controlled the growth without LB. The RS-EtNH derivative is an interesting inhibitor controlling the growth of barnyardgrass from the just-germinated stage (by the (R)-enantiomer) to early-middle growth stage (by the (S)-enantiomer).

  6. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Strategies to reduce arsenic in rice grain, below levels that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of arsenic accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, re-translocation of arsenic species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated.Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analogue) on grain arsenic accumulation in arsenite treated panicles was examined.Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently re-translocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly re-translocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no re-translocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic arsenic remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain arsenic in arsenite treated panicles. 3D SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains.These results demonstrate that inorganic arsenic is poorly re-mobilized, while organic species are readily re-mobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic arsenic may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters. PMID:21658183

  7. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  8. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  9. Photoluminescence Imaging of Large-Grain CdTe for Grain Boundary Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve; Allende Motz, Alyssa; Reese, Matthew O.; Burst, James M.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    In this work, we use photoluminescence (PL) imaging to characterize CdTe grain boundary recombination. We use a silicon megapixel camera and green (532 nm) laser diodes for excitation. A microscope objective lens system is used for high spatial resolution and a field of view down to 190 um x 190 um. PL images of large-grain (5 to 50 um) CdTe samples show grain boundary and grain interior features that vary with processing conditions. PL images of samples in the as-deposited state show distinct dark grain boundaries that suggest high excess carrier recombination. A CdCl2 treatment leads to PL images with very little distinction at the grain boundaries, which illustrates the grain boundary passivation properties. Other process conditions are also shown, along with comparisons of PL images to high spatial resolution time-resolved PL carrier lifetime maps.

  10. Relationship between grain boundary complexion and grain growth kinetics in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Shen J.

    2007-12-01

    This work investigated the effect of different grain boundary phases (complexions) on the grain growth kinetics of doped and undoped aluminas. This was achieved by relating quantitative grain growth kinetics to high-resolution electron microscopy of the grain boundaries. It was found that there are 6 different regimes into which the grain growth kinetics may be categorized. These regimes corresponded to the existence of six different grain boundary complexions. Grain boundaries in alumina were observed to show sub-monolayer adsorption, 'clean' intrinsic behavior, bilayer adsorption, multilayer adsorption, equilibrium thickness intergranular films, and wetting intergranular films. These different grain boundary types are listed in order of increasing grain boundary mobility. In general there is an increase in grain boundary mobility with an increase in the disorder within the core of the grain boundary. This broad range of grain boundaries produces a multiplicity of different microstructural effects that until now have been difficult to understand experimentally or theoretically. For example, abnormal grain growth in alumina simply results from the coexistence of two or more different complexions within the same microstructure. Therefore, there may be multiple distinct types of normal and abnormal grain growth behavior. Transitions from one type of boundary to another are chemically and thermally activated, and depend on the crystallography of the adjacent grains. It is found that the number of transitions that occur increases linearly with increasing grain size, and exponentially with temperature. In this regard, different dopants produce very different effects, which appear to be the major role of most dopants in affecting the grain boundary transport kinetics. Low energy planes and grain boundaries are the least likely to undergo such transitions. This experimental data compliments some theoretical derivations within the literature and has provided new insight

  11. Interstellar chemical differentiation across grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J. X.; He, J. H.; Li, Aigen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of ion accretion and size-dependent dust temperatures on the abundances of both gas-phase and grain-surface species. While past work has assumed a constant areal density for icy species, we show that this assumption is invalid and the chemical differentiation over grain sizes is significant. We use a gas-grain chemical code to demonstrate this numerically for two typical interstellar conditions: a dark cloud (DC) and a cold neutral medium (CNM). It is shown that, although the grain-size distribution variation (but with the total grain surface area unchanged) has little effect on the gas-phase abundances, it can alter the abundances of some surface species by up to ∼2-4 orders of magnitude. The areal densities of ice species are larger on smaller grains in the DC model as a consequence of ion accretion. However, the surface areal density evolution tracks are more complex in the CNM model due to the combined effects of ion accretion and dust temperature variation. The surface areal density differences between the smallest ( ∼ 0.01 μm) and the biggest ( ∼ 0.2 μm) grains can reach ∼1 and ∼5 orders of magnitude in the DC and CNM models, respectively.

  12. Estimating snow grain size using AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolin, Anne W.; Dozier, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Estimates of snow grain size for the near-surface snow layer were calculated for the Tioga Pass region and Mammoth Mountain in the Sierra Nevada, California, using an inversion technique and data collected by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). The Tioga Pass and Mammoth Mountain single-band AVIRIS radiance images were atmospherically corrected to obtain surface reflectance. A discrete-ordinate model was used to calculate directional reflectance as a function of snowpack grain size for a wide range of snow grain radii. The resulting radius vs. reflectance curves were each fit using a nonlinear least squares technique which provided a means of transforming surface reflectance in each AVIRIS image to optically equivalent grain size on a per-pixel basis. The model results and grain size estimates derived from the AVIRIS data show that, for solar incidence angles between 0 and 30, the technique provides good estimates of grain size. This work provides the first quantitative estimates for grain size using data acquired from an airborne remote sensing instrument and is an important step in improving our ability to retrieve snow physical properties independent of field measurements.

  13. Austenite grain coarsening in microalloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, L. J.; Raley, J. C.

    1983-10-01

    A uniform, fine-grain structure is essential in steels, particularly for strip and plate, that are to meet demands for high strength and toughness. To produce such microstructures, every step of the high-temperature processing of the steel must be carefully controlled, beginning with grain coarsening that occurs during reheating for slab rolling. Extremely coarse or nonuniform grain structures in the reheated slab are difficult to refine by subsequent hot working. Accordingly, the grain-coarsening behavior of laboratory heats of C-Mn-Si base steels and of such steels with additions of Al, V, Ti, or Nb was examined to understand the principles governing the behavior of this class of steels. The grain-coarsening temperature (the temperature at which abnormal or discontinuous growth occurs) varies with the type and concentration of the microalloy addition; an approximate relation is presented. Generally the grain-coarsening temperature increases with, but is lower than, the temperature required for complete dissolution of the microalloy carbide or nitride present. Thus, steels containing the very insoluble TiN coarsen at much higher temperatures than steels containing the more soluble VCN. These results agree qualitatively with predictions of models of grain-boundary pinning by precipitate particles.

  14. Quasiclassical coarse graining and thermodynamic entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B.

    2007-08-15

    Our everyday descriptions of the universe are highly coarse grained, following only a tiny fraction of the variables necessary for a perfectly fine-grained description. Coarse graining in classical physics is made natural by our limited powers of observation and computation. But in the modern quantum mechanics of closed systems, some measure of coarse graining is inescapable because there are no nontrivial, probabilistic, fine-grained descriptions. This essay explores the consequences of that fact. Quantum theory allows for various coarse-grained descriptions, some of which are mutually incompatible. For most purposes, however, we are interested in the small subset of 'quasiclassical descriptions' defined by ranges of values of averages over small volumes of densities of conserved quantities such as energy and momentum and approximately conserved quantities such as baryon number. The near-conservation of these quasiclassical quantities results in approximate decoherence, predictability, and local equilibrium, leading to closed sets of equations of motion. In any description, information is sacrificed through the coarse graining that yields decoherence and gives rise to probabilities for histories. In quasiclassical descriptions, further information is sacrificed in exhibiting the emergent regularities summarized by classical equations of motion. An appropriate entropy measures the loss of information. For a 'quasiclassical realm' this is connected with the usual thermodynamic entropy as obtained from statistical mechanics. It was low for the initial state of our universe and has been increasing since.

  15. Static Recrystallized Grain Size of Coarse-Grained Austenite in an API-X70 Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Qingyun; Li, Guiyan; Li, Dahang

    2013-12-01

    The effects of initial grain size and strain on the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite in an API-X70 steel microalloyed with Nb, V, and Ti were investigated using a Gleeble-3800 thermomechanical simulator. The results indicate that the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite decreases with decreasing initial grain size and increasing applied strain. The addition of microalloying elements can lead to a smaller initial grain size for hot deformation due to the grain growth inhibition during reheating, resulting in decreasing of static recrystallized grain size. Based on the experimental data, an equation for the static recrystallized grain size was derived using the least square method. The grain sizes calculated using this equation fit well with the measured ones compared with the equations for fine-grained austenite and for coarse-grained austenite of Nb-V microalloyed steel.

  16. Differential Heating of Magnetically Aligned Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillancourt, John E.; Andersson, B.

    2013-01-01

    We use far-infrared photometric maps from IRAS and Herschel to search for the differential heating of asymmetric dust grains aligned with respect to an interstellar magnetic field and heated by a localized radiation source. The grains are known to be asymmetric and have a net alignment of their axes from observations of background starlight polarization. Modern theories on grain alignment suggest that photons from stars embedded in the foreground cloud are a key ingredient of the physical mechanism responsible for alignment (i.e., radiative torques). This theory predicts a relation between the grain alignment efficiency and the angle between the magnetic field and the direction to the aligning radiation source. This effect has been tentatively observed in a source with a very simple geometry (Andersson et al. 2011): the aligning photons are primarily from a single localized source (i.e., a single star) and the local magnetic field direction is known to be fairly uniform. Such a region also has consequences for the distribution of grain heating. For example, asymmetric grains whose largest cross-sections are normal to the incident stellar radiation will reach warmer equilibrium temperatures compared to grains whose largest cross-section is parallel to that direction. This should be observed as an azimuthal dependence of the dust color temperature. We present evidence of such a dependence using IRAS data at 60 and 100 micron. We expect this effect to be stronger using longer wavelength (i.e., 160 micron) data better coupled to the "big-grain" dust population, grains which are also more efficiently aligned with the local magnetic field. Here we also present the results of our on-going work to search for this signal using Herschel maps towards three candidate stars.

  17. Strontium and Barium Isotopes in Type X Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains Analyzed with CHILI — Two Types of Supernova Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, T.; Trappitsch, R.; Davis, A. M.; Gyngard, F.; Hoppe, P.; Pellin, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    Using the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization, we have measured Sr and Ba isotopes in 10 presolar SiC grains, including 3 X grains. One grain is X1, the other two are X2 grains. Both X grain types show distinct properties in Sr and Ba isotopes.

  18. Cavity growth on a sliding grain boundary

    SciTech Connect

    I-Wei Chen

    1983-11-01

    Cavity growth on a sliding grain boundary to which a normal stress is applied is found to be faster than that on a stationary grain boundary. The morphology of the cavity contains an asymmetric crack-like tip which prompts surface diffusion locally when the sliding is dominant, and the growth rate becomes proportional to the third power of the normal stress independent of the sliding rate. Since the sliding rates of all grain boundaries are statistically comparable, only the normal stress dependence remains important. The conditions which favor the present mechanism are examined and shown to be in good agreement with the experimental evidence in creep cavitation.

  19. Grain refinement control in TIG arc welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. F.; Whiffen, E. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A method for controlling grain size and weld puddle agitation in a tungsten electrode inert gas welding system to produce fine, even grain size and distribution is disclosed. In the method the frequency of dc welding voltage pulses supplied to the welding electrode is varied over a preselected frequency range and the arc gas voltage is monitored. At some frequency in the preselected range the arc gas voltage will pass through a maximum. By maintaining the operating frequency of the system at this value, maximum weld puddle agitation and fine grain structure are produced.

  20. CASS Ferrite and Grain Structure Relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, Clayton O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2016-07-13

    This document summarizes the results of research conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine whether, based on experimental measurements, a correlation existed between grain structure in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping and ferrite content of the casting alloy. The motivation for this research lies in the fact that ultrasonic testing (UT) is strongly influenced by CASS grain structure; knowledge of this grain structure may help improve the ability to interpret UT responses, thereby improving the overall reliability of UT inspections of CASS components.

  1. Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovich, M.Kh.; Trifonov, V.G.

    1996-05-01

    Superplastic deformation (SPD) causes the accelerated anisotropic grain growth. This process results in the formation of structure which is quasistable during superplastic deformation and unstable after deformation. The degree of instability is determined by the size of grains, their shape coefficient which depends on the nature of an alloy and is equal to 1.1--1.5 after SPD, and by the unbalance of triple junctions at boundaries. Alloying of metals can affect the thermodynamic force and mechanism of dynamic anisotropic grain growth and correspondingly influence the parameters of superplasticity in alloys.

  2. Interstellar grains: Effect of inclusions on extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, N.; Gupta, R.; Vaidya, D. B.

    2011-10-01

    A composite dust grain model which simultaneously explains the observed interstellar extinction, polarization, IR emission and the abundance constraints, is required. We present a composite grain model, which is made up of a host silicate oblate spheroid and graphite inclusions. The interstellar extinction curve is evaluated in the spectral region 3.4-0.1 μm using the extinction efficiencies of composite spheroidal grains for three axial ratios. Extinction curves are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The model curves are subsequently compared with the average observed interstellar extinction curve and with an extinction curve derived from the IUE catalogue data.

  3. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  4. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. ... help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  5. Optimization of strength and ductility in nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag: twin density and grain orientations

    DOE PAGES

    Ott, R. T.; Geng, J.; Besser, M. F.; ...

    2015-06-27

    Nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag thick films with different twin densities and orientations have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering with a wide-range of deposition rates. The twin boundary (TB) spacings and orientations as well as the grain size for the different deposition conditions have been characterized by both synchrotron X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural characterization combined with uniaxial tensile tests of the free-standing films reveals a large increase in the yield strength for films deposited at high deposition rates without any accompanying change in the TB spacing – a behavior that is in contrast with what has beenmore » reported in the literature. We find that films deposited at lower deposition rates exhibit more randomly oriented grains with a lower overall twin density (averaged over all the grains) than the more heavily twinned grains with strong <111> fiber texture in the films deposited at higher deposition rates. The TB spacing in the twinned grains, however, does not show any significant dependence on the deposition rate. The dependence of the strength and ductility on the twin density and orientations can be described by two different soft deformation modes: 1) untwinned grains and 2) nanowinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction. The untwinned grains provide relatively low resistance to slip, and thus decreased strength, while the nanotwinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction are softer than nanotwinned grains that are oriented with <111> along the growth direction. We reveal that an ultrafine-grained (150-200 nm) structure consisting of a mixture of nanotwinned (~ 8-12 nm spacing) and untwined grains yields the best combination of high strength and uniform tensile ductility.« less

  6. Optimization of strength and ductility in nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag: twin density and grain orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, R. T.; Geng, J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Park, E. S.; LeSar, R.; King, A. H.

    2015-06-27

    Nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag thick films with different twin densities and orientations have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering with a wide-range of deposition rates. The twin boundary (TB) spacings and orientations as well as the grain size for the different deposition conditions have been characterized by both synchrotron X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural characterization combined with uniaxial tensile tests of the free-standing films reveals a large increase in the yield strength for films deposited at high deposition rates without any accompanying change in the TB spacing – a behavior that is in contrast with what has been reported in the literature. We find that films deposited at lower deposition rates exhibit more randomly oriented grains with a lower overall twin density (averaged over all the grains) than the more heavily twinned grains with strong <111> fiber texture in the films deposited at higher deposition rates. The TB spacing in the twinned grains, however, does not show any significant dependence on the deposition rate. The dependence of the strength and ductility on the twin density and orientations can be described by two different soft deformation modes: 1) untwinned grains and 2) nanowinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction. The untwinned grains provide relatively low resistance to slip, and thus decreased strength, while the nanotwinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction are softer than nanotwinned grains that are oriented with <111> along the growth direction. We reveal that an ultrafine-grained (150-200 nm) structure consisting of a mixture of nanotwinned (~ 8-12 nm spacing) and untwined grains yields the best combination of high strength and uniform tensile ductility.

  7. Making Pure Fine-Grained Inorganic Powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C.

    1985-01-01

    Sustained arc plasma chemical reactor fabricates very-fine-grained inorganic solids having low thermal conductivity. Powder fabrication method, based on plasma tube technique produces pure solids without contamination commonly produced by grinding.

  8. Connectivity in Random Grain Boundary Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M; Schuh, C A; King, W E

    2002-10-22

    Mechanical properties of FCC metals and alloys can be improved by exercising control over the population of grain boundary types in the microstructure. The existing studies also suggest that such properties tend to have percolative mechanisms that depend on the topology of the grain boundary network. With the emergence of SEM-based automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), statistically significant datasets of interface crystallography can be analyzed in a routine manner, giving new insight into the topology and percolative properties of grain boundary networks. In this work, we review advanced analysis techniques for EBSD datasets to quantify microstructures in terms of grain boundary character and triple junction distributions, as well as detailed percolation-theory based cluster analysis.

  9. Grain boundary engineering of highly deformable ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Mecartney, M.L.

    2000-07-01

    Highly deformable ceramics can be created with the addition of intergranular silicate phases. These amorphous intergranular phases can assist in superplastic deformation by relieving stress concentrations and minimizing grain growth if the appropriate intergranular compositions are selected. Examples from 3Y-TZP and 8Y-CSZ ceramics are discussed. The grain boundary chemistry is analyzed by high resolution analytical TEM is found to have a strong influence on the cohesion of the grains both at high temperature and at room temperature. Intergranular phases with a high ionic character and containing large ions with a relatively weak bond strength appear to cause premature failure. In contrast, intergranular phases with a high degree of covalent character and similar or smaller ions than the ceramic and a high ionic bond strength are the best for grain boundary adhesion and prevention of both cavitation at high temperatures and intergranular fracture at room temperature.

  10. Grain edge detection of diamond grinding wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijun; Cui, Changcai; Huang, Chunqi; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    The topograpgy characterization of grinding wheel grain is indispensable for precision grinding, it depends on accurate edge detecting and recognition of abrasive grains from wheel bond to a large extent. Due to different reflective characteristics arising among different materials, difference between maximum and minimum intensity (Δ ) of diamond is larger than that of bond. This paper uses a new method for grain edge detection of resin-bonded diamond grinding wheel that combines the improved Canny operator in Method of Maximum Classes Square Error (called as OTSU) with ΔI obtained by the white light interferometry (WLI). The experimental results show that the method based on improved Canny operator can effectively detect the edge of diamond grain.

  11. Characterization of grain boundaries in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Zero-bias conductance and capacitance measurements at various temperatures were used to study trapped charges and potential barrier height at the boundaries. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was applied to measure the density of states at the boundary. A study of photoconductivity of grain boundaries in p-type silicon demonstrated the applicability of the technique in the measurement of minority carrier recombination velocity at the grain boundary. Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in three cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials was studied. Enhancements for the three were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, although grown by different techniques. Grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion were found always to have strong recombination activities; the phenomena could be related to dangling bonds at the boundaries. Evidence that incoherent second-order twins of (111)/(115) type are diffusion-active is presented.

  12. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favero, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    An optomechanical device has allowed quanta, or 'grains', of mechanical vibration to be counted by optical means. The system may open up new possibilities in acoustics and thermal engineering. See Letter p.522

  14. PROGRESS ON LARGE GRAIN AND SINGLE GRAIN NIOBIUM: INGOTS AND SHEET AND REVIEW OF PROGRESS ON LARGE GRAIN AND SINGLE GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel

    2008-02-12

    Large grain and single crystal niobium has been proposed several years ago as an alternative material to poly-crystalline niobium for superconducting cavities, exhibiting potential advantages such as ¿stream-lined¿ procedures, reduced costs and better reproducibility in performance. Several major laboratories have investigated the use of large grain and single crystal material in the past years and the niobium producing industry has responded in providing ingot material with enlarged grain sizes. Besides a large number of single cell and multi-cell cavities from large grain niobium, several single crystal cavities have been fabricated and tested with good performances. This contribution will review the progress since the SRF workshop in 2005 in material processing and handling and in cavity performances.

  15. Volume dependence of computed grain boundary energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bristowe, P.D.; Brokman, A.

    1980-08-01

    Over the past five years there have been numerous studies of grain boundary structure using the method of computer molecular statics which assume pairwise central potentials for the interatomic interaction. Emphasis is usually placed on relative grain boundary energies but these may be inaccurate due to various, but related, approximations and constraints implicity imposed on the calculation-namely central forces, finite model size, fixed border conditions and volume dependent contributions to the energy of the system. It is the purpose of this work to clarify how these particular properties of the model can affect the computed grain boundary energy and demonstrate instances in which the quoted energy has strictly been inaccurate. The implication of these results, especially on how they affect the method of relaxation and the resulting grain boundary structure is discussed.

  16. Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare?

    PubMed

    Dohan, F C; Harper, E H; Clark, M H; Rodrigue, R B; Zigas, V

    1984-03-01

    If, as hypothesized, neuroactive peptides from grain glutens are the major agents evoking schizophrenia in those with the genotype(s), it should be rare if grain is rare. To test this, we analyzed the results of our clinical examinations (e.g., kuru) and observations of anthropologists on peoples consuming little or no grain. Only two overtly insane chronic schizophrenics were found among over 65,000 examined or closely observed adults in remote regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG, 1950-1967) and Malaita , Solomon Islands (1980-1981), and on Yap , Micronesia (1947-1948). In preneuroleptic Europe over 130 would have been expected. When these peoples became partially westernized and consumed wheat, barley beer, and rice, the prevalence reached European levels. Our findings agree with previous epidemiologic and experimental results indicating that grain glutens are harmful to schizophrenics.

  17. Fine-grained zirconium-base material

    DOEpatents

    Van Houten, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for making zirconium with inhibited grain growth characteristics, by the process of vacuum melting the zirconium, adding 0.3 to 0.5% carbon, stirring, homogenizing, and cooling. (Official Gazette)

  18. Thermomagnetic Stability in Pseudo Single Domain Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian; Fabian, Karl; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of paleomagnetic remanences are well understood for fine grains of magnetite that are single-domain (SD, uniformly magnetized). In particular Néel's theory [1] outlined the thermal energies required to block and unblock magnetic remanences. This lead to determination of thermal stability for magnetization in fine grains as outlined in Pullaiah et. al. [2] and a comprehensive understanding of SD paleomagnetic recordings. It has been known for some time that single domain magnetite is possible only in the grain size range 30 - 80nm, which may only account for a small fraction of the grain size distribution in any rock sample. Indeed rocks are often dominated by grains in the pseudo single domain (PSD) size range, at approximately 80 - 1000nm. Toward the top end of this range multi-domain features begin to dominate. In order to determine thermomagnetic stability in PSD grains we need to identify the energy barriers between all possible pairs of local energy minima (LEM) domain states as a function of both temperature and grain size. We have attempted to do this using the nudged elastic band (NEB) method [3] which searches for minimum energy paths between any given pair of LEM states. Using this technique we have determined, for the first time, complete thermomagnetic stability curves for PSD magnetite. The work presented is at a preliminary stage. However it can be shown that PSD grains of magnetite with simple geometries (e.g. cubes or cuboctahedra) have very few low energy transition paths and the stability is likely to be similar to that observed for SD grains (as expected form experimental observations). The results will provide a basis for a much more rigorous understanding of the fidelity of paleomagnetic signals in assemblages of PSD grains and their ability to retain ancient recordings of the geomagnetic field. References: [1] Néel, Louis. "Théorie du traînage magnétique des ferromagnétiques en grains fins avec applications aux terres

  19. 3-D analysis of grain selection process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arao, Tomoka; Esaka, Hisao; Shinozuka, Kei

    2012-07-01

    It is known that the grain selection plays an important role in the manufacturing process for turbine blades. There are some analytical or numerical models to treat the grain selection. However, the detailed mechanism of grain selection in 3-D is still uncertain. Therefore, an experimental research work using Al-Cu alloy has been carried out in order to understand the grain selection in 3-D.A mold made by Al2O3 was heated to 600 °C ( = liquids temperature of the alloy) and was set on a water-colded copper chill plate. Molten Al-20 wt%Cu alloy was cast into the mold and unidirectional solidified ingot was prepared. The size of ingot was approximately phi25×65H mm. To obtain the thermal history, 4 thermocouples were placed in the mold. It is confirmed that the alloy solidified unidirectionally from bottom to top. Solidified structure on a longitudinal cross section was observed and unidirectional solidification up to 40 mm was ensured. EBSD analysis has been performed on horizontal cross section at an interval of ca.200 μm. These observations were carried out 7-5 mm from the bottom surface. Crystallographic orientation of primary Al phase and size of solidified grains were characterized. A large solidified grain, the crystallographic orientation of which is approximately <101> along heat flow direction, is observed near the lowest cross section. The area of <101> grain decreased as solidification proceeded. On the other hand, it is found that the area of <001> grain increased.

  20. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    project (Tasks 7-9). An industrial trial on an investment casting was done using rare earth silicide additions in a furnace prior to pouring (Task 7...an investment casting was done using rare earth silicide additions in a furnace prior to pounng (la.sk 7). Some of the test parts had a finer...by thermomechanical grain refinemeni and precipitation hardening. This is achieved by precipitating niobium carbides, which pin the austenite grains

  1. Single and large grain activities at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, Claire; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing activities at Fermilab for large grains and monocrystalline niobium. In addition to acquisition of local fabrication expertise, we plan to develop an R&D program dedicated to evidence the possible influence of crystal orientation on physical and chemical properties of niobium, such as mechanical properties, magnetic properties or surface contamination. Some considerations are also given about the morphology at grain boundaries and its role on the behavior of superconducting cavities.

  2. Ultrathin amorphous coatings on lunar dust grains.

    PubMed

    Bibring, J P; Duraud, J P; Durrieu, L; Jouret, C; Maurette, M; Meunier, R

    1972-02-18

    UItrathin amorphous coatings have been observed by high-voltage electron microscopy on micrometer-sized dust grains from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 14, and Luna 16 missions. Calibration experiments show that these coatings result from an "ancient" implantation of solar wind ions in the grains. This phenomenon has interdisciplinary applications concerning the past activity of the sun, the lunar albedo, the ancient lunar atmosphere and magnetic field, the carbon content of lunar soils, and lunar dynamic processes.

  3. The formation of small grains in shocks in the ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Anthony P.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous and silicate grains swept up, and betatron accelerated, by supernova-generated shock waves in the interstellar medium are exposed to grain destructive processing. The degree of grain destruction is determined by the differential gas-grain and grain-grain velocities, which lead to sputtering of the grain surface and grain core disruption (deformation, vaporization and shattering), respectively. The threshold pressure for grain shattering in grain-grain collisions (100 k bar) is considerably lower than that for vaporization (approximately 5 M bar). Therefore, collisions between grains shatter large grains into smaller fragments (i.e., small grains and PAH's). Using a new algorithms for the destructive processes, it was possible to model the formation fo small grain fragments in grain-grain collisions in the warm phase of the interstellar medium. It was found that in one cycle through the warm medium (approximately 3 x 10(sup 6) years) of order 1-2% of the total grain mass is shattered into particles with radii of less than 50 A.

  4. Effect of partial recrystallization on the grain size and grain boundary structure of austenitic steel

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Peter J.

    2012-04-15

    Cyclic thermomechanical treatment combined with caliber rolling was applied in order to obtain very fine grain structure with high fraction of special grain boundaries in austenitic stainless steel. Partial recrystallization was observed. Recrystallized fraction was assessed from misorientation data measured by electron back scattering diffraction. Due to the partial recrystallization, elastic energy was stored in the deformed parts, and helped grain boundary movement. As a consequence, very fine grained material with high fraction of special boundaries was formed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I combined the advantage of severe plastic deformation and thermomechanical treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very fine grained steel with high fraction of special boundaries was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stored elastic energy hepled the movement of grain boundaries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of recrystallized part was determined by EBSD.

  5. Grain growth and experimental deformation of fine-grained ice aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Sabrina; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris; Durham, William B.; Stern, Laura

    2010-05-01

    Ice is one of the most abundant materials in our solar system. It is the principal constituent of most of the moons of the outer solar system. Thus, the flow behavior of ice is of great interest when studying geodynamic processes on icy moons. Grain growth is an elementary process that is assumed to be important in the ice sheet layering of planetary moons, where temperatures 100-273 K exist. We concentrate on the questions to what extent grain growth may influence the evolution of strength of deforming ice and if the grain growth process is independent or dependent of deformation. The answers to these questions will help us to quantitatively test the hypothesis that the progressive evolution of the grain (crystal) size distribution of deforming and recrystallizing ice directly affects its rheological behaviour in terms of composite grain-size-sensitive (GSS) and grain-size-insensitive (GSI) creep, and that this might, after time, result in a steady state balance between mechanisms of GSS and GSI creep. We performed static grain growth experiments at different temperatures and a pressure (P) of 1 atm, and deformation experiments at P = 30-100 MPa starting in the GSS-creep field. The starting material ice Ih has a grain size < 2 μm and was generated by a special pressure-release technique described by Stern et al. (1997) resulting in dense ice aggregates. The ice grains of the polycrystalline starting samples were randomly oriented and the material has a porosity of < 0.5%. For the grain growth tests a Hart Scientific temperature bath was filled with d-Limonene as cooling medium. The ice specimens were put into sealed alumina cylinders. For the grain growth tests, temperatures (T) between 213 K and 268 K were chosen. The durations of these tests varied between one day and two weeks. For the deformation experiments, temperatures of > 170 K and strain rates between 10-8 s-1 and 10-4 s-1 were chosen. Grain sizes, grain size distributions and grain topologies were

  6. The Influence of Grain Boundary Type upon Damage Evolution at Grain Boundary Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G; Brandl, Christian; Escobedo, Juan P; Trujillo, Carl P; Cerreta, Ellen K; Gray III, George T; Germann, Timothy C

    2012-07-09

    In a prior work, it was found that grain boundary structure strongly influences damage evolution at grain boundaries in copper samples subjected to either shock compression or incipient spall. Here, several grain boundaries with different grain boundary structures, including a {Sigma}3 (10-1) boundary, are interrogated via conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to investigate the effects of atomic-scale structural differences on grain boundary strength and mobility. Boundaries are studied both before and after shock compression at a peak shock stress of 10 GPa. Results of the TEM and HRTEM work are used in conjunction with MD modeling to propose a model for shock-induced damage evolution at grain boundary interfaces that is dependent upon coincidence.

  7. Coarse-graining methods for computational biology.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Marissa G; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Connecting the molecular world to biology requires understanding how molecular-scale dynamics propagate upward in scale to define the function of biological structures. To address this challenge, multiscale approaches, including coarse-graining methods, become necessary. We discuss here the theoretical underpinnings and history of coarse-graining and summarize the state of the field, organizing key methodologies based on an emerging paradigm for multiscale theory and modeling of biomolecular systems. This framework involves an integrated, iterative approach to couple information from different scales. The primary steps, which coincide with key areas of method development, include developing first-pass coarse-grained models guided by experimental results, performing numerous large-scale coarse-grained simulations, identifying important interactions that drive emergent behaviors, and finally reconnecting to the molecular scale by performing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations guided by the coarse-grained results. The coarse-grained modeling can then be extended and refined, with the entire loop repeated iteratively if necessary.

  8. The opacity of grains in protoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movshovitz, N.; Podolak, M.

    2008-03-01

    We have computed the size distribution of silicate grains in the outer radiative region of the envelope of a protoplanet evolving according to the scenario of Pollack et al. [Pollack, J.B., Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., Podolak, M., Greenzweig, Y., 1996. Icarus 124, 62-85]. Our computation includes grain growth due to Brownian motion and overtake of smaller grains by larger ones. We also include the input of new grains due to the breakup of planetesimals in the atmosphere. We follow the procedure of Podolak [Podolak, M., 2003. Icarus 165, 428-437], but have speeded it up significantly. This allows us to test the sensitivity of the code to various parameters. We have also made a more careful estimate of the resulting grain opacity. We find that the grain opacity is of the order of 10 cmg throughout most of the outer radiative zone as Hubickyj et al. [Hubickyj, O., Bodenheimer, P., Lissauer, J.J., 2005. Icarus 179, 415-431] assumed for their low opacity case, but near the outer edge of the envelope, the opacity can increase to ˜1 cmg. We discuss the effect of this on the evolution of the models.

  9. BHQ revisited (1) - Looking at grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Renée; Kilian, Rüdiger; Tullis, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Black Hills Quartzite (BHQ) has been used extensively in experimental rock deformation for numerous studies. Coaxial and general shear experiments have been carried out, for example, to define the dislocation creep regimes of quartz (Hirth & Tullis, 1992), to determine the effect of annealing (Heilbronner & Tullis, 2002) or to study the development of texture and microstructure with strain (Heilbronner & Tullis, 2006). BHQ was also used to determine the widely used quartz piezometer by Stipp & Tullis (2003). Among the microstructure analyses that were performed in those original papers, grain size was usually determined using CIP misorientation images. However, the CIP method (= computer-integrated polarization microscopy, details in Heilbronner and Barrett, 2014) is only capable of detecting the c-axis orientation of optically uniaxial materials and hence is only capable of detecting grain boundaries between grains that differ in c-axis orientation. One of the puzzling results we found (Heilbronner & Tullis, 2006) was that the recrystallized grain size seemed to depend on the crystallographic preferred orientation of the domain. In other words the grain size did not only depend on the flow stress but also on the orientation of the c-axis w/r to the shear direction. At the time, no EBSD analysis (electron back scatter diffraction) was carried out and hence the full crystallographic orientation was not known. In principle it is therefore possible that we missed some grain boundaries (between grains with parallel c-axes) and miscalculated our grain sizes. In the context of recent shear experiments on quartz gouge at the brittle-viscous transition (see Richter et al., this conference), where EBSD is used to measure the recrystallized grain size, we wanted to re-measure the CIP grain sizes of our 2006 samples (deformed in regime 1, 2 and 3 of dislocation) in exactly the same way. In two companion posters we use EBSD orientation imaging to repeat, refine and expand the

  10. An analysis of grain boundary sliding and grain boundary cavitation in discontinuously reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Biner, S.B.

    1996-05-01

    In this study, the creep cavitation and rupture characteristics of polycrystalline matrix material and discontinuously reinforced composites are investigated including grain boundary sliding behavior, reinforcement aspect ratio and interfacial behavior between the reinforcement and surrounding matrix grains. Free sliding of the grain boundaries, a continuous nucleation of the grain boundary cavities, their diffusional growth and coalescence to form grain boundary facet cracks are fully accounted for in the analyses. The results indicate that, with sliding grain boundaries, the stress enhancement factor for the composites is much higher than the one observed for the matrix material and its value increases with increasing reinforcement aspect ratio, reduction in the matrix grain size and sliding interfacial behavior between the reinforcement and the matrix. For the composites, the influence of grain boundary sliding on the creep life is reduced by the stress concentration effect that is seen at the end of the reinforcements. In contrast with the behavior of polycrystalline matrix material in composites after the formation of the first facet crack, resulting from the coalescence of the cavities, a significant time is required for the formation of the other grain boundary facet cracks across the ligament to cause final rupture. The results also show that experimentally observed higher creep exponents or stress dependent creep exponent values in discontinuously reinforced composites can occur as a result of creep damage evolution behavior.

  11. Orientation influence on grain size-effects in ultrafine-grained magnesium

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, A.; ...

    2014-11-08

    The mechanical behavior of ultrafine-grained magnesium was studied by discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Our results show basal slip yields a strong size effect, while prismatic and pyramidal slips produce a weak one. We developed a new size-strength model that considers dislocation transmission across grain boundaries. Good agreement between this model, current DDD simulations and previous experiments is observed. These results reveal that the grain size effect depends on 3 factors: Peierls stress, dislocation source strength and grain boundary strength.

  12. A Rare Allele of GS2 Enhances Grain Size and Grain Yield in Rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Wang, Yuexing; Fang, Yunxia; Zeng, Longjun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Haiping; Shi, Zhenyuan; Pan, Jiangjie; Zhang, Dong; Kang, Shujing; Zhu, Li; Dong, Guojun; Guo, Longbiao; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Xie, Lihong; Xiong, Guosheng; Li, Jiayang; Qian, Qian

    2015-10-05

    Grain size determines grain weight and affects grain quality. Several major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating grain size have been cloned; however, our understanding of the underlying mechanism that regulates the size of rice grains remains fragmentary. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a dominant QTL, grain size on chromosome 2 (GS2), which encodes Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), a transcriptional regulator. GS2 localizes to the nucleus and may act as a transcription activator. A rare mutation of GS2 affecting the binding site of a microRNA, OsmiR396c, causes elevated expression of GS2/OsGRF4. The increase in GS2 expression leads to larger cells and increased numbers of cells, which thus enhances grain weight and yield. The introduction of this rare allele of GS2/OsGRF4 into rice cultivars could significantly enhance grain weight and increase grain yield, with possible applications in breeding high-yield rice varieties.

  13. Reversal in the Size Dependence of Grain Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Tamura, Nobumichi; Mi, Zhongying; Lei, Jialin; Yan, Jinyuan; Zhang, Lingkong; Deng, Wen; Ke, Feng; Yue, Binbin; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The conventional belief, based on the Read-Shockley model for the grain rotation mechanism, has been that smaller grains rotate more under stress due to the motion of grain boundary dislocations. However, in our high-pressure synchrotron Laue x-ray microdiffraction experiments, 70 nm nickel particles are found to rotate more than any other grain size. We infer that the reversal in the size dependence of the grain rotation arises from the crossover between the grain boundary dislocation-mediated and grain interior dislocation-mediated deformation mechanisms. The dislocation activities in the grain interiors are evidenced by the deformation texture of nickel nanocrystals. This new finding reshapes our view on the mechanism of grain rotation and helps us to better understand the plastic deformation of nanomaterials, particularly of the competing effects of grain boundary and grain interior dislocations.

  14. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J; Richardson, David P

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.

  15. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  16. Soil grain analyses at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weitz, C.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Bell, J.F.; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Morris, R.V.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Grain-size analyses of the soils at Meridiani Planum have been used to identify rock souces for the grains and provide information about depositional processes under past and current conditions. Basaltic sand, dust, millimeter-size hematite-rich spherules interpreted as concretions, spherule fragments, coated partially buried spherules, basalt fragments, sedimentary outcrop fragments, and centimeter-size cobbles are concentrated on the upper surfaces of the soils as a lag deposit, while finer basaltic sands and dust dominate the underlying soils. There is a bimodal distribution of soil grain sizes with one population representing grains <125 ??m and the other falling between 1-4.5 mm. Soils within craters like Eagle and Endurance show a much greater diversity of grain morphologies compared to the plains. The spherules found in the plains soils are approximately 1-2 mm smaller in size than those seen embedded in the outcrop rocks of Eagle and Endurance craters. The average major axis for all unfractured spherules measured in the soils and outcrop rocks is 2.87 ?? 1.18 mm, with a trend toward decreasing spherule sizes in both the soils and outcrop rocks as the rover drove southward. Wind ripples seen across the plains of Meridiani are dominated by similar size (1.3-1.7 mm) hematite-rich grains, and they match in size the larger grains on plains ripples at Gusev Crater. Larger clasts and centimeter-size cobbles that are scattered on the soils have several spectral and compositional types, reflecting multiple origins. The cobbles tend to concentrate within ripple troughs along the plains and in association with outcrop exposures. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Grain Processing in T Tauri Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, W. J.; Sargent, B.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Furlan, E.; Hartmann, L.; Uchida, K. I.; Sloan, G. C.; Chen, C. H.; Kemper, F.; Watson, D. M.; Green, J. D.; Kim, K. H.; Keller, L. D.; Herter, T. L.; Brandl, B. R.; Houck, J. R.; Najita, J.

    The Spitzer Guaranteed Time Observations team IRS Disks acquired Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 13 Class II Young Stellar Objects in Taurus-Auriga and in the TW Hydra Association. All of the sources have broad 10 micron silicate emission features. Each 10 micron feature has a unique shape, indicating variation in composition and crystallinity of the silicate grains in the circumstellar disks of these YSOs. One of the sources, CoKu Tau /4, which apparently has very little disk material out to ~10 AU, has a very smooth and narrow 10 micron emission feature, indicating the silicate grains composing its disk are amorphous and simple. The spectra of the other sources have more structured 10 micron features, indicating the presence of larger grains and/or crystalline silicates, which are believed to arise from processing of amorphous silicates. This processing apparently has not occurred for CoKu Tau /4, where the observable dust is cool (~126 K). The dust emissivity is derived from the observed spectra and compared to grain models. For CoKu Tau /4, nonspherical amorphous olivine and pyroxene grains are indicated. These grains are believed to be unprocessed material; as such, they represent a primordial mixture from which to base the silicate emission modeling for other sources. For the sources with more complexity, crystalline pyroxenes, forsterite, quartz, and larger grains are necessary to fit the spectra. * The IRS is a collaborative venture between Cornell University and Ball Aerospace Corporation funded by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Ames Research Center.

  18. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms. PMID:27537548

  19. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  20. The Theory of Ultra Coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Gregory

    2013-03-01

    Coarse-grained (CG) models provide a computationally efficient means to study biomolecular and other soft matter processes involving large numbers of atoms correlated over distance scales of many covalent bond lengths and long time scales. Variational methods based on information from simulations of finer-grained (e.g., all-atom) models, for example the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) and relative entropy minimization methods, provide attractive tools for the systematic development of CG models. However, these methods have important drawbacks when used in the ``ultra coarse-grained'' (UCG) regime, e.g., at a resolution level coarser or much coarser than one amino acid residue per effective CG particle in proteins. This is due to the possible existece of multiple metastable states ``within'' the CG sites for a given UCG model configuration. In this talk I will describe systematic variational UCG methods specifically designed to CG entire protein domains and subdomains into single effective CG particles. This is accomplished by augmenting existing effective particle CG schemes to allow for discrete state transitions and configuration-dependent resolution. Additionally, certain conclusions of this work connect back to single-state force matching and open up new avenues for method development in that area. These results provide a formal statistical mechanical basis for UCG methods related to force matching and relative entropy CG methods and suggest practical algorithms for constructing optimal approximate UCG models from fine-grained simulation data.

  1. Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238

  2. Large-grain pipelining on hypercube multiprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    King, Chung-Ta; Ni, Lionel M.

    1988-01-01

    A new paradigm, called large-grain pipelining, for developing efficient parallel algorithms on distributed-memory multiprocessors, e.g., hypercube machines, is introduced. Large-grain pipelining attempts to maximize the degree of overlapping and minimize the effect of communication overhead in a multiprocessor system through macro-pipelining between the nodes. Algorithms developed through large-grain pipelining to perform matrix multiplication are presented. To model the pipelined computations, an analytic model is introduced, which takes into account both underlying architecture and algorithm behavior. Through the analytical model, important design parameters, such as data partition sizes, can be determined. Experiments were conducted on a 64-node NCUBE multiprocessor. The measured results match closely with the analyzed results, which establishes the analytic model as an integral part of algorithm design. Comparison with an algorithm which does not use large-grain pipelining also shows that large-grain pipelining is an efficient scheme for achieving a greater parallelism. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Porphyrins in the interstellar medium (in grains)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral sensitivity of the chromophores to their immediate chemical environment establishes some of the chemical constituents of the grains in which they reside. These are: (1) Paraffins, such as, octane, nonane, decane, and others...(needed for Shpolskii matrices and producing quasilines); and (2) Pyridine. The presence of pyridine is required not only to produce the spectral DIB matching, but also to produce the 36 cm(sup -1) crystal field splitting of the S(sub 1) electronic state. The presence of pyridine in the grains can be confirmed spectroscopically. Pyridine produces a transmission window at 2175 A, matching exactly the well known UV hump. On grain reflection, some of the incoming UV radiation is absorbed into the grain's outer layers. Spikes in the lab and in the astronomical data are due to vibronic transitions in pyridine. The lab spectroscopy reported here clearly establishes the presence of MgTBP, H2TPB, and pyridine in the interstellar grains. The high fluorescence efficiency of MgTBP (being optically pumped in the visible) apparently accounts for all the observed UIR emissions.

  4. Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

  5. Isotopic Composition of Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains Analyzed with CHILI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, T.; Trappitsch, R.; Davis, A. M.; Pellin, M. J.; Rost, D.; Savina, M. R.; Jadhav, M.; Kelly, C. H.

    2015-07-01

    Twenty-two presolar SiC grains were analyzed for Sr, Zr, and Ba isotopes with the Chicago Instrument for Laser Ionization. Most grains showed isotope patterns consistent with formation in AGB star like observed previously. One grain is a supernova grain.

  6. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30... § 800.30 Foreign commerce grain business. “Foreign commerce grain business” is defined as the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce or the business of handling, weighing, or...

  7. Volatile organic compounds of whole grain soft winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an indicator of grain soundness and also an important quality attribute of grain foods. To identify the inherent VOCs of wheat grain unaffected by fungal infestation and other extrinsic factors, grains of nine soft wheat varieties were collected at...

  8. Whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole grains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain gluten free, egg free (no chemicals adde...

  9. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30... § 800.30 Foreign commerce grain business. “Foreign commerce grain business” is defined as the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce or the business of handling, weighing, or...

  10. 7 CFR 800.30 - Foreign commerce grain business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Foreign commerce grain business. 800.30 Section 800.30... § 800.30 Foreign commerce grain business. “Foreign commerce grain business” is defined as the business of buying grain for sale in foreign commerce or the business of handling, weighing, or...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.272 - Grain handling facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Continuous-flow bulk raw grain dryers. (1) All direct-heat grain dryers shall be equipped with automatic... temperature occurs in the exhaust of the drying section. (2) Direct-heat grain dryers installed after March 30.... Department of Agriculture, Kansas State University's Extension Grain Science and Industry, and other...

  12. Reaction of sorghum hybrids to anthracnose, grain mold and grain weathering in Burleson County, Texas, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty commercial hybrids were evaluated for resistance against anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum and grain mold or grain weathering caused by a number of fungal species at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Experiment Station in College Station (Burleson County). Six hybrids wer...

  13. Grain Boundary Sliding in Ultra-fine Grained 5083 Aluminium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ming-Je

    Quantitative measurement and analysis of grain boundary sliding in Ultra-fine grained 5083 Aluminium by AFM was conducted at 623K. The grain size of as received cryomilled Ultra-fine Grained Aluminium was characterized by AFM and TEM, and the average was founded to be about 300nm. Ion beam polishing / etching technology was used to reveal grain boundaries for AFM characterization. The vertical offset of grain boundary sliding was measured by comparing pre-defoemation and post-deformation AFM images. By analyzing these measurements, the contribution of grain boundary sliding to the total strain was estimated as 22% - 52% at a strain rate of 10 -4 /sec -5x10-2/sec. It was demonstrated that the relatively low value of the contribution of grain boundary sliding to the total strain is most likely the result of testing under experimental condition that favor the dominance of region I ( low stress) of the sigmoidal behavior characterizing high strain rate superplasticity, which was previously reported.

  14. Activation of Big Grain1 significantly improves grain size by regulating auxin transport in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linchuan; Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Che, Ronghui; Xu, Fan; Hu, Bin; Liang, Chengzhen; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Jiayang; Chu, Chengcai

    2015-09-01

    Grain size is one of the key factors determining grain yield. However, it remains largely unknown how grain size is regulated by developmental signals. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a dominant mutant big grain1 (Bg1-D) that shows an extra-large grain phenotype from our rice T-DNA insertion population. Overexpression of BG1 leads to significantly increased grain size, and the severe lines exhibit obviously perturbed gravitropism. In addition, the mutant has increased sensitivities to both auxin and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid, an auxin transport inhibitor, whereas knockdown of BG1 results in decreased sensitivities and smaller grains. Moreover, BG1 is specifically induced by auxin treatment, preferentially expresses in the vascular tissue of culms and young panicles, and encodes a novel membrane-localized protein, strongly suggesting its role in regulating auxin transport. Consistent with this finding, the mutant has increased auxin basipetal transport and altered auxin distribution, whereas the knockdown plants have decreased auxin transport. Manipulation of BG1 in both rice and Arabidopsis can enhance plant biomass, seed weight, and yield. Taking these data together, we identify a novel positive regulator of auxin response and transport in a crop plant and demonstrate its role in regulating grain size, thus illuminating a new strategy to improve plant productivity.

  15. Grain Boundary (GB) Studies in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanju, Sohanazaman

    2011-12-01

    Polycrystalline materials are composed of grains and grain boundaries. The total volume of occupied grain boundaries in polycrystalline material depends on the grain size. When grain size decreases the volume fraction of grain boundaries increases. For example, when grain size is 10 nm grain boundary volume fraction is ˜ 25%. In polycrystalline materials, different properties (mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic) are affected by the size of their grains and by the atomic structure of their grain boundaries. Nanocrystalline materials have unique properties compared to coarse grain counterpart because of the presence of more grain boundaries. Increased understanding of the role of grain boundaries play in nanocrystalline materials promotes the tunning of materials properties. In order to study the grain boundaries in different materials, fully dense bulk materials are processed using Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) technique. CAPAD is a unique technique for materials processing. It offers faster processing of nanoscale materials compared to traditional sintering technique. Joule heating and pressure are used to densify the materials in CAPAD system. X-ray analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) are used to characterize the materials. There are three different parts in this dissertation: (1) Affect of grain size on grain boundary curvature on different materials; for example, nano and micro crystalline aluminum (metallic bond), silicon (covalent bond) and iron oxide (ionic bond); (2) Grain boundary geometry analysis of nanocrystalline materials and (3) Grain size dependent electrical and optical property investigation. In the first part of the dissertation, the effect of grain size on the grain boundary curvature is investigated. Several different types of materials were chosen, such as, micro and nano crystalline aluminum (Al), silicon (Si) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). It is found that the

  16. The relationship between translucency of rice grain and gelatinization of starch in the grain during cooking.

    PubMed

    He, G; Suzuki, H

    1987-08-01

    The soaked and nonsoaked rice grains were cooked by the excess water method and the steamer method, and subjected to Ranghino's test, X-ray diffraction, and microscopic observation. The starch granules in the nonsoaked rice were gelatinized at the same time as the grains became translucent during cooking. However, when the grains of medium amylose varieties and waxy rice were presoaked, the starch granules were not fully gelatinized in the translucent grains cooked for Ranghino's cooking time. The gelatinization of starch granules proceeded faster in the soaked rice and by the excess water method than that in the nonsoaked rice and by the steamer method. The cooking time and gelatinization time correlated negatively with the water content after soaking, and positively with the amylose content in the rice grains. The japonica rices were gelatinized fully in less than 20 min when the amount of water added for cooking was adequate.

  17. Heterogeneous lamella structure unites ultrafine-grain strength with coarse-grain ductility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaolei; Yang, Muxin; Yuan, Fuping; Wu, Guilin; Wei, Yujie; Huang, Xiaoxu; Zhu, Yuntian

    2015-11-24

    Grain refinement can make conventional metals several times stronger, but this comes at dramatic loss of ductility. Here we report a heterogeneous lamella structure in Ti produced by asymmetric rolling and partial recrystallization that can produce an unprecedented property combination: as strong as ultrafine-grained metal and at the same time as ductile as conventional coarse-grained metal. It also has higher strain hardening than coarse-grained Ti, which was hitherto believed impossible. The heterogeneous lamella structure is characterized with soft micrograined lamellae embedded in hard ultrafine-grained lamella matrix. The unusual high strength is obtained with the assistance of high back stress developed from heterogeneous yielding, whereas the high ductility is attributed to back-stress hardening and dislocation hardening. The process discovered here is amenable to large-scale industrial production at low cost, and might be applicable to other metal systems.

  18. Grain Boundary Character Distributions In Isostructural Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanaphan, Sutatch

    Anisotropic grain boundary character distributions (GBCDs), which influence macroscopic materials properties, are thought to be controlled by the grain boundary energy anisotropy. Structurally, grain boundary could be viewed as two free surfaces joined together. Grain boundary energy could be simply defined by the total excess energy for creating two free surfaces minus the energy gained when new bonds are formed between these surfaces. This implies that different crystal structure should have different GBEDs and GBCDs. It was recently discovered that grain boundary energy distributions (GBED) in isostructural materials, a class of materials that share the same crystal structure, are directly related to one another. This suggests that GBCDs in isostructural materials might also be related in a similar way. To test this hypothesis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to map grain orientations in Ag, Au, Cu, Fe, and Mo. The GBCDs were determined from the stereological interpretation of EBSD maps containing on the order of 100,000 grains. It was found that the GBCDs of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals are statistically correlated, while the GBCDs of body-centered cubic (BCC) Fe and Mo are not correlated to the GBCD of FCC metals. The degree of the correlations among the FCC metals is weaker if there are significant differences in grain shape or texture. For example, Ag has the weakest correlation to the other FCC materials and also has quantitatively different grain shapes and texture. The relationship between the populations and energies of grain boundaries was also studied. By comparing the GBCDs of Al, Au, Cu, and Ni to the energies of 388 grain boundaries previously calculated by the Embedded Atom Method (EAM), we observed a moderately inverse correlation between the relative areas of grain boundaries and their energies. Interestingly, there are strong inverse correlations between the energies and populations of the most common grain boundaries (Sigma

  19. Dust Spectroscopy and the Nature of Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-based, air-borne and space-based, infrared spectra of a wide variety of objects have revealed prominent absorption and emission features due to large molecules and small dust grains. Analysis of this data reveals a highly diverse interstellar and circumstellar grain inventory, including both amorphous materials and highly crystalline compounds (silicates and carbon). This diversity points towards a wide range of physical and chemical birthsites as well as a complex processing of these grains in the interstellar medium. In this talk, I will review the dust inventory contrasting and comparing both the interstellar and circumstellar reservoirs. The focus will be on the processes that play a role in the lifecycle of dust in the interstellar medium.

  20. Ion implantation effects in 'cosmic' dust grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bibring, J. P.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Meunier, R.; Jouffrey, B.; Jouret, C.

    1974-01-01

    Cosmic dust grains, whatever their origin may be, have probably suffered a complex sequence of events including exposure to high doses of low-energy nuclear particles and cycles of turbulent motions. High-voltage electron microscope observations of micron-sized grains either naturally exposed to space environmental parameters on the lunar surface or artificially subjected to space simulated conditions strongly suggest that such events could drastically modify the mineralogical composition of the grains and considerably ease their aggregation during collisions at low speeds. Furthermore, combined mass spectrometer and ionic analyzer studies show that small carbon compounds can be both synthesized during the implantation of a mixture of low-energy D, C, N ions in various solids and released in space by ion sputtering.

  1. Reverse Taylor Tests on Ultrafine Grained Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, A.; Meyers, M. A.; Martin, M.; Thadhani, N. N.; Gregori, F.; Asaro, R. J.

    2006-07-28

    Reverse Taylor impact tests have been carried out on ultrafine grained copper processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). Tests were conducted on an as-received OFHC Cu rod and specimens that had undergone sequential ECAP passes (2 and 8). The average grain size ranged from 30 {mu}m for the initial sample to less than 0.5 {mu}m for the 8-pass samples. The dynamic deformation states of the samples, captured by high speed digital photography were compared with computer simulations run in AUTODYN-2D using the Johnson-Cook constitutive equation with constants obtained from stress-strain data and by fitting to an experimentally measured free surface velocity trace. The constitutive response of copper of varying grain sizes was obtained through quasistatic and dynamic mechanical tests and incorporation into constitutive models.

  2. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  3. Organics Synthesized Using Iron-Grain Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, N. M.; Cody, G. D.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2003-01-01

    We use Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) synthesis to produce hydrocarbons by hydrogenating carbon monoxide via catalytic reactions. The products of these reactions have been studied using 'natural' catalysts and calculations of the efficiency of FTT synthesis in the Solar Nebula suggest that these types of reactions could make significant contributions to the composition of material near three AU. We coat Fe-silicate grains with organic material using FTT synthesis to simulate the chemistry in the early Solar Nebula. In our experimental setup, we roughly model a nebular environment where grains are successively transported from hot to cold regions of the nebula. In other words, the starting gases and FTT products are continuously circulated through the grains at high temperature with intervals of cooling. Organics generated in this manner could represent the carbonaceous material incorporated in comets and meteorites. We analyze the resulting organics and present the results.

  4. Early Solar Nebula Grains - Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J. P.

    This chapter examines the compositions, mineralogy, sources, and geochemical significance of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, it is now possible, primarily as a result of advances in small particle handling techniques and analytical instrumentation, to examine IDPs at close to atomic-scale resolution. The most widely used instruments for IDP studies are presently the analytical electron microscope, synchrotron facilities, and the ion microprobe. These laboratory analytical techniques are providing fundamental insights about IDP origins, mechanisms of formation, and grain processing phenomena that were important in the early solar system and presolar environments. At the same time, laboratory data from IDPs are being compared with astronomical data from dust in comets, circumstellar disks, and the interstellar medium. The direct comparison of grains in the laboratory with grains in astronomical environments is known as "astromineralogy."

  5. Stability of Charged Grains in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, D.; Hamilton, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Hypervelocity impacts of interplanetary micrometeoroids with orbiting ring particles generate dusty debris of all sizes. These ejecta particles become electrically charged by interactions with orbiting plasma and solar photons. Accordingly, they experience both gravity and Lorentz forces, whose combined effects cause interesting and complex dynamics. For simplicity, we initially model the magnetic field of Saturn as a centered and aligned dipole and investigate the stability of motion for grains launched from circularly-orbiting parent bodies. In this approximation, the magnetic equator and the ring-plane coincide. We begin with numerical models, determining the stability of dust grain trajectories in both the radial and vertical directions as a function of launch distance from the planet, and over all charge-to-mass ratios from ions to rocks. We find that positively-charged sub-micron dust grains over a limited range in size are radially unstable, colliding with the planet if launched from within synchronous orbit and escaping entirely if launched from outside this distance. Escaping grains have been observed as high-velocity dust streams at Saturn and at Jupiter. In addition, positively and negatively-charged smaller grains are vertically unstable and spiral up magnetic field lines to sustain non-linear vertical oscillations or to collide with the planet at high latitude. We then undertake local and global stability analyses and derive stability criteria that match our numerical data extremely well. Our work builds upon studies led by Burns, Hamilton, Horanyi, Howard, Mendis, Mitchell, Northrop, Schaffer, and others. We confirm that for charged dust grains launched at the Kepler speed, planetary gravity cannot be ignored, even in the limit of electromagnetically-dominated grains. Some stability boundaries can be obtained analytically while others require more complicated semianalytic methods. Our solutions are general and can be applied wherever an aligned

  6. An Optical Study of Ice Grain Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Erik S.

    The equilibrium phase geometry and evolution of polycrystals underlies the nature of materials. In particular, grain boundaries dominate the total interfacial area within polycrystalline materials. Our experimental studies are motivated by the importance of the structure, evolution, and thermodynamic behavior of grain boundaries near bulk melting temperatures. Ice is singled out as a material of interest due to its geophysical importance and its advantageous optical properties. An experimental apparatus and light reflection technique is designed to measure grain boundary melting in ice bicrystals, in thermodynamic equilibrium The technique allows continuous monitoring of reflected light intensity from the grain boundary as the temperature and solutal composition are systematically varied. For each sample the individual crystal orientations are also measured. The type and concentration of impurity in the liquid is controlled and the temperature is continuously recorded and controlled over a range near the melting point. An optical model of the interface is developed in order to convert experimental reflection data into a physical measurement of the liquidity of the grain boundary. Solutions are found for reflection and transmission amplitude coefficients for waves propagating from an arbitrarily oriented uniaxial anisotropic material into an isotropic material. This general model is used to determine solutions for three layer, ice/water/ice, systems with crystals of arbitrary orientation, and is broadly applicable to layered materials. Experimental results show thicker grain boundary liquid layers than expected from classical colligative effects. A physically realistic model of intermolecular interactions succeeds in bounding the measurements. These measurements may have important implications for understanding a wide range of effects in polycrystalline materials. Likewise, the experimental techniques and optical theory may be applied to other systems of broad

  7. Stability of Charged Grains in Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Hamilton, D. P.

    2011-04-01

    Hypervelocity impacts of interplanetary micrometeoroids with orbiting ring particles generate dusty debris of all sizes. These ejecta particles become electrically charged by interactions with orbiting plasma and solar photons. Accordingly, they experience both gravity and Lorentz forces, whose combined effects cause interesting and complex dynamics. For simplicity, we model the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn by centered and aligned dipoles and investigate the stability of motion for grains launched from circularly-orbiting parent bodies. We begin by determining the stability in both the radial and vertical directions as a function of charge-to-mass ratio and distance from the planet numerically. We find that positively-charged dust grains in the micron-size range are radially unstable, colliding with the planet if launched from within synchronous orbit and escaping entirely if launched outside this distance. Escaping grains have been observed as high-velocity dust streams from Jupiter and Saturn. In addition, positively and negatively-charged smaller grains are vertically unstable and spiral up magnetic field lines to sustain large latitudinal oscillations or be lost to the planet's atmosphere. We then undertake local and global stability analyses and derive stability criteria that match our numerical data extremely well. Our analysis builds upon work led by Burns, Hamilton, Horanyi, Howard, Mitchell, Northrop, Schaffer, and others. Some stability boundaries can be obtained analytically while others require more complicated semianalytic methods. Four of our five stability boundaries do not appear in the literature and the fifth matches the findings of Hamilton and Burns (1993). Finally, we expand our numerical runs to include the effects of tilted and offset magnetic field components. We find that regions of vertical instability expand significantly for the more complicated fields, and a large new region of radial instability appears outside synchronous

  8. Optimal energy management in grain drying.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S

    1986-01-01

    Grain drying is very specific to the geographic location, kind of drying system, and the type of grain. Under a given set of conditions, the optimal system can be selected based on careful evaluation. However, a good choice of drying systems, procedures, and management practices can be made from the information already available. The review of several grain-drying procedures has provided some insight in making a quick evaluation of the process and arriving at the most suitable system for a particular application. Despite extensive research efforts, the present knowledge of grain drying is yet insufficient to optimally design each drying process with respect to capacity, quality, and energy requirement. There is a need for incorporating grain and air parameters more accurately. It is also important to develop comprehensive drying simulation models to encompass agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting. Recent efforts indicate a strong influence of planting and harvesting strategies on optimal drying and storage system selection. Results of the varietal trials at Ohio State University indicate that it is now possible to select midseason varieties, which dry down rapidly, without sacrificing yield. Also, low moisture at harvest is important to the energy management process because it affects total drying time and energy required. It is also important from a quality standpoint because kernel damage increases rapidly at harvesting moisture levels above 25%. The trend in grain-dryer design has shifted from focusing on drying capacity and operation reliability to energy consumption. The development in design of energy efficient continuous-flow dryers has been significant. Multistage concurrentflow dryers are excellent examples. Various aspects of dryer staging for efficient operation and control are yet to be determined. Recirculation of the exhaust air is a proven method of improving energy efficiency. Likewise, in batch-in-bin systems, stirring and

  9. The mechanism of grain growth in ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapadia, C. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    The theory of grain boundary migration as a thermally activated process is reviewed, the basic mechanisms in ceramics being the same as in metals. However, porosity and non-stochiometry in ceramic materials give an added dimension to the theory and make quantitative treatment of real systems rather complex. Grain growth is a result of several simultaneous (and sometimes interacting) processes; these are most easily discussed separately, but the overall rate depends on their interaction. Sufficient insight into the nature of rate controlling diffusion mechanisms is necessary before a qualitative understanding of boundary mobility can be developed.

  10. Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials (Wacker, HEM, and Semix) was studied. It was found that the enhancements for the three materials were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, even though they were grown by different techniques. In addition, it was observed that grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion always have strong recombination activities. Both phenomena could be related to dangling bonds existing at the boundaries. The present study gives the first evidence that incoherent second order twins of 111/115-plane type are diffusion-active.

  11. The Strength-Grain Size Relationship in Ultrafine-Grained Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, N.; Langdon, Terence G.

    2016-12-01

    Metals processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, such as equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and high-pressure torsion (HPT), generally have submicrometer grain sizes. Consequently, they exhibit high strength as expected on the basis of the Hall-Petch (H-P) relationship. Examples of this behavior are discussed using experimental data for Ti, Al, and Ni. These materials typically have grain sizes greater than 50 nm where softening is not expected. An increase in strength is usually accompanied by a decrease in ductility. However, both high strength and high ductility may be achieved simultaneously by imposing high strain to obtain ultrafine-grain sizes and high fractions of high-angle grain boundaries. This facilitates grain boundary sliding, and an example is presented for a cast Al-7 pct Si alloy processed by HPT. In some materials, SPD may result in a weakening even with a very fine grain size, and this is due to microstructural changes during processing. Examples are presented for an Al-7034 alloy processed by ECAP and a Zn-22 pct Al alloy processed by HPT. In some SPD-processed materials, it is possible that grain boundary segregation and other features are present leading to higher strengths than predicted by the H-P relationship.

  12. Organic grain coatings in primitive interplanetary dust particles: Implications for grain sticking in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, George J.; Wirick, Sue; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2013-10-01

    The chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs), fragments of asteroids and comets collected by NASA high-altitude research aircraft from the Earth's stratosphere, are recognized as the least altered samples of the original dust of the Solar Nebula available for laboratory examination. We performed high-resolution, ~25 nm/pixel, x-ray imaging and spectroscopy on ultramicrotome sections of CP IDPs, which are aggregates of >104 grains, and identified and characterized ~100 nm thick coatings of organic matter on the surfaces of the individual grains. We estimated the minimum tensile strength of this organic glue to be ~150 to 325 N/m2, comparable to the strength of the weakest cometary meteors, based on the observation that the individual grains of ~5 μm diameter aggregate CP IDPs are not ejected from the particle by electrostatic repulsion due to charging of these IDPs to 10 to 15 volts at 1 A.U. in space. Since organic coatings can increase the sticking coefficient over that of bare mineral grains, these organic grain coatings are likely to have been a significant aid in grain sticking in the Solar Nebula, allowing the first dust particles to aggregate over a much wider range of collision speeds than for bare mineral grains.

  13. Simulation of grain size effects in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Quek, Siu Sin; Wu, David T.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that martensitic transformation in nanocrystalline shape memory alloys can be suppressed for small grain sizes. Motivated by these results, we study the grain size dependence of martensitic transformations and stress-strain response of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. A GL model for a square to rectangle transformation in polycrystals is extended to account for grain boundary effects. We propose that an inhibition of the transformation in grain boundary regions can occur, if the grain boundary energy of the martensite is higher than that of the austenite phase. We show that this inhibition of transformation in grain boundary regions has a strong influence on domain patterns inside grains. Although the transformation is inhibited only at the grain boundaries, it leads to a suppression of the transformation even inside the grains as grain size is decreased. In fact, below a critical grain size, the transformation can be completely suppressed. We explain these results in terms of the extra strain gradient cost associated with grain boundaries, when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries. On the other hand, no significant size effects are observed when transformation is not inhibited at grain boundaries. We also study the grain size dependence of the stress strain curve. It is found that when the transformation is inhibited at grain boundaries, a significant reduction in the hysteresis associated with stress-strain curves during the loading-unloading cycles is observed. The hysteresis for this situation reduces even further as the grain size is reduced, which is consistent with recent experiments. The simulations also demonstrate that the mechanical behavior is influenced by inter-granular interactions and the local microstructural neighbourhood of a grain has a stronger influence than the orientation of the grain itself.

  14. A Unified Model of Grain Alignment: Radiative Alignment of Interstellar Grains with Magnetic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2016-11-01

    The radiative torque (RAT) alignment of interstellar grains with ordinary paramagnetic susceptibilities has been supported by earlier studies. The alignment of such grains depends on the so-called RAT parameter q max, which is determined by the grain shape. In this paper, we elaborate on our model of RAT alignment for grains with enhanced magnetic susceptibility due to iron inclusions, such that RAT alignment is magnetically enhanced, which we term the MRAT mechanism. Such grains can be aligned with high angular momentum at the so-called high-J attractor points, achieving a high degree of alignment. Using our analytical model of RATs, we derive the critical value of the magnetic relaxation parameter δ m to produce high-J attractor points as functions of q max and the anisotropic radiation angle relative to the magnetic field ψ. We find that if about 10% of the total iron abundance present in silicate grains is forming iron clusters, this is sufficient to produce high-J attractor points for all reasonable values of q max. To calculate the degree of grain alignment, we carry out numerical simulations of MRAT alignment by including stochastic excitations from gas collisions and magnetic fluctuations. We show that large grains can achieve perfect alignment when the high-J attractor point is present, regardless of the values of q max. Our obtained results pave the way for the physical modeling of polarized thermal dust emission as well as magnetic dipole emission. We also find that millimeter-sized grains in accretion disks may be aligned with the magnetic field if they are incorporated with iron nanoparticles.

  15. Comparison of communities of stored product mites in grain mass and grain residues in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Kucerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav

    2006-01-01

    In storage facilities one can find grain either in stored grain mass or in grain residues in the store corners or machinery. Although it is claimed that grain residues are serious pest reservoirs since they harbor numbers of stored product arthropods and are connected via continuous emigration with grain mass, the documentation for this is not convincing. Therefore in 78 selected grain stores, we simultaneously sampled the grain mass and residues in order to compare concurrent mite communities in these two different habitats. We found 30 species in about 614,000 individuals in residues and 23 species in about 20 000 individuals in grain mass. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of transformed abundance data showed differences in the communities of mites in grain mass and residues: (i) species associated to grain residues (e.g. Tyrophagus longior, Tydeus interruptus, Acarus farris and Cheyletus eruditus) and (ii) species associated to both grain mass and grain residues (e.g. Tarsonemus granarius, Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Cheyletus malaccensis). Although the residue samples had more mites and higher species diversity than the stored grain mass, no correlation in mite abundance and species numbers between samples from grain residues and grain mass was found, thereby indicating low connectivity of these two habitats.

  16. Grain legume genetic resources for allele mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing capacities for higher throughput at significantly lower costs have enabled larger scale genotyping of plant genetic resources. One challenge to sequencing the USDA grain legume collections of pea, chickpea and lentil core accessions is the amount of heterogeneity in the landrace accessio...

  17. Grain Refining and Microstructural Modification during Solidification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    and 100 ml of distilled water (called etchant A) for 5 to 15 seconds. The others were etched with aqua regia (called etchant B) for 10 to 25 seconds... reverse lide It noceoav. aid IduntIty by block um-bet) Grain refining, microstructure, solidification, phase diagrams, electromagnetic stirring, Cu-Fe

  18. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  19. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  20. Fine-Grained Auditory Discrimination: Factor Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Lois L.; Hammer, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    This study, with 161 children with and without language learning problems, tested the hypothesis that as children's language development matures, factor-analytic structural changes occur that are associated with measurements of fine-grained auditory discrimination, receptive vocabulary, receptive language, speech production, and 3 performance…

  1. Texture measurements in fine grained polyphase aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, R.; Heilbronner, R.; Stünitz, H.

    2009-04-01

    When analyzing natural and experimental microstructures, we routinely use the two methods for orientation imaging and texture measurements: (a) the computer-integrated polarization microscopy (CIP, Panozzo Heilbronner & Pauli, 1993) and (b) the electron back scatter diffractometry (EBSD, e.g. Kunze et al., 1994). The CIP method yields orientation maps and pole figures of c-axes (of uni-axial materials), while the EBSD method yields complete textural data for all crystallographic orientations. In order to compare the orientation images the Euler maps (obtained from EBSD) are recalculated and presented with the more intuitive colour look-up tables (CLUTs) of the CIP method. In this contribution we compare and contrast the results achieved by these two methods using two different samples taken from a metagranodiorite (Kilian et al., 2009): (1) a coarse grained mylonitic rock with polycrystalline quartz aggregates and (2) a very fine grained ultramylonitic rock with single quartz grains dispersed in a polymineralic matrix. For the coarse grained sample (1) both methods yield the same (strong) c-axis pole figure: the geometry of the c-axis polefigure as well as the texture intensity (maximum of polefigure) are identical. The texture of sample (2) - where small quartz grains are dispersed in the polymineralic matrix - is very weak to random. The CIP and EBSD c-axis pole figures are different and - as noted previously - these differences arise from a machine specific bias of the EBSD (Schmocker 2002). In addition to texture analysis, both methods are capable of image segmentation (identification and separation of individual grains in the orientation image) as well as shape and grain size analysis. However due to the entirely different approach taken, the results may differ significantly. For example, when deriving the grain size distribution for sample (2) EBSD (combined with with the OIM® analysis software) yields a positively skewed histogram (with the mode occurring

  2. Mineral Analysis of Whole Grain Total Cereal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of elemental iron in Whole Grain Total Cereal using visible spectroscopy is suitable for a general chemistry course for science or nonscience majors. The more extensive mineral analysis, specifically for the elements iron, calcium and zinc, is suitable for an instrumental or quantitative analysis chemistry course.

  3. Fruit, vegetable, and grain processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, R.M.; Soderquist, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    This is a literature review of fruit, vegetable and grain processing wastes. The factors affecting water usage and methods of conservation were examined. Various processes were investigated which included the pulp recovery from caustic peeled tomato skin, the dewatering of citrus, washing leafy vegetables with recycled process water and the potato processing industry.

  4. Assessment of MARMOT Grain Growth Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, B.; Zhang, Y.; Schwen, D.; Brown, D.; Pokharel, R.

    2015-12-01

    This report assesses the MARMOT grain growth model by comparing modeling predictions with experimental results from thermal annealing. The purpose here is threefold: (1) to demonstrate the validation approach of using thermal annealing experiments with non-destructive characterization, (2) to test the reconstruction capability and computation efficiency in MOOSE, and (3) to validate the grain growth model and the associated parameters that are implemented in MARMOT for UO2. To assure a rigorous comparison, the 2D and 3D initial experimental microstructures of UO2 samples were characterized using non-destructive Synchrotron x-ray. The same samples were then annealed at 2273K for grain growth, and their initial microstructures were used as initial conditions for simulated annealing at the same temperature using MARMOT. After annealing, the final experimental microstructures were characterized again to compare with the results from simulations. So far, comparison between modeling and experiments has been done for 2D microstructures, and 3D comparison is underway. The preliminary results demonstrated the usefulness of the non-destructive characterization method for MARMOT grain growth model validation. A detailed analysis of the 3D microstructures is in progress to fully validate the current model in MARMOT.

  5. Large grain cavities from pure niobium ingot

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Yorktown, VA; Kneisel, Peter [Williamsburg, VA; Cameiro, Tadeu [McMurray, PA

    2012-03-06

    Niobium cavities are fabricated by the drawing and ironing of as cast niobium ingot slices rather than from cold rolled niobium sheet. This method results in the production of niobium cavities having a minimum of grain boundaries at a significantly reduced cost as compared to the production of such structures from cold rolled sheet.

  6. Whole Grains: Processing, fiber, color, and phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased consumption of whole grains, especially wheat, can reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease due to dietary fiber and phenolic antioxidants. Yet, remarkably little is known about the fate of fiber (arabinoxylans) and phenolics during wheat food processing. Our long-term goal is to facilitat...

  7. The Grain Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating sufficient servings of grains. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and…

  8. Structure and Composition of the Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a crop with a wide range of genetic diversity, sorghum grain composition and structure can vary widely. Such variability can be of great benefit in supplying a diversity of uses but can also be a negative when viewed from the standpoint of uniformity. Despite sharing similarities to other cereals...

  9. Observational Evidence for Radiative Interstellar Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.; Potter, S. B.; Andersson, B.; Potter, S.

    2011-11-01

    The alignment mechanisms of interstellar dust grains is a long standing astrophysical problem. Interstellar polarization was first discovered in 1949 and soon thereafter attributed to dichroic extinction caused by asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. For a long time the alignment mechanism was thought to involve paramagnetic relaxation in rapidly spinning dust grains. Modern theory indicates that the classical alignment mechanisms are likely not efficient, but rather favor alignment through direct radiative torques. We have used multi-band polarimetry towards stars probing six nearby clouds to show that the wavelength of maximum polarization is linearly correlated with the visual extinction (Andersson & Potter 2007; AP07; where further details can be found). We find a universal relation with a common positive slope between the clouds and a DC offset correlated with the average of the total-to-selective extinction < RV > . These results provide strong observational support for radiatively driven grain alignment. Recent observations of an additional set of ≍60 sightlines in the Taurus cloud confirm and strengthen these results.

  10. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-24

    Steelmaking. Vol. 33,pp. 292-300, 2005. 13. Alvarez, P.: Lesch. C: Bleck, W.; Petitgand. H.: Schottler. J.; Sevillano, J. Gil ., "Grain refinement...34 Metallurgical Transactions, vol. 1, pp 1987-1995 (1970). 7. Villars , P., Pauling File, 1995, http://crystdb.nims.go.jp/, (2 March, 2009). 8

  11. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  12. The Influence of Abrasion on Martian Dust Grains: Evidence from a Study of Antigorite Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Drief, Ahmed; Dyar, M. Darby

    2003-01-01

    Grinding was shown to greatly affect the structure and a number of properties of antigorite grains in a study by Drief and Nieto. Grinding is likely to influence the structure of most clay mineral grains and has been shown recently to influence the structure of kaolinite. The antigorite structure includes curved waves of layered silicate as shown by D dony et al.. Our study was performed in order to characterize in detail changes in the mineral grains resulting from grinding and to assess the influence of physical processes on clay minerals on the surface of Mars. This project includes a combination of SEM, reflectance spectroscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  13. On the interaction of solutes with grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Berbenni, Stephane

    2015-11-01

    Solute segregation to grain boundaries is considered by modeling solute atoms as misfitting inclusions within a disclination structural unit model describing the grain boundary structure and its intrinsic stress field. The solute distribution around grain boundaries is described through Fermi–Dirac statistics of site occupancy. The susceptibility of hydrogen segregation to symmetric tilt grain boundaries is discussed in terms of the misorientation angle, the defect type characteristics at the grain boundary, temperature, and the prescribed bulk hydrogen fraction of occupied sites. Through this formalism, it is found that hydrogen trapping on grain boundaries clearly correlates with the grain boundary structure (i.e. type of structural unit composing the grain boundary), and the associated grain boundary misorientation. Specifically, for symmetric tilt grain boundaries about the [001] axis, grain boundaries composed of both B and C structural units show a lower segregation susceptibility than other grain boundaries. A direct correlation between the segregation susceptibility and the intrinsic net defect density is provided through the Frank–Bilby formalism. Moreover, the present formulation could prove to be a simple and useful model to identify classes of grain boundaries relevant to grain boundary engineering.

  14. On the interaction of solutes with grain boundaries

    DOE PAGES

    Dingreville, Remi Philippe Michel; Berbenni, Stephane

    2015-11-01

    Solute segregation to grain boundaries is considered by modeling solute atoms as misfitting inclusions within a disclination structural unit model describing the grain boundary structure and its intrinsic stress field. The solute distribution around grain boundaries is described through Fermi–Dirac statistics of site occupancy. The susceptibility of hydrogen segregation to symmetric tilt grain boundaries is discussed in terms of the misorientation angle, the defect type characteristics at the grain boundary, temperature, and the prescribed bulk hydrogen fraction of occupied sites. Through this formalism, it is found that hydrogen trapping on grain boundaries clearly correlates with the grain boundary structure (i.e.more » type of structural unit composing the grain boundary), and the associated grain boundary misorientation. Specifically, for symmetric tilt grain boundaries about the [001] axis, grain boundaries composed of both B and C structural units show a lower segregation susceptibility than other grain boundaries. A direct correlation between the segregation susceptibility and the intrinsic net defect density is provided through the Frank–Bilby formalism. Moreover, the present formulation could prove to be a simple and useful model to identify classes of grain boundaries relevant to grain boundary engineering.« less

  15. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  16. Geometry and crystallographic configuration of grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Binder, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Ice cores provide a unique opportunity to study fundamental mechanisms which control the internal flow of ice sheets. Different kinds of deformation processes acting on the micro-scale are responsible for the viscoplastic behavior on large scale. Careful interpretation of microstructural features such as grain size, shape, lattice orientation and the occurrence of subgrain boundaries can help us to follow these processes and to improve our understanding of ice rheology. Polarized light microscopy experienced a quick development in the last decade. A new generation of automatic fabric analyzers enables to measure c-axis orientations in µm-resolution. This high amount and quality of fabric data motivates to apply digital-image-processing routines (DIP) for the recognition and quantification of microstructural patterns. Here we present a study on grain boundaries based on the acquisition of more than 700 fabric images recorded along the NEEM ice core (Greenland). Geometrical characteristics of grain boundaries are studied as well as their cross-sectional orientations in relation to the c-axis orientations of the corresponding adjacent grains. We could follow the evolution from the initial N-type and P-type low-angle boundaries (Weikusat et al., 2011) to high angle boundaries during rotation recrystallization. In agreement with some previous studies we confirm that the established three-stage-recrystallization model may be an oversimplification. According to our results, rotation recrystallization as well as grain boundary migration are actually present in all depths with varying intensities at NEEM. I. Weikusat, A. Miyamoto, S. H. Faria, S. Kipfstuhl, N. Azuma, and T. Hondoh: Subgrain boundaries in Antarctic ice quantified by X-ray Laue diffraction. J. Glaciol., 57(201):85-94, 2011. doi: 10013/epic.36402.

  17. Whole grains and health: perspective for Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Rastogi, Kavita; Joshi, Shashank R

    2009-02-01

    Grains are a part of human diet for about 10,000 years. Grains are the most important food source of Indian population, due to this carbohydrate consumption constitute approx. 60-70% of total food intake. Variety of grains are available in India, and different grains form staple diets of people in different part of the country. Whole grains are now recognized as an important source of fiber and other nutrients like trace minerals a vitamins. Grains have shown to have a role in prevention and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer and obesity.

  18. (Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions with grain boundaries and grain imperfections)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of our research is to obtain a better understanding of ultrasonic wave interaction with interfaces in polycrystalline materials. This report discusses two recently developed experimental techniques: scanning acoustic microscope and optical point sensors. As for general wave propagation problems in anisotropic media, four major topics are discussed in separate sections. First, single boundaries between large bicrystals are considered. The reflection and transmission coefficients of such interfaces are calculated for imperfect boundary conditions by using the finite interface stiffness approach. Ultrasonic transmission through multiple-grain structures are investigated by computer simulation based on the statistical evaluation of repeated acoustical wave interactions with individual grain boundaries. The number of grains interacting with the propagating acoustical wave is considered to be high enough to approximate the wave-material interaction as scattering on elastic inhomogeneities. The grain scattering induced attenuation of Rayleigh waves is investigated in polycrystalline materials. 41 refs., 43 figs.

  19. Self-adaptive grain recognition of diamond grinding wheel and its grains assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Zhou, Lijun; Yu, Qing; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-10-01

    An improved Canny operator based on the method of Maximum Classes Square Error is adopted to get a self-adaptive threshold for grain recognition. First, a grinding wheel surface was measured by using a vertical scanning white light interferometric (WLI) system and reconstructed with an improved centroid algorithm; then the grains were extracted using the proposed method based on the fact that the peak intensity difference (ΔI) between maximum and minimum intensities on interferometric curve from diamond is larger than that from bond due to different reflective characteristics of different materials; third the grain protrusion parameters are investigated for grinding performance analysis. The experiments proved that the proposed grain recognition method is effective and assessment parameters are useful for understanding grinding performance.

  20. Grain boundary distribution and texture in ultrafine-grained copper produced by severe plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, O.V. |; Gertsman, V.Y. |; Valiev, R.Z.; Gottstein, G.

    1996-10-01

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG), i.e., nano- and submicrocrystalline materials have attracted great attention in recent years. This interest is caused by the unusual mechanical and physical properties of these materials. The extremely high volume fraction of grain boundaries (GBs) and triple junctions in UFG materials contribute to their unusual properties. However, other important parameters describing polycrystalline aggregate, namely, grain boundary misorientation and character distributions have not yet been studied in UFG materials, though they are conceived to influence mechanical and physical properties as well. Some studies indicated that mainly high-angle GBs were formed during severe plastic deformation; however, no direct proof of this suggestion has been obtained so far. The current paper deals with a statistical study of GB distributions and texture in UFG-materials. Pure copper was chosen for this study, since many results on microstructure and properties of the ultrafine-grained state produced in this material are available.