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Sample records for barred active galaxies

  1. Star Formation Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunbin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun; Lee, Gwang-Ho; Park, Changbom; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2017-08-01

    We study the star formation activity of nearby galaxies with bars using a sample of late-type galaxies at 0.02≤slant z≤slant 0.05489 and {M}r< -19.5 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We compare the physical properties of strongly and weakly barred galaxies with those of non-barred galaxies that have stellar mass and redshift distributions similar to barred galaxies. We find that the star formation activity of strongly barred galaxies probed by starburstiness, g-r, {NUV}-r, and mid-infrared [3.4]-[12] colors is, on average, lower than that of non-barred galaxies. However, weakly barred galaxies do not show such a difference between barred and non-barred galaxies. The amounts of atomic and molecular gas in strongly barred galaxies are smaller than those in non-barred galaxies, and the gas metallicity is higher in strongly barred galaxies than in non-barred galaxies. The gas properties of weakly barred galaxies again show no difference from those of non-barred galaxies. We stack the optical spectra of barred and non-barred galaxies in several mass bins and fit to the stacked spectra with a spectral fitting code, STARLIGHT. We find no significant difference in stellar populations between barred and non-barred galaxies for both strongly and weakly barred galaxies. Our results are consistent with the idea that the star formation activity of barred galaxies was enhanced in the past along with significant gas consumption, and is currently lower than or similar to that of non-barred galaxies. The past star formation enhancement depends on the strength of bars.

  2. The M bh-σ Diagram and the Offset Nature of Barred Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Li, I.-hui

    2009-06-01

    From a sample of 50 predominantly inactive galaxies with direct supermassive black hole mass measurements, it has recently been established that barred galaxies tend to reside rightward of the M bh-σ relation defined by nonbarred galaxies. Either black holes in barred galaxies tend to be anemic or the central velocity dispersions in these galaxies have a tendency to be elevated by the presence of the bar. The latter option is in accord with studies connecting larger velocity dispersions in galaxies with old bars, while the former scenario is at odds with the observation that barred galaxies do not deviate from the M bh-luminosity relation. Using a sample of 88 galaxies with active galactic nuclei, whose supermassive black hole masses have been estimated from their associated emission lines, we reveal for the first time that they also display this same general behavior in the M bh-σ diagram depending on the presence of a bar or not. A new symmetrical and nonsymmetrical "barless" M bh-σ relation is derived using 82 nonbarred galaxies. The barred galaxies are shown to reside on or up to ~1 dex below this relation. This may explain why narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies appear offset from the "barless" M bh-σ relation, and has far-reaching implications given that over half of the disk galaxy population are barred.

  3. Barred Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 1300 Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: P. Knezek (WIYN) The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute conducts Hubble science operations. Goddard is responsible for HST project management, including mission and science operations, servicing missions, and all associated development activities. To learn more about the Hubble Space Telescope go here: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html

  4. Star formation history in barred spiral galaxies - active galactic nucleus feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Fidèle; Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo; Kawata, Daisuke; Ellison, Sara L.

    2017-08-01

    We present a numerical study of the impact of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion and feedback on the star formation history of barred disc galaxies. Our goal is to determine whether the effect of feedback is positive (enhanced star formation) or negative (quenched star formation), and to what extent. We performed a series of 12 hydrodynamical simulations of disc galaxies, 10 barred and 2 unbarred, with various initial gas fractions and AGN feedback prescriptions. In barred galaxies, gas is driven towards the centre of the galaxy and causes a starburst, followed by a slow decay, while in unbarred galaxies, the star formation rate (SFR) increases slowly and steadily. AGN feedback suppresses star formation near the central black hole. Gas is pushed away from the black hole, and collides head-on with inflowing gas, forming a dense ring at a finite radius where star formation is enhanced. We conclude that both negative and positive feedback are present, and these effects mostly cancel out. There is no net quenching or enhancement in star formation, but rather a displacement of the star formation sites to larger radii. In unbarred galaxies, where the density of the central gas is lower, quenching of star formation near the black hole is more efficient, and enhancement of star formation at larger radii is less efficient. As a result, negative feedback dominates. Lowering the gas fraction reduces the SFR at all radii, whether or not there is a bar or an AGN.

  5. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g< 16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar, and unbarred galaxies. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshifts, magnitudes, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to those of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies; this represents a bar fraction of 25.82% with respect to the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with several previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show lower efficiency in star formation activity and older stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index) with respect to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the control sample. In addition, there is a significant excess of strong-barred galaxies with red colors. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams show that unbarred and weak-barred galaxies are more extended towards the blue zone, while strong-barred disk objects are mostly grouped in the red region. Strong-barred galaxies present an important excess of high metallicity values compared to unbarred and weak-barred disk objects, which show similar distributions. Regarding the mass-metallicity relation, we found that weak-barred and unbarred galaxies are fitted by similar curves, while strong-barred ones show a curve that falls abruptly with more significance in the range of low stellar masses (log (M∗/M⊙) < 10.0). These results would indicate that prominent bars produced an accelerating effect on the gas processing

  6. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX 5 * 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1)) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 * 10(exp 38) erg s(exp -1). This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  7. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX 5 * 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1)) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 * 10(exp 38) erg s(exp -1). This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  8. INVESTIGATING THE NUCLEAR ACTIVITY OF BARRED SPIRAL GALAXIES: THE CASE OF NGC 1672

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Koribalski, B.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Zezas, A.

    2011-06-10

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D{sub 25} area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (L{sub X} > 5 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard ({Gamma} {approx} 1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 x 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}. This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  9. Galaxy Zoo: Are Bars Responsible for the Feeding of Active Galactic Nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan; Athanassoula, Lia; Bamford, Steven; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, Albert; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin; Faber, Sandra M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy; Kocevski, Dale; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo J.; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Nichol, Robert; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle; Galaxy Zoo, Aegis, Cosmos, Goods

    2015-01-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disk galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame color, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the bar fraction in the control sample by more than a factor of two, at 99.7% confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fueling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  10. Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan R.; Athanassoula, E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, A.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Faber, S. M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey), COSMOS (Cosmological Evolution Survey), and (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South) GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044 erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame colour, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the control bar fraction by more than a factor of 2, at 99.7 per cent confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fuelling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  11. Barred Ring Galaxy NGC 1291

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-05-05

    This ultraviolet image left and visual image right from NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer is of the barred ring galaxy NGC 1291. The VIS image is dominated by the inner disk and bar. The UV image is dominated by the low surface brightness outer arms.

  12. X-RAY NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IN S{sup 4}G BARRED GALAXIES: NO LINK BETWEEN BAR STRENGTH AND CO-OCCURRENT SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FUELING

    SciTech Connect

    Cisternas, Mauricio; Knapen, Johan H.; González-Martín, Omaira; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Kim, Taehyun; Díaz-García, Simón; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Ho, Luis C.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Hinz, Joannah L.; Sheth, Kartik; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Gil de Paz, Armando; Holwerda, Benne W.; and others

    2013-10-10

    Stellar bars can lead to gas inflow toward the center of a galaxy and stimulate nuclear star formation. However, there is no compelling evidence on whether they also feed a central supermassive black hole: by measuring the fractions of barred active and inactive galaxies, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. In this paper, we aim to understand the lack of observational evidence for bar-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity by studying a sample of 41 nearby (d < 35 Mpc) barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey for Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We use Chandra observations to measure nuclear 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities and estimate Eddington ratios, together with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging to quantify the strength of the stellar bar in two independent ways: (1) from its structure, as traced by its ellipticity and boxiness, and (2) from its gravitational torque Q{sub b} , taken as the maximum ratio of the tangential force to the mean background radial force. In this way, rather than discretizing the presence of both stellar bars and nuclear activity, we are able to account for the continuum of bar strengths and degrees of AGN activity. We find nuclear X-ray sources in 31 out of 41 galaxies with median X-ray luminosity and Eddington ratio of L{sub X} = 4.3 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1} and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} = 6.9 × 10{sup –6}, respectively, consistent with low-luminosity AGN activity. Including upper limits for those galaxies without nuclear detections, we find no significant correlation between any of the bar strength indicators and the degree of nuclear activity, irrespective of galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, Hubble type, or bulge size. Strong bars do not favor brighter or more efficient nuclear activity, implying that at least for the low-luminosity regime, supermassive black hole fueling is not closely connected to large-scale features.

  13. Deficiency of "Thin" Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Shlosman; Peletier; Knapen

    2000-06-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding closely matched control samples of nonactive galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in nonactive galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., "thin" or "strong" bars) in Seyfert galaxies compared to nonactive galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their nonactive counterparts on scales of a few kiloparsecs.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  15. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-12-20

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  17. THE IMPACT OF INTERACTIONS, BARS, BULGES, AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN LOCAL MASSIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Saintonge, Amelie; Fabello, Silvia; Wang Jing; Catinella, Barbara; Tacconi, Linda J.; Genzel, Reinhard; Gracia-Carpio, Javier; Wuyts, Stijn; Kramer, Carsten; Moran, Sean; Heckman, Timothy M.; Schiminovich, David; Schuster, Karl

    2012-10-20

    Using atomic and molecular gas observations from the GASS and COLD GASS surveys and complementary optical/UV data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, we investigate the nature of the variations in the molecular gas depletion time observed across the local massive galaxy population. The large and unbiased COLD GASS sample allows us for the first time to statistically assess the relative importance of galaxy interactions, bar instabilities, morphologies, and the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in regulating star formation efficiency. We find that both the H{sub 2} mass fraction and depletion time vary as a function of the distance of a galaxy from the main sequence traced by star-forming galaxies in the SFR-M {sub *} plane. The longest gas depletion times are found in below-main-sequence bulge-dominated galaxies ({mu}{sub *} >5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, C > 2.6) that are either gas-poor (M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *} <1.5%) or else on average less efficient by a factor of {approx}2 than disk-dominated galaxies at converting into stars any cold gas they may have. We find no link between the presence of AGNs and these long depletion times. In the regime where galaxies are disk-dominated and gas-rich, the galaxies undergoing mergers or showing signs of morphological disruptions have the shortest molecular gas depletion times, while those hosting strong stellar bars have only marginally higher global star formation efficiencies as compared to matched control samples. Our interpretation is that the molecular gas depletion time variations are caused by changes in the ratio between the gas mass traced by the CO(1-0) observations and the gas mass in high-density star-forming cores (as traced by observations of, e.g., HCN(1-0)). While interactions, mergers, and bar instabilities can locally increase pressure and raise the ratio of efficiently star-forming gas to CO-detected gas (therefore lowering the CO

  18. How can double-barred galaxies be long-lived?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Context. Double-barred galaxies account for almost one third of all barred galaxies, suggesting that secondary stellar bars, which are embedded in large-scale primary bars, are long-lived structures. However, up to now it has been hard to self-consistently simulate a disc galaxy that sustains two nested stellar bars for longer than a few rotation periods. Aims: The dynamical and physical requirements for long-lived triaxiality in the central region of galaxies still need to be clarified. Methods: N-body/hydrodynamical simulations including star formation recipes have been performed. Their properties (bar lengths, pattern speeds, age of stellar population, and gas content) have been compared with the most recent observational data in order to prove that they are representative of double-barred galaxies, even SB0. Overlaps in dynamical resonances and bar modes have been looked for using Fourier spectrograms. Results: Double-barred galaxies have been successfully simulated with lifetimes as long as 7 Gyr. The stellar and gaseous distributions in the central regions are time dependent and display many observed morphological features (circumnuclear rings, pseudo-bulges, triaxial bulges, ovals, etc.) typical of barred galaxies, even early-type. The stellar population of the secondary bar is younger on average than for the primary large-scale bar. An important feature of these simulations is the absence of any resonance overlap for several Gyr. In particular, there is no overlap between the primary bar inner Lindblad resonance and the secondary bar corotation. Therefore, mode coupling cannot sustain the secondary bar mode. Star formation is identified here as possibly being responsible for bringing energy to the nuclear mode. Star formation is also responsible for limiting the amount of gas in the central region which prevents the orbits sustaining the secondary bar from being destroyed. Therefore, the secondary bar can dissolve but reappear after ≈1 Gyr as the

  19. DEPENDENCE OF BARRED GALAXY FRACTION ON GALAXY PROPERTIES AND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gwang-Ho; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: yy.choi@khu.ac.kr

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the dependence of the occurrence of bars in galaxies on galaxy properties and environment. We use a volume-limited sample of 33,391 galaxies brighter than M{sub r} = -19.5 + 5logh at 0.02 {<=} z {<=} 0.05489, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We classify the galaxies into early and late types, and identify bars by visual inspection. Among 10,674 late-type galaxies with axis ratio b/a > 0.60, we find 3240 barred galaxies (f{sub bar} = 30.4%) which divide into 2542 strong bars (f{sub SB1} = 23.8%) and 698 weak bars (f{sub SB2} = 6.5%). We find that f{sub SB1} increases as u - r color becomes redder and that it has a maximum value at intermediate velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx_equal}150 km s{sup -1}). This trend suggests that strong bars are dominantly hosted by intermediate-mass systems. Weak bars prefer bluer galaxies with lower mass and lower concentration. In the case of strong bars, their dependence on the concentration index appears only for massive galaxies with {sigma} > 150 km s{sup -1}. We also find that f{sub bar} does not directly depend on the large-scale background density when other physical parameters (u - r color or {sigma}) are fixed. We discover that f{sub SB1} decreases as the separation to the nearest neighbor galaxy becomes smaller than 0.1 times the virial radius of the neighbor regardless of neighbor's morphology. These results imply that strong bars are likely to be destroyed during strong tidal interactions and that the mechanism for this phenomenon is gravitational and not hydrodynamical. The fraction of weak bars has no correlation with environmental parameters. We do not find any direct evidence for environmental stimulation of bar formation.

  20. Deficiency of ''Thin'' Stellar Bars in Seyfert Host Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac; Peletier, Reynier F.; Knapen, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Using all available major samples of Seyfert galaxies and their corresponding control samples of closely matched non-active galaxies, we find that the bar ellipticities (or axial ratios) in Seyfert galaxies are systematically different from those in non-active galaxies. Overall, there is a deficiency of bars with large ellipticities (i.e., 'fat' or 'weak' bars) in Seyferts, compared to non-active galaxies. Accompanied with a large dispersion due to small number statistics, this effect is strictly speaking at the 2 sigma level. To obtain this result, the active galaxy samples of near-infrared surface photometry were matched to those of normal galaxies in type, host galaxy ellipticity, absolute magnitude, and, to some extent, in redshift. We discuss possible theoretical explanations of this phenomenon within the framework of galactic evolution, and, in particular, of radial gas redistribution in barred galaxies. Our conclusions provide further evidence that Seyfert hosts differ systematically from their non-active counterparts on scales of a few kpc.

  1. Tidally Induced Bars of Galaxies in Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łokas, Ewa L.; Ebrová, Ivana; del Pino, Andrés; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Athanassoula, E.; Semczuk, Marcin; Gajda, Grzegorz; Fouquet, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Using N-body simulations, we study the formation and evolution of tidally induced bars in disky galaxies in clusters. Our progenitor is a massive, late-type galaxy similar to the Milky Way, composed of an exponential disk and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo. We place the galaxy on four different orbits in a Virgo-like cluster and evolve it for 10 Gyr. As a reference case, we also evolve the same model in isolation. Tidally induced bars form on all orbits soon after the first pericenter passage and survive until the end of the evolution. They appear earlier, are stronger and longer, and have lower pattern speeds for tighter orbits. Only for the tightest orbit are the properties of the bar controlled by the orientation of the tidal torque from the cluster at pericenter. The mechanism behind the formation of the bars is the angular momentum transfer from the galaxy stellar component to its halo. All of the bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that occur earlier and lead to more pronounced boxy/peanut shapes when the tidal forces are stronger. Using all simulation outputs of galaxies at different evolutionary stages, we construct a toy model of the galaxy population in the cluster and measure the average bar strength and bar fraction as a function of clustercentric radius. Both are found to be mildly decreasing functions of radius. We conclude that tidal forces can trigger bar formation in cluster cores, but not in the outskirts, and thus can cause larger concentrations of barred galaxies toward the cluster center.

  2. GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-10

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  3. Surface photometry of Virgo cluster galaxies - Barred galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedict, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Photographic surface photometry in B and V is presented for three barred galaxies in the Virgo cluster: N4548, N4596, and N4608. Intercomparisons of luminosity and color profiles and standard photometric parameters indicate that for these galaxies: (1) the nuclear component follows the fourth-root-of-radius luminosity law for both B and V, (2) the luminosity profiles along the bar show a characteristic shoulder with a slight fall in B-V color profile at the brightest point in the bar, the strength of the effect declining from N4548 to N4608, (3) the integrated bar component is slightly bluer than the nucleus, and (4) as the disk, arm, and ring components contribute less to the total luminosity of the system, the contribution of the bar increases as does the equivalent gradient.

  4. Gas flows in Galaxies: Mergers Versus Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.; Nair, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Scudder, J. M.; Simard, L.

    2013-10-01

    In this contribution, I will review the latest results of our ongoing work to study the central gas flows in merging galaxies, focusing on triggered star formation, presence of an AGN and changes in the gas-phase metallicity. Results from a sample of close galaxy pairs are compared with bar driven gas inflows in order to quantify the relative importance of hierarchical versus secular processes.

  5. Mass Distribution and Bar Formation in Growing Disk Galaxy Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Sellwood, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report idealized simulations that mimic the growth of galaxy disks embedded in responsive halos and bulges. The disks manifested an almost overwhelming tendency to form strong bars that we found very difficult to prevent. We found that fresh bars formed in growing disks after we had destroyed the original, indicating that bar formation also afflicts continued galaxy evolution, and not just the early stages of disk formation. This behavior raises still more insistently the previously unsolved question of how some galaxies avoid bars. Since our simulations included only collisionless star and halo particles, our findings may apply to gas-poor galaxies only; however, the conundrum persists for the substantial unbarred fraction of those galaxies. Our original objective was to study how internal dynamics rearranged the distribution of mass in the disk as a generalization of our earlier study with rigid spherical components. With difficulty, we were able to construct some models that were not strongly influenced by bars, and found that halo compression and angular momentum exchange with the disk did not alter our earlier conclusion that spiral activity is largely responsible for creating smooth density profiles and rotation curves.

  6. On the Galactic Spin of Barred Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Sodi, Bernardo; Li, Cheng; Park, Changbom; Wang, Lixin

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of the connection between the galactic spin parameter (λ d ) and the bar fraction in a volume-limited sample of 10,674 disk galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. The galaxies in our sample are visually classified into one of three groups: non-barred galaxies and galaxies hosting long or short bars, respectively. We find that the spin distributions of these three classes are statistically different, with galaxies hosting long bars having the lowest λ d values, followed by non-barred galaxies, while galaxies with short bars present typically high spin parameters. The bar fraction presents its maximum at low to intermediate λ d values for the case of long bars, while the maximum for short bars is at high λ d . This bimodality is in good agreement with previous studies finding longer bars hosted by luminous, massive, red galaxies with a low content of cold gas, while short bars were found in low luminosity, low mass, blue galaxies that were typically gas rich. In addition, the rise and fall of the bar fraction as a function of λ d , within the long-bar sample shown in our results, can be explained as a result of two competing factors: the self-gravity of the disk that enhances bar instabilities and the support by random motions, instead of ordered rotational motion, that prevents the formation/growth of bars.

  7. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong; Cao, Chen E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  8. Bar Evolution and Bar Properties from Disc Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson-Smith, Tenley; Simmons, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Bars in disc galaxies indicate a large collection of stars in a specific configuration of orbits that give the galaxy center a rectangular looking feature. Astronomers have discovered that these bars affect the distribution of matter in galaxies, and are also related to galaxy stellar mass and star formation history. Little is known about the specifics of how bars evolve and drive the evolution of their host galaxies because only a handful of bars have been studied in detail so far. I have examined a sample of 8,221 barred galaxies from the early universe to identify and examine correlations with galaxy properties. The data comes from Galaxy Zoo, an online citizen science project that allows anyone to classify and measure detailed properties of galaxies. I present results including the fraction of galaxies in the sample that have bars, and the variation of galaxy properties with bar length, including galaxy color and stellar mass. I also compare these results to barred galaxies in the local universe. I will discuss the implications of these results in the context of galaxy evolution overall, including the effect of dark matter on bars and galaxy evolution.

  9. A SAURON view of double-barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Martínez-Valpuesta, Inma

    2010-04-01

    Double bars might be the key mechanisms to transport gas to the very central regions of galaxies, so double-barred galaxies are key objects to better understand the galaxy formation and evolution scenarios. In order to disentangle the role of double bars in the galaxy build up, we are performing a whole kinematical and stellar population analysis of these objects from high S/N spectroscopic data.

  10. Studying Barred Galaxies by Means of Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma

    We describe two morphological structures of barred galaxies with the help of numerical simulations. The first one is a feature seen in face-on barred galaxies, the ansae, probably very important dynamically speaking. The second one are the Boxy/Peanut bulges in disc galaxies. They have been associated to stellar bars, and are a result of the secular evolution of barred galaxies. We analyze their properties in a large sample of N-body simulations, using different methods to measure their strength, shape and possible asymmetry, and then inter-compare the results. Some of these methods can be applied to both simulations and observations. In particular, we seek correlations between bar and peanut properties, which, when applied to real galaxies, will give information on bars in edge-on galaxies, and on peanuts in face-on galaxies.

  11. FORMING DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES FROM DYNAMICALLY COOL INNER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.

    2015-05-10

    About one-third of early-type barred galaxies host small-scale secondary bars. The formation and evolution of such double-barred (S2B) galaxies remain far from being well understood. In order to understand the formation of such systems, we explore a large parameter space of isolated pure-disk simulations. We show that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady secondary bar while the outer disk forms a large-scale primary bar. The independent bar instabilities of inner and outer disks result in long-lived double-barred structures whose dynamical properties are comparable to those in observations. This formation scenario indicates that the secondary bar might form from the general bar instability, the same as the primary bar. Under some circumstances, the interaction of the bars and the disk leads to the two bars aligning or single, nuclear, bars only. Simulations that are cool enough of the center to experience clump instabilities may also generate steady S2B galaxies. In this case, the secondary bars are “fast,” i.e., the bar length is close to the co-rotation radius. This is the first time that S2B galaxies containing a fast secondary bar are reported. Previous orbit-based studies had suggested that fast secondary bars were not dynamically possible.

  12. STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 4303

    SciTech Connect

    Momose, Rieko; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Koda, Jin E-mail: sokumura@nro.nao.ac.j E-mail: Jin.Koda@stonybrook.ed

    2010-09-20

    We present new {sup 12}CO (J = 1 - 0) observations of the barred galaxy NGC 4303 using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope (NRO45) and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The H{alpha} images of barred spiral galaxies often show active star formation in spiral arms, but less so in bars. We quantify the difference by measuring star formation rate (SFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE) at a scale where local star formation is spatially resolved. Our CO map covers the central 2.'3 region of the galaxy; the combination of NRO45 and CARMA provides a high fidelity image, enabling accurate measurements of molecular gas surface density. We find that SFR and SFE are twice as high in the spiral arms as in the bar. We discuss this difference in the context of the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law, which indicates a constant SFR at a given gas surface density. The KS law breaks down at our native resolution ({approx}250 pc), and substantial smoothing (to 500 pc) is necessary to reproduce the KS law, although with greater scatter.

  13. Constraining Galaxy Evolution With Bulge+Disk+Bar Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzirl, Tim; Jogee, S.; Barazza, F.

    2007-12-01

    Structural decomposition of galaxies into bulge, disk, and bar components is important to address a number of scientific problems. Measuring bulge, disk, and bar structural parameters will set constraints on the violent and secular processes of galaxy assembly and recurrent bar formation and dissolution models. It can also help to quantify the fraction and properties of bulgeless galaxies (those systems having no bulge or only a relatively insignificant disky-pseudobulges), which defy galaxy formation paradigms requiring almost every disk galaxy to have a classical bulge at its core. We demonstrate three-component bulge+disk+bar decomposition of NIR images for a sample of 200+ galaxies, with Hubble types S0 to Sm, from the Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey (OSUBSGS) and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). Unlike most early studies, which attempt two-component bulge+disk decomposition, we perform three-component bulge+disk+bar decomposition with GALFIT. We show that it is important to include the bar component, as this can lower the bulge fractional luminosity ratio (B/T), often by a factor of two or more, and effectively change the Hubble type of a galaxy from early to late. We investigate how the structure of bulges and B/T vary across the Hubble sequence for barred and unbarred galaxies. We also identify the fraction of bulgeless galaxies in our sample and characterize their properties.

  14. Revealing galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.

    2015-03-01

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  15. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies. I. The atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Shoutenkov, V.; Ehle, M.; Harnett, J. I.; Haynes, R. F.; Shukurov, A.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Thierbach, M.

    2002-08-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at lambda 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30\\arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, Lambda , related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with Lambda , I~Lambda 0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a long bar where the velocity field is distorted by the bar over a large fraction of the disc. In these galaxies, the pattern of the regular field is significantly different from that in non-barred galaxies. In particular, field enhancements occur upstream of the dust lanes where the field lines are oriented at large angles to the bar's major axis. Polarized radio emission seems to be a good indicator of large-scale non-axisymmetric motions. Tables 3, 4 and Figs. 8-10, 13, 15, 16, 18 and 22 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  16. Bar pattern speeds in CALIFA galaxies. I. Fast bars across the Hubble sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Amorin, A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Cid Fernandes, R.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Kalinova, V.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Backsmann, N.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; del Olmo, A.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.

    2015-04-01

    Context. The bar pattern speed (Ωb) is defined as the rotational frequency of the bar, and it determines the bar dynamics. Several methods have been proposed for measuring Ωb. The non-parametric method proposed by Tremaine & Weinberg (1984, ApJ, 282, L5; TW) and based on stellar kinematics is the most accurate. This method has been applied so far to 17 galaxies, most of them SB0 and SBa types. Aims: We have applied the TW method to a new sample of 15 strong and bright barred galaxies, spanning a wide range of morphological types from SB0 to SBbc. Combining our analysis with previous studies, we investigate 32 barred galaxies with their pattern speed measured by the TW method. The resulting total sample of barred galaxies allows us to study the dependence of Ωb on galaxy properties, such as the Hubble type. Methods: We measured Ωb using the TW method on the stellar velocity maps provided by the integral-field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey. Integral-field data solve the problems that long-slit data present when applying the TW method, resulting in the determination of more accurate Ωb. In addition, we have also derived the ratio ℛ of the corotation radius to the bar length of the galaxies. According to this parameter, bars can be classified as fast (ℛ < 1.4) and slow (ℛ > 1.4). Results: For all the galaxies, ℛ is compatible within the errors with fast bars. We cannot rule out (at 95% level) the fast bar solution for any galaxy. We have not observed any significant trend between ℛ and the galaxy morphological type. Conclusions: Our results indicate that independent of the Hubble type, bars have been formed and then evolve as fast rotators. This observational result will constrain the scenarios of formation and evolution of bars proposed by numerical simulations.

  17. Face on Barred and Ringed Spiral Galaxy NGC 3351

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the face on barred and ringed spiral galaxy NGC 3351 (M95). The morphological appearance of a galaxy can change dramatically between visual and ultraviolet wavelengths. In the case of M95, the nucleus and bar dominate the visual image. In the ultraviolet, the bar is not even visible and the ring and spiral arms dominate.

  18. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  19. Star Formation in Nuclear Rings of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae

    2013-06-01

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  20. Stellar, Gas, and Dark Matter Content of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 1010 M⊙, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  1. Are bars essential for starbursts in non-interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Rieke, G. H.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed here are the 1.6 and 2.2 micron images of a sample of galaxies that are classified as unbarred by the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. These galaxies have characteristic properties of nuclear starbursts and are examined through near infrared imaging in a search for hidden bars. Researchers selected a sample of 36 galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog that have far infrared luminosities greater than 10(exp 10) solar luminosity and hot Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) colors between 60 and 100 microns, indicative of nuclear starbursts, but are not classified as Seyfert 1 or 2. Their determination of the presence of a bar relies primarily on an analysis of the 2 micron image using the Galaxy Surface Photometry (GASP) package (Cawson, 1983). The GASP analysis programs determine the galaxy surface brightness and ellipticity profiles as well as the position angle and the center coordinates of the ellipses. To test the way that GASP will characterize the surface brightness of barred galaxies, two galaxies with known bars, NGC 1068 and NGC 2523, were imaged with the 2 micron camera and analyzed with GASP. Fifteen of the sample that are not clearly barred from optical data and are isolated were imaged at 1.6 and 2.2 microns; 9 of these do not appear to have bars. Strong bars therefore do not appear to be an absolute requirement for high infrared luminosity in isolated galaxies.

  2. ORBITAL SUPPORT OF FAST AND SLOW INNER BARS IN DOUBLE-BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, Witold; Small, Emma E.

    2010-08-10

    We analyze how the orbital support of the inner bar in a double-barred galaxy (nested bars) depends on the angular velocity (i.e., pattern speed) of this bar. We study orbits in seven models of double bars using the method of invariant loops. The range of pattern speed is covered exhaustively. We find that not all pattern speeds are allowed when the inner bar rotates in the same direction as the outer bar. Below a certain minimum pattern speed orbital support for the inner bar abruptly disappears, while at high values of this speed the orbits indicate an increasingly round bar that looks more like a twist in the nuclear isophotes than a dynamically independent component. For values between these two extremes, orbits supporting the inner bar extend further out as the bar's pattern speed decreases, their corresponding loops become more eccentric, pulsate more, and their rotation becomes increasingly non-uniform, as they speed up and slow down in their motion. Lower pattern speeds also lead to a less coherent bar, as the pulsation and acceleration increasingly varies among the loops supporting the inner bar. The morphologies of fast and slow inner bars expected from the orbital structure studied here have been recently recovered observationally by decomposition of double-barred galaxies. Our findings allow us to link the observed morphology to the dynamics of the inner bar.

  3. Gas inflow patterns and nuclear rings in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear rings, dust lanes, and nuclear spirals are common structures in the inner region of barred galaxies, with their shapes and properties linked to the physical parameters of the galaxies. We use high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to study gas inflow patterns in barred galaxies, with special attention on the nuclear rings. The location and thickness of nuclear ringsare tightly correlated with galactic properties, such as the bar pattern speed and bulge central density, within certain ranges. We identify the backbone of nuclear rings with a major orbital family of bars. The rings form exactly at the radius where the residual angular momentum of inflowing gas balances the centrifugal force. We propose a new simple method to predict the bar pattern speed for barred galaxies possessing a nuclear ring, without actually doing simulations. We apply this method to some real galaxies and find that our predicted bar pattern speed compare reasonably well with other estimates. Our study may have important implications for using nuclear ringsto measure the parameters of real barred galaxies with detailed gas kinematics. We have also extended current hydrodynamical simulations to model gas features in the Milky Way.

  4. The effect of bar-driven gas inflow on the AGN triggering in SDSS disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minbae; Choi, Youn-Young; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the role of bars in AGN activities using a volume-limited face-on disc galaxy sample with M_r<-19.5 and 0.02galaxies having strong bar is related to the amount of cold gas at galactic center (~1kpc scale) required for triggering AGN activity. To understand how directly the bar presence is related to triggering AGN activity, we measure a relative probability defined as the ratio of the probability of AGN triggering in barred galaxies to the probability of the AGN triggering in a comparison, non-barred galaxies, for fixed central SFR (central gas fuel) and velocity dispersion of galaxies (black hole mass). We find that bars are one of the mechanisms that trigger AGN, and the effect is pronounced in less massive and lasts even in galaxies with little central gas. We also suggest a concentrated bulge as a morphology that contributes to the AGN triggering although the effect is not as great as bars.

  5. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-09-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  6. Automated bar detection in local disk galaxies from the SDSS. The colors of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, G.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes an automatic isophotal fitting procedure that succeeds, without the support of any visual inspection of either the images or the ellipticity/position-angle radial profiles, to extract a fairly pure sample of barred late-type galaxies (LTGs) among thousands of optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The procedure relies on previous methods to robustly extract the photometrical properties of a large sample of local SDSS galaxies and is tailored to extract bars on the basis of their well-known peculiarities in their position angle and ellipticity profiles. This procedure was run on a sample of 5853 galaxies in the Coma and Local superclusters. The procedure extracted a color, an ellipticity and a position angle radial profile of the ellipses fitted to the isophotes for each galaxy. Examining the profiles of 922 face-on LTGs (B/A > 0.7) automatically, the procedure found that 36% are barred. The local bar fraction strongly increases with stellar mass. The sample of barred galaxies is used to construct a set of template radial color profiles to test the impact of the barred galaxy population on the average color profiles as previously shown in the literature and to test the bar-quenching scenario. The radial color profile of barred galaxy shows that bars are on average redder than their surrounding disk producing an outside-in gradient toward red in correspondence with their corotation radius. The distribution of the extension of the deprojected length of the bar suggests that bars have strong impact on the gradients of averaged color profiles. The dependence of the profiles on the mass is consistent with the bar-quenching scenario, i.e. more massive barred galaxies have redder colors (hence older stellar population and suppressed star formation) inside their corotation radius with respect to their lower mass counterparts. Tables of the barred and non-barred galaxies are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  7. Bar formation as driver of gas inflows in isolated disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanali, R.; Dotti, M.; Fiacconi, D.; Haardt, F.

    2015-12-01

    Stellar bars are a common feature in massive disc galaxies. On a theoretical ground, the response of gas to a bar is generally thought to cause nuclear starbursts and, possibly, AGN activity once the perturbed gas reaches the central supermassive black hole. By means of high-resolution numerical simulations, we detail the purely dynamical effects that a forming bar exerts on the gas of an isolated disc galaxy. The galaxy is initially unstable to the formation of non-axisymmetric structures, and within ˜1 Gyr it develops spiral arms that eventually evolve into a central stellar bar on kpc scale. A first major episode of gas inflow occurs during the formation of the spiral arms while at later times, when the stellar bar is establishing, a low-density region is carved between the bar corotational and inner Lindblad resonance radii. The development of such `dead zone' inhibits further massive gas inflows. Indeed, the gas inflow reaches its maximum during the relatively fast bar-formation phase and not, as often assumed, when the bar is fully formed. We conclude that the low efficiency of long-lived, evolved bars in driving gas towards galactic nuclei is the reason why observational studies have failed to establish an indisputable link between bars and AGNs. On the other hand, the high efficiency in driving strong gas inflows of the intrinsically transient process of bar formation suggests that the importance of bars as drivers of AGN activity in disc galaxies has been overlooked so far. We finally prove that our conclusions are robust against different numerical implementations of the hydrodynamics routinely used in galaxy evolution studies.

  8. Black Hole Growth in Disk Galaxies Mediated by the Secular Evolution of Short Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P.; Shen, Juntai; Ho, Luis C.; Erwin, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The growth of black holes (BHs) in disk galaxies lacking classical bulges, which implies an absence of significant mergers, appears to be driven by secular processes. Short bars of sub-kiloparsec radius have been hypothesized to be an important mechanism for driving gas inflows to small scale, feeding central BHs. In order to quantify the maximum BH mass allowed by this mechanism, we examine the robustness of short bars to the dynamical influence of BHs. Large-scale bars are expected to be robust, long-lived structures; extremely massive BHs, which are rare, are needed to completely destroy such bars. However, we find that short bars, which are generally embedded in large-scale outer bars, can be destroyed quickly when BHs of mass {M}{bh}∼ 0.05 % {--}0.2 % of the total stellar mass ({M}\\star ) are present. In agreement with this prediction, all galaxies observed to host short bars have BHs with a mass fraction less than 0.2 % {M}\\star . Thus, the dissolution of short inner bars is possible, perhaps even frequent, in the universe. An important implication of this result is that inner-bar-driven gas inflows may be terminated when BHs grow to ∼ 0.1 % {M}\\star . We predict that 0.2 % {M}\\star is the maximum mass of BHs allowed if they are fed predominately via inner bars. This value matches well the maximum ratio of BH-to-host-galaxy stellar mass observed in galaxies with pseudo-bulges and most nearby active galactic nucleus host galaxies. This hypothesis provides a novel explanation for the lower {M}{bh}/{M}\\star in galaxies that have avoided significant mergers compared with galaxies with classical bulges.

  9. Galaxy Zoo: finding offset discs and bars in SDSS galaxies★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Bamford, Steven P.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Fortson, Lucy; Hart, Ross E.; Häußler, Boris; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Smethurst, Rebecca J.

    2017-08-01

    We use multiwavelength Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and Galaxy Zoo morphologies to identify a sample of ∼270 late-type galaxies with an off-centre bar. We measure offsets in the range 0.2-2.5 kpc between the photometric centres of the stellar disc and stellar bar. The measured offsets correlate with global asymmetries of the galaxies, with those with largest offsets showing higher lopsidedness. These findings are in good agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf-dwarf tidal interactions producing off-centre bars. We find that the majority of galaxies with off-centre bars are of Magellanic type, with a median mass of 109.6 M⊙, and 91 per cent of them having M⋆ < 3 × 1010 M⊙, the characteristic mass at which galaxies start having higher central concentrations attributed to the presence of bulges. We conduct a search for companions to test the hypothesis of tidal interactions, but find that a similar fraction of galaxies with offset bars have companions within 100 kpc as galaxies with centred bars. Although this may be due to the incompleteness of the SDSS spectroscopic survey at the faint end, alternative scenarios that give rise to offset bars such as interactions with dark companions or the effect of lopsided halo potentials should be considered. Future observations are needed to confirm possible low-mass companion candidates and to determine the shape of the dark matter halo, in order to find the explanation for the off-centre bars in these galaxies.

  10. Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA: atomic gas and the regulation of star formation in barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Haynes, Martha P.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris; Simmons, Brooke; Skibba, Ramin; Bamford, Steven; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We study the observed correlation between atomic gas content and the likelihood of hosting a large-scale bar in a sample of 2090 disc galaxies. Such a test has never been done before on this scale. We use data on morphologies from the Galaxy Zoo project and information on the galaxies' H I content from the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) blind H I survey. Our main result is that the bar fraction is significantly lower among gas-rich disc galaxies than gas-poor ones. This is not explained by known trends for more massive (stellar) and redder disc galaxies to host more bars and have lower gas fractions: we still see at fixed stellar mass a residual correlation between gas content and bar fraction. We discuss three possible causal explanations: (1) bars in disc galaxies cause atomic gas to be used up more quickly, (2) increasing the atomic gas content in a disc galaxy inhibits bar formation and (3) bar fraction and gas content are both driven by correlation with environmental effects (e.g. tidal triggering of bars, combined with strangulation removing gas). All three explanations are consistent with the observed correlations. In addition our observations suggest bars may reduce or halt star formation in the outer parts of discs by holding back the infall of external gas beyond bar co-rotation, reddening the global colours of barred disc galaxies. This suggests that secular evolution driven by the exchange of angular momentum between stars in the bar, and gas in the disc, acts as a feedback mechanism to regulate star formation in intermediate-mass disc galaxies. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 200 000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at South East Physics Network, E-mail: karen.masters@port.ac.ukEinstein fellow.

  11. Constraining Galaxy Evolution With Bulge-Disk-Bar Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzirl, T.; Jogee, S.; Barazza, F. D.

    2008-08-01

    Structural decomposition of galaxies into bulge, disk, and bar components is important to address a number of scientific problems. Measuring bulge, disk, and bar structural parameters will set constraints on the violent and secular processes of galaxy assembly and recurrent bar formation and dissolution models. It can also help to quantify the fraction and properties of bulgeless galaxies (those systems having no bulge or only a relatively insignificant disky-pseudobulges), which defy galaxy formation paradigms requiring almost every disk galaxy to have a classical bulge at its core. We demonstrate a proof of concept and show early results of our ongoing three-component bulge-disk-bar decomposition of NIR images for samples spanning different environments (field and cluster). In contrast to most early studies, which only attempt two-component bulge-disk decomposition, we fit three components using GALFIT: a bulge, a disk, and a bar. We show that it is important to include the bar component, as this can significantly lower the bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), in many cases by a factor of two or more, thus effectively changing the Hubble type of a galaxy from early to late.

  12. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log M*/M⊙ < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs (≈60 per cent) to weak bars (≈20 per cent) and to strongly barred systems (≈20 per cent). Bars in these systems develop after redshift ≈1.3, on time-scales that depend sensitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, or roughly ∼10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitationally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the haloes they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90 per cent of the stars. Bars slow down remarkably quickly as they grow, causing the inner regions of the surrounding dark halo to expand. At z = 0 strong bars in simulated galaxies have corotation radii roughly 10 times the bar length. Such slow bars are inconsistent with the few cases where pattern speeds have been measured or inferred observationally, a discrepancy that, if confirmed, might prove a challenge for disc galaxy formation in ΛCDM.

  13. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (i), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i) or as a barlens structure (at low i). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * < 1010.5 M ⊙) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks (M * > 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  14. Effects of galaxy-satellite interactions on bar formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moetazedian, R.; Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: We aim to show how encounters with low-mass satellite galaxies may alter the bar formation in a Milky Way-like disc galaxy. Methods: We use high-resolution N-body simulations of a disc galaxy prone to mild bar instability. For realistic initial conditions of satellites, we take advantage of cosmological simulations of Milky Way-like dark matter haloes. Results: The satellites may have a significant impact on the time of bar formation. Some runs with satellites demonstrate a delay, while others show an advancement in bar formation compared to the isolated run, with such time differences reaching 1 Gyr. Meanwhile, the final bar configuration, including its very appearance and the bar characteristics such as the pattern speed and the exponential growth rate of its amplitude are independent of the number of encounters and their orbits. The contribution of satellites with masses below 109M⊙ is insignificant, unless their pericentre distances are small. We suggest that the encounters act indirectly via inducing perturbations across the disc that evolve to delayed waves in the central part and interfere with an emerging seed bar. The predicted effect for the present-day host galaxy is expected to be even more significant at redshifts z ≳ 0.5.

  15. Dense cloud formation and star formation in a barred galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimori, M.; Habe, A.; Sorai, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Hirota, A.; Namekata, D.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the properties of massive, dense clouds formed in a barred galaxy and their possible relation to star formation, performing a two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulation with the gravitational potential obtained from the 2MASS data from the barred spiral galaxy, M83. Since the environment for cloud formation and evolution in the bar region is expected to be different from that in the spiral arm region, barred galaxies are a good target to study the environmental effects on cloud formation and the subsequent star formation. Our simulation uses for an initial 80 Myr isothermal flow of non-self gravitating gas in the barred potential, then including radiative cooling, heating and self-gravitation of the gas for the next 40 Myr, during which dense clumps are formed. We identify many cold, dense gas clumps for which the mass is more than 104 M⊙ (a value corresponding to the molecular clouds) and study the physical properties of these clumps. The relation of the velocity dispersion of the identified clump's internal motion with the clump size is similar to that observed in the molecular clouds of our Galaxy. We find that the virial parameters for clumps in the bar region are larger than that in the spiral arm region. From our numerical results, we estimate star formation in the bar and spiral arm regions by applying the simple model of Krumholz & McKee (2005). The mean relation between star formation rate and gas surface density agrees well with the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. The star formation efficiency in the bar region is ˜60 per cent of the spiral arm region. This trend is consistent with observations of barred galaxies.

  16. The ratio of pattern speeds in double-barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.; Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Fathi, Kambiz; Epinat, Benoit; Amram, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    We have obtained two-dimensional velocity fields in the ionized gas of a set of eight double-barred galaxies, at high spatial and spectral resolution, using their Hα emission fields measured with a scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Using the technique by which phase reversals in the non-circular motion indicate a radius of corotation, taking advantage of the high angular and velocity resolution, we have obtained the corotation radii and the pattern speeds of both the major bar and the small central bar in each of the galaxies; there are few such measurements in the literature. Our results show that the inner bar rotates more rapidly than the outer bar by a factor between 3.3 and 3.6.

  17. Halo Properties and Secular Evolution in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.

    The halo plays a crucial role in the evolution of barred galaxies. Its near-resonant material absorbs angular momentum emitted from some of the disc particles and helps the bar become stronger. As a result, a bar (oval) forms in the inner parts of the halo of strongly barred disc galaxies. It is thinner in the inner parts (but still considerably fatter than the disc bar) and tends to spherical at larger radii. Its length increases with time, while always staying shorter than the disc bar. It is roughly aligned with the disc bar, which it trails only slightly, and it turns with roughly the same pattern speed. The bi-symmetric component of the halo density continues well outside the halo bar, where it clearly trails behind the disc bar. The length and strength of the disc and halo bars correlate; the former being always much stronger than the latter. If the halo is composed of weakly interacting massive particles, then the formation of the halo bar, by redistributing the matter in the halo and changing its shape, could influence the expected annihilation signal. This is indeed found to be the case if the halo has a core, but not if it has a steep cusp. The formation and evolution of the bar strongly affect the halo orbits. A fraction of them becomes near-resonant, similar to the disc near-resonant orbits at the same resonance, while another fraction becomes chaotic. Finally, a massive and responsive halo makes it harder for a central mass concentration to destroy the disc bar.

  18. The role of interactions in triggering bars, spiral arms and AGN in disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Preethi; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of secular structures like bars, rings and spiral arms in triggering star formation and AGN activity in disk galaxies are not well understood. In addition, the mechanisms which create and destroy these structures are not well characterized. Mergers are considered to be one of the main mechanisms which can trigger bars in massive disk galaxies. Using a sample of ~8000 close pair galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.06 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, I will present results illustrating the role of mergers in triggering bars, rings, spiral arms and AGN as a function of close pair separation and merger ratios as well as their dependence on morphology and other physical properties of the galaxies. Time permitting, I will show how resolved IFU observations from SDSS MaNGA will help to place stronger constraints on the role of these structures in triggering star formation and AGN.

  19. Bar Effects on Central Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seulhee; Oh, Kyuseok; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-01-01

    Galactic bars are often suspected to be channels of gas inflow to the galactic center and to trigger central star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. However, the current status on this issue based on empirical studies is unsettling, especially regarding AGNs. We investigate this question based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. From the nearby (0.01 < z < 0.05) bright (M r < -19) database, we have constructed a sample of 6658 relatively face-on late-type galaxies through visual inspection. We found 36% of them to have a bar. Bars are found to be more common in galaxies with earlier morphology. This makes sample selection critical. Parameter-based selections would miss a large fraction of barred galaxies of early morphology. Bar effects on star formation or AGNs are difficult to understand properly because multiple factors (bar frequency, stellar mass, black hole mass, gas contents, etc.) seem to contribute to them in intricate manners. In the hope of breaking these degeneracies, we inspect bar effects for fixed galaxy properties. Bar effects on central star formation seem higher in redder galaxies. Bar effects on AGNs on the other hand are higher in bluer and less massive galaxies. These effects seem more pronounced with increasing bar length. We discuss possible implications in terms of gas contents, bar strength, bar evolution, fueling timescale, and the dynamical role of supermassive black hole.

  20. Which bulges are favoured by barred S0 galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barway, Sudhanshu; Saha, Kanak; Vaghmare, Kaustubh; Kembhavi, Ajit K.

    2016-11-01

    S0 galaxies are known to host classical bulges with a broad range of size and mass, while some such S0s are barred and some not. The origin of the bars has remained a long-standing problem - what made bar formation possible in certain S0s? By analysing a large sample of S0s with classical bulges observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope, we find that most of our barred S0s host comparatively low-mass classical bulges, typically with bulge-to-total ratio less than 0.5, whereas S0s with more massive classical bulges than these do not host any bar. Furthermore, we find that amongst the barred S0s, there is a trend for the longer and massive bars to be associated with comparatively bigger and massive classical bulges - possibly suggesting bar growth being facilitated by these classical bulges. In addition, we find that the bulge effective radius is always less than the bar effective radius - indicating an interesting synergy between the host classical bulge and bars being maintained while bar growth occurred in these S0s.

  1. An Infrared Portrait of the Barred Spiral Galaxy Messier 83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    Messier 83 (M83) is a relatively nearby spiral galaxy with a pronounced bar-like structure. It is located in the southern constellation Hydra (The Water-Snake) and is also known as NGC 5236 ; the distance is approximately 12 million light-years. Images of M83 obtained in visible light - like the VLT photo published exactly two years ago ( ESO PR 18/99 ) - show clumpy, well-defined spiral arms that are rich in young stars while the disk reveals a complex system of intricate dust lanes. This galaxy is known to be a site of vigorous star formation and no less than six supernovae (exploding stars) have been observed in M83 during the past century. It is a fairly symmetrical object and possesses no nearby companions. Gas dynamics and galaxy bars Investigations of gas motions in the nucleus and in the main disk play a key role in understanding the structure and evolution of barred spiral galaxies like M83. Inflow of gas towards the center caused by a mass distribution that is not circularly symmetric is often invoked to explain certain observed phenomena, e.g., the feeding of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs, see also the report about recent observations in three such galaxies in ESO PR 18/01 ), and the fueling of bursts of star formation in the nuclear region. Some astronomers think that this process may cause a change of a galaxy's (morphological) type, for instance from barred to normal spiral galaxy. It has also been suggested that the development of spiral structures in galactic disks may be due to central stellar bars. Interstellar gas that is subject to periodical perturbations by the non-circularly symmetrical gravitational field in a barred system will develop a "density wave" that attracts neighbouring stars and gas. The local density increases and once a certain ("critical") value is reached, star formation is "ignited" in this area. The mass distribution In order to better understand phenomena like these, it is essential to know in detail the distribution of

  2. The study of two barred galaxies with curious kinematical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saburova, A. S.; Katkov, I. Y.; Khoperskov, S. A.; Zasov, A. V.; Uklein, R. I.

    2017-09-01

    We performed long-slit spectral observations of two SB-type galaxies: NGC 5347 and UGC 1344. They were previously suspected as the galaxies with unusually low mass-to-light ratios (on the ground of mass estimates from the H i linewidths), which are in conflict with their observed colours. The observations were conducted at the Russian 6-m telescope. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinematics and structure, as well as the properties of stellar populations of the galaxies. The results of observations disproved the peculiarly low mass-to-light ratios of both galaxies. The most probable reasons of underestimation of their masses are discussed. We tried to reproduce the main observed features of kinematical profiles of the galaxies in the N-body simulations of barred galaxies. We found that both galaxies possess central components of different structures. Indeed, the age and velocity dispersion of stellar population in NGC 5347 are low in its innermost part in comparison to that of the bulge or a bar, which agrees with the presence of nuclear kinematically decoupled disc. It probably was formed due to the bar that supplied the inner region with gas. The kinematical profiles of the second galaxy UGC 1344 give evidence in favour of the central peanut-shaped bulge. In spite of the different luminosities of the two galaxies, they possess nearly equal (close to solar) central stellar abundance and the flattening of the stellar metallicity gradient in the bar regions. However, in the less luminous NGC 5347, the mean stellar age is younger than that in UGC 1344.

  3. Enhanced star formation: The importance of bars in spiral galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puxley, P. J.; Hawarden, T. G.; Mountain, C. M.; Leggett, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    It was found that among an IR luminous subset of nearby spiral galaxies, nearly all of the systems with IRAS colors and luminosities indicative of enhanced star formation are barred. Radio continuum and IR spectroscopic results support the hypothesis that this emission originates within the central 2 kpc; possibly in a circumnuclear ring. It was also found that outer rings are over represented among these barred systems and suggest possible reasons for this phenomena.

  4. On the bar formation mechanism in galaxies with cuspy bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, E. V.; Berczik, P.; Just, A.

    2016-11-01

    We show by numerical simulations that a purely stellar dynamical model composed of an exponential disc, a cuspy bulge, and a Navarro-Frenk-White halo with parameters relevant to the Milky Way is subject to bar formation. Taking into account the finite disc thickness, the bar formation can be explained by the usual bar instability, in spite of the presence of an inner Lindblad resonance, that is believed to damp any global modes. The effect of replacing the live halo and bulge by a fixed external axisymmetric potential (rigid models) is studied. It is shown that while the e-folding time of bar instability increases significantly (from 250 to 500 Myr), the bar pattern speed remains almost the same. For the latter, our average value of 55 km s-1 kpc-1 agrees with the assumption that the Hercules stream in the solar neighbourhood is an imprint of the bar-disc interaction at the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar. Vertical averaging of the radial force in the central disc region comparable to the characteristic scale length allows us to reproduce the bar pattern speed and the growth rate of the rigid models, using normal mode analysis of linear perturbation theory in a razor-thin disc. The strong increase of the e-folding time with decreasing disc mass predicted by the mode analysis suggests that bars in galaxies similar to the Milky Way have formed only recently.

  5. Properties of the giant H II regions and bar in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5430

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brière, É.; Cantin, S.; Spekkens, K.

    2012-09-01

    In order to better understand the impact of the bar on the evolution of spiral galaxies, we measure the properties of giant H II regions and the bar in the SB(s)b galaxy NGC 5430. We use two complementary data sets, both obtained at the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic: a hyperspectral data cube from the imaging Fourier transform spectrograph SpIOMM (Spectromètre-Imageur à transformée de Fourier de l-Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic) and high-resolution spectra across the bar from a long-slit spectrograph. We flux-calibrate SpIOMM spectra for the first time, and produce Hα and [N II]λ6584 Å intensity maps from which we identify 51 giant H II regions in the spiral arms and bar. We evaluate the type of activity, the oxygen abundance and the age of the young populations contained in these giant H II regions and in the bar. Thus, we confirm that NGC 5430 does not harbour a strong active galactic nucleus, and that its Wolf-Rayet knot shows a pure H II region nature. We find no variation in abundance or age between the bar and spiral arms, nor as a function of galactocentric radius. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a chemical mixing mechanism is at work in the galaxy's disc to flatten the oxygen abundance gradient. Using the STARBURST99 model, we estimate the ages of the young populations, and again find no variations in age between the bar and the arms or as a function of radius. Instead, we find evidence for two galaxy-wide waves of star formation, about 7.1 and 10.5 Myr ago. While the bar in NGC 5430 is an obvious candidate to trigger these two episodes, it is not clear how the bar could induce widespread star formation on such a short time-scale.

  6. A Bar Fuels a Supermassive Black Hole?: Host Galaxies of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Kouji; Aoki, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kiuchi, Gaku

    2007-03-01

    We present optical images of nearby 50 narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) that cover all the NLS1s at z<0.0666 and δ>=-25deg known in 2001. Among the 50 NLS1s, 40 images are newly obtained by our observations and 10 images are taken from archive data. Motivated by the hypothesis that NLS1s are in an early phase of a supermassive black hole (BH) evolution, we present a study of NLS1 host galaxy morphology to examine trigger mechanism(s) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by seeing the early phase of AGN. With these images, we made morphological classification by visual inspection and by quantitative method, and found a high bar frequency of the NLS1s in the optical band; the bar frequency is 85%+/-7% among disk galaxies (64%-71% in total sample) which is more frequent than that (40%-70%) of broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s) and normal disk galaxies, although the significance is marginal. Our results confirm the claim by Crenshaw and coworkers with a similar analysis for 19 NLS1s. The frequency is comparable to that of H II/starburst galaxies. We also examined the bar frequency against width of the broad Hβ emission line, Eddington ratio, and BH mass, but no clear trend is seen. Possible implications, such as an evolutionary sequence from NLS1s to BLS1s, are discussed briefly. Based on data collected at University of Hawaii 88 inch telescope, Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1 m telescope, which is operated by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), operated by AURA, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation; and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the

  7. A Dwarf Galaxy Star Bar and Dusty Wing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-10

    In combined data from ESA Herschel and NASA Spitzer telescopes, irregular distribution of dust in the Small Magellanic Cloud becomes clear. A stream of dust extends to left, known as the galaxy wing, and a bar of star formation appears to right.

  8. Galaxy-scale Bars in Late-type Sloan Digital Sky Survey Galaxies Do Not Influence the Average Accretion Rates of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulding, A. D.; Matthaey, E.; Greene, J. E.; Hickox, R. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Lehmer, B. D.; Griffis, S.; Kanek, S.; Oulmakki, M.

    2017-07-01

    Galaxy-scale bars are expected to provide an effective means for driving material toward the central region in spiral galaxies, and possibly feeding supermassive black holes (BHs). Here we present a statistically complete study of the effect of bars on average BH accretion. From a well-selected sample of 50,794 spiral galaxies (with {M}* ˜ 0.2{--}30× {10}10 {M}⊙ ) extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we separate those sources considered to contain galaxy-scale bars from those that do not. Using archival data taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we identify X-ray luminous ({L}{{X}}≳ {10}41 {erg} {{{s}}}-1) active galactic nuclei and perform an X-ray stacking analysis on the remaining X-ray undetected sources. Through X-ray stacking, we derive a time-averaged look at accretion for galaxies at fixed stellar mass and star-formation rate, finding that the average nuclear accretion rates of galaxies with bar structures are fully consistent with those lacking bars ({\\dot{M}}{acc}≈ 3× {10}-5 {M}⊙ yr-1). Hence, we robustly conclude that large-scale bars have little or no effect on the average growth of BHs in nearby (z< 0.15) galaxies over gigayear timescales.

  9. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A. E-mail: emartinez@cida.ve

    2011-06-20

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that {approx}50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar {Omega}{sub p}, while three (33%) do not.

  10. Measuring the Fraction of Bars and Offset Bars Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Using the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies at 3.6 and 4.5μm, I have measured a preliminary bar fraction and offset bar fraction in the local universe by visually identifying bar structure within a sample of 2,140 local galaxies. A sample this large has not been used since 1963, when Gerard de Vaucouleurs found the bar fraction to be roughly fbar ˜ 0.6 in the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. Since then, there has been much debate over the true value of the bar fraction. The purpose of finding a bar fraction using S4G is to provide a final say in this debate. I have found that the bar fraction in the local universe is fbar = 0.69 when including both definite bars (SB) and candidate bars (SAB). I have also measured a preliminary value for the fraction of offset bars using the same sample. Offset bars are a very rare phenomenon. Of the sample used, 91 galaxies are found to be definite offset bars while an additional 39 are found to be candidate offset bars. When including both definite offset bars and candidate offset bars, the offset bar fraction in the local universe becomes fob = 0.12. I also measure the fraction of offset bars as a function of Hubble type and stellar mass. We find that 54% of offset bars are found in disks having a stellar mass of M ≤ 108 M⊙. Late-type disks possess significantly more offset bars than early-type with 60% of offset bars being found in disks having a Hubble type t ≥ 6.

  11. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L. E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  12. The Stability Of Disk Barred Galaxies Over the Past 7 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Amauri; Simmons, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    A recently released model of interacting disk galaxies provides a hypothesis for the origins of off center bars in disks. No systematic search for offset bars in the early universe has yet been undertaken. The Galaxy Zoo project has produced data regarding the large-scale bars of many galaxies. Using this data alongside images collected by the Hubble Space Telescope and other sources, we have examined 5190 galaxies for signatures of off-centered bars. Less than 5 percent of the sample shows clear signs of an offset bar. We describe their overall properties of this sub-sample and compare the properties of galaxies with offset bars to those with centered bars. We assess the feasibility of the proposed model and place these galaxies in the context of the overall evolution of galaxies.

  13. Dynamics of barred galaxies: effects of disc height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Valenzuela, Octavio; Colín, Pedro; Quinn, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    We study dynamics of bars in models of disc galaxies embedded in realistic dark matter haloes. We find that disc thickness plays an important, if not dominant, role in the evolution and structure of the bars. We also make extensive numerical tests of different N-body codes used to study bar dynamics. Models with thick discs typically used in this type of modelling (height-to-length ratio hz/Rd = 0.2) produce slowly rotating, and very long, bars. In contrast, more realistic thin discs with the same parameters as in our Galaxy (hz/Rd ~ 0.1) produce bars with normal length Rbar ~ Rd, which rotate quickly with the ratio of the corotation radius to the bar radius compatible with observations. Bars in these models do not show a tendency to slow down, and may lose as little as 2-3 per cent of their angular momentum due to dynamical friction with the dark matter over cosmological time. We attribute the differences between the models to a combined effect of high phase-space density and smaller Jeans mass in the thin-disc models, which result in the formation of a dense central bulge. Special attention is paid to numerical effects, such as the accuracy of orbital integration, force and mass resolution. Using three N-body codes - GADGET, adaptive refinement tree (ART) and PKDGRAV - we find that numerical effects are very important and, if not carefully treated, may produce incorrect and misleading results. Once the simulations are performed with sufficiently small time-steps and with adequate force and mass resolution, all the codes produce nearly the same results: we do not find any systematic deviations between the results obtained with TREE codes (GADGET and PKDGRAV) and with the adaptive mesh refinement (ART) code.

  14. Applying Schwarzschild's orbit superposition method to barred or non-barred disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Eugene; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present an implementation of the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method, which can be used for constructing self-consistent equilibrium models of barred or non-barred disc galaxies, or of elliptical galaxies with figure rotation. This is a further development of the publicly available code SMILE; its main improvements include a new efficient representation of an arbitrary gravitational potential using two-dimensional spline interpolation of Fourier coefficients in the meridional plane, as well as the ability to deal with rotation of the density profile and with multicomponent mass models. We compare several published methods for constructing composite axisymmetric disc-bulge-halo models and demonstrate that our code produces the models that are closest to equilibrium. We also apply it to create models of triaxial elliptical galaxies with cuspy density profiles and figure rotation, and find that such models can be found and are stable over many dynamical times in a wide range of pattern speeds and angular momenta, covering both slow- and fast-rotator classes. We then attempt to create models of strongly barred disc galaxies, using an analytic three-component potential, and find that it is not possible to make a stable dynamically self-consistent model for this density profile. Finally, we take snapshots of two N-body simulations of barred disc galaxies embedded in nearly-spherical haloes, and construct equilibrium models using only information on the density profile of the snapshots. We demonstrate that such reconstructed models are in near-stationary state, in contrast with the original N-body simulations, one of which displayed significant secular evolution.

  15. Evidence of bar-induced secular evolution in the inner regions of stellar discs in galaxies: what shapes disc galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Sheth, Kartik; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-11-01

    We present evidence of bar-induced secular evolution in galactic discs using 3.6 μm images of nearby galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G). We find that among massive galaxies (M*/M⊙ > 1010), longer bars tend to reside in inner discs having a flatter radial profile. Such galaxies show a light deficit in the disc surrounding the bar, within the bar radius and often show a Θ-shaped morphology. We quantify this deficit and find that among all galaxies explored in this study (with 109 < M*/M⊙ < 1011), galaxies with a stronger bar (i.e. longer and/or with a higher Bar/T) show a more pronounced deficit. We also examine simulation snapshots to confirm and extend results by Athanassoula and Misiriotis, showing that as bars evolve they become longer, while the light deficit in the disc becomes more pronounced. Theoretical studies have predicted that, as a barred galaxy evolves, the bar captures disc stars in its immediate neighbourhood so as to make the bar longer, stronger and thinner. Hence, we claim that the light deficit in the inner disc is produced by bars, which thus take part in shaping the mass distribution of their host galaxies.

  16. Introducing a New 3D Dynamical Model for Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2015-11-01

    The regular or chaotic dynamics of an analytical realistic three dimensional model composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar and a flat disk is investigated. For describing the properties of the bar, we introduce a new simple dynamical model and we explore the influence on the character of orbits of all the involved parameters of it, such as the mass and the scale length of the bar, the major semi-axis and the angular velocity of the bar, as well as the energy. Regions of phase space with ordered and chaotic motion are identified in dependence on these parameters and for breaking the rotational symmetry. First, we study in detail the dynamics in the invariant plane z = pz = 0 using the Poincaré map as a basic tool and then study the full three-dimensional case using the Smaller Alignment index method as principal tool for distinguishing between order and chaos. We also present strong evidence obtained through the numerical simulations that our new bar model can realistically describe the formation and the evolution of the observed twin spiral structure in barred galaxies.

  17. Complex central structures suggest complex evolutionary paths for barred S0 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Martínez-Lombilla, Cristina; Knapen, Johan H.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate three barred lenticular galaxies (NGC 2681, NGC 3945 and NGC 4371), which were previously reported to have complex central structures but without a detailed structural analysis of these galaxies' high-resolution data. We have therefore performed four- to six-component (pseudo-)bulge/disc/bar/ring/point source) decompositions of the composite (Hubble Space Telescope plus ground-based) surface brightness profiles. We find that NGC 2681 hosts three bars, while NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 are double- and single-barred galaxies, respectively, in agreement with past isophotal analysis. We find that the bulges in these galaxies are compact, and have Sérsic indices of n ˜ 2.2-3.6 and stellar masses of M* ˜ 0.28 × 1010-1.1 × 1010 M⊙. NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 have intermediate-scale `pseudo-bulges' that are well described by a Sérsic model with low n ≲ 0.5 instead of an exponential (n = 1) profile as done in the past. We measure emission line fluxes enclosed within nine different elliptical apertures, finding that NGC 2681 has a low-ionization nuclear emission region (LINER)-type emission inside R ˜ 3 arcsec, but the emission line due to star formation is significant when aperture size is increased. In contrast, NGC 3945 and NGC 4371 have composite (active galactic nucleus plus star-forming)- and LINER-type emissions inside and outside R ˜ 2 arcsec, respectively. Our findings suggest that the three galaxies have experienced a complex evolutionary path. The bulges appear to be consequences of an earlier violent merging event while subsequent disc formation via gas accretion and bar-driven perturbations may account for the build-up of pseudo-bulges, bars, rings and point sources.

  18. The impact of gas inflows on star formation rates and metallicities in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Nair, Preethi; Patton, David R.; Scudder, Jillian M.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Simard, Luc

    2011-09-01

    The star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of a sample of 294 galaxies with visually classified, strong, large-scale bars are compared to a control sample of unbarred disc galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The fibre (inner few kpc) metallicities of barred galaxies are uniformly higher (at a given mass) than the unbarred sample by ˜0.06 dex. However, the fibre SFRs of the visually classified barred galaxies are higher by about 60 per cent only in the galaxies with total stellar mass M★ > 1010 M⊙. The metal enhancement at M★ < 1010 M⊙ without an accompanying increase in the SFR may be due to a short-lived phase of early bar-triggered star formation in the past, compared to on-going SFR enhancements in higher mass barred galaxies. There is no correlation between bar length or bar axial ratio with the enhancement of the SFR. In order to assess the relative importance of star formation triggered by bars and galaxy-galaxy interactions, SFRs are also determined for a sample of close galaxy pairs. Both mechanisms appear to be similarly effective at triggering central star formation for galaxies with M★ > 1010 M⊙. However, due to the much lower fraction of pairs than bars, bars account for ˜3.5 times more triggered central star formation than interactions.

  19. Gravitational Instability of Nuclear Rings in Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Moon, Sanghyuk

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear rings at centers of barred galaxies exhibit strong star formation activities. They are thought to undergo gravitational instability when sufficiently massive. We approximate them as rigidly-rotating isothermal objects and investigate their gravitational instability. Using a self-consistent field method, we first construct their equilibrium sequences specified by two parameters: alpha corresponding to the thermal energy relative to gravitational potential energy, and R_B measuring the ellipticity or ring thickness. The density distributions in the meridional plane are steeper for smaller alpha, and well approximated by those of infinite cylinders for slender rings. We also calculate the dispersion relations of nonaxisymmetric modes in rigidly-rotating slender rings with angular frequency Omega and central density rho_c. Rings with smaller are found more unstable with a larger unstable range of the azimuthal mode number. The instability is completely suppressed by rotation when Omega exceeds the critical value. The critical angular frequency is found to be almost constant at 0.7(G rho_c)^0.5 for alph > 0.01 and increases rapidly for smaller alpha . We apply our results to a sample of observed star-forming rings and confirm that rings without a noticeable azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters are indeed gravitationally unstable.

  20. Kinematic Clues to Bar Evolution for Galaxies in the Local Universe: Why the Fastest Rotating Bars are Rotating Most Slowly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Borlaff, A. S.; James, P. A.; Díaz-García, S.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Camps-Fariña, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Amram, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have used Spitzer images of a sample of 68 barred spiral galaxies in the local universe to make systematic measurements of bar length and bar strength. We combine these with precise determinations of the corotation radii associated with the bars, taken from our previous study, which used the phase change from radial inflow to radial outflow of gas at corotation, based on high-resolution two-dimensional velocity fields in Hα taken with a Fabry–Pérot spectrometer. After presenting the histograms of the derived bar parameters, we study their dependence on the galaxy morphological type and on the total stellar mass of the host galaxy, and then produce a set of parametric plots. These include the bar pattern speed versus bar length, the pattern speed normalized with the characteristic pattern speed of the outer disk versus the bar strength, and the normalized pattern speed versus { R }, the ratio of corotation radius to bar length. To provide guidelines for our interpretation, we used recently published simulations, including disk and dark matter halo components. Our most striking conclusion is that bars with values of { R } < 1.4, previously considered dynamically fast rotators, can be among the slowest rotators both in absolute terms and when their pattern speeds are normalized. The simulations confirm that this is because as the bars are braked, they can grow longer more quickly than the outward drift of the corotation radius. We conclude that dark matter halos have indeed slowed down the rotation of bars on Gyr timescales.

  1. Circumnuclear Regions In Barred Spiral Galaxies. 1; Near-Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Ramirez, D.; Knapen, J. H.; Peletier, R. F.; Laine, S.; Doyon, R.; Nadeau, D.

    2000-01-01

    We present sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based near-infrared images of the central regions of a sample of twelve barred galaxies with circumnuclear star formation activity, which is organized in ring-like regions typically one kiloparsec in diameter. We also present Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared images of ten of our sample galaxies, and compare them with our ground-based data. Although our sample galaxies were selected for the presence of circumnuclear star formation activity, our broad-band near-infrared images are heterogeneous, showing a substantial amount of small-scale structure in some galaxies, and practically none in others. We argue that, where it exists, this structure is caused by young stars, which also cause the characteristic bumps or changes in slope in the radial profiles of ellipticity, major axis position angle, surface brightness and colour at the radius of the circumnuclear ring in most of our sample galaxies. In 7 out of 10 HST images, star formation in the nuclear ring is clearly visible as a large number of small emitting regions, organised into spiral arm fragments, which are accompanied by dust lanes. NIR colour index maps show much more clearly the location of dust lanes and, in certain cases, regions of star formation than single broad-band images. Circumnuclear spiral structure thus outlined appears to be common in barred spiral galaxies with circumnuclear star formation.

  2. Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Stone, James M.

    2012-06-01

    Barred galaxies are known to possess magnetic fields that may affect the properties of bar substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. We use two-dimensional high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of such substructures, as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, non-self-gravitating, and threaded by initially uniform, azimuthal magnetic fields. We find that there exists an outermost x 1-orbit relative to which gaseous responses to an imposed stellar bar potential are completely different between inside and outside. Inside this orbit, gas is shocked into dust lanes and infalls to form a nuclear ring. Magnetic fields are compressed in dust lanes, reducing their peak density. Magnetic stress removes further angular momentum of the gas at the shocks, temporarily causing the dust lanes to bend into an "L" shape and eventually leading to a smaller and more centrally distributed ring than in unmagnetized models. The mass inflow rates in magnetized models correspondingly become larger, by more than two orders of magnitude when the initial fields have an equipartition value with thermal energy, than in the unmagnetized counterparts. Outside the outermost x 1-orbit, on the other hand, an MHD dynamo due to the combined action of the bar potential and background shear operates near the corotation and bar-end regions, efficiently amplifying magnetic fields. The amplified fields shape into trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms has a thin layer in which magnetic fields with opposite polarity reconnect via a tearing-mode instability. This produces numerous magnetic islands with large density that propagate along the arms to turn the outer disk into a highly chaotic state.

  3. The mass dependence of star formation histories in barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, Christian; Martel, Hugo; Ellison, Sara L.; Kawata, Daisuke

    2016-11-01

    We performed a series of 29 gas dynamical simulations of disc galaxies, barred and unbarred, with various stellar masses, to study the impact of the bar on star formation history. Unbarred galaxies evolve very smoothly, with a star formation rate (SFR) that varies by at most a factor of 3 over a period of 2 Gyr. The evolution of barred galaxies is much more irregular, especially at high stellar masses. In these galaxies, the bar drives a substantial amount of gas towards the centre, resulting in a high SFR, and producing a starburst in the most massive galaxies. Most of the gas is converted into stars, and gas exhaustion leads to a rapid drop of star formation after the starburst. In massive barred galaxies (stellar mass M_{*}>2× 10^{10} M_{⊙}) the large amount of gas funnelled towards the centre is completely consumed by the starburst, while in lower mass barred galaxies it is only partially consumed. Gas concentration is thus higher in lower mass barred galaxies than it is in higher mass ones. Even though unbarred galaxies funnelled less gas towards their centre, the lower SFR allows this gas to accumulate. At late times, the star formation efficiency is higher in barred galaxies than unbarred ones, enabling these galaxies to maintain a higher SFR with a smaller gas supply. Several properties, such as the global SFR, central SFR, or central gas concentration, vary monotonically with time for unbarred galaxies, but not for barred galaxies. Therefore one must be careful when comparing barred and unbarred galaxies that share one observational property, since these galaxies might be at very different stages of their respective evolution.

  4. The environment of barred galaxies in the low-redshift universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ye; Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Wang, Enci E-mail: leech@shao.ac.cn

    2014-12-01

    We present a study of the environment of barred galaxies using a volume-limited sample of over 30,000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use four different statistics to quantify the environment: the projected two-point cross-correlation function, the background-subtracted number count of neighbor galaxies, the overdensity of the local environment, and the membership of our galaxies to galaxy groups to segregate central and satellite systems. For barred galaxies as a whole, we find a very weak difference in all the quantities compared to unbarred galaxies of the control sample. When we split our sample into early- and late-type galaxies, we see a weak but significant trend for early-type galaxies with a bar to be more strongly clustered on scales from a few 100 kpc to 1 Mpc when compared to unbarred early-type galaxies. This indicates that the presence of a bar in early-type galaxies depends on the location within their host dark matter halos. This is confirmed by the group catalog in the sense that for early-types, the fraction of central galaxies is smaller if they have a bar. For late-type galaxies, we find fewer neighbors within ∼50 kpc around the barred galaxies when compared to unbarred galaxies from the control sample, suggesting that tidal forces from close companions suppress the formation/growth of bars. Finally, we find no obvious correlation between overdensity and the bars in our sample, showing that galactic bars are not obviously linked to the large-scale structure of the universe.

  5. Gas Flows in Galaxies: the Relative Importance of Mergers and Bars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Nair, Preethi; Simard, Luc; Mendel, J. Trevor; McConnachie, Alan W.; Scudder, Jillian M.

    2011-12-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions and large scale galaxy bars are usually considered as the two main mechanisms for driving gas to the centres of galaxies. By using large samples of galaxy pairs and visually classified bars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we compare the relative efficiency of gas inflows from these two processes. We use two indicators of gas inflow: star formation rate (SFR) and gas phase metallicity, which are both measured relative to control samples. Whereas the metallicity of galaxy pairs is suppressed relative to its control sample of isolated galaxies, galaxies with bars are metal-rich for their stellar mass by 0.06 dex over all stellar masses. The SFRs of both the close galaxy pairs and the barred galaxies are enhanced by ~60%, but in the bars the enhancement is only seen at stellar masses M* > 1010 M⊙. Taking into account the relative frequency of bars and pairs, we estimate that at least three times more central star formation is triggered by bars than by interactions.

  6. Revealing Galactic scale bars with the help of Galaxy Zoo and ALFALFA .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, K. L.; the Galaxy Zoo Team

    We use visual classifications of the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Main Galaxy Sample provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo project (www.galaxyzoo.org, Lintott et al. 2008) to identify a sample of local disc galaxies with reliable bar identifications. These data, combined with information on the atomic gas content from the ALFALFA survey (Haynes et al. 2011) show that disc galaxies with higher gas content have lower bar fractions. We use a gas deficiency parameter to show that disc galaxies with more/less gas than expected for their stellar mass are less/more likely to host bars. Furthermore, we see that at a fixed gas content there is no residual correlation between bar fraction and stellar mass. We argue that this suggests previously observed correlations between galaxy colour/stellar mass and (strong) bar fraction (e.g. from the sample in Masters et al. 2011, and also see Nair & Abraham 2010) could be driven by the interaction between bars and the gas content of the disc, since more massive, optically redder disc galaxies are observed to have lower gas contents. Furthermore we see evidence that at a fixed gas content the global colours of barred galaxies are redder than those of unbarred galaxies. We suggest that this could be due to the exchange of angular momentum beyond co-rotation which might stop a replenishment of gas from external sources, and act as a source of feedback to temporarily halt or reduce the star formation in the outer parts of barred discs. These results (published as Masters et al. 2012) combined with those of Skibba et al. (2012), who use the same sample to show a clear (but subtle and complicated) environmental dependence of the bar fraction in disc galaxies, suggest that bars are intimately linked to the evolution of disc galaxies.

  7. Mass-transfer induced activity in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    Current research on the origin and evolution of active galaxies is comprehensively surveyed in this collaborative volume. Both of the proposed types of central activity --- active galactic nuclei and nuclear starbursts --- are analyzed with a particular emphasis on their relationship to the large-scale properties of the host galaxy. The crucial question is what triggers and fuels nuclear activity now and at earlier epochs. The topics covered here are gas flows near to massive black holes, the circumnuclear galactic regions, and the large-scale bars in disk galaxies. Aspects of nuclear bursts of star formation and the relationship between central activity and the gas and stellar dynamics of the host galaxy are addressed as well. The contributors of this book for professionals and graduate students are world experts on galaxy evolution.

  8. How do spiral arm contrasts relate to bars, disc breaks and other fundamental galaxy properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Adrian; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, Evangelie; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Bosma, Albert; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos

    2017-10-01

    We investigate how the properties of spiral arms relate to other fundamental galaxy properties, including bars and disc breaks. We use previously published measurements of those properties, and our own measurements of arm and bar contrasts for a large sample of galaxies, using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Flocculent galaxies are clearly distinguished from other spiral arm classes, especially by their lower stellar mass and surface density. Multi-armed and grand-design galaxies are similar in most of their fundamental parameters, excluding some bar properties and the bulge-to-total ratio. Based on these results, we revisit the sequence of spiral arm classes, and discuss classical bulges as a necessary condition for standing spiral wave modes in grand-design galaxies. We find a strong correlation between bulge-to-total ratio and bar contrast, and a weaker correlation between arm and bar contrasts. Barred and unbarred galaxies exhibit similar arm contrasts, but the highest arm contrasts are found exclusively in barred galaxies. Interestingly, the bar contrast, and its increase from flocculent to grand-design galaxies, is systematically more significant than that of the arm contrast. We corroborate previous findings concerning a connection between bars and disc breaks. In particular, in grand-design galaxies, the bar contrast correlates with the normalized disc break radius. This does not hold for other spiral arm classes or the arm contrast. Our measurements of arm and bar contrast and radial contrast profiles are publicly available.

  9. THE BULGELESS SEYFERT/LINER GALAXY NGC 3367: DISK, BAR, LOPSIDEDNESS, AND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Toledo, H. M.; Cano-Diaz, M.; Valenzuela, O.; Garcia-Barreto, J. A; Moreno-Diaz, E.; Puerari, I.; Bravo-Alfaro, H.

    2011-12-15

    NGC 3367 is a nearby isolated active galaxy that shows a radio jet, a strong bar, and evidence of lopsidedness. We present a quantitative analysis of the stellar and gaseous structure of the galaxy disk and search for evidence of recent interaction. Our study is based on new UBVRI H{alpha} and JHK images and on archive H{alpha} Fabry-Perot and H I Very Large Array data. From a coupled one-dimensional/two-dimensional GALFIT bulge/bar/disk decomposition a (B/D {approx} 0.07-0.1) exponential pseudobulge is inferred in all the observed bands. A near-infrared (NIR) estimate of the bar strength Q{sup max}{sub T}(R) = 0.44 places NGC 3367 bar among the strongest ones. The asymmetry properties were studied using (1) the optical and NIR concentration-asymmetry-clumpiness indices, (2) the stellar (NIR) and gaseous (H{alpha}, H I) A{sub 1} Fourier mode amplitudes, and (3) the H I-integrated profile and H I mean intensity distribution. While the average stellar component shows asymmetry values close to the average found in the local universe for isolated galaxies, the young stellar component and gas values are largely decoupled showing significantly larger A{sub 1} mode amplitudes suggesting that the gas has been recently perturbed and placing NGC 3367 in a global starburst phase. NGC 3367 is devoid of H I gas in the central regions where a significant amount of molecular CO gas exists instead. Our search for (1) faint stellar structures in the outer regions (up to {mu}{sub R} {approx} 26 mag arcsec{sup -2}), (2) (H{alpha}) star-forming satellite galaxies, and (3) regions with different colors (stellar populations) along the disk all failed. Such an absence is interpreted by using results from recent numerical simulations to constrain either a possible tidal event with an LMC like galaxy to some dynamical times in the past or a very low mass but perhaps gas rich recent encounter. We conclude that a cold flow accretion mode (gas and small/dark galaxies) may be responsible for

  10. DECREASED FREQUENCY OF STRONG BARS IN S0 GALAXIES: EVIDENCE FOR SECULAR EVOLUTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, R.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.

    2010-09-20

    Using data from the Near-Infrared S0 Survey of nearby, early-type galaxies, we examine the distribution of bar strengths in S0 galaxies as compared to S0/a and Sa galaxies, and as compared to previously published bar strength data for Ohio State University Bright Spiral Galaxy Survey spiral galaxies. Bar strengths based on the gravitational torque method are derived from 2.2 {mu}m K{sub s} -band images for a statistical sample of 138 (98 S0, 40 S0/a,Sa) galaxies having a mean total blue magnitude (B{sub T}) {<=} 12.5 and generally inclined less than 65{sup 0}. We find that S0 galaxies have weaker bars on average than spiral galaxies in general, even compared to their closest spiral counterparts, S0/a and Sa galaxies. The differences are significant and cannot be entirely due to uncertainties in the assumed vertical scale heights or in the assumption of constant mass-to-light ratios. Part of the difference is likely simply due to the dilution of the bar torques by the higher mass bulges seen in S0s. If spiral galaxies accrete external gas, as advocated by Bournaud and Combes, then the fewer strong bars found among S0s imply a lack of gas accretion according to this theory. If S0s are stripped former spirals, or else are evolved from former spirals due to internal secular dynamical processes which deplete the gas as well as grow the bulges, then the weaker bars and the prevalence of lenses in S0 galaxies could further indicate that bar evolution continues to proceed during and even after gas depletion.

  11. BaLROG: The Influence of Bars on the Dynamical Structure in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, M. K.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Díaz-García, S.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Knapen, J. H.

    2016-10-01

    Using the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample of 16 morphologically distinct barred spirals, we constrain the influence of bars on nearby galaxies observationally. Our sample appears small compared to ongoing IFU surveys, but offers a tenfold sharper spatial resolution (˜100 pc) as each galaxy is a mosaic of several pointings observed with the IFU spectrograph SAURON. We demonstrate a correlation between the bar strength Qb determined from classical torque analysis using 3.6 μm Spitzer (S4G) images, with Qkin, a kinematic torque, calculated via our new method based solely on the kinematics. Using a large number of N-body simulations, we verify this correlation and the measurement of Qb. We also determine bar strengths from ionized gas kinematics and find that they are ˜2.5 larger than those measured from stellar kinematics. Further, inner kinematic features related to bars as predicted by simulations seem to be stronger for stronger bars. We find a stellar angular momentum dip at 0.2±0.1 bar lengths. In these central regions, about half of our sample also exhibits an anti-correlation of h3 - stellar velocity (v/σ). An increased flattening of the stellar σ gradient with increasing bar strength supports the notion of bar-induced orbit mixing. Our results constrain the spatial scales and magnitude of a kinematic influence of bar-driven secular evolution in present day galaxies.

  12. WHICH GALAXIES HOST BARS AND DISKS? A STUDY OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L. E-mail: jalfonso@iac.es

    2010-03-10

    We present a study of the bar fraction in the Coma Cluster galaxies based on a sample of {approx}190 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 and observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Survey (ACS). The unprecedented resolution of the HST-ACS images allows us to explore the presence of bars, detected by visual classification, throughout a luminosity range of 9 mag (-23 {approx}< M{sub r} {approx}< -14), permitting us to study the poor known region of dwarf galaxies. We find that bars are hosted by galaxies in a tight range of both luminosities (-22 {approx}< M{sub r} {approx}< -17) and masses (10{sup 9}{approx}galaxies. In addition, we find that the bar fraction does not vary significantly when going from the center to the cluster outskirts, implying that cluster environment plays a second-order role in bar formation/evolution. The shape of the bar fraction distribution with respect to both luminosity and mass is well matched by the luminosity distribution of disk galaxies in Coma, indicating that bars are good tracers of cold stellar disks. We discuss the implications of our results for the formation and evolution scenarios of bars and disks.

  13. Barred Galaxy Photometry: Comparing results from the Cananea sample with N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Gadotti, D. A.; Carrasco, L.; Bosma, A.; de Souza, R. E.; Recillas, E.

    2009-11-01

    We compare the results of the photometrical analysis of barred galaxies with those of a similar analysis from N-body simulations. The photometry is for a sample of nine barred galaxies observed in the J and K[s] bands with the CANICA near infrared (NIR) camera at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The comparison includes radial ellipticity profiles and surface brightness (density for the N-body galaxies) profiles along the bar major and minor axes. We find very good agreement, arguing that the exchange of angular momentum within the galaxy plays a determinant role in the evolution of barred galaxies.

  14. Galaxy Zoo 2: A Study of Bar Fraction Versus Stellar Mass and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, S.; Lintott, C.; Schawinski, K.; Smith, A.; Whyte, L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    Galaxy Zoo has involved ¼ million of the public through the Internet in providing morphological classifications of nearly a million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Galaxy Zoo 2 is a follow on project and has already recorded more than 40 million detailed morphological classifications on the brightest 250,000 galaxies in the SDSS. Among the most interesting products is a catalog of 10,000 barred spirals - an order of magnitude increase on the sample sizes used in most current population studies of barred spirals. In this poster we present a first look at the properties of this catalog focusing in particular on the fraction of spirals with bars as a function of environment, stellar mass and star formation history. Barred spirals are a sensitive indicator of the dynamical state of a galaxy and we discuss the implications for the evolution of the spiral population.

  15. On the offset of barred galaxies from the black hole M {sub BH}-σ relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Valluri, Monica; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P. E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu

    2013-12-01

    We use collisionless N-body simulations to determine how the growth of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) influences the nuclear kinematics in both barred and unbarred galaxies. In the presence of a bar, the increase in the velocity dispersion σ (within the effective radius) due to the growth of an SMBH is on average ≲ 10%, whereas the increase is only ≲ 4% in an unbarred galaxy. In a barred galaxy, the increase results from a combination of three separate factors: (1) orientation and inclination effects; (2) angular momentum transport by the bar that results in an increase in the central mass density; and (3) an increase in the vertical and radial velocity anisotropy of stars in the vicinity of the SMBH. In contrast, the growth of the SMBH in an unbarred galaxy causes the velocity distribution in the inner part of the nucleus to become less radially anisotropic. The increase in σ following the growth of the SMBH is insensitive to a variation of a factor of 10 in the final mass of the SMBH, showing that it is the growth process rather than the actual SMBH mass that alters bar evolution in a way that increases σ. We argue that using an axisymmetric stellar dynamical modeling code to measure SMBH masses in barred galaxies could result in a slight overestimate of the derived M {sub BH}, especially if a constant M/L ratio is assumed. We conclude that the growth of a black hole in the presence of a bar could result in an increase in σ that is roughly 4%-8% larger than the increase that occurs in an axisymmetric system. While the increase in σ due to SMBH growth in a barred galaxy might partially account for the claimed offset of barred galaxies and pseudo bulges from the M {sub BH}-σ relation obtained for elliptical galaxies and classical bulges in unbarred galaxies, it is inadequate to account for all of the offset.

  16. A Study of Bar Strengths in Early-Type Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, Ronald J.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Knapen, Johan H.

    2009-02-01

    Angular momentum exchange between a bar and a massive halo is thought to be responsible for producing strong bars in disk galaxies (Athanassoula, 2003), while gas transport to the center is believed to weaken or even dissolve bars (Bournaud and Combes 2002). We are carrying out a systematic survey of early-type disk galaxies with the main emphasis to derive the distribution of their bar strengths and to examine their Fourier amplitude properties. We propose to use FLAMINGOS with the KPNO 2.1m to obtain 2.2(micron) K_s-band observations of 16 galaxies for the ``Near-Infrared S0 Survey", a project already in progress to measure the bulge, disk, and bar properties of a statistically well-defined sample of 184 galaxies in the type range S0^- to Sa, including some possibly mis-classified elliptical galaxies. The principal goals of the survey, which was started 5 years ago and is now 90% completed, are to allow us to (1) compare relative Fourier near- IR intensity profiles of observed early-type galaxy bars with equivalent Fourier mass profiles of various Athanassoula models; (2) derive the distribution of bar strengths for the early-type sample and compare it with the known distribution for spirals; and (3) examine the properties of bulges and disks in early-type galaxies in order to better understand the origin of bulges (classical verus pseudo) in such galaxies. Our study is the first attempt to quantify bar strength in S0 galaxies. We are asking for enough KPNO 2.1m time to help complete our survey.

  17. THE MASS PROFILE AND SHAPE OF BARS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G): SEARCH FOR AN AGE INDICATOR FOR BARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Zaritsky, Dennis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Holwerda, Benne; Ho, Luis C.; Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Knapen, Johan H.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Hinz, Joannah L.; Buta, Ronald J.; Kim, Minjin; Madore, Barry F.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We have measured the radial light profiles and global shapes of bars using two-dimensional 3.6 μm image decompositions for 144 face-on barred galaxies from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. The bar surface brightness profile is correlated with the stellar mass and bulge-to-total (B/T) ratio of their host galaxies. Bars in massive and bulge-dominated galaxies (B/T > 0.2) show a flat profile, while bars in less massive, disk-dominated galaxies (B/T ∼ 0) show an exponential, disk-like profile with a wider spread in the radial profile than in the bulge-dominated galaxies. The global two-dimensional shapes of bars, however, are rectangular/boxy, independent of the bulge or disk properties. We speculate that because bars are formed out of disks, bars initially have an exponential (disk-like) profile that evolves over time, trapping more disk stars to boxy bar orbits. This leads bars to become stronger and have flatter profiles. The narrow spread of bar radial profiles in more massive disks suggests that these bars formed earlier (z > 1), while the disk-like profiles and a larger spread in the radial profile in less massive systems imply a later and more gradual evolution, consistent with the cosmological evolution of bars inferred from observational studies. Therefore, we expect that the flatness of the bar profile can be used as a dynamical age indicator of the bar to measure the time elapsed since the bar formation. We argue that cosmic gas accretion is required to explain our results on bar profile and the presence of gas within the bar region.

  18. Central enhancement of the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, E.; Zurita, A.; Pérez, I.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Coelho, P. R. T.; Gadotti, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Bar-induced gas inflows towards galaxy centres are recognised as a key agent for the secular evolution of galaxies. One immediate consequence of this inflow is the accumulation of gas in the centre of galaxies where it can form stars and alter the chemical and physical properties. Aims: Our aim is to study whether the properties of the ionised gas in the central parts of barred galaxies are altered by the presence of a bar and whether the change in central properties is related to bar and/or parent galaxy properties. Methods: We use a sample of nearby face-on disc galaxies with available SDSS spectra, morphological decomposition, and information on the stellar population of their bulges, to measure the internal Balmer extinction from the Hα to Hβ line ratio, star formation rate, and relevant line ratios to diagnose chemical abundances and gas density. Results: The distributions of all the parameters analysed (internal Balmer extinction at Hβ (c(Hβ)), star formation rate per unit area, electron density, [N ii]λ6583/Hα emission-line ratio, ionisation parameter, and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) abundance ratio) are different for barred and unbarred galaxies, except for the R23 metallicity tracer and the oxygen abundance obtained from photoionisation models. The median values of the distributions of these parameters point towards (marginally) larger dust content, star formation rate per unit area, electron density, and ionisation parameter in the centres of barred galaxies than in their unbarred counterparts. The most remarkable difference between barred and unbarred galaxies appears in the [N ii]λ6583/Hα line ratio that is, on average, ~25% higher in barred galaxies, due to an increased N/O abundance ratio in the centres of these galaxies compared to the unbarred ones. We analyse these differences as a function of galaxy morphological type (as traced by bulge-to-disc light ratios and bulge mass), total stellar mass, and bulge Sérsic index. We observe an

  19. Tidally Induced Bars in Dwarf Galaxies on Different Orbits around a Milky Way-like Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Grzegorz; Łokas, Ewa L.; Athanassoula, E.

    2017-06-01

    Bars in galaxies may develop through a global instability or as a result of an interaction with another system. We study bar formation in disky dwarf galaxies orbiting a Milky Way-like galaxy. We employ N-body simulations to study the impact of the initial orbital parameters: the size of the dwarf galaxy orbit, and the inclination of its disk with respect to the orbital plane. In all cases, a bar develops in the center of the dwarf during the first pericenter on its orbit around the host. Between subsequent pericenter passages, the bars are stable, but at the pericenters, they are usually weakened and shortened. The initial properties and details of the further evolution of the bars depend heavily on the orbital configuration. We find that for the exactly prograde orientation, the strongest bar is formed for the intermediate-sized orbit. On the tighter orbit, the disk is too disturbed and stripped to form a strong bar. On the wider orbit, the tidal interaction is too weak. The dependence on the disk inclination is such that weaker bars form in more inclined disks. The bars experience either a very weak buckling or none at all. We do not observe any secular evolution, possibly because the dwarfs are perturbed at each pericenter passage. The rotation speed of the bars can be classified as slow (R CR/l bar ˜ 2-3). We attribute this to the loss of a significant fraction of the disk rotation during the encounter with the host galaxy.

  20. The effect of supernova rate on the magnetic field evolution in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulpa-Dybeł, K.; Nowak, N.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Hanasz, M.; Siejkowski, H.; Kulesza-Żydzik, B.

    2015-03-01

    Context. For the first time, our magnetohydrodynamical numerical calculations provide results for a three-dimensional model of barred galaxies involving a cosmic-ray driven dynamo process that depends on star formation rates. Furthermore, we argue that the cosmic-ray driven dynamo can account for a number of magnetic features in barred galaxies, such as magnetic arms observed along the gaseous arms, magnetic arms in the inter-arm regions, polarized emission that is at the strongest in the central part of the galaxy, where the bar is situated, polarized emission that forms ridges coinciding with the dust lanes along the leading edges of the bar, as well as their very strong total radio intensity. Aims: Our numerical model probes what kind of physical processes could be responsible for the magnetic field topology observed in barred galaxies (modes, etc.). We compare our modelled results directly with observations, constructing models of high-frequency (Faraday rotation-free) polarized radio emission maps out of the simulated magnetic field and cosmic ray pattern in our modeled galaxy. We also take the effects of projection into account as well as the limited resolution. Methods: We applied global 3D numerical calculations of a cosmic-ray driven dynamo in barred galaxies with different physical input parameters such as the supernova (SN) rate. Results: Our simulation results lead to the modelled magnetic field structure similar to the one observed on the radio maps of barred galaxies. Moreover, they cast new light on a number of properties in barred and spiral galaxies, such as fast exponential growth of the total magnetic energy to the present values. The quadrupole modes of magnetic field are often identified in barred galaxies, but the dipole modes (e.g., in NGC 4631) are found very seldom. In our simulations the quadrupole configuration dominates and the dipole configuration only appears once in the case of model S100, apparently as a consequence of the choice of

  1. The frequency and stellar-mass dependence of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter; Debattista, Victor P.

    2017-06-01

    From a sample of 84 local barred, moderately inclined disc galaxies, we determine the fraction that hosts boxy or peanut-shaped (B/P) bulges (the vertically thickened inner parts of bars). We find that the frequency of B/P bulges in barred galaxies is a very strong function of stellar mass: 79 per cent of the bars in galaxies with log (M⋆/M⊙)w ≳ 10.4 have B/P bulges, while only 12 per cent of those in lower mass galaxies do. (We find a similar dependence in data published by Yoshino & Yamauchi for edge-on galaxies.) There are also strong trends with other galaxy parameters - e.g. Hubble type: 77 per cent of S0-Sbc bars, but only 15 per cent of Sc-Sd bars, have B/P bulges - but these appear to be side effects of the correlations of these parameters with stellar mass. In particular, despite indications from models that a high gas content can suppress bar buckling, we find no evidence that the (atomic) gas mass ratio M_{H I + He}/M_{\\star } affects the presence of B/P bulges, once the stellar-mass dependence is controlled for. The semimajor axes of B/P bulges range from one-quarter to three-quarters of the full bar size, with a mean of Rbox/Lbar = 0.42 ± 0.09 and Rbox/aɛ = 0.53 ± 0.12 (where Rbox is the size of the B/P bulge and aɛ and Lbar are lower and upper limits on the size of the bar).

  2. Simulating a slow bar in the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chequers, Matthew H.; Spekkens, Kristine; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Gilhuly, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    We present a disc-halo N-body model of the low surface brightness galaxy UGC 628, one of the few systems that harbours a `slow' bar with a ratio of corotation radius to bar length of R ≡ R_c/a_b ˜ 2. We select our initial conditions using SDSS DR10 photometry, a physically motivated radially variable mass-to-light ratio profile, and rotation curve data from the literature. A global bar instability grows in our submaximal disc model, and the disc morphology and dynamics agree broadly with the photometry and kinematics of UGC 628 at times between peak bar strength and the onset of buckling. Prior to bar formation, the disc and halo contribute roughly equally to the potential in the galaxy's inner region, giving the disc enough self-gravity for bar modes to grow. After bar formation, there is significant mass redistribution, creating a baryon-dominated inner and dark matter-dominated outer disc. This implies that, unlike most other low surface brightness galaxies, UGC 628 is not dark matter dominated everywhere. Our model nonetheless implies that UGC 628 falls on the same relationship between dark matter fraction and rotation velocity found for high surface brightness galaxies, and lends credence to the argument that the disc mass fraction measured at the location where its contribution to the potential peaks is not a reliable indicator of its dynamical importance at all radii.

  3. A New Dataset of Automatically Extracted Structure of Arms and Bars in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Wayne B.; Davis, D.

    2012-05-01

    We present an algorithm capable of automatically extracting quantitative structure (bars and arms) from images of spiral galaxies. We have run the algorithm on 30,000 galaxies and compared the results to human classifications generously provided pre-publication by the Galaxy Zoo 2 team. In all available measures, our algorithm agrees with the humans about as well as they agree with each other. In addition we provide objective, quantitative measures not available in human classifications. We provide a preliminary analysis of this dataset to see how the properties of arms and bars vary as a function of basic variables such as environment, redshift, absolute magnitude, and color. We also show how structure can vary across wavebands as well as along and across individual arms and bars. Finally, we present preliminary results of a measurement of the total angular momentum present in our observed set of galaxies with an eye towards determining if there is a preferred "handedness" in the universe.

  4. Weakly barred early-type ringed galaxies. III. The remarkable outer-ringed S0+ galaxy NGC 7020

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The southern S0+ galaxy NGC 7020 presents an unusual morphology: it includes a very regular outer ring which is completely detached and which envelops an inner ring/lens zone with an exotic hexagonal shape. The ring has a high contrast compared with those usually observed in barred galaxies, yet NGC 7020 is not obviously barred. In this paper, the structure of this galaxy is studied by means of UBVRI CCD surface photometry. The photometry reveals a complex system and shows that most of the recent star formation in the galaxy has taken place in the outer ring. Two bright knots are found on the major axis of the hexagonal zone that appear to be true enhancements of old stars rather than young associations. Between these knots and the bulge there are dips in the surface brightness and a clear zone of rectangular isophotes. 56 refs.

  5. Weakly barred early-type ringed galaxies. II. The double-ringed S0(+) galaxy NGC 7187

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, R. Alabama Univ., Tuscaloosa )

    1990-05-01

    CCD surface photometry of the southern ringed S0(+) galaxy NGC 7187, a particularly good example of a system with two bright clear rings with significantly different apparent shapes and almost no sign of a bar, is presented. The galaxy has below average luminosity and the rings are small compared to those observed in more typical (R)SB(r) type galaxies, even though the ratio of their sizes is similar to those in such galaxies. Bulge isophotes reveal the existence of two nearly orthogonal ovals, one having the same shape and position angle as isophotes of the outer disk. The central oval shows significant m = 4 deviations from elliptical isophote shapes and could be a nuclear bar. The rings are slightly blue enhancements compared to their surroundings. The mean colors of both rings do not imply exceptionally high star formation at the present time. 44 refs.

  6. Weakly barred early-type ringed galaxies. IV. The double-ringed SO(+) galaxy NGC 7702

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, R. )

    1991-03-01

    UBVRI surface photometry of NGC 7702, obtained with a CCD detector on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope and with photographic plates on the 4-m telescope at CTIO, is reported. The data are presented in tables, graphs, and contour maps and characterized in detail. NGC 7702 is found to be a true S0(+) galaxy with a bright high-contrast inner ring and a faint low-contrast outer ring; the inner ring is significantly elongated relative to typical SB inner rings and has colors which suggest a burst of star formation less than 2 Gyr ago. A small oval revealed by the bulge isophotes in the inner 4 arcsec radius is attributed to a nuclear bar. 52 refs.

  7. Near-infrared surface photometry of a sample of barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; Athanassoula, E.; Carrasco, L.; Bosma, A.; de Souza, R. E.; Recillas, E.

    2007-11-01

    We have obtained deep J and Ks images of a sample of nine barred galaxies in order to collect a reliable and homogeneous set of images to which N-body simulations of barred galaxies will be compared. The observations were performed using the new near-infrared camera available at the 2.1-m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. We present the results of surface photometry techniques applied to the observed images, as well as to the deprojected images. These results include radial profiles of surface brightness (elliptically averaged), colour, position angle, ellipticity and the b4 Fourier component. In addition, we present isophotal maps, colour maps, surface brightness profiles along the bar major and minor axes, characteristic radial scalelengths and bar length estimates. We discuss how projection effects can influence these measurements and the uncertainties introduced by deprojecting galaxy images. We show that analytical expressions can be used to obtain reliable estimates of deprojected bar lengths, ellipticities and position angles directly from the observed images. These expressions are based on the assumption that the outer parts of the bar are vertically thin, as shown by theoretical work. The usefulness of our data in addressing issues on bar formation and evolution is also discussed. In particular, we present results showing a steep drop in the ellipticity profile, as expected for bar formation processes in which the dark matter halo plays a fundamental role. Furthermore, we show that the location of this drop is a good indicator of the end of the bar in strongly barred galaxies, as predicted by numerical models.

  8. Effects of spiral arms on star formation in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the effect of spiral arms on the star formation rate (SFR) in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We find that spiral arms can be an efficient means of gas transport from the outskirts to the central parts, provided that the arms are rotating slower than the bar. While the ring star formation in models with no arms or corotating arms is active only during around the bar growth phase, arm-driven gas accretion both significantly enhances and prolongs the ring star formation in models with slow-rotating arms. The arm-enhanced SFR is larger by a factor of ∼3-20 than in the no-arm model, with larger values corresponding to stronger and slower arms. Arm-induced mass inflows also make dust lanes stronger. Nuclear rings in slow-arm models are ∼45% larger than in the no-arm counterparts. Star clusters that form in a nuclear ring exhibit an age gradient in the azimuthal direction only when the SFR is small, whereas no notable age gradient is found in the radial direction for models with arm-induced star formation.

  9. The Interplay between Bulge-Disk-Bar Photometric Measures in the Most Isolated Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbala, Adriana; Sulentic, J. W.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2008-05-01

    We perform bulge-disk-bar decomposition using the BUDDA code (de Souza, Gadotti, dos Anjos 2004) on i-band SDSS images for a sample isolated galaxies from the AMIGA sample (Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2004). We studied 100 of the isolated galaxies classified Sb-Sc that were also included in SDSS. This appears to be the dominant population of isolated galaxies representing 2/3 of the reasonably complete AMIGA sample. We report a series of correlations and scaling relations between the photometrically derived parameters describing the three main structural components i.e. bulges, disks and bars. We illustrate how various measures that quantify the structure of galaxies evolve along the Sb-Sbc-Sc morphological sequence. Comparison with other studies seems to suggest that both the frecquency of barred galaxies and the bar sizes are sensitive to environment. Additionally our results suggest that most galaxies in our sample host pseudobulges rather than classical bulges, consistent with the idea that classical bulges are environmentally formed and fostered.

  10. The incidence of bar-like kinematic flows in CALIFA galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, L.; Spekkens, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; Kalinova, V.; Marino, R. A.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.

    2015-08-01

    We carry out a direct search for bar-like non-circular flows in intermediate-inclination, gas-rich disc galaxies with a range of morphological types and photometric bar classifications from the first data release (DR1) of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Spectroscopy Area (CALIFA) survey. We use the DISKFIT algorithm to apply rotation only and bisymmetric flow models to H α velocity fields for 49/100 CALIFA DR1 systems that meet our selection criteria. We find satisfactory fits for a final sample of 37 systems. DISKFIT is sensitive to the radial or tangential components of a bar-like flow with amplitudes greater than 15 km s-1 across at least two independent radial bins in the fit, or ˜2.25 kpc at the characteristic final sample distance of ˜75 Mpc. The velocity fields of 25/37 {(67.6^{+6.6}_{-8.5} per cent)} galaxies are best characterized by pure rotation, although only 17/25 {(68.0^{+7.7}_{-10.4} per cent)} of them have sufficient H α emission near the galaxy centre to afford a search for non-circular flows. We detect non-circular flows in the remaining 12/37 {(32.4^{+8.5}_{-6.6} per cent)} galaxies. We conclude that the non-circular flows detected in 11/12 {(91.7^{+2.8}_{-14.9} per cent)} systems stem from bars. Galaxies with intermediate (AB) bars are largely undetected, and our detection thresholds therefore represent upper limits to the amplitude of the non-circular flows therein. We find 2/23 {(8.7^{+9.6}_{-2.9} per cent)} galaxies that show non-circular motions consistent with a bar-like flow, yet no photometric bar is evident. This suggests that in ˜10 per cent of galaxies either the existence of a bar may be missed completely in photometry or other processes may drive bar-like flows and thus secular galaxy evolution.

  11. The impact of bars on the radial distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Karapetyan, A. G.; Barkhudaryan, L. V.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Petrosian, A. R.; Adibekyan, V.; Aramyan, L. S.; Turatto, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of bars on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies. We find that in Sa-Sbc galaxies, the radial distribution of core-collapse (CC) SNe in barred hosts is inconsistent with that in unbarred ones, while the distributions of SNe Ia are not significantly different. At the same time, the radial distributions of both types of SNe in Sc-Sm galaxies are not affected by bars. We propose that the additional mechanism shaping the distributions of Type Ia and CC SNe can be explained within the framework of substantial suppression of massive star formation in the radial range swept by strong bars, particularly in early-type spirals. The radial distribution of CC SNe in unbarred Sa-Sbc galaxies is more centrally peaked and inconsistent with that in unbarred Sc-Sm hosts, while the distribution of SNe Ia in unbarred galaxies is not affected by host morphology. These results can be explained by the distinct distributions of massive stars in the discs of early-and late-type spirals.

  12. Models of bars - I. Flattish profiles for early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. A.; Evans, N. W.

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a simple family of barred galaxy models with flat rotation curves. They are built by convolving the axisymmetric logarithmic model with a needle density. The density contours in the bar region are highly triaxial and elongated, but become spheroidal in the outer parts. The mass distribution differs markedly from the elliptical shape assumed in other analytical models, like Ferrers or Freeman bars. The surface density profile along the bar major axis is flattish, as befits models for bars in early-type galaxies (SB0, SBa). The 2D orbital structure of the models is analysed with surfaces of section and characteristic diagrams and it reveals qualitatively new features. For some pattern speeds, additional Lagrange points can exist along the major axis and give rise to off-centred, trapped orbits. When the bar is weak, the orbital structure is very simple, comprising just prograde, aligned x1 orbits and retrograde anti-aligned x4 orbits. As the bar strength increases, the x1 family becomes unstable and vanishes, with propeller orbits dominating the characteristic diagram.

  13. Bar-driven evolution and quenching of spiral galaxies in cosmological simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoso, Daniele; Bonoli, Silvia; Dotti, Massimo; Mayer, Lucio; Madau, Piero; Bellovary, Jillian

    2017-03-01

    We analyse the outputs of the cosmological 'zoom-in' hydrodynamical simulation ErisBH to study a strong stellar bar which naturally emerges in the late evolution of the simulated Milky Way-type galaxy. We focus on the analysis of the formation and evolution of the bar and on its effects on the galactic structure, the gas distribution and the star formation. A large central region in the ErisBH disc becomes bar unstable after z ∼ 1.4, but a clear bar starts to grow significantly only after z ≃ 0.4, possibly triggered by the interaction with a massive satellite. At z ≃ 0.1, the bar stabilizes and reaches its maximum radial extent of l ≈ 2.2 kpc. As the bar grows, it becomes prone to buckling instability. The actual buckling event, observable at z ≃ 0.1, results in the formation of a boxy-peanut bulge clearly discernible at z = 0. During its early growth, the bar exerts a strong torque on the gas and drives gas inflows that enhance the nuclear star formation on sub-kpc scales. Later on, as the bar reaches its maximum length and strength, the gas within its extent is nearly all consumed into stars, leaving behind a gas-depleted region in the central ∼2 kpc. Observations would more likely identify a prominent, large-scale bar at the stage when the galactic central region has already been gas depleted, giving a hint at the fact that bar-driven quenching may play an important role in the evolution of disc-dominated galaxies.

  14. IRAS observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The IRAS survey gives an unbiased view of the infrared properties of the active galaxies. Seyfert galaxies occupy much the same area in color-color plots as to normal infrared bright galaxies, but extend the range towards flatter 60 to 25 mm slopes. Statistically the Seyfert 1 galaxies can be distinguished from the Seyfert 2 galaxies, lying predominantly closer to the area with constant slopes between 25 and 200 mm. The infrared measurements of the Seyfert galaxies cannot distinguish between the emission mechanisms in these objects although they agree with the currently popular ideas; they do provide a measure of the total luminosity of the Seyferts. The quasar's position in the color-color diagrams continue the trend of the Seyferts. The quasar 3C48 is shown to be exceptional among the radio loud quasars in that it has a high infrared luminosity which dominates the power output of the quasar and is most likely associated with the underlying host galaxy.

  15. Stellar population gradients in galaxy discs from the CALIFA survey. The influence of bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pérez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Zibetti, S.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Amorim, A.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galazzi, A.; García Benito, R.; Gil de Paz, A.; González Delgado, R.; Husemann, B.; Iglesias-Páramo, Jorge; Jungwiert, B.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.

    2014-10-01

    While studies of gas-phase metallicity gradients in disc galaxies are common, very little has been done towards the acquisition of stellar abundance gradients in the same regions. We present here a comparative study of the stellar metallicity and age distributions in a sample of 62 nearly face-on, spiral galaxies with and without bars, using data from the CALIFA survey. We measure the slopes of the gradients and study their relation with other properties of the galaxies. We find that the mean stellar age and metallicity gradients in the disc are shallow and negative. Furthermore, when normalized to the effective radius of the disc, the slope of the stellar population gradients does not correlate with the mass or with the morphological type of the galaxies. In contrast to this, the values of both age and metallicity at ~2.5 scale lengths correlate with the central velocity dispersion in a similar manner to the central values of the bulges, although bulges show, on average, older ages and higher metallicities than the discs. One of the goals of the present paper is to test the theoretical prediction that non-linear coupling between the bar and the spiral arms is an efficient mechanism for producing radial migrations across significant distances within discs. The process of radial migration should flatten the stellar metallicity gradient with time and, therefore, we would expect flatter stellar metallicity gradients in barred galaxies. However, we do not find any difference in the metallicity or age gradients between galaxies with and without bars. We discuss possible scenarios that can lead to this lack of difference. Tables 1-3 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. A Technique for Separating the Gravitational Torques of Bars and Spirals in Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, R.; Block, D. L.; Knapen, J. H.

    2003-09-01

    We describe a Fourier-based method of separating bars from spirals in near-infrared images. The method takes advantage of the fact that a bar is typically a feature with a relatively fixed position angle and uses the simple assumption that the relative Fourier amplitudes due to the bar decline with radius past a maximum in the same or a similar manner as they rose to that maximum. With such an assumption, the bar can be extrapolated into the spiral region and removed from an image, leaving just the spiral and the axisymmetric background disk light. We refer to such a bar-subtracted image as the ``spiral plus disk'' image. The axisymmetric background (Fourier index m=0 image) can then be added back to the bar image to give the ``bar plus disk'' image. The procedure allows us to estimate the maximum gravitational torque per unit mass per unit square of the circular speed for the bar and spiral forcing separately, parameters that quantitatively define the bar strength Qb and the spiral strength Qs following the recent study of Buta & Block. For the first time, we are able to measure the torques generated by spiral arms alone, and we can now define spiral torque classes, in the same manner as bar torque classes are delineated. We outline the complete procedure here using a 2.1 μm image of NGC 6951, a prototypical SAB(rs)bc spiral having an absolute blue magnitude of -21 and a maximum rotation velocity of 230 km s-1. Comparison between a rotation curve predicted from the m=0 near-infrared light distribution and an observed rotation curve suggests that NGC 6951 is maximum disk in its bar and main spiral region, implying that our assumption of a constant mass-to-light ratio in our analysis is probably reliable. We justify our assumption on how to make the bar extrapolation using an analysis of NGC 4394, a barred spiral with only weak near-infrared spiral structure, and we justify the number of needed Fourier terms using NGC 1530, one of the most strongly barred galaxies

  17. SAMI Galaxy Survey: Disk and Bar Kinematics, Mass Decompositions with Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Fogarty, Lisa; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team, GAMA Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey (SGS, P.I. Scott Croom, U. of Sydney) uses a custom multiple-integral-field feed to the Australian Astronomical Telescope (AAT) AAOmega dual-spectrograph to map the inner 15 arcsec diameter of 3400 galaxies a dozen at a time. The SGS spans environmental densities up to clusters, out to z = 0.1. (See http://sami-survey.org/edr for ~100 galaxies in the public Early Release Data.) We discuss circular speed curves (CSCs) of gas and stars derived from non-parametric fits to a flat disk in ~130 late-type barred and unbarred galaxies across the full mass range of the SGS, and at radii up to 4 r_e. Gas and stellar rotational fields agree well, but can differ substantially in line of nodes. At least 2/3 of the fitted CSCs are compatible with the ``universal rotation curve''. Velocity model residuals are compared to residuals from single-Sersic profile fits to SDSS photometry that highlight light asymmetries. For galaxies where photometry minus model residuals delineate stellar bars, the VIKING Z-band image is fit with a dual-Sersic form, one component addressing the bulge/bar, then gas kinematics are refit to include a bisymmetric (m=2) velocity distortion in the disk. This distortion often aligns with photometric residuals, and has amplitude at most 80 km/s but usually <20 km/s in the disk plane. Thus we debias the CSC from, and map the effects of, gas streaming due to a bar/oval. Because of generally low in-plane velocity distortions, only 2 of 18 barred galaxies have shock-indicating, emission-line flux ratios that correlate with m=2 spatio-kinematical variations and concentrate near the bar ends. Each dual- or single-Sersic fit is mapped into mass using one M/L constant with radius and the non-axisymmetric or axisymmetric CSC to decompose the mass distribution into luminous bulge and disk, and dark halo components. Some fits require a maximal luminous disk, others require a non-negligible or even dominant dark halo within the SAMI aperture. We

  18. Evidence of bar-driven secular evolution in the gamma-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy FBQS J164442.5+261913

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; León Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Añorve, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present near-infrared imaging of FBQS J164442.5+261913, one of the few γ-ray emitting narrowline Seyfert 1 galaxies detected at high significance level by Fermi Large Area Telescope. This study is the first morphological analysis performed of this source and the third performed of this class of objects. Conducting a detailed 2D modelling of its surface brightness distribution and analysing its J - Ks colour gradients, we find that FBQS J164442.5+261913 is statistically most likely hosted by a barred lenticular galaxy (SB0). We find evidence that the bulge in the host galaxy of FBQS J164442.5+261913 is not classical but pseudo, against the paradigm of powerful relativistic jets exclusively launched by giant ellipticals. Our analysis also reveals the presence of a ring with diameter equalling the bar length (rbar = 8.13 ± 0.25 kpc), whose origin might be a combination of bar-driven gas rearrangement and minor mergers, as revealed by the apparent merger remnant in the J-band image. In general, our results suggest that the prominent bar in the host galaxy of FBQS J164442.5+261913 has mostly contributed to its overall morphology driving a strong secular evolution, which plays a crucial role in the onset of the nuclear activity and the growth of the massive bulge. Minor mergers, in conjunction, are likely to provide the necessary fresh supply of gas to the central regions of the host galaxy.

  19. Dynamics of stars around spiral arms in an N-body/SPH simulated barred spiral galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Robert J. J.; Kawata, Daisuke; Cropper, Mark

    2012-10-01

    We run N-body smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a Milky Way-sized galaxy. The code takes into account hydrodynamics, self-gravity, star formation, supernova and stellar wind feedback, radiative cooling and metal enrichment. The simulated galaxy is a barred spiral galaxy consisting of a stellar and gas disc, enveloped in a static dark matter halo. Similar to what is found in our pure N-body simulation of a non-barred galaxy in Grand et al., we find that the spiral arms are transient features whose pattern speeds decrease with radius, in such a way that the pattern speed is similar to the rotation of star particles. Compared to the non-barred case, we find that the spiral arm pattern speed is slightly faster than the rotation speed of star particles: the bar appears to boost the pattern speed ahead of the rotational velocity. We trace particle motion around the spiral arms at different radii, and demonstrate that there are star particles that are drawn towards and join the arm from behind (in front of) the arm and migrate towards the outer (inner) regions of the disc until the arm disappears as a result of their transient nature. We see this migration over the entire radial range analysed, which is a consequence of the spiral arm rotating at similar speeds to star particles at all radii, which is inconsistent with the prediction of classical density wave theory. The bar does not prevent this systematic radial migration, which is shown to largely preserve circular orbits. We also demonstrate that there is no significant offset of different star-forming tracers across the spiral arm, which is also inconsistent with the prediction of classical density wave theory.

  20. Kinematic Properties of Double-barred Galaxies: Simulations versus Integral-field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P.; Shen, Juntai; Cappellari, Michele

    2016-09-01

    Using high-resolution N-body simulations, we recently reported that a dynamically cool inner disk embedded in a hotter outer disk can naturally generate a steady double-barred (S2B) structure. Here we study the kinematics of these S2B simulations, and compare them to integral-field observations from ATLAS 3D and SAURON. We show that S2B galaxies exhibit several distinct kinematic features, namely: (1) significantly distorted isovelocity contours at the transition region between the two bars, (2) peaks in σ LOS along the minor axis of inner bars, which we term “σ-humps,” that are often accompanied by ring/spiral-like features of increased σ LOS, (3) {h}3{--}\\bar{v} anti-correlations in the region of the inner bar for certain orientations, and (4) rings of positive h 4 when viewed at low inclinations. The most impressive of these features are the σ-humps these evolve with the inner bar, oscillating in strength just as the inner bar does as it rotates relative to the outer bar. We show that, in cylindrical coordinates, the inner bar has similar streaming motions and velocity dispersion properties as normal large-scale bars, except for σ z , which exhibits peaks on the minor axis, i.e., humps. These σ z humps are responsible for producing the σ-humps. For three well-resolved early-type S2Bs (NGC 2859, NGC 2950, and NGC 3941) and a potential S2B candidate (NGC 3384), the S2B model qualitatively matches the integral-field data well, including the “σ-hollows” previously identified. We also discuss the kinematic effect of a nuclear disk in S2Bs.

  1. A neutral hydrogen study of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 3319

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, E. M.; Gottesman, S. T.

    1998-03-01

    Neutral hydrogen line observations of the late-type barred spiral galaxy NGC 3319 are presented. The distribution and kinematics of the galaxy are studied using the Very Large Array, with spatial resolutions between 11 and 50 arcsec and a channel separation of 10.33 km/s. As is typical for late-type galaxies, NGC 3319 is rich in H I, with a gaseous bar and spiral features. Several large, low-density regions are present, and the H I spiral structure is distorted, especially in the south. The gas distribution is asymmetric and extends significantly further to the southeast due to a long, off-center tail. Noncircular motions caused by the bar, spiral structure, and low-density regions are present in the radial velocity field, complicating the rotation curve analysis. These nonaxisymmetric structures cause the values of the position angle and inclination derived from the velocity field to vary across the disk. In addition, beyond a radius of 180 arcsec, the velocity field is severely perturbed on the approaching (southern) side of the galaxy, and the disk becomes nonplanar. However, the galaxy does not show the typical 'integral sign' shape of a warped system. We detect a small system approximately 11 arcmin south of the center of NGC 3319. It is seen in eight velocity channels and is coincident with a small, resolved object in the Palomar Sky Survey. A tidal interaction between this object and NGC 3319 is the most likely cause of the distorted spiral structure, the H I tail, and the velocity perturbations found in the southern half of the galaxy. Infalling tidal debris from such an event may account for the large, low-density regions found in the disk, several of which show kinematic evidence that suggest they are expanding superstructures.

  2. Stellar mass distribution of S4G disk galaxies and signatures of bar-induced secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, S.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Models of galaxy formation in a cosmological framework need to be tested against observational constraints, such as the average stellar density profiles (and their dispersion) as a function of fundamental galaxy properties (e.g. the total stellar mass). Simulation models predict that the torques produced by stellar bars efficiently redistribute the stellar and gaseous material inside the disk, pushing it outwards or inwards depending on whether it is beyond or inside the bar corotation resonance radius. Bars themselves are expected to evolve, getting longer and narrower as they trap particles from the disk and slow down their rotation speed. Aims: We use 3.6 μm photometry from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to trace the stellar distribution in nearby disk galaxies (z ≈ 0) with total stellar masses 108.5 ≲ M∗/M⊙ ≲ 1011 and mid-IR Hubble types - 3 ≤ T ≤ 10. We characterize the stellar density profiles (Σ∗), the stellar contribution to the rotation curves (V3.6 μm), and the m = 2 Fourier amplitudes (A2) as a function of M∗ and T. We also describe the typical shapes and strengths of stellar bars in the S4G sample and link their properties to the total stellar mass and morphology of their host galaxy. Methods: For 1154 S4G galaxies with disk inclinations lower than 65°, we perform a Fourier decomposition and rescale their images to a common frame determined by the size in physical units, by their disk scalelength, and for 748 barred galaxies by both the length and orientation of their bars. We stack the resized density profiles and images to obtain statistically representative average stellar disks and bars in bins of M∗ and T. Based on the radial force profiles of individual galaxies we calculate the mean stellar contribution to the circular velocity. We also calculate average A2 profiles, where the radius is normalized to R25.5. Furthermore, we infer the gravitational potentials from the synthetic bars to

  3. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. VI. The role of bars in quenching star formation from z = 3 to the present epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Dotti, M.; Fanali, R.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Viscardi, E.; Savorgnan, G.; Boselli, A.; Gutiérrez, L.; Hernández Toledo, H.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the star formation rate per unit stellar mass (sSFR) decreases with increasing mass in normal main-sequence star-forming galaxies. Many processes have been advocated as being responsible for this trend (also known as mass quenching), e.g., feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the formation of classical bulges. In order to improve our insight into the mechanisms regulating the star formation in normal star-forming galaxies across cosmic epochs, we determine a refined star formation versus stellar mass relation in the local Universe. To this end we use the Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey (Hα3) of field galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Coma and Local superclusters. By complementing this local determination with high-redshift measurements from the literature, we reconstruct the star formation history of main-sequence galaxies as a function of stellar mass from the present epoch up to z = 3. In agreement with previous studies, our analysis shows that quenching mechanisms occur above a threshold stellar mass Mknee that evolves with redshift as ∝ (1 + z)2. Moreover, visual morphological classification of individual objects in our local sample reveals a sharp increase in the fraction of visually classified strong bars with mass, hinting that strong bars may contribute to the observed downturn in the sSFR above Mknee. We test this hypothesis using a simple but physically motivated numerical model for bar formation, finding that strong bars can rapidly quench star formation in the central few kpc of field galaxies. We conclude that strong bars contribute significantly to the red colors observed in the inner parts of massive galaxies, although additional mechanisms are likely required to quench the star formation in the outer regions of massive spiral galaxies. Intriguingly, when we extrapolate our model to higher redshifts, we successfully recover the observed

  4. Epsiodic Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, D.J.; Konar, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Machalski, J.; Gupta, Neeraj; Stawarz, L.; Mack, K.-H.; Siemiginowska, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-10-15

    One of the interesting issues in our understanding of active galactic nuclei is the duration of their active phase and whether such activity is episodic. In this paper we summarize our recent results on episodic activity in radio galaxies obtained with the GMRT and the VLA.

  5. Dark matter in the inner parts of barred galaxies: The data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, I.; Márquez, I.; Freeman, K.; Fux, R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents surface photometry (B,V,I,J,H,K) and Hα rotation curves of 27 isolated spiral galaxies. The final goal is to obtain the mass distribution of a sample of isolated spiral galaxies in order to model their gas kinematics. This is then compared to the observed rotation curve, to determine the necessity of a dark halo in the inner parts (Perez et al. 2004, A&A, 424, 799). The azimuthally averaged radial surface brightness profiles and the integrated magnitudes obtained from ellipse fitting are given for each of the sample galaxies. The ellipse fitting technique applied to the light distribution also allowed us to obtain the size of the bar, and the inclination and position angle of the outer isophotes that allow the galaxy deprojection. Using these profiles, 1-D disk-bulge decomposition was performed to obtain the disk scale-length and the bulge effective radius for the different bands. Through the fitting of a parametric function to the observed rotation curve, the maximum rotational velocity and the corresponding radius was obtained. The correlation between the bulge and disk parameters is in agreement with previous studies (de Jong 1996a, A&A, 313, 45; Márquez & Moles 1999, A&A, 344, 421; Baggett et al. 1998, AJ, 116, 1626). Regarding the Kormendy relation (Kormendy 1977, ApJ, 218, 333), in agreement with de Jong, no correlation between the bulge effective radius and its surface brightness is found, possibly due to the small range of bulge magnitudes covered. We find a smaller scatter in the structural relations when compared to non-isolated samples in agreement with Márquez & Moles (1999). Finally, a correlation between the disk scale-length and the bar size is observed, possibly reflecting the rapid growth of a bar.

  6. The BaLROG project - I. Quantifying the influence of bars on the kinematics of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, M. K.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Díaz-García, S.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Knapen, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    We present the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample of 16 morphologically distinct barred spirals to characterize observationally the influence of bars on nearby galaxies. Each galaxy is a mosaic of several pointings observed with the integral-field unit (IFU) SAURON leading to a tenfold sharper spatial resolution (˜100 pc) compared to ongoing IFU surveys. In this paper we focus on the kinematic properties. We calculate the bar strength Q__b from classical torque analysis using 3.6-μm Spitzer (S4G) images, but also develop a new method based solely on the kinematics. A correlation between the two measurements is found and backed up by N-body simulations, verifying the measurement of Q__b. We find that bar strengths from ionized gas kinematics are ˜2.5 larger than those measured from stellar kinematics and that stronger bars have enhanced influence on inner kinematic features. We detect that stellar angular momentum `dips' at 0.2 ± 0.1 bar lengths and half of our sample exhibits an anticorrelation of h3-stellar velocity (v/σ) in these central parts. An increased flattening of the stellar σ gradient with increasing bar strength supports the notion of bar-induced orbit mixing. These measurements set important constraints on the spatial scales, namely an increasing influence in the central regions (0.1-0.5 bar lengths), revealed by kinematic signatures due to bar-driven secular evolution in present-day galaxies.

  7. A photometric study of the peculiar and potentially double ringed, non-barred galaxy: PGC 1000714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu Pakdil, Burçin; Mangedarage, Mithila; Seigar, Marc S.; Treuthardt, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    We present a photometric study of PGC 1000714, a galaxy resembling Hoag's Object with a complete detached outer ring, that has not yet been described in the literature. Since the Hoag-type galaxies are extremely rare and peculiar systems, it is necessary to increase the sample of known objects by performing the detailed studies on the possible candidates to derive conclusions about their nature, evolution and systematic properties. We therefore performed surface photometry of the central body by using the archival near-UV, infrared data and the new optical data (BVRI). This current work has revealed for the first time an elliptical galaxy with two fairly round rings. The central body follows well a r1/4 light profile, with no sign of a bar or stellar disc. By reconstructing the observed spectral energy distribution, we recover the stellar population properties of the central body and the outer ring. Our work suggests different formation histories for the galaxy components. Possible origins of the galaxy are discussed, and we conclude that a recent accretion event is the most plausible scenario that accounts for the observational characteristic of PGC 1000714.

  8. How to bend galaxy disc profiles - II. Stars surfing the bar in Type-III discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herpich, J.; Stinson, G. S.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Dutton, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The radial profiles of stars in disc galaxies are observed to be either purely exponential (Type-I), truncated (Type-II) or antitruncated (Type-III) exponentials. Controlled formation simulations of isolated galaxies can reproduce all of these profile types by varying a single parameter, the initial halo spin. In this paper, we examine these simulations in more detail in an effort to identify the physical mechanism that leads to the formation of Type-III profiles. The stars in the antitruncated outskirts of such discs are now on eccentric orbits, but were born on near-circular orbits at much smaller radii. We show that, and explain how, they were driven to the outskirts via non-linear interactions with a strong and long-lived central bar, which greatly boosted their semimajor axis but also their eccentricity. While bars have been known to cause radial heating and outward migration to stellar orbits, we link this effect to the formation of Type-III profiles. This predicts that the antitruncated parts of galaxies have unusual kinematics for disc-like stellar configurations: high radial velocity dispersions and slow net rotation. Whether such discs exist in nature, can be tested by future observations.

  9. The BaLROG project - II. Quantifying the influence of bars on the stellar populations of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, M. K.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Pérez, I.; Peletier, R.; Vazdekis, A.

    2016-08-01

    We continue the exploration of the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample: 16 large mosaics of barred galaxies observed with the integral field unit Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae. We quantify the influence of bars on the composition of the stellar component. We derive line-strength indices of H β, Fe5015 and Mgb. Based on single stellar population (SSP) models, we calculate ages, metallicities and [Mg/Fe] abundances and their gradients along the bar major and minor axes. The high spatial resolution of our data allows us to identify breaks among index and SSP profiles, commonly at 0.13 ± 0.06 bar length, consistent with kinematic features. Inner gradients are about 10 times steeper than outer gradients and become larger when there is a central rotating component, implying that the gradients are not independent of dynamics and orbits. Central ages appear to be younger for stronger bars. Yet, the bar regions are usually old. We find a flattening of the iron (Fe5015) and magnesium (Mgb) outer gradients along the bar major axis, translating into a flattening of the metallicity gradient. This gradient is found to be 0.03 ± 0.07 dex kpc-1 along the bar major axis while the mean value of the bar minor axis compares well with that of an unbarred control sample and is significantly steeper, namely -0.20 ± 0.04 dex kpc-1. These results confirm recent simulations and discern the important localized influence of bars. The elevated [Mg/Fe] abundances of bars and bulges compared to the lower values of discs suggest an early formation, in particular for early-type galaxies.

  10. Constraints on the Galactic bar from the Hercules stream as traced with RAVE across the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Dehnen, W.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Famaey, B.; Freeman, K.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Minchev, I.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q.; Reid, W. A.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2014-03-01

    Non-axisymmetries in the Galactic potential (spiral arms and bar) induce kinematic groups such as the Hercules stream. Assuming that Hercules is caused by the effects of the outer Lindblad resonance of the Galactic bar, we model analytically its properties as a function of position in the Galaxy and its dependence on the bar's pattern speed and orientation. Using data from the RAVE survey we find that the azimuthal velocity of the Hercules structure decreases as a function of Galactocentric radius, in a manner consistent with our analytical model. This allows us to obtain new estimates of the parameters of the Milky Way's bar. The combined likelihood function of the bar's pattern speed and angle has its maximum for a pattern speed of Ωb = (1.89 ± 0.08) × Ω0, where Ω0 is the local circular frequency. Assuming a solar radius of 8.05 kpc and a local circular velocity of 238 km s-1, this corresponds to Ωb = 56 ± 2 km s-1 kpc-1. On the other hand, the bar's orientation φb cannot be constrained with the available data. In fact, the likelihood function shows that a tight correlation exists between the pattern speed and the orientation, implying that a better description of our best fit results is given by the linear relation Ωb/Ω0 = 1.91 + 0.0044(φb(deg) - 48), with standard deviation of 0.02. For example, for an angle of φb = 30 deg the pattern speed is 54.0 ± 0.5 km s-1 kpc-1. These results are not very sensitive to the other Galactic parameters such as the circular velocity curve or the peculiar motion of the Sun, and are robust to biases in distance. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. THE TWO-PHASE FORMATION HISTORY OF SPIRAL GALAXIES TRACED BY THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF THE BAR FRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kraljic, Katarina; Bournaud, Frederic

    2012-09-20

    We study the evolution of galactic bars and the link with disk and spheroid formation in a sample of zoom-in cosmological simulations. Our simulation sample focuses on galaxies with present-day stellar masses in the 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} range, in field and loose group environments, with a broad variety of mass growth histories. In our models, bars are almost absent from the progenitors of present-day spirals at z > 1.5, and they remain rare and generally too weak to be observable down to z Almost-Equal-To 1. After this characteristic epoch, the fractions of observable and strong bars rise rapidly, bars being present in 80% of spiral galaxies and easily observable in two thirds of these at z {<=} 0.5. This is quantitatively consistent with the redshift evolution of the observed bar fraction, although the latter is presently known up to z Almost-Equal-To 0.8 because of band-shifting and resolution effects. Our models hence predict that the decrease in the bar fraction with increasing redshift should continue with a fraction of observable bars not larger than 10%-15% in disk galaxies at z > 1. Our models also predict later bar formation in lower-mass galaxies, in agreement with existing data. We find that the characteristic epoch of bar formation, namely redshift z Almost-Equal-To 0.8-1 in the studied mass range, corresponds to the epoch at which today's spirals acquire their disk-dominated morphology. At higher redshift, disks tend to be rapidly destroyed by mergers and gravitational instabilities and rarely develop significant bars. We hence suggest that the bar formation epoch corresponds to the transition between an early 'violent' phase of spiral galaxy formation at z {>=} 1 and a late 'secular' phase at z {<=} 0.8. In the secular phase, the presence of bars substantially contributes to the growth of the (pseudo-)bulge, but the bulge mass budget remains statistically dominated by the contribution of mergers, interactions, and disk instabilities at

  12. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. VIII. BARRED DISK GALAXIES IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Irina; Jogee, Shardha; Weinzirl, Tim; Erwin, Peter; Trentham, Neil; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Kleijn, Gijs V.; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Balcells, Marc; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Mobasher, Bahram; Peng, Eric W. E-mail: sj@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2012-02-20

    We use high-resolution ({approx}0.''1) F814W Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images from the Hubble Space Telescope ACS Treasury survey of the Coma cluster at z {approx} 0.02 to study bars in massive disk galaxies (S0s), as well as low-mass dwarf galaxies in the core of the Coma cluster, the densest environment in the nearby universe. Our study helps to constrain the evolution of bars and disks in dense environments and provides a comparison point for studies in lower density environments and at higher redshifts. Our results are: (1) we characterize the fraction and properties of bars in a sample of 32 bright (M{sub V} {approx}< -18, M{sub *} > 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) S0 galaxies, which dominate the population of massive disk galaxies in the Coma core. We find that the measurement of a bar fraction among S0 galaxies must be handled with special care due to the difficulty in separating unbarred S0s from ellipticals, and the potential dilution of the bar signature by light from a relatively large, bright bulge. The results depend sensitively on the method used: the bar fraction for bright S0s in the Coma core is 50% {+-} 11%, 65% {+-} 11%, and 60% {+-} 11% based on three methods of bar detection, namely, strict ellipse fit criteria, relaxed ellipse fit criteria, and visual classification. (2) We compare the S0 bar fraction across different environments (the Coma core, A901/902, and Virgo) adopting the critical step of using matched samples and matched methods in order to ensure robust comparisons. We find that the bar fraction among bright S0 galaxies does not show a statistically significant variation (within the error bars of {+-}11%) across environments which span two orders of magnitude in galaxy number density (n {approx} 300-10,000 galaxies Mpc{sup -3}) and include rich and poor clusters, such as the core of Coma, the A901/902 cluster, and Virgo. We speculate that the bar fraction among S0s is not significantly enhanced in rich clusters compared to low

  13. The nature of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Scott Christopher

    Many details of the structure of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) galaxies continue to elude researchers in the field. To shed light on some of the enigmas related to the fueling and classification of AGN, I have studied the core structure of a sample of 37 nearby Seyfert galaxies at high resolution using adaptive optics on the CFHT. This dataset consists of near-IR imaging from 1 to 3 μm (the J, H, and K bands). I first describe the instruments and observing techniques along with a presentation of the galaxy sample properties. I then outline the detailed data reduction and image processing required with adaptive optics observations, highlighting some of the associated unavoidable perils. A detailed multi-wavelength study is pursued for two nearby Seyfert galaxies, NGC3227 and NGC2992. With these objects, the current ideas of Seyfert fueling and unification of Seyfert types are scrutinized, focusing on the high spatial resolution achieved using adaptive optics in the near-IR. The dynamical processes and differing classifications of these galaxies are substantially clarified through their core morphologies. These studies show that scientific results can be established with AO data, in spite of the above mentioned artifact. For NGC2992, a spiral structure within the central 6' and a 1' extended feature are traced down to the core at the resolution of our images. We speculate, based on these observed structures, that multiple radio components are superposed which contribute to the observed figure-8 morphology in the VLA images: one associated with the spiral structure in the galaxy disk, and another flowing out of the galaxy plane. I then address whether the classification of Seyfert galaxy types can be explained via patchy dust at fairly large distances (~100 pc) from the central engine. Maps of dust extinction are constructed with the deep view afforded by the near-IR. These are compared with optical images observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to aid in

  14. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  15. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  16. Gas Dynamics and Outflow in the Barred Starburst Galaxy NGC 1808 Revealed with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Miyamoto, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby barred starburst galaxy with an outflow from the nuclear region. To study the inflow and outflow processes related to star formation and dynamical evolution of the galaxy, we have carried out 12CO (J=1-0) mapping observations of the central r ˜ 4 kpc of NGC 1808 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Four distinct components of molecular gas are revealed at high spatial resolution of 2″ (˜100 pc): (1) a compact (r < 200 pc) circumnuclear disk (CND), (2) r ˜ 500 pc ring, (3) gas-rich galactic bar, and (4) spiral arms. Basic geometric and kinematic parameters are derived for the central 1 kpc region using tilted-ring modeling. The derived rotation curve reveals multiple mass components that include (1) a stellar bulge, (2) a nuclear bar and molecular CND, and (3) an unresolved massive (˜107 M ⊙) core. Two systemic velocities, 998 km s-1 for the CND and 964 km s-1 for the 500 pc ring, are revealed, indicating a kinematic offset. The pattern speed of the primary bar, derived by using a cloud-orbit model, is 56 ± 11 km s-1 kpc-1. Noncircular motions are detected associated with a nuclear spiral pattern and outflow in the central 1 kpc region. The ratio of the mass outflow rate to the star formation rate is {\\dot{M}}{out}/{SFR}˜ 0.2 in the case of optically thin CO (1-0) emission in the outflow, suggesting low efficiency of star formation quenching.

  17. Dynamical Influence of Bars on the Star Formation in Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verley, S.; Combes, F.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Bergond, G.; Leon, S.

    2008-10-01

    Star formation depends strongly on both the local environment of galaxies and the internal dynamics of the interstellar medium. To disentangle the two effects, we obtained, in the framework of the AMIGA project (Verdes-Montenegro et al. 2005; Sulentic et al. 2006; Lisenfeld et al. 2007; Verlay et al. 2007a,b,c), Hα and Gunn r photometric data for more than 200 spiral galaxies lying in very low-density regions of the local Universe. We characterize the Hα emission, tracing current star formation, of the 45 largest and least inclined galaxies observed for which we estimate the torques between the gas and the bulk of the optical matter. We subsequently study the Hα morphological aspect of these isolated spiral galaxies. Using Fourier analysis, we focus on the modes of the spiral arms and also on the strength of the bars, computing the torques between the gas and newly formed stars (Hα), and the bulk of the optical matter (Gunn r).

  18. Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldader, Deborah M.

    1998-01-01

    Prison inmates will soon outnumber college students in the United States. Many of them renew themselves through intellectual experiences, including astronomy. Yet they have been all but ignored by astronomy educators.

  19. Supernovae and their host galaxies - III. The impact of bars and bulges on the radial distribution of supernovae in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Karapetyan, A. G.; Barkhudaryan, L. V.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Petrosian, A. R.; Adibekyan, V.; Aramyan, L. S.; Turatto, M.

    2016-03-01

    We present an analysis of the impact of bars and bulges on the radial distributions of the different types of supernovae (SNe) in the stellar discs of host galaxies with various morphologies. We use a well-defined sample of 500 nearby (≤100 Mpc) SNe and their low-inclined (i ≤ 60°) and morphologically non-disturbed S0-Sm host galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that in Sa-Sm galaxies, all core-collapse (CC) and vast majority of SNe Ia belong to the disc, rather than the bulge component. The radial distribution of SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies is inconsistent with their distribution in Sa-Sm hosts, which is probably due to the contribution of the outer bulge SNe Ia in S0-S0/a galaxies. In Sa-Sbc galaxies, the radial distribution of CC SNe in barred hosts is inconsistent with that in unbarred ones, while the distributions of SNe Ia are not significantly different. At the same time, the radial distributions of both types of SNe in Sc-Sm galaxies are not affected by bars. We propose that the additional mechanism shaping the distributions of Type Ia and CC SNe can be explained within the framework of substantial suppression of massive star formation in the radial range swept by strong bars, particularly in early-type spirals. The radial distribution of CC SNe in unbarred Sa-Sbc galaxies is more centrally peaked and inconsistent with that in unbarred Sc-Sm hosts, while the distribution of SNe Ia in unbarred galaxies is not affected by host morphology. These results can be explained by the distinct distributions of massive stars in the discs of early- and late-type spirals.

  20. Evidence of bar-driven secular evolution in the gamma-ray narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy FBQS J164442.5+261913

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; León Tavares, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Añorve, C.

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) imaging of FBQS J164442.5+261913, one of the few γ-ray emitting Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies detected at high significance level by Fermi-LAT. This study is the first morphological analysis performed of this source and the third performed of this class of objects. Conducting a detailed two-dimensional modeling of its surface brightness distribution and analysing its J - Ks colour gradients, we find that FBQS J164442.5+261913 is statistically most likely hosted by a barred lenticular galaxy (SB0). We find evidence that the bulge in the host galaxy of FBQS J164442.5+261913 is not classical but pseudo, against the paradigm of powerful relativistic jets exclusively launched by giant ellipticals. Our analysis, also reveal the presence of a ring with diameter equalling the bar length (rbar = 8.13 kpc ± 0.25), whose origin might be a combination of bar-driven gas rearrangement and minor mergers, as revealed by the apparent merger remnant in the J-band image. In general, our results suggest that the prominent bar in the host galaxy of FBQS J164442.5+261913 has mostly contributed to its overall morphology driving a strong secular evolution, which plays a crucial role in the onset of the nuclear activity and the growth of the massive bulge. Minor mergers, in conjunction, are likely to provide the necessary fresh supply of gas to the central regions of the host galaxy.

  1. Hydrodynamical simulations of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1300. Dynamical interpretation of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindblad, P. A. B.; Kristen, H.

    1996-09-01

    We perform two-dimensional time dependent hydrodynamical simulations of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1300. The input potential is divided into an axisymmetric part mainly derived from the observed rotation curve, and a perturbing part obtained from near infrared surface photometry of the bar and spiral structure. Self-gravitation of the gas is not taken into account in our modeling. A pure bar perturbed model is unable to reproduce the observations. It was found necessary to add a weak spiral potential to the perturbation, thus suggesting the presence of massive spiral arms in NGC 1300. We find two models, differing mainly in pattern speed, which are able to reproduce the essentials of NGC 1300. The high pattern speed model has {OMEGA}_p_=20km/s/kpc, corresponding to a corotation radius at R_CR_~104"=1.3R_bar_. Furthermore, the adopted rotation curve for this model supports one ILR at R_ILR_~26" and an OLR at R_OLR_~188". The low pattern speed model has {OMEGA}_p_=12km/s/kpc, corresponding to a corotation radius at R_ CR_~190"=2.4R_bar_. The adopted rotation curve for this model, which differs from the fast pattern speed model, supports one ILR at R_ILR_~25" and an OLR at R_OLR_~305". Morphological features, like spiral arms and offset dust lanes, are basically reproduced by both models. They are driven by orbit crowding effects across various resonances, leading to density enhancements. The general velocity structure, as described by HI data and optical long slit measurements, is fairly consistent with the model velocities.

  2. Active versus non-active galaxies: The seagull wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, A.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Stasińska, G.; Sodré, L.

    2004-11-01

    We have compared galaxies hosting an active nucleus with non-active galaxies in the SDSS by analyzing their stellar populations. We conclude that the Seyfert 2 phenomenon appears in galaxies of intermediate masses (˜2 × 1010 M⊙), while low mass galaxies do not produce active nuclei, and high mass galaxies tend to produce a low level of non-stellar activity. We also compared the environment of active and non-active galaxies of similar masses and concluded that there is no excess of close neighbors among the Seyferts when compared with non-active galaxies.

  3. A Numerical Simulation of Star Formation in Nuclear Rings of Barred-Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, W.

    2014-01-01

    We use grid-based hydrodynamic simulations to study star formation history in nuclear rings of barred-spiral galaxies. We assume infinitesimally thin, isothermal, and unmagnetized gaseous disk. To investigate effects of spiral arm potential, we calculate both models with and without spiral. We find that star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is determined by the mass inflow rate to the ring rather than the total gas mass in the ring. In case of models without spiral arms, the SFR shows a strong primary burst at early time, and declines to small values after after that. The primary burst is caused by the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth. On the other hand, models with spiral arms show multiple star bursts at late time caused by additional gas inflow from outside bar region. When the SFR is low, ages of young star clusters exhibit a bipolar azimuthal gradient along the ring since star formation occurs near the contact points between dust lanes and the nuclear ring. When the SFR is large, there are no age gradient of star clusters since star formation sites are widely distributed throughout the whole ring region.

  4. UBVRI Photometry of Stellar Structures throughout the Disk of the Barred Galaxy NGC 3367

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Barreto, J. Antonio; Hernández-Toledo, Héctor; Moreno-Díaz, Edmundo; Bernal-Marín, Tula; Villarreal-Castillo, A. Lucía

    2007-07-01

    We report new detailed surface U, B, V, R, and I photometry of 81 stellar structures in the disk of the barred galaxy NGC 3367. The images show many different structures, indicating that star formation is going on in most parts of the disk. NGC 3367 is known to have a very high concentration of molecular gas distribution in the central regions of the galaxy and bipolar synchrotron emission from the nucleus, with two lobes (at 6 kpc) forming a triple structure similar to a radio galaxy. We have determined the U, B, V, R, and I magnitudes and U-B, B-V, U-V, and V-I colors for the central region (nucleus), a region which includes supernova 2003 AA, and 79 star associations throughout NGC 3367. The estimation of ages of star associations is very difficult due to several factors, among them the filling factor, metallicity, spatial distribution of each structure, and the fact that we estimated the magnitudes with a circular aperture of 16 pixels in diameter, equivalent to 6.8''~1.4 kpc. However, even though the colors derived for NGC 3367 were similar to the colors expected of star clusters with theoretical evolutionary star tracks developed for the LMC and had a similar metallicity, NGC 3367 shows 56% of the observed structures with age type SWB I (a few tens of megayears), with seven sources outside the high surface brightness visible disk.

  5. Active chatter control system for long-overhang boring bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Douglas R.; Golioto, Igor; Thompson, Norman B.

    1997-05-01

    Some machining processes, such as boring, have been historically limited by excessive bar vibration, often resulting in poor surface finish and reduced tool life. A unique boring bar system has been developed to suppress bar vibration, or chatter, during machining using active control technology. Metal cutting test programs have shown proven, repeatable performance on hard-to-cut, aircraft industry high-temperature nickel alloys as well as more easily cut carbon steels. Critical bar length-to-diameter (L/D) ratios, depths-of-cuts, feed rates and cutting speeds far exceed those attainable from the best available passively-damped boring bars. This industry-ready system consists of three principle subsystems: active clamp, instrumented bar, and control electronics. The active clamp is a lathe-mountable body capable of supporting bars of varying sizes and articulating them in orthogonal directions from the base of the bar shank. The instrumented bar consists of a steel shank, standard insert head and imbedded accelerometers. Wire harnesses from both the bar and clamp connect to control electronics comprised of highly-efficient switched- capacitor amplifiers that drive the piezoelectric actuators, sensor signal conditioning, a PC-based program manager and two 32-bit floating-point DSPs. The program manager code runs on the host PC and distributes system identification and control functions to the two DSPs. All real-time signal processing is based on the principles of adaptive filter minimization. For the described system, cutting performance has extended existing chatter thresholds (cutting parameter combinations) for nickel alloys by as much as 400% while maintaining precision surface finish on the machined part. Bar L/D ratios as high as 11 have enabled deep boring operations on nickel workpieces that otherwise could not be performed free of chatter.

  6. Interplay between chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent barred galaxy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, T.; Bountis, T.; Skokos, Ch

    2013-06-01

    We study the distinction and quantification of chaotic and regular motion in a time-dependent Hamiltonian barred galaxy model. Recently, a strong correlation was found between the strength of the bar and the presence of chaotic motion in this system, as models with relatively strong bars were shown to exhibit stronger chaotic behavior compared to those having a weaker bar component. Here, we attempt to further explore this connection by studying the interplay between chaotic and regular behavior of star orbits when the parameters of the model evolve in time. This happens for example when one introduces linear time dependence in the mass parameters of the model to mimic, in some general sense, the effect of self-consistent interactions of the actual N-body problem. We thus observe, in this simple time-dependent model also, that the increase of the bar’s mass leads to an increase of the system’s chaoticity. We propose a new way of using the generalized alignment index (GALI) method as a reliable criterion to estimate the relative fraction of chaotic versus regular orbits in such time-dependent potentials, which proves to be much more efficient than the computation of Lyapunov exponents. In particular, GALI is able to capture subtle changes in the nature of an orbit (or ensemble of orbits) even for relatively small time intervals, which makes it ideal for detecting dynamical transitions in time-dependent systems. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.

  7. GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD EVOLUTION IN BARRED GALAXIES UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE COSMIC-RAY-DRIVEN DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa-Dybel, K.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.; Kulesza-Zydzik, B.; Kowal, G.; Hanasz, M.; Woltanski, D.; Kowalik, K.

    2011-06-01

    We present three-dimensional global numerical simulations of the cosmic-ray (CR) driven dynamo in barred galaxies. We study the evolution of the interstellar medium of the barred galaxy in the presence of non-axisymmetric component of the potential, i.e., the bar. The magnetohydrodynamical dynamo is driven by CRs, which are continuously supplied to the disk by supernova (SN) remnants. No magnetic field is present at the beginning of simulations but one-tenth of SN explosions is a source of a small-scale randomly oriented dipolar magnetic field. In all models we assume that 10% of 10{sup 51} erg SN kinetic energy output is converted into CR energy. To compare our results directly with the observed properties of galaxies, we construct realistic maps of polarized radio emission. The main result is that the CR-driven dynamo can amplify weak magnetic fields up to a few {mu}G within a few Gyr in barred galaxies. The obtained e-folding time is equal to 300 Myr and the magnetic field reaches equipartition at time t {approx} 4.0 Gyr. Initially, the completely random magnetic field evolves into large-scale structures. An even (quadrupole-type) configuration of the magnetic field with respect to the galactic plane can be observed. Additionally, the modeled magnetic field configuration resembles maps of the polarized intensity observed in barred galaxies. Polarization vectors are distributed along the bar and between spiral arms. Moreover, the drift of magnetic arms with respect to the spiral pattern in the gas density distribution is observed during the entire simulation time.

  8. Unveiling the Boxy Bulge and Bar of the Andromeda Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaton, R. L.; Athanassoula, E.; Majewski, S. R.; Guhathakurta, P.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Patterson, R. J.; Bureau, M.

    2005-12-01

    For the past 50 years a number of studies have suggested that the center of M31 may be barred. These optical studies, however, have been hampered by the highly inclined (i=77.5o) disk of M31 and the obscuring effects of its embedded dust, which strongly influence the observed isophotal structure of the M31 center. We analyze a new near-infrared survey of M31 by the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) 6X program. These data, covering the full extent of the optical disk, present a view of the central structure of M31 almost completely unfettered by dust. This new portrait vividly reveals a central bulge dominating the near infrared light profile from 3 to 1000 arcsecs along the semi-major axis, and with a number of interesting properties: (1) prominent boxy isophotes across the extent of the bulge, (2) a position angle inclined by about 10o from that of the M31 disk, (3) strong isophotal twisting in the innermost regions of the bulge, and (4) the presence of ansae symmetrically extending beyond the bulge along the position angle of the galaxy disk. In other highly inclined disks such properties have been associated with the presence of central bars obscured by projection effects. In the case of M31, these features have been well reproduced in a fully self consistent N-body simulation of a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge. The models further suggest the existence of an additional classical bulge component at the center of M31, and imply that the bar itself extends beyond the observationally established extent of the boxy bulge. This publication makes use of data products from 2MASS, which is a joint project of U Mass and IPAC/CalTech, funded by NASA and the NSF. This work was supported by NSF grants AST-0307842 and AST-0307966, as well as a SIM Key Project grant, NASA/JPL contract 1228235. MFS acknowledges support from NASA/JPL contract 1234021. This work was also partially supported by the Celerity Foundation. EA thanks the INSU/CNRS, the Région PACA and the University

  9. The active zone T-bar--a plasticity module?

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J

    2010-09-01

    The synaptic active zone, the site where Ca(2+)-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles takes place, is commonly associated with protein-rich, electron-dense cytomatrices. The molecular composition and functional role of active zones, especially in the context of vesicular exo- and endocytosis, are under intense investigation. Per se, Drosophila synapses, which display so-called T-bars as electron-dense specializations, should be a highly suitable model system, as they allow for a combination of efficient genetics with ultrastructural and electrophysiological analyses. However, it needed a biochemical approach of the Buchner laboratory to "molecularly" access the T-bar by identification of the CAST/ERC-family member Bruchpilot as the first T-bar-residing protein. Genetic elimination of Bruchpilot revealed that the protein is essential for T-bar formation, calcium channel clustering, and hence proper vesicle fusion and patterned synaptic plasticity. Recently, Bruchpilot was shown to directly shape the T-bar, likely by adopting an elongated conformation. Moreover, first mechanisms that control the availability of Bruchpilot for T-bar assembly were described. This review seeks to summarize the information on T-bar structure, as well as on functional aspects, formulating the hypothesis that T-bars are genuine "plasticity modules."

  10. EVN VLBI Imaging of the Jet in the Nucleus of the Barred Spiral Galaxy NGC 7479

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Seppo J.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Krichbaum, Thomas; Beck, Rainer; Komossa, S.

    2017-01-01

    The nearby (D = 32 Mpc) barred spiral galaxy NGC 7479 hosts a remarkable jet-like radio continuum feature: bright, 12-kpc long in projection, and hosting an S-shaped, aligned magnetic field. The bending of the jet in 3-D is most easily explained by precession, with a jet age less than a million years. We have imaged the nucleus with European VLBI Network (EVN) observations at 6 and 18 cm. Here we report our tentative results on the search for nuclear jet emission on sub-arcsecond scales, including its alignment with the outer kpc-scale jet. We also describe the nature of the nucleus with the help of spectral index determination, brightness temperature limit and variability of the nucleus.

  11. Chemical Classification of Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladro, R.; Martín, S.; Kramer, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present an unbiased λ=3 mm survey done with the IRAM 30 telescope towards the central parts of eight galaxies considered as archetypes of nearby starbursts, galaxies with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The spatial resolution range from ˜200 pc to ˜1.6 kpc, depending on the galaxy. We compare the abundances of thirty-seven species among the sample, and highlight the molecules that characterise the gas in each of them. These results can be very useful to prepare future interferometric observations of active galaxies.

  12. Multiwavelength Study of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veeresh

    2010-08-01

    Seyfert galaxies are a subclass of active galaxies and are categorized as nearby, low luminosity, radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) hosted in spiral or lenticular galaxies. Demographically, Seyfert galaxies may account for ~ 10% of the entire population of active galaxies in the nearby universe. Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into two subclasses named as `type 1' and `type 2' Seyferts, based on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Detection of broad permitted emission lines in some Seyfert type 2s observed in the polarized light laid the foundation of the Seyfert unification scheme, which hypothesizes that Seyfert type 1s and type 2s belong to the same parent population and appear different solely due to the differing orientations of the obscuring material having a torus-like geometry around the AGN (Antonucci and Miller 1985; Antonucci 1993). The primary objective of this thesis work is to examine the validity and limitations of the orientation and obscuration based Seyfert unification scheme using multiwavelength (mainly X-ray and radio) observations. The key issue in testing the Seyfert unification scheme has been acquiring a well defined rigorously selected Seyfert sample. I have argued that the Seyfert samples based on flux limited surveys at optical, IR, UV and X-ray are likely to be biased against obscured and faint sources. In order to test the predictions of Seyfert unification scheme I use a sample based on properties (i.e., cosmological redshift, [OIII] emission line luminosity, absolute bulge magnitude, absolute stellar magnitude of the host galaxy and the Hubble stage of the host galaxy) that are independent to the orientation of the obscuring torus, host galaxy and the AGN axis. Furthermore, two Seyfert subtypes of our sample have matched distributions in the orientation-independent properties and this ensures the intrinsic similarity between two Seyfert subtypes within the

  13. SPATIALLY RESOLVED CHEMISTRY IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. THE NUCLEAR BAR IN MAFFEI 2

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L. E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-20

    We present 2''-10'' imaging of 11 transitions from 9 molecular species across the nuclear bar in Maffei 2. The data were obtained with the BIMA and OVRO interferometers. The 10 detected transitions are compared with existing CO isotopologues, HCN, CS, and millimeter continuum data. Dramatic spatial variations among the mapped species are observed across the nuclear bar. A principal component analysis is performed to characterize correlations between the transitions, star formation, and molecular column density. The analysis reveals that HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and 3 mm continuum are tightly correlated, indicating a direct connection to massive star formation. We find two main morphologically distinct chemical groups, CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HNCO comprising the grain chemistry molecules, versus HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and C{sub 2}H, molecules strong in the presence of star formation. The grain chemistry molecules, HNCO, CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO, trace hydrodynamical bar shocks. The near constancy of the HNCO/CH{sub 3}OH, SiO/CH{sub 3}OH, and SiO/HNCO ratios argues that shock properties are uniform across the nucleus. HCN/HCO{sup +}, HCN/HNC, HCN/CS, and HCN/CO ratios are explained primarily by variations in density. High HCO{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratios are correlated with the C{sub 2}H line, suggesting that this ratio may be a powerful new dense photon-dominated region probe in external galaxies. C{sub 2}H reveals a molecular outflow along the minor axis. The morphology and kinematics of the outflow are consistent with an outflow age of 6-7 Myr.

  14. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  15. Quasars and Active Galaxies: A Reading List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Contains the annotated bibliographies of introductory books and sections of books, recent introductory articles, more advanced articles, and more advanced books dealing with quasars and active galaxies. (CW)

  16. Mechanical heating by active galaxies.

    PubMed

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Ruszkowski, Mateusz

    2005-03-15

    Jets and winds are significant channels for energy loss from accreting black holes. These outflows mechanically heat their surroundings, through shocks as well as gentler forms of heating. We discuss recent efforts to understand the nature and distribution of mechanical heating by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) in clusters of galaxies, using numerical simulations and analytic models. Specifically, we will discuss whether the relatively gentle 'effervescent heating' mechanism can compensate for radiative losses in the central regions of clusters, and account for the excess entropy observed at larger radii. J. Binney discusses the possible role of violent, episodic heating by AGN in clusters.

  17. A Kinematic Link Between Boxy Bulges, Stellar Bars, and Nuclear Activity in NGC 3079 and NGC 4388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Bland-Hawthrorn, J.; Cecil, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    We present direct kinematic evidence for bar streaming in two active galaxies with boxy stellar bulges. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer was used on the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope and the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope to derive the two-dimensional velocity field of the line-emitting gas in the disks of the Sc galaxy NGC 3079 and the Sb galaxy NGC 4388. In contrast to previous work based on long-slit data, the detection of the bar potential from the Fabry-Perot data does not rely on the existence of inner Lindblad resonances or strong bar-induced shocks. Simple kinematic models which approximate the intrinsic gas orbits as nonintersecting, inclined elliptical annuli that conserve angular momentum characterize the observed velocity fields. In NGC 3079, bar streaming motions with moderately eccentric orbits (e = b/a approx. 0.7) aligned along PA = 130 deg. intrinsic to the disk (PA = 97 deg. on the sky) are detected out to R(sub b) = 3.6 kpc. The orbits become increasingly circular beyond that radius (e = 1 at R(sub d) approx. = 6 kpc). The best model for NGC 4388 includes highly eccentric orbits (e approx. 0.3) for R(sub) less than or equal to 1.5 kpc which are aligned along PA = 135 deg. intrinsic to the disk (PA = 100 deg. on the sky). The observed "spiral arms" are produced by having the orbits become increasingly circular from the ends of the bar to the edge of the disk (R(sub d) approx. = 5 kpc), and the intrinsic bar PA shifting from 135 deg. to 90 deg.. Box-shaped bulges in both NGC 3079 and NGC 4388 are confirmed using new near-infrared images to reduce dust obscuration. Morphological analysis of starlight in these galaxies is combined with the gas kinematics derived from the Fabry-Perot spectra to test evolutionary models of stellar bars that involve transitory boxy bulges, and to quantify the importance of such bars in fueling active nuclei. Our data support the evolutionary bar models, but fail to prove convincingly that the

  18. A Kinematic Link Between Boxy Bulges, Stellar Bars, and Nuclear Activity in NGC 3079 and NGC 4388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Bland-Hawthrorn, J.; Cecil, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    We present direct kinematic evidence for bar streaming in two active galaxies with boxy stellar bulges. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer was used on the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope and the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope to derive the two-dimensional velocity field of the line-emitting gas in the disks of the Sc galaxy NGC 3079 and the Sb galaxy NGC 4388. In contrast to previous work based on long-slit data, the detection of the bar potential from the Fabry-Perot data does not rely on the existence of inner Lindblad resonances or strong bar-induced shocks. Simple kinematic models which approximate the intrinsic gas orbits as nonintersecting, inclined elliptical annuli that conserve angular momentum characterize the observed velocity fields. In NGC 3079, bar streaming motions with moderately eccentric orbits (e = b/a approx. 0.7) aligned along PA = 130 deg. intrinsic to the disk (PA = 97 deg. on the sky) are detected out to R(sub b) = 3.6 kpc. The orbits become increasingly circular beyond that radius (e = 1 at R(sub d) approx. = 6 kpc). The best model for NGC 4388 includes highly eccentric orbits (e approx. 0.3) for R(sub) less than or equal to 1.5 kpc which are aligned along PA = 135 deg. intrinsic to the disk (PA = 100 deg. on the sky). The observed "spiral arms" are produced by having the orbits become increasingly circular from the ends of the bar to the edge of the disk (R(sub d) approx. = 5 kpc), and the intrinsic bar PA shifting from 135 deg. to 90 deg.. Box-shaped bulges in both NGC 3079 and NGC 4388 are confirmed using new near-infrared images to reduce dust obscuration. Morphological analysis of starlight in these galaxies is combined with the gas kinematics derived from the Fabry-Perot spectra to test evolutionary models of stellar bars that involve transitory boxy bulges, and to quantify the importance of such bars in fueling active nuclei. Our data support the evolutionary bar models, but fail to prove convincingly that the

  19. Star formation history at the centers of lenticular galaxies with bars and purely exponential outer disks from SAURON data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil'Chenko, O. K.; Chilingarian, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the stellar population properties in the central regions of a sample of lenticular galaxies with bars and single-exponential outer stellar disks using the data from the SAURON integral-field spectrograph retrieved from the open Isaac Newton Group Archive. We have detected chemically decoupled compact stellar nuclei with a metallicity twice that of the stellar population in the bulges in seven of the eight galaxies. A starburst is currently going on at the center of the eighth galaxy and we have failed to determine the stellar population properties from its spectrum. The mean stellar ages in the chemically decoupled nuclei found range from 1 to 11 Gyr. The scenarios for the origin of both decoupled nuclei and lenticular galaxies as a whole are discussed.

  20. Galaxy NGC 1448 with Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-07

    NGC 1448, a galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, is seen in this image combining data from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey in the optical range and NuSTAR in the X-ray range. This galaxy contains an example of a supermassive black hole hidden by gas and dust. X-ray emissions from NGC 1448, as seen by NuSTAR and Chandra, suggests for the first time that, like IC 3639 in PIA21087, there must be a thick layer of gas and dust hiding the active black hole in this galaxy from our line of sight. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21086

  1. Galaxy Zoo: an independent look at the evolution of the bar fraction over the last eight billion years from HST-COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Lintott, Chris; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke; Bamford, Steven P.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Cheung, Edmond; Edmondson, Edward M.; Fortson, Lucy; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Smith, Arfon M.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2014-03-01

    We measure the redshift evolution of the bar fraction in a sample of 2380 visually selected disc galaxies found in Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. The visual classifications used both to identify the disc sample and to indicate the presence of stellar bars were provided by citizen scientists via the Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) project. We find that the overall bar fraction decreases by a factor of 2, from 22 ± 5 per cent at z = 0.4 (tlb = 4.2 Gyr) to 11 ± 2 per cent at z = 1.0 (tlb = 7.8 Gyr), consistent with previous analysis. We show that this decrease, of the strong bar fraction in a volume limited sample of massive disc galaxies [stellar mass limit of log (M⋆/M⊙) ≥ 10.0], cannot be due to redshift-dependent biases hiding either bars or disc galaxies at higher redshifts. Splitting our sample into three bins of mass we find that the decrease in bar fraction is most prominent in the highest mass bin, while the lower mass discs in our sample show a more modest evolution. We also include a sample of 98 red disc galaxies. These galaxies have a high bar fraction (45 ± 5 per cent), and are missing from other COSMOS samples which used SED fitting or colours to identify high-redshift discs. Our results are consistent with a picture in which the evolution of massive disc galaxies begins to be affected by slow (secular) internal process at z ˜ 1. We discuss possible connections of the decrease in bar fraction to the redshift, including the growth of stable disc galaxies, mass evolution of the gas content in disc galaxies, as well as the mass-dependent effects of tidal interactions.

  2. Induced Nuclear Activity in Galaxy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Ibarra, F. J.; Dultzin, D.; Krongold, Y.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.

    2011-10-01

    We analized the nuclear spectra of 893 galaxies in isolated pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR7). These pairs can be divided into three groups: S+S, E+E, E+S according to the catalogue of isolated galaxy pairs (KPG) by Karachentsev. We also analyzed two samples of isolated galaxies: the catalogue of Isolated Galaxies by Karachentseva (CIG) and Varela's sample of northern isolated galaxies. We studied the incidence of Nuclear Activity in every group. Our results show that the incidence of AGN activity is significantly higher in most galaxies in pairs as compared to isolated. Most importantly, we show that this is stronger for earlier morphological types. The presence of a bulb appears to be crucial in explaining the feeding of super massive black holes in AGN. We also confirm that Seyfert type 1 nuclei are almost absent. This result cannot be explained with the unified model for Seyferts only.

  3. Unveiling the structure of barred galaxies at 3.6 μm with the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S{sup 4}G). I. Disk breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Sheth, Kartik; Madore, Barry F.; Ho, Luis C.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Knapen, Johan H.; Cisternas, Mauricio; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Zaritsky, Dennis; Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Holwerda, Benne; Hinz, Joannah L.; Buta, Ron; and others

    2014-02-20

    We have performed two-dimensional multicomponent decomposition of 144 local barred spiral galaxies using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Our model fit includes up to four components (bulge, disk, bar, and a point source) and, most importantly, takes into account disk breaks. We find that ignoring the disk break and using a single disk scale length in the model fit for Type II (down-bending) disk galaxies can lead to differences of 40% in the disk scale length, 10% in bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), and 25% in bar-to-total luminosity ratios. We find that for galaxies with B/T ≥ 0.1, the break radius to bar radius, r {sub br}/R {sub bar}, varies between 1 and 3, but as a function of B/T the ratio remains roughly constant. This suggests that in bulge-dominated galaxies the disk break is likely related to the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar and thus moves outward as the bar grows. For galaxies with small bulges, B/T < 0.1, r {sub br}/R {sub bar} spans a wide range from 1 to 6. This suggests that the mechanism that produces the break in these galaxies may be different from that in galaxies with more massive bulges. Consistent with previous studies, we conclude that disk breaks in galaxies with small bulges may originate from bar resonances that may be also coupled with the spiral arms, or be related to star formation thresholds.

  4. New southern galaxies with active nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

    1987-03-01

    A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

  5. Multiple bars and secular evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Juntai

    2015-03-01

    Bars are the most important driver of secular evolution. A significant fraction of barred galaxies also harbor small secondary bars. Secondary bars are visible even in near-infrared images, so they are not just dusty and blue, but stellar features (Erwin & Sparke 2002). Since they are quite common, secondary bars are probably long-lived stellar features. The random relative orientation of the two bars indicates that they are dynamically decoupled with different pattern speeds (Buta & Crocker 1993). Corsini et al. (2003) presented conclusive direct kinematic evidence for a decoupled secondary bar in NGC 2950. Dynamically decoupled secondary bars have long been hypothesized to be a mechanism to drive gas past the ILR of primary bars to feed active galactic nuclei (Shlosman et al. 1989). However, the dynamics of secondary bars are still not well understood, and it is still unclear what role secondary bars play in the AGN fueling process. Numerical simulations offer the best approach to understanding double-barred systems. Decoupled secondary bar in the earlier gaseous simulations only last a short time (< 1 Gyr, e.g. Friedli & Martinet 1993). Orbital studies of double-barred systems discovered a family of loop orbits that may be building blocks of long-lived nuclear stellar bars (Maciejewski & Sparke 1997, 2000). To complement orbital studies, which are not fully self-consistent, N-body simulations are preferred to further our understanding of double-barred systems. Debattista & Shen (2007) and Shen & Debattista (2009) managed to form long-lived double-barred systems with purely collisionless simulations, where a pre-existing rotating pseudo-bulge is introduced initially. The shape and size of secondary bars in the models are comparable to observed ones. They found that the rotation of the two bars is not rigid. The amplitude and pattern speed of the secondary bars oscillate as they rotate through their primary counterparts. Although the secondary bar rotates faster

  6. On the nature of the barlens component in barred galaxies: what do boxy/peanut bulges look like when viewed face-on?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Bosma, A.

    2015-12-01

    Barred galaxies have interesting morphological features whose presence and properties set constraints on galactic evolution. Here we examine barlenses, i.e. lens-like components whose extent along the bar major axis is shorter than that of the bar and whose outline is oval or circular. We identify and analyse barlenses in N-body plus SPH simulations, compare them extensively with those from the NIRS0S (Near-IR S0 galaxy Survey) and the S4G samples (Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies) and find very good agreement. We observe barlenses in our simulations from different viewing angles. This reveals that barlenses are the vertically thick part of the bar seen face-on, i.e. a barlens seen edge-on is a boxy/peanut/X bulge. In morphological studies, and in the absence of kinematics or photometry, a barlens, or part of it, may be mistaken for a classical bulge. Thus the true importance of classical bulges, both in numbers and mass, is smaller than currently assumed, which has implications for galaxy formation studies. Finally, using the shape of the isodensity curves, we propose a rule of thumb for measuring the barlens extent along the bar major axis of moderately inclined galaxies, thus providing an estimate of which part of the bar is thicker.

  7. Galaxy interactions and strength of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simkin, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data in the literature for differential velocities and projected separations of nearby Seyfert galaxies with possible companions shows a clear difference in projected separations between type 1's and type 2's. This kinematic difference between the two activity classes reinforces other independent evidence that their different nuclear characteristics are related to a non-nuclear physical distinction between the two classes. The differential velocities and projected separations of the galaxy pairs in this sample yield mean galaxy masses, sizes, and mass to light ratios which are consistent with those found by the statistical methods of Karachentsev. Although the galaxy sample discussed here is too small and too poorly defined to provide robust support for these conclusions, the results strongly suggest that nuclear activity in Seyfert galaxies is associated with gravitational perturbations from companion galaxies, and that there are physical distinctions between the host companions of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 nuclei which may depend both on the environment and the structure of the host galaxy itself.

  8. Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies and the Evolution of Galaxies and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, Smita

    2000-01-01

    Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are intriguing due to their continuum as well as emission line properties. The observed peculiar properties of the NLS1s are believed to be due to accretion rate close to Eddington limit. As a consequence, for a given luminosity, NLS1s have smaller black hole (BH) masses compared to normal Seyfert galaxies. Here we argue that NLS1s might be Seyfert galaxies in their early stage of evolution and as such may be low redshift, low luminosity analogues of high redshift quasars. We propose that NLS1s may reside in rejuvenated, gas rich galaxies. The also argue in favor of collisional ionization for production of FeII in active galactic nuclei (AGN).

  9. The structure of the barred galaxy NGC253: target of the VISTA and VST Science Verification extragalactic mini-survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iodice, E.; VISTA Team; VST SV Team; Pompei, E.; Mieske, S.; Szeifert, T.; Ivanov, V.; Arnaboldi M.; Battaglia, G.; Bilbao, L.; Freudling, W.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hilker, M.; Hummel, W.; Melnick, J.; Misgeld, I.; Moller, P.; Neeser, M.; Nadine, N.; Nilsson, K.; Rejkuba, M.; Retzlaff, J.; Romaniello, M.; Slijkhuis, R.; Venemans, B.; Ziegler, B.; Harald, K.; Iodice E.; Greggio L.; Emerson, J.; Sutherland, W.; Irwin, M.; J., Lewis; Hodgkin, S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Capaccioli, M.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.

    The Sculptor Galaxy NGC253 is a nearby barred Sc galaxy seen nearly edge-on and it has been the target of the Science Verification (SV) for the new ESO survey telescopes VST and VISTA: SV have been defined by teams of astronomers from ESO and the community, including the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics. On the behalf of the VISTA and VST SV Team, I will present in this paper the first results on the NGC253 structure by the new NIR VISTA and optical VST images. These data have emphasized the huge potentiality of the VISTA and VST telescopes to study the structure of galaxies with a detail and accuracy comparable to higher class telescopes, i.e. VLT and HST, with the advantage of the large Field of View (FoV): i) the high angular resolution let to detect and study the sub-structures towards the nuclear regions; ii) the large FoV let to ''correlate'' the inner features to the structure of the outer galaxy disk and to map the surface brightness and colors out to the very faint outskirts.

  10. Dwarf Galaxies with Active Massive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Greene, J. E.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies with bulges, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. However, the birth and growth of the first supermassive BH "seeds" is far from understood. While direct observations of these distant BHs in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current capabilities, massive BHs in present-day dwarf galaxies can place valuable constraints on the masses, formation path, and hosts of supermassive BH seeds. Using optical spectroscopy from the SDSS, we have systematically assembled the largest sample of dwarf galaxies hosting active massive BHs to date. These dwarf galaxies have stellar masses comparable to the Magellanic Clouds and contain some of the least-massive supermassive BHs known.

  11. Correlation Between Galaxy Mergers and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jueun

    2012-05-01

    Using deep images taken at Maidanak 1.5m telescope, at McDonald 2.1m telescope and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Dupont 2.5m telescope, we investigated the fraction of galaxy mergers in hosts of 39 luminous AGN which are brighter than M = -22 mag and nearer than z = 0.3. We found that 16 to 17 of 39 AGN host galaxies show the evidence of mergers like tidal tail, shell, gravitationally disturbed features via careful visual inspection. We also studied with the merging fraction of a control sample, SDSS Stripe82 early type galaxies of which surface brightness limit and bulge magnitude are similar to that of the AGN sample. Our result is that merging fraction of the AGN sample is higher than that of early type galaxy samples in the whole range of bulge magnitude. This result implies that AGN activity may be correlated with merging. We also investigated the detailed morphology of merging feature. At least 1/4 of control samples having a tidal and tidal+dust feature show shell structures. On the other hand only one (5.9%) of AGN sample classified as merger shows shell structures, and almost all merging AGNs show tidal tail features. From point of view that tidal tail can appear at the early stage of merging, and shell can appear at the late stage of mergers, expected by simulation study, this result suggests that AGN might be evolved into early-type galaxies after merging.

  12. The IRAS galaxy 0421+040P06: An active spiral (?) galaxy with extended radio lobes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, C. A.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Persson, S. E.; Heasley, J. N.; Miley, G. K.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Houck, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The infrared bright galaxy 0421+040P06 detected by IRAS at 25 and 60 microns was studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelength. It is a luminous galaxy with apparent spiral structure emitting 4 x 10 to the 37th power from far-infrared to optical wavelengths. Optical spectroscopy reveals a Seyfert 2 emission line spectrum, making 0421+040P06 the first active galaxy selected from an unbiased infrared survey of galaxies. The fact that this galaxy shows a flatter energy distribution with more 25 micron emission than other galaxies in the infrared sample may be related to the presence of an intense active nucleus. The radio observations reveal the presence of a non-thermal source that, at 6 cm, shows a prominent double lobed structure 20 to 30 kpc in size extending beyond the optical confines of the galaxy. The radio source is three to ten times larger than structures previously seen in spiral galaxies.

  13. Investigating the AGN activity and black hole masses in low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Sethuram, Ramya; Das, Mousumi; George, Koshy; Thirupathi, Sivarani; Prabhu, Tushar P.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies. GLSB galaxies are extreme late type spirals that are large, isolated and poorly evolved compared to regular spiral galaxies. Earlier studies have indicated that their nuclei have relatively low mass black holes. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we selected a sample of 30 GLSB galaxies that showed broad Hα emission lines in their AGN spectra. In some galaxies such as UGC 6284, the broad component of Hα is more related to outflows rather than the black hole. One galaxy (UGC 6614) showed two broad components in Hα, one associated with the black hole and the other associated with an outflow event. We derived the nuclear black hole (BH) masses of 29 galaxies from their broad Hα parameters. We find that the nuclear BH masses lie in the range 105 - 107 M⊙. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion σ e was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass - velocity dispersion (M BH-σ e ) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the M BH-σ e correlation. The effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of σ e and the increase of σ e due to the effects of bar are probable reasons for the observed offset for some galaxies, but in many galaxies the offset is real. A possible explanation for the M BH-σ e offset could be lack of mergers and accretion events in the history of these galaxies which leads to a lack of BH-bulge co-evolution.

  14. N-body simulations of collective effects in spiral and barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2016-10-01

    We present gravitational N-body simulations of the secular morphological evolution of disk galaxies induced by density wave modes. In particular, we address the demands collective effects place on the choice of simulation parameters, and show that the common practice of the use of a large gravity softening parameter was responsible for the failure of past simulations to correctly model the secular evolution process in galaxies, even for those simulations where the choice of basic state allows an unstable mode to emerge, a prerequisite for obtaining the coordinated radial mass flow pattern needed for secular evolution of galaxies along the Hubble sequence. We also demonstrate that the secular evolution rates measured in our improved simulations agree to an impressive degree with the corresponding rates predicted by the recently-advanced theories of dynamically-driven secular evolution of galaxies. The results of the current work, besides having direct implications on the cosmological evolution of galaxies, also shed light on the general question of how irreversibility emerges from a nominally reversible physical system.

  15. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING). I. Physical properties of molecular gas in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kishida, Nozomi; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Salak, Dragan; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana

    2016-10-01

    We present simultaneous mappings of J = 1-0 emission of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules toward the whole disk (8' × 5' or 20.8 kpc × 13.0 kpc) of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903 with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope at an effective angular resolution of 20″ (or 870 pc). We detected 12CO(J = 1-0) emission over the disk of NGC 2903. In addition, significant 13CO(J = 1-0) emission was found at the center and bar-ends, whereas we could not detect any significant C18O(J = 1-0) emission. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of CO emission and to obtain accurate line ratios of 12CO(J = 2-1)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R2-1/1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R13/12), we performed the stacking analysis for our 12CO(J = 1-0), 13CO(J = 1-0), and archival 12CO(J = 2-1) spectra with velocity axis alignment in nine representative regions of NGC 2903. We successfully obtained the stacked spectra of the three CO lines, and could measure averaged R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 with high significance for all the regions. We found that both R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 differ according to the regions, which reflects the difference in the physical properties of molecular gas, i.e., density (n_H_2) and kinetic temperature (TK). We determined n_H_2 and TK using R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 based on the large velocity gradient approximation. The derived n_H_2 ranges from ˜1000 cm-3 (in the bar, bar-ends, and spiral arms) to 3700 cm-3 (at the center) and the derived TK ranges from 10 K (in the bar and spiral arms) to 30 K (at the center). We examined the dependence of star formation efficiencies (SFEs) on n_H_2 and TK, and found a positive correlation between SFE and n_H_2 with correlation coefficient for the least-squares power-law fit R2 of 0.50. This suggests that molecular gas density governs the spatial variations in SFEs.

  16. Spectral molecular line surveys of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin

    The enormous mass of molecular gas and dust found in the nuclei of active galaxies has a major role in feeding the activity (either starburst or AGN) and therefore in the galactic evolution. Thus, observations of the molecular can provide clues to identify and analyze the type of activity in very deeply obscured galactic nuclei. Indeed, studies of the chemical composition in starburst galaxies via wide band spectral has shown the potential of molecular spectroscopy to trace the physical and chemical propierties of their central ISM material. In this work we present the analysis of the emission of molecules such as HCN, CCH, CN,CS,HCO+, HNC, CH3OH, among others obtained from the survey of spectra of the 3 near seyfert galaxies observed with the APEX Telescope. We have also found that one of the molecules is not at LTE conditions- H3O+ molecule. Whether radiatively pumped or maser enhanced, the emission of H3O+ is emerging from a different region from most other molecules (distributed in two molecular lobes seen as the two velocity components). H3O+ emission peaks close to the systemic velocity of the system, particularly clear in NGC 253, which suggest the emission to be centrally peaked towards the nuclear engine, It is common in the same kind of galaxies? In adition, preliminar conclusions show isotopic ratio 12C/13C in starburst galaxies is higher than nuclei of the Milky Way indicating that interestelar matter in starburst nuclei is less processed than in the nucleus of the Milky Way .There are two possible explanations for this effect in starburst, nucleosynthesis differences due stellar population history and acretion of matter from halo.

  17. Galaxy interactions and the stimulation of nuclear activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that interactions between galaxies can lead to enhanced galactic activity. He discusses whether, apart from the observational evidence, there is a strong theoretical or heuristic motivation for investigating galaxy interactions as stimulators of nuclear activity in galaxies. Galactic interactions as mechanisms for triggering nuclear starbursts are covered.

  18. NASA's Fermi Shows How Active Galaxies Can Be

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Active galaxies called blazars make up the largest class of objects detected by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT). Massive black holes in the hearts of these galaxies fire particle jets in our dir...

  19. Models Constraints from Observations of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Dametto, N. Z.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Martins, L. P.; Mason, R.; Ho, L. C.; Palomar XD Team

    2015-08-01

    Studying the unresolved stellar content of galaxies generally involves disentangling the various components contributing to the spectral energy distribution (SED), and fitting a combination of simple stellar populations (SSPs) to derive information about age, metallicity, and star formation history. In the near-infrared (NIR, 0.85-2.5 μm), the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase - the last stage of the evolution of intermediate-mass (M ≲ 6 M⊙) stars - is a particularly important component of the SSP models. These stars can dominate the emission of stellar populations with ages ˜ 0.2-2 Gyr, being responsible for roughly half of the luminosity in the K band. In addition, when trying to describe the continuum observed in active galactic nuclei, the signatures of the central engine and from the dusty torus cannot be ignored. Over the past several years we have developed a method to disentangle these three components. Our synthesis shows significant differences between Seyfert 1 (Sy 1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxies. The central few hundred parsecs of our galaxy sample contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-age populations with a mean metallicity near solar. Two-dimensional mapping of the near-infrared stellar population of the nuclear region of active galaxies suggests that there is a spatial correlation between the intermediate-age stellar population and a partial ring of low stellar velocity dispersion (σ*). Such an age is consistent with a scenario in which the origin of the low-σ* rings is a past event which triggered an inflow of gas and formed stars which still keep the colder kinematics of the gas from which they have formed. We also discuss the fingerprints of features attributed to TP-AGB stars in the spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies.

  20. Recurrent Activity in Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Jamrozy, Marek; Konar, Chiranjib; Machalski, Jerzy; Mack, Karl-Heinz; Saikia, Dhruba; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U.

    2007-10-15

    One of the outstanding issues concerning extragalactic radio sources is the total duration of their active phase and the possible existence of duty cycles of their nuclear activity. A duty cycle can be recognized if there is a mechanism which preserves the information of past activity for a sufficiently long time after a new activity has started up. If a new cycle starts before the radio lobes created during a former activity period have faded, we can recognize this by the observations of a young radio source embedded in an old relic structure.

  1. Can retired galaxies mimic active galaxies? Clues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Gomes, J. M.; Schlickmann, M.; Mateus, A.; Schoenell, W.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Seagal Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The classification of galaxies as star forming or active is generally done in the ([OIII]/Hβ, [NII]/Hα) plane. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has revealed that, in this plane, the distribution of galaxies looks like the two wings of a seagull. Galaxies in the right wing are referred to as Seyfert/LINERs, leading to the idea that non-stellar activity in galaxies is a very common phenomenon. Here, we argue that a large fraction of the systems in the right wing could actually be galaxies which stopped forming stars. The ionization in these `retired' galaxies would be produced by hot post-asymptotic giant branch stars and white dwarfs. Our argumentation is based on a stellar population analysis of the galaxies via our STARLIGHT code and on photoionization models using the Lyman continuum radiation predicted for this population. The proportion of LINER galaxies that can be explained in such a way is, however, uncertain. We further show how observational selection effects account for the shape of the right wing. Our study suggests that nuclear activity may not be as common as thought. If retired galaxies do explain a large part of the seagull's right wing, some of the work concerning nuclear activity in galaxies, as inferred from SDSS data, will have to be revised.

  2. Bimodal Active Nuclei in Bimodal Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, A.; Menci, N.

    2007-07-01

    By their star content, the galaxies split out into a red and a blue population; their color index peaked around u-r~2.5 or u-r~1, respectively, quantifies the ratio of the blue stars newly formed from cold galactic gas, to the redder ones left over by past generations. On the other hand, on accreting substantial gas amounts the central massive black holes energize active galactic nuclei (AGNs); here we investigate whether these show a similar, and possibly related, bimodal partition as for current accretion activity relative to the past. To this aim we use an updated semianalytic model; based on Monte Carlo simulations, this follows with a large statistics the galaxy assemblage, the star generations, and the black hole accretions in the cosmological framework over the redshift span from z=10 to z=0. We test our simulations for yielding in close detail the observed split of galaxies into a red, early and a blue, late population. We find that the black hole accretion activities likewise give rise to two source populations: early, bright quasars and later, dimmer AGNs. We predict for their Eddington parameter λE-the ratio of the current to the past black hole accretions-a bimodal distribution; the two branches sit now under λE~0.01 (mainly contributed by low-luminosity AGNs) and around λE~0.3-1. These not only mark out the two populations of AGNs, but also will turn out to correlate strongly with the red or blue color of their host galaxies.

  3. Longitudinal metastructure bar with an active vibration absorber (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Katherine; Inman, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    This work addresses two issues in lightweight structural composites suitable for aerospace systems. The first is to add additional functionality to multifunctional composites and the second is to provide damping in structures that cover a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. Passive damping in all materials suffer from failing at certain temperature and in certain frequency ranges. The extreme environments often seen by aerospace structures provide high temperature, which is exactly where damping levels in structures reduce causing unacceptable vibrations. In addition, as loading frequencies decrease damping levels fall off, and many loads experienced by aerospace structures are low frequency. This work looks at the implementation of a control system to a longitudinal metastructure bar. A metastructure is a structure which has distributed vibration absorbers which provide passive damping to the system. The active control system will be implemented by adding piezoelectric materials to one of the absorbers to make the absorber active. The structure with the active vibration absorber will be compared to a structure of equal weight with no active components. Since the two comparison structures are of equal weight, the performance improvements are strictly due to the control system and not at the cost of additional weight.

  4. Orbital and escape dynamics in barred galaxies - II. The 3D system: exploring the role of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Christof; Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2016-12-01

    A three degrees of freedom (3-dof) barred galaxy model composed of a spherically symmetric nucleus, a bar, a flat disc and a spherically symmetric dark matter halo is used for investigating the dynamics of the system. We use colour-coded plots to demonstrate how the value of the semimajor axis of the bar influences the regular or chaotic dynamics of the 3-dof system. For distinguishing between ordered and chaotic motion, we use the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) method, a fast yet very accurate tool. Undoubtedly, the most important elements of the dynamics are the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs) located in the vicinity of the index 1 Lagrange points L2 and L3. These manifolds direct the flow of stars over the saddle points, while they also trigger the formation of rings and spirals. The dynamics in the neighbourhood of the saddle points is visualized by bifurcation diagrams of the Lyapunov orbits as well as by the restriction of the Poincaré map to the NHIMs. In addition, we reveal how the semimajor axis of the bar influences the structure of these manifolds which determine the final stellar structure (rings or spirals). Our numerical simulations suggest that in galaxies with weak bars the formation of R1 rings or R_1^' } pseudo-rings is favoured. In the case of galaxies with intermediate and strong bars, the invariant manifolds seem to give rise to R1R2 rings and twin spiral formations, respectively. We also compare our numerical outcomes with earlier related work and with observational data.

  5. FORMATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS AND STARS AT THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RING IN THE BARRED GALAXY NGC 7552

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Lim, Jeremy; Matsushita, Satoki; Wong, Tony; Ryder, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    We present millimeter molecular line complemented by optical observations, along with a reanalysis of archival centimeter H I and continuum data, to infer the global dynamics and determine where dense molecular gas and massive stars preferentially form in the circumnuclear starburst ring of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 7552. We find diffuse molecular gas in a pair of dust lanes each running along the large-scale galactic bar, as well as in the circumnuclear starburst ring. We do not detect dense molecular gas in the dust lanes, but find such gas concentrated in two knots where the dust lanes make contact with the circumnuclear starburst ring. When convolved to the same angular resolution as the images in dense gas, the radio continuum emission of the circumnuclear starburst ring also exhibits two knots, each lying downstream of an adjacent knot in dense gas. The results agree qualitatively with the idea that massive stars form from dense gas at the contact points, where diffuse gas is channeled into the ring along the dust lanes, and later explode as supernovae downstream of the contact points. Based on the inferred rotation curve, however, the propagation time between the respective pairs of dense gas and centimeter continuum knots is about an order of magnitude shorter than the lifetimes of OB stars. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that either the initial mass function is top-heavy or massive stars in the ring do not form exclusively at the contact points where dense molecular gas is concentrated.

  6. Testing of an actively damped boring bar featuring structurally integrated PZT stack actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.

    1998-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of cutting tests performed using an actively damped boring bar to minimize chatter in metal cutting. A commercially available 2 inch diameter boring bar was modified to incorporate PZT stack actuators for controlling tool bending vibrations encountered during metal removal. The extensional motion of the actuators induce bending moments in the host structure through a two-point preloaded mounting scheme. Cutting tests performed at various speeds and depths of cuts on a hardened steel workpiece illustrate the bar`s effectiveness toward eliminating chatter vibrations and improving workpiece surface finish.

  7. Colliding Galaxies Create Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This simulation follows the collision of two spiral galaxies that harbor giant black holes. The collision merges the black holes and stirs up gas in both galaxies. The merged black hole gorges on t...

  8. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  9. Cosmic ray feedback in galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrommer, C.; Pakmor, R.; Schaal, K.; Simpson, C. M.; Springel, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recent cosmological simulations of galaxy formation have demonstrated that feedback by star formation, supernovae and active galactic nuclei appears to be critical in obtaining realistic disk galaxies, to slow down star formation to the small observed rates, to move gas and metals out of galaxies, and to balance radiative cooling of low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters. However the particular physical processes underlying these feedback processes still remain elusive. In particular, these simulations neglected cosmic rays (CRs) and magnetic fields, which provide a comparable pressure support in comparison to turbulence in our Galaxy, and are known to couple dynamically and thermally to the gas. We will present our recent efforts to model CR physics in the cosmological simulation code arepo and demonstrate that CRs matter on all scales relevant for galaxy formation. Presenting global simulations of galaxy formation that couple CRs to the magneto-hydrodynamics, we show how CRs can launch powerful galactic winds, which reduces the available amount of gas for star formation. In particular, we highlight the importance of the γ-ray window in understanding the properties of galactic winds and discuss the non-thermal radio and γ-ray emission of Milky-Way like galaxies with bubble-shaped outflows. On scales of galaxy clusters, we show that cosmic-ray heating can balance radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters and helps in mitigating the star formation of the brightest cluster galaxies. Combining low-frequency radio and γ-ray emission of M87, the closest active galaxy interacting with the cooling cluster plasma, enable us to put forward a comprehensive, physics-based model of feedback by active galactic nuclei.

  10. The Role of Host Galaxy for the Environmental Dependence of Active Nuclei in Local Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Erwin, P.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Janssen, A.; Koss, M.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disk-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies is related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle, and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN.

  11. The role of host galaxy for the environmental dependence of active nuclei in local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Richard I.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Erwin, P.; Burtscher, L.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Janssen, A.; Koss, M.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Riffel, R.; Riffel, R. A.; Rosario, D.; Schartmann, M.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Shimizu, T.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Tacconi, L.; Veilleux, S.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the environment of local hard X-ray selected active galaxies, with reference to two independent group catalogues. We find that the fraction of these AGN in S0 host galaxies decreases strongly as a function of galaxy group size (halo mass) - which contrasts with the increasing fraction of galaxies of S0 type in denser environments. However, there is no evidence for an environmental dependence of AGN in spiral galaxies. Because most AGN are found in spiral galaxies, this dilutes the signature of environmental dependence for the population as a whole. We argue that the differing results for AGN in disc-dominated and bulge-dominated galaxies are related to the source of the gas fuelling the AGN, and so may also impact the luminosity function, duty cycle and obscuration. We find that there is a significant difference in the luminosity function for AGN in spiral and S0 galaxies, and tentative evidence for some difference in the fraction of obscured AGN.

  12. 77 FR 49818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Bar Code Label Requirement for Human Drug and Biological Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  13. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  14. Chandra Observatory Reveals Spiral Galaxy's Boisterous Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This Chandra X-ray observatory image of M83 shows numerous point-like neutron stars and black hole x-ray sources scattered throughout the disk of this spiral galaxy. The bright nuclear region of the galaxy glows prominently due to a burst of star formation that is estimated to have begun about 20 million years ago in the galaxy's time frame. The nuclear region, enveloped by a 7 million degree Celsius gas cloud of carbon, neon, magnesium, silicon, and sulfur atoms, contains a much higher concentration of neutron stars and black holes than the rest of the galaxy. Hot gas with a slightly lower temperature of 4 million degrees observed along the spiral arms of the galaxy suggests that star formation in this region may be occurring at a more sedate rate.

  15. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): spatially resolved gas-phase metallicity distributions in barred and unbarred spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Kyle F.; Jogee, Shardha; Kewley, Lisa; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Weinzirl, Tim; Song, Mimi; Drory, Niv; Luo, Rongxin; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the excitation conditions and metallicity of ionized gas (Zgas) in eight nearby barred and unbarred spiral galaxies from the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA) survey, which provides high spatial sampling and resolution (median ˜387 pc), large coverage from the bulge to outer disc, broad wavelength range (3600-6800 Å), and medium spectral resolution (˜120 km s-1 at 5000 Å). Our results are: (1) We present high resolution gas excitation maps to differentiate between regions with excitation typical of Seyfert, LINER, or recent star formation. We find LINER-type excitation at large distances (3-10 kpc) from the centre, and associate this excitation with diffuse ionized gas (DIG). (2) After excluding spaxels dominated by Seyfert, LINER, or DIG, we produce maps with the best spatial resolution and sampling to date of the ionization parameter q, star formation rate, and Zgas using common strong line diagnostics. We find that isolated barred and unbarred spirals exhibit similarly shallow Zgas profiles from the inner kpc out to large radii (7-10 kpc or 0.5-1.0 R25). This implies that if profiles had steeper gradients at earlier epochs, then the present-day bar is not the primary driver flattening gradients over time. This result contradicts earlier claims, but agrees with recent IFU studies. (3) The Zgas gradients in our z ˜ 0 massive spirals are markedly shallower, by ˜0.2 dex kpc-1, than published gradients for lensed lower mass galaxies at z ˜ 1.5-2.0. Cosmologically motivated hydrodynamical simulations best match this inferred evolution, but the match is sensitive to adopted stellar feedback prescriptions.

  16. Emission line galaxies and active galactic nuclei in WINGS clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziani, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Bettoni, D.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Fasano, G.; Fritz, J.; Cava, A.; Varela, J.; Omizzolo, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the analysis of the emission line galaxies members of 46 low-redshift (0.04 < z < 0.07) clusters observed by WINGS (WIde-field Nearby Galaxy cluster Survey). Emission line galaxies were identified following criteria that are meant to minimize biases against non-star-forming galaxies and classified employing diagnostic diagrams. We examined the emission line properties and frequencies of star-forming galaxies, transition objects, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs: LINERs and Seyferts), unclassified galaxies with emission lines, and quiescent galaxies with no detectable line emission. A deficit of emission line galaxies in the cluster environment is indicated by both a lower frequency, and a systematically lower Balmer emission line equivalent width and luminosity with respect to control samples; this implies a lower amount of ionized gas per unit mass and a lower star formation rate if the source is classified as Hii region. A sizable population of transition objects and of low-luminosity LINERs (≈ 10-20% of all emission line galaxies) are detected among WINGS cluster galaxies. These sources are a factor of ≈1.5 more frequent, or at least as frequent, as in control samples with respect to Hii sources. Transition objects and LINERs in clusters are most affected in terms ofline equivalent width by the environment and appear predominantly consistent with so-called retired galaxies. Shock heating can be a possible gas excitation mechanism that is able to account for observed line ratios. Specific to the cluster environment, we suggest interaction between atomic and molecular gas and the intracluster medium as a possible physical cause of line-emitting shocks. The data whose description is provided in Table B.1, and emission line catalog of the WINGS database are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A83

  17. Destruction and survival of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectra of dusty galactic environments often contain emission features attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, which can be considered to be very small grains or very large molecules. Although IR spectra of starburst galaxies almost always show these emission features, similar spectra of active galaxies are usually featureless. Even in those active galaxies that do exhibit PAH emission, the PAHs still appear to be eradicated from the nuclear region. This dichotomy suggests that PAHs are destroyed by the intense hard radiation field from an AGN. Laboratory experiments show that certain PAHs are, in fact, so effectively destroyed by individual EUV and X-ray photons that they cannot survive even at kiloparsec distances from active nuclei. Regions within active galaxies that do show PAH emission must therefore be shielded from the central X-ray source by a substantial column density of X-ray absorbing gas.

  18. Active control of bending vibrations in thick bars using PZT stack actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Parker, G.; Barney, P.; Rodeman, R.

    1995-07-01

    An experimental investigation into active control of bending vibrations in thick bar and plate-like structural elements is described. This work is motivated by vibration problems in machine tools and photolithography machines that require greater control authority than available from conventional surface mounted PZT patches or PVDF films. Focus of this experiment is a cantilevered circular steel bar in which PZT stacks are mounted in cutouts near the bar root. Axially aligned and offset from the neutral axis, these actuators control the bending vibrations by generating moments in the bar through their compressive loads. A Positive Feedback control law is used to significantly augment the damping in the first bending mode. Implications of the experimental results for machine tool stability enhancement are discussed.

  19. Evolutionary Selection on Barrier Activity: Bar1 Is an Aspartyl Protease with Novel Substrate Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen K.; Clarke, Starlynn C.; Craik, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peptide-based pheromones are used throughout the fungal kingdom for coordinating sexual responses between mating partners. Here, we address the properties and function of Bar1, an aspartyl protease that acts as a “barrier” and antagonist to pheromone signaling in multiple species. Candida albicans Bar1 was purified and shown to exhibit preferential cleavage of native α pheromone over pheromones from related fungal species. This result establishes that protease substrate specificity coevolved along with changes in its pheromone target. Pheromone cleavage by Bar1 occurred between residues Thr-5 and Asn-6 in the middle of the tridecapeptide sequence. Surprisingly, proteolytic activity was independent of the amino acid residues present at the scissile bond and instead relied on residues at the C terminus of α pheromone. Unlike most aspartyl proteases, Bar1 also exhibited a near-neutral pH optimum and was resistant to the class-wide inhibitor pepstatin A. In addition, genetic analysis was performed on C. albicans BAR1 and demonstrated that the protease not only regulates endogenous pheromone signaling but also can limit interspecies pheromone signaling. We discuss these findings and propose that the unusual substrate specificity of Bar1 is a consequence of its coevolution with the α pheromone receptor Ste2 for their shared peptide target. PMID:26604258

  20. The influence of bar diameter on neuromuscular strength and activation: inferences from an isometric unilateral bench press.

    PubMed

    Fioranelli, Douglas; Lee, C Matthew

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two different bar diameters on neuromuscular activation and strength. The bar diameters used reflected a standard Olympic bar (28 mm (1.1 inch); THIN) and a larger fat bar (51 mm [2 inch]; THICK). Eighteen healthy men (age 25.0 +/- 1 years) were assessed for their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during a unilateral isometric bench press exercise with the 2 bar types at 2 different joint angles (angle 1 and angle 2; elbow joint at approximately 45 and 90 degrees , respectively). Additionally, on a separate day, subjects performed three 10-second isometric repetitions at an intensity of 80% MVC using the 2 different bars at angle 1 and angle 2. Electromyographic recordings were collected in the pectoralis major and the muscles of the forearm flexor region at a sampling rate of 1000 Hz during the second day of testing. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in MVC between bars and also examine between bar differences in electromyographic activity for each muscle group at each joint angle. A significance level of 0.05 was used for all tests. MVC was not different between bar types, although there was a main effect of joint angle on MVC such that it was greater at angle 2. There was a main effect of bar at both angles for the forearm muscles and at angle 1 for the pectoralis such that electromyographic activity was greater with THIN. Our data do not support the hypothesis that bar diameter influences performance during an isometric bench press exercise. However, higher electromyographic activity with THIN suggests greater neuromuscular activation with a standard Olympic bar as opposed to a larger diameter "fat" bar. Although our data do not support the use of a fat bar for increasing neuromuscular activation, these findings should be confirmed in other resistance training exercises.

  1. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Popesso, P.; Genzel, R.; Saintonge, A.; Tacconi, L.; Wuyts, S. E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: popesso@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amelie@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: swuyts@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from the extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.

  2. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. III.The MBH - σ Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennert, Vardha N.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Cosens, Maren; Park, Daeseong; Rosen, Rebecca; Harris, Chelsea E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-08-01

    We create a baseline of the black hole (BH) mass (MBH)—stellar-velocity dispersion (σ) relation for active galaxies, using a sample of 66 local (0.02galaxies, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Analysis of SDSS images yields AGN luminosities free of host-galaxy contamination, and morphological classification. 51/66 galaxies have spiral morphology. Out of these, 28 bulges have Sérsic index n<2 and are considered candidate pseudo-bulges, with eight being definite pseudo-bulges based on multiple classification criteria met. Only 4/66 galaxies show signs of interaction/merging. High signal-to-noise ratio Keck spectra provide the width of the broad Hβ emission line free of Fe ii emission and stellar absorption. AGN luminosity and Hβ line widths are used to estimate MBH. The Keck-based spatially resolved kinematics is used to determine stellar-velocity dispersion within the spheroid effective radius (σ spat,reff). We find that σ can vary on average by up to 40% across definitions commonly used in the literature, emphasizing the importance of using self-consistent definitions in comparisons and evolutionary studies. The MBH-σ relation for our Seyfert-1 galaxy sample has the same intercept and scatter as that of reverberation-mapped AGNs as well as that of quiescent galaxies, consistent with the hypothesis that our single epoch MBH estimator and sample selection function do not introduce significant biases. Barred galaxies, merging galaxies, and those hosting pseudo-bulges do not represent outliers in the MBH-σ relation. This is in contrast with previous work, although no firm conclusion can be drawn on this matter due to the small sample size and limited resolution of the SDSS images.

  3. The link between tidal interaction and nuclear activity in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, D. N. C.; Pringle, J. E.; Rees, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    It is considered how nuclear activity in galaxies may be induced by the tidal perturbation of companion galaxies. It is suggested that if the central regions of the galaxies contain marginally self-gravitating disks of gas, trailing spiral density waves, triggered by nonaxisymmetric gravitational instability, lead to efficient angular momentum transport. If the net effect of the external perturbation is to increase the effect of self-gravity in the gas, then the result is to induce a considerable increase in the mass accretion rate into the central region on a relatively short time scale. With a simple prescription, the evolution of self-gravitating accretion disks is examined in this context. These results are discussed in the context of the frequent occurrence of nuclear activity in interacting galaxies.

  4. HUBBLE CAPTURES AN EXTRAORDINARY AND POWERFUL ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a swirling witch's cauldron of glowing vapors, the black hole-powered core of a nearby active galaxy appears in this colorful NASA Hubble Space Telescope image. The galaxy lies 13 million light-years away in the southern constellation Circinus. This galaxy is designated a type 2 Seyfert, a class of mostly spiral galaxies that have compact centers and are believed to contain massive black holes. Seyfert galaxies are themselves part of a larger class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN. AGN have the ability to remove gas from the centers of their galaxies by blowing it out into space at phenomenal speeds. Astronomers studying the Circinus galaxy are seeing evidence of a powerful AGN at the center of this galaxy as well. Much of the gas in the disk of the Circinus spiral is concentrated in two specific rings -- a larger one of diameter 1,300 light-years, which has already been observed by ground-based telescopes, and a previously unseen ring of diameter 260 light-years. In the Hubble image, the smaller inner ring is located on the inside of the green disk. The larger outer ring extends off the image and is in the plane of the galaxy's disk. Both rings are home to large amounts of gas and dust as well as areas of major 'starburst' activity, where new stars are rapidly forming on timescales of 40 - 150 million years, much shorter than the age of the entire galaxy. At the center of the starburst rings is the Seyfert nucleus, the believed signature of a supermassive black hole that is accreting surrounding gas and dust. The black hole and its accretion disk are expelling gas out of the galaxy's disk and into its halo (the region above and below the disk). The detailed structure of this gas is seen as magenta-colored streamers extending towards the top of the image. In the center of the galaxy and within the inner starburst ring is a V-shaped structure of gas. The structure appears whitish-pink in this composite image, made up of four filters. Two

  5. HUBBLE CAPTURES AN EXTRAORDINARY AND POWERFUL ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a swirling witch's cauldron of glowing vapors, the black hole-powered core of a nearby active galaxy appears in this colorful NASA Hubble Space Telescope image. The galaxy lies 13 million light-years away in the southern constellation Circinus. This galaxy is designated a type 2 Seyfert, a class of mostly spiral galaxies that have compact centers and are believed to contain massive black holes. Seyfert galaxies are themselves part of a larger class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN. AGN have the ability to remove gas from the centers of their galaxies by blowing it out into space at phenomenal speeds. Astronomers studying the Circinus galaxy are seeing evidence of a powerful AGN at the center of this galaxy as well. Much of the gas in the disk of the Circinus spiral is concentrated in two specific rings -- a larger one of diameter 1,300 light-years, which has already been observed by ground-based telescopes, and a previously unseen ring of diameter 260 light-years. In the Hubble image, the smaller inner ring is located on the inside of the green disk. The larger outer ring extends off the image and is in the plane of the galaxy's disk. Both rings are home to large amounts of gas and dust as well as areas of major 'starburst' activity, where new stars are rapidly forming on timescales of 40 - 150 million years, much shorter than the age of the entire galaxy. At the center of the starburst rings is the Seyfert nucleus, the believed signature of a supermassive black hole that is accreting surrounding gas and dust. The black hole and its accretion disk are expelling gas out of the galaxy's disk and into its halo (the region above and below the disk). The detailed structure of this gas is seen as magenta-colored streamers extending towards the top of the image. In the center of the galaxy and within the inner starburst ring is a V-shaped structure of gas. The structure appears whitish-pink in this composite image, made up of four filters. Two

  6. Environmental regulation of cloud and star formation in galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, F.; Bournaud, F.; Emsellem, E.; Agertz, O.; Athanassoula, E.; Combes, F.; Elmegreen, B.; Kraljic, K.; Motte, F.; Teyssier, R.

    2015-12-01

    The strong time-dependence of the dynamics of galactic bars yields a complex and rapidly evolving distribution of dense gas and star forming regions. Although bars mainly host regions void of any star formation activity, their extremities can gather the physical conditions for the formation of molecular complexes and mini-starbursts. Using a sub-parsec resolution hydrodynamical simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy, we probe these conditions to explore how and where bar (hydro-)dynamics favours the formation or destruction of molecular clouds and stars. The interplay between the kpc-scale dynamics (gas flows, shear) and the parsec-scale (turbulence) is key to this problem. We find a strong dichotomy between the leading and trailing sides of the bar, in term of cloud fragmentation and in the age distribution of the young stars. After orbiting along the bar edge, these young structures slow down at the extremities of the bar, where orbital crowding increases the probability of cloud-cloud collision. We find that such events increase the Mach number of the cloud, leading to an enhanced star formation efficiency and finally the formation of massive stellar associations, in a fashion similar to galaxy-galaxy interactions. We highlight the role of bar dynamics in decoupling young stars from the clouds in which they form, and discuss the implications on the injection of feedback into the interstellar medium (ISM), in particular in the context of galaxy formation.

  7. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): active galactic nuclei in pairs of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Yjan A.; Owers, Matt S.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Croom, Scott M.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Baldry, Ivan K.; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Loveday, Jonathan; Taylor, Edward N.; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-03-01

    There exist conflicting observations on whether or not the environment of broad- and narrow-line active galatic nuclei (AGN) differ and this consequently questions the validity of the AGN unification model. The high spectroscopic completeness of the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey makes it ideal for a comprehensive analysis of the close environment of galaxies. To exploit this, and conduct a comparative analysis of the environment of broad- and narrow-line AGN within GAMA, we use a double-Gaussian emission line fitting method to model the more complex line profiles associated with broad-line AGN. We select 209 type 1 (i.e. unobscured), 464 type 1.5-1.9 (partially obscured), and 281 type 2 (obscured) AGN within the GAMA II data base. Comparing the fractions of these with neighbouring galaxies out to a pair separation of 350 kpc h-1 and Δz < 0.012 shows no difference between AGN of different type, except at separations less than 20 kpc h-1 where our observations suggest an excess of type 2 AGN in close pairs. We analyse the properties of the galaxies neighbouring our AGN and find no significant differences in colour or the star formation activity of these galaxies. Further to this, we find that Σ5 is also consistent between broad- and narrow-line AGN. We conclude that the observations presented here are consistent with AGN unification.

  8. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  9. Infrared Emission from the Smallest Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Aaron; Greene, Jenny; Ho, Luis

    2006-05-01

    Virtually all of our current knowledge of black hole demographics, both in nearby inactive galaxies and in AGNs, comes from observations of black holes with masses between a few million and a few billion solar masses in host galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions between about 70 and 400 km/sec. Searching for smaller black holes in low-mass galaxies can yield important clues to the origin and early evolution of supermassive black holes, and AGN surveys are the best available way to identify such objects. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we have identified 19 Seyfert 1 galaxies with black hole mass below 10^6 solar masses (Greene & Ho 2004), and 20 Seyfert 2 galaxies having stellar velocity dispersions smaller than 70 km/sec as determined by new Keck observations. These AGN samples offer a unique opportunity to study the very early growth stages of black holes and their host galaxies. Spitzer observations of mid-infrared emission will be the best available calorimeter of the energetics of these tiny AGNs. Our primary goal is to determine the infrared contribution to the bolometric luminosities, which will be a key to understanding the black hole accretion rates. From the infrared spectral shapes we will constrain the dust temperatures and search for silicate features in emission or absorption that may indicate the presence of an obscuring torus, and which will help to determine whether the Type 1 and Type 2 objects differ primarily as a result of our viewing angle, as in classic AGN unified models. PAH features and narrow emission lines will be used to diagnose the relative contributions of AGN and star formation to the infrared luminosity. To accomplish these goals, we request IRS staring-mode spectroscopy in the SL2, SL1, LL2, and LL1 settings for our Sloan-selected sample of 19 Seyfert 1s and 20 Seyfert 2s, as well as NGC 4395 and POX 52, which are the prototypical nearby examples of Seyfert nuclei in dwarf host galaxies.

  10. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - I. Stellar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Dahmer-Hahn, Luis G.; Diniz, Marlon R.; Schönell, Astor J.; Dametto, Natacha Z.

    2017-09-01

    We use the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) to map the stellar kinematics of the inner few hundred parsecs of a sample of 16 nearby Seyfert galaxies, at a spatial resolution of tens of parsecs and spectral resolution of 40 km s- 1. We find that the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity fields for most galaxies are well reproduced by rotating disc models. The kinematic position angle (PA) derived for the LOS velocity field is consistent with the large-scale photometric PA. The residual velocities are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity, suggesting that more luminous active galactic nuclei have a larger impact in the surrounding stellar dynamics. The central velocity dispersion values are usually higher than the rotation velocity amplitude, what we attribute to the strong contribution of bulge kinematics in these inner regions. For 50 per cent of the galaxies, we find an inverse correlation between the velocities and the h3 Gauss-Hermitte moment, implying red wings in the blueshifted side and blue wings in the redshifted side of the velocity field, attributed to the movement of the bulge stars lagging the rotation. Two of the 16 galaxies (NGC 5899 and Mrk 1066) show an S-shape zero velocity line, attributed to the gravitational potential of a nuclear bar. Velocity dispersion (σ) maps show rings of low-σ values (∼50-80 km s- 1) for four objects and 'patches' of low σ for six galaxies at 150-250 pc from the nucleus, attributed to young/ intermediate age stellar populations.

  11. Using HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Imaging of Nuclear Dust Morphology to Rule Out Bars Fueling Seyfert Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Michael W.; Mulchaey, John S.

    1999-06-01

    If active galactic nuclei (AGN) are powered by the accretion of matter onto massive black holes, how does the gas in the host galaxy lose the required angular momentum to approach the black hole? Gas easily transfers angular momentum to stars in strong bars, making them likely candidates. Although ground-based searches for bars in active galaxies using both optical and near-infrared surface brightness have not found any excess of bars relative to quiescent galaxies, the searches have not been able to rule out small-scale nuclear bars. To look for these nuclear bars we use Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 and Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer color maps to search for the straight dust lane signature of strong bars. Of the twelve Seyfert galaxies in our sample, only three have dust lanes consistent with a strong nuclear bar. Therefore, strong nuclear bars cannot be the primary fueling mechanism for Seyfert nuclei. We do find that a majority of the galaxies show an spiral morphology in their dust lanes. These spiral arms may be a possible fueling mechanism.

  12. A multispecies survey of the active galaxy NGC1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usero, A.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Aalto, S.; Neri, R.; Krips, M.

    2011-05-01

    The nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 is among the very few objects where nuclear starburst regions and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) can be spatially resolved with current millimeter--wavelength telescopes. We present a multispecies survey of molecular lines in this galaxy carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Thanks to the high spatial-resolution achieved, we distinguish the circumnuclear disk (CND) that surrounds the active nucleus of the galaxy from the outer starburst ring. We mapped the line emission of the most common tracers of UV-ray- X-ray- and shock-driven molecular chemistry in external galaxies (e.g., HCN, HCO^+, HNC, CN, SiO). This help us assess the importance of the main mechanisms whereby massive star formation and AGN may inject energy into the interstellar medium. We measure line ratios that evidence chemical/excitation differences between the AGN- and starburst-dominated environments in NGC 1068. Gradients of several line ratios within the CND support a complex picture of this region, where energy might be radiatively and mechanically injected at different locations. We consider the implications of our results for diagnostics of AGN- and starburst-driven feedback based on molecular lines. We also discuss whether molecular lines can fairly trace molecular mass in AGN and starburst galaxies, as commonly assumed in studies of star-forming laws in galaxies.

  13. Enhancement of AGN Activity in Distant Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Charutha; Hatch, Nina; Almaini, Omar

    2017-07-01

    I present our recent study of the prevalence of X-ray AGN in the high-redshift protocluster Cl 0218.3-0510 at z=1.62, and review the implications for our understanding of galaxy evolution. There has long been a consensus that X-ray AGN avoid clusters in the local universe, particularly their cores. The high-redshift universe appears to not follow these trends, as there is a reversal in the local anti-correlation between galaxy density and AGN activity. In this z=1.62 protocluster, we find a large overdensity of AGN by a factor of 23, and an enhancement in the AGN fraction among massive galaxies relative to the field by a factor of 2. I will discuss the comparison of the properties of AGN in the protocluster to the field, and explain how our results point towards similar triggering mechanisms in the two environments. I will also describe how our study of the morphologies of these galaxies provide tentative evidence towards galaxy mergers and interactions being responsible for triggering AGN, and explain the reversal of the local anti-correlation between galaxy density and AGN activity.

  14. Characterizing the population of active galactic nuclei in dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Reines, Amy E.; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E.

    2017-01-01

    Clues to super-massive black hole (BH) formation and growth reside in the population and properties of BHs in local dwarf galaxies. The masses of BHs in these systems are our best observational constraint on the masses of the first BH "seeds" at high redshift. Moreover, present-day dwarf galaxies are unlikely to have undergone major mergers, making them a relatively pristine testbed for studying triggers of BH accretion. However, in order to find BHs in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group, it is necessary to search for signatures of accretion, i.e., active galactic nuclei (AGN). Until recently, only a handful of dwarf galaxies were known to contain AGN. However, large surveys such as the SDSS have led to the production of samples of over a hundred dwarf galaxies with AGN signatures (see e.g., Reines et al. 2013). My dissertation work has involved in-depth, multi-wavelength follow-up of nearby (z<0.055) dwarf galaxies with optical spectroscopic AGN signatures in SDSS.I analyzed high resolution spectra of dwarf galaxies with narrow-line AGN, which led to the discovery of a 50,000 MSun BH in the nucleus of RGG 118 - the smallest BH yet reported in a galaxy nucleus (Baldassare et al. 2015). I also used multi-epoch optical spectroscopy to study the nature of broad H-alpha emission in dwarf galaxies. A characteristic signature of dense gas orbiting around a BH, broad emission can also be produced by transient stellar processes. I showed that broad H-alpha in star-forming dwarf galaxies fades over a baseline of 5-10 years, and is likely produced by e.g., a Type II SN as opposed to an AGN. However, broad emission in dwarf galaxies with AGN/composite narrow lines is persistent and consistent across observations, suggesting an AGN origin (Baldassare et al. 2016). Finally, I analyzed X-ray and UV observations of dwarf galaxies with broad and narrow-line AGN signatures. All targets had nuclear X-ray detections at levels significantly higher than expected from X-ray binaries

  15. OBSERVABILITY OF DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN MERGING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wassenhove, Sandor; Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone; Dotti, Massimo

    2012-03-20

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) have been detected in the centers of most nearby massive galaxies. Galaxies today are not only the products of billions of years of galaxy mergers, but also billions of years of SMBH activity as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that is connected to galaxy mergers. In this context, detection of AGN pairs should be relatively common. Observationally, however, dual AGNs are scant, being just a few percent of all AGNs. In this Letter, we investigate the triggering of AGN activity in merging galaxies via a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We follow the dynamics and accretion onto the SMBHs as they move from separations of tens of kiloparsecs to tens of parsecs. Our resolution, cooling, and star formation implementation produce an inhomogeneous, multi-phase interstellar medium, allowing us to accurately trace star formation and accretion onto the SMBHs. We study the impact of gas content, morphology, and mass ratio, focusing on AGN activity and dynamics across a wide range of relevant conditions. We test when the two AGNs are simultaneously detectable, for how long and at which separations. We find that strong dual AGN activity occurs during the late phases of the mergers, at small separations (<1-10 kpc) below the resolution limit of most surveys. Much of the SMBH accretion is not simultaneous, limiting the dual AGN fraction detectable through imaging and spectroscopy to a few percent, in agreement with observational samples.

  16. Cinematique et dynamique des galaxies spirales barrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Olivier

    The total mass (luminous and dark) of galaxies is derived from their circular velocities. Spectroscopic Fabry-Perot observations of the ionized gas component of spiral galaxies allow one to derive their kinematics. In the case of purely axisymmetric velocity fields--as in non-active and unbarred spirals galaxies-- the circular velocities can be derived directly. However, the velocity fields of barred galaxies (which constitute two thirds of the spirals) exhibit strong non-circular motions and need a careful analysis to retrieve the circular component. This thesis proposes the necessary steps to recover the axisymmetric component of barred spiral galaxies. The first step was to develop the best instrumentation possible for this work. [Special characters omitted.] , which is the most sensitive photon counting camera ever developed, was coupled to a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The observations of a sample of barred spiral galaxies--the BH a BAR sample--was assembled in order to obtain the most rigourous velocity fields. Then, the Tremaine-Weinberg method, which can determine the bar pattern speed and is usually used with the observations of stellar component, has been tested on the ionised gas and gave satisfactory results. Finally, all the above techniques have been applied to the BH a BAR sample in order to study the key parameters of the galaxies' evolution--bar pattern speeds, multiple stationary waves, resonances etc.--which will allow one to use N-body+SPH simulations to model properly the non-circular motions and determine the true total mass of barred spiral galaxies.

  17. Illinois State Bar Association Law Day Activities Guide. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Bar Association, Springfield.

    These law-related lessons and activities can facilitate participation in a Law Day program. Following an introduction, this activities guide is divided into these sections: "Tips for Teachers" ("What Can a Lawyer Add to the Classroom?"; "So You Have Been Asked to Speak to Kids about the Law"; "A Checklist for…

  18. Relative Influence of Galaxy Mergers and Clusters on AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabiboulline, Emil; Steinhardt, C. L.; Silverman, J. D.; Ellison, S. L.; Mendel, T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the connection between the accretion of central black holes and the intergalactic environment with a newly developed technique. Using 551,924 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), supplemented by improved data on galaxy mergers and clusters, we study how AGN activity varies across environments. We apply a continuous measure of AGN activity to all galaxies and then determine how it changes between samples specifically matched to isolate environmental effects while removing contamination. We find consistent merger-induced enhancement and cluster-induced suppression of AGN activity, with the influence of clustering dominant over merging. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which mergers increase gas delivery and clusters reduce gas availability.

  19. Clues to galaxy activity from rich cluster simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evrard, August E.

    1990-01-01

    New simulations of rich cluster evolution are used to evaluate the first infall hypothesis of Gunn and Dressler - the idea that the enhanced fraction of active galaxies seen in high redshift clusters is due to a one-time burst of star formation triggered by the rapid rise in external pressure as a galaxy plows into the hot intracluster medium (ICM). Using three-dimensional simulations which contain both baryonic gas and collisionless dark material, local static pressure histories for test orbits of galaxies are generated and a simple trigger threshold based on dP/dt/P sub ISM is applied to define an active fraction of the population. The results lend qualitative and quantitative support to the first infall interpretation.

  20. Coordinated autoinhibition of F-BAR domain membrane binding and WASp activation by Nervous Wreck

    PubMed Central

    Stanishneva-Konovalova, Tatiana B.; Kelley, Charlotte F.; Eskin, Tania L.; Messelaar, Emily M.; Wasserman, Steven A.; Sokolova, Olga S.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane remodeling by Fes/Cip4 homology-Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs167 (F-BAR) proteins is regulated by autoinhibitory interactions between their SRC homology 3 (SH3) and F-BAR domains. The structural basis of autoregulation, and whether it affects interactions of SH3 domains with other cellular ligands, remain unclear. Here we used single-particle electron microscopy to determine the structure of the F-BAR protein Nervous Wreck (Nwk) in both soluble and membrane-bound states. On membrane binding, Nwk SH3 domains do not completely dissociate from the F-BAR dimer, but instead shift from its concave surface to positions on either side of the dimer. Unexpectedly, along with controlling membrane binding, these autoregulatory interactions inhibit the ability of Nwk-SH3a to activate Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp)/actin related protein (Arp) 2/3-dependent actin filament assembly. In Drosophila neurons, Nwk autoregulation restricts SH3a domain-dependent synaptopod formation, synaptic growth, and actin organization. Our results define structural rearrangements in Nwk that control F-BAR–membrane interactions as well as SH3 domain activities, and suggest that these two functions are tightly coordinated in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27601635

  1. Nonlinear Analysis of an Unstable Bench Press Bar Path and Muscle Activation.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Michael A; Leib, Daniel J; Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A

    2017-05-01

    Lawrence, MA, Leib, DJ, Ostrowski, SJ, and Carlson, LA. Nonlinear analysis of an unstable bench press bar path and muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1206-1211, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are typically performed to improve the ability of stabilizing muscles to maintain joint integrity under a load. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an unstable load (as provided by a flexible barbell and a load suspended by elastic bands) on the bar path, the primary musculature, and stabilizing musculature while bench pressing using nonlinear analyses. Fifteen resistance-trained men (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.1 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, 9.9 ± 3.4 years of lifting experience, and bench press 1 repetition maximum (RM) 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (total load 75% 1RM) and unstable (total load 60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and bar stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). During the unstable condition, the bar moved in more ways and was less predictable in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions. However, the muscle activation patterns of all muscles were more constrained with the unstable barbell. These findings suggest that the unstable condition was more challenging to control, but subjects controlled the instability by contracting their muscles in a more stable pattern or "staying tight" throughout the exercise.

  2. Quenching of the star formation activity in cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Roehlly, Y.; Fossati, M.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Boquien, M.; Burgarella, D.; Ciesla, L.; Gavazzi, G.; Serra, P.

    2016-11-01

    We study the star formation quenching mechanism in cluster galaxies by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Herschel Reference Survey, a complete volume-limited K-band-selected sample of nearby galaxies including objects in different density regions, from the core of the Virgo cluster to the general field. The SEDs of the target galaxies were fitted using the CIGALE SED modelling code. The truncated activity of cluster galaxies was parametrised using a specific star formation history with two free parameters, the quenching age QA and the quenching factor QF. These two parameters are crucial for the identification of the quenching mechanism, which acts on long timescales when starvation processes are at work, but is rapid and efficient when ram pressure occurs. To be sensitive to an abrupt and recent variation of the star formation activity, we combined twenty photometric bands in the UV to far-infrared in a new way with three age-sensitive Balmer line absorption indices extracted from available medium-resolution (R 1000) integrated spectroscopy and with Hα narrow-band imaging data. The use of a truncated star formation history significantly increases the quality of the fit in HI-deficient galaxies of the sample, that is to say, in those objects whose atomic gas content has been removed during the interaction with the hostile cluster environment. The typical quenching age of the perturbed late-type galaxies is QA ≲ 300 Myr whenever the activity of star formation is reduced by 50% < QF ≤ 80% and QA ≲ 500 Myr for QF > 80%, while that of the quiescent early-type objects is QA ≃ 1-3 Gyr. The fraction of late-type galaxies with a star formation activity reduced by QF > 80% and with an HI-deficiency parameter HI-def > 0.4 drops by a factor of 5 from the inner half virial radius of the Virgo cluster (R/Rvir < 0.5), where the hot diffuse X-ray emitting gas of the cluster is located, to the outer regions (R/Rvir > 4). The efficient quenching of the

  3. Effects of Active galactic nuclei feedback in galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, C.; Cora, S.; Padilla, N.

    We analyze the effects of feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) on the formation and evolution of galaxies, which is assumed to quench cooling flows in massive halos. With this aim we use an hybrid model that combines a cosmological Lambda CDM simulation with a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We consider the semi-analytic model described by Cora (2006) (SAMC06) which has been improved by including AGNs, which are associated with the presence of supermassive black holes (BHs). Modellization of BH includes gas accretion during merger-driven starbursts and black hole mergers (Malbon et al., 2006), accretion during starbursts triggered by disk instabilities (Bower et al. 2006), and accretion of cooling gas from quasi-hydrostatically cooling haloes (Croton et al. 2006); Eddington limit is applied in all accretion processes. It is assumed that feedback from AGNs operates in the later case. We show that this new model can simultaneously explain: (i) the bright-end of the galaxy luminosity function (LF); (ii) the observed older population of stars in massive galaxies, thus reproducing the stellar mass function (SMF); (iii) a star formation rate (SFR) seemingly showing an anti-hierarchical galaxy growth. The success of our model is mainly due to the ability of AGN feedback to suppress further cooling and SF in the most massive structures.

  4. Galaxy interactions and active galactic nuclei in the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Christopher J.

    2009-06-01

    It has been suggested that galaxy interactions may be the principal mechanism responsible for triggering non-thermal activity in galactic nuclei. This thesis investigates the possible role of interactions in the local Universe by searching for evidence of a causal relationship between major interactions and the initiation of activity in Seyfert galaxies using high-quality, multiwavelength imaging data. The connection between interacting galaxies and Seyferts is explored by comparing the clustering properties of their environments, as quantified by the spatial cross-correlation function amplitude. If a direct evolutionary relationship exists, the objects should be located in environments that are statistically similar. It was previously demonstrated that Seyferts are found in fields comparable to isolated galaxies. The analysis presented in this work reveals that interacting galaxies are preferentially situated in regions consistent with Abell Richness Classes of 0 to 1. The apparent dissimilarity of their environments provides a strong argument against a link between major interactions and Seyfert galaxies. An examination of the photometric and morphological properties of the interacting systems does not uncover any trends that could be associated with the initiation of nuclear activity. The role of major interactions in triggering low-redshift AGNs is then assessed using near-infrared imagery of a sample of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. It has been postulated that these objects are evolutionarily young AGNs, powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes that are considerably lower in mass than those found in typical broad-line Seyferts. By employing the correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy bulge luminosity, the mean black hole mass, [Special characters omitted.] BH , in solar units for the sample is found to be [left angle bracket]log [Special characters omitted.] ( BH )[right angle bracket] = 7.7 ± 0.1, consistent with typical broad

  5. Active galactic nucleus feedback in clusters of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Elizabeth L; Clarke, T E; Sarazin, Craig L; Randall, Scott W; McNamara, Brian R

    2010-04-20

    Observations made during the last ten years with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have shed much light on the cooling gas in the centers of clusters of galaxies and the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. Cooling of the hot intracluster medium in cluster centers can feed the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of the dominant cluster galaxies leading to AGN outbursts which can reheat the gas, suppressing cooling and large amounts of star formation. AGN heating can come in the form of shocks, buoyantly rising bubbles that have been inflated by radio lobes, and the dissipation of sound waves.

  6. Active galactic nucleus feedback in clusters of galaxies

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Elizabeth L.; Clarke, T. E.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Randall, Scott W.; McNamara, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Observations made during the last ten years with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have shed much light on the cooling gas in the centers of clusters of galaxies and the role of active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. Cooling of the hot intracluster medium in cluster centers can feed the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of the dominant cluster galaxies leading to AGN outbursts which can reheat the gas, suppressing cooling and large amounts of star formation. AGN heating can come in the form of shocks, buoyantly rising bubbles that have been inflated by radio lobes, and the dissipation of sound waves. PMID:20351250

  7. A Comprehensive Reevaluation of the Relation Between Black Hole Mass and Bulge Luminosity in Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2010-09-01

    The scaling relations between black hole {BH} mass and bulge properties serve as powerful tools to study the interplay between BH growth and galaxy formation. The BH mass-bulge luminosity relation for galaxies hosting AGNs holds special promise because it can be more easily traced out to earlier epochs when both BH growth and star formation were more active. Recent studies suggest that at higher redshifts BH growth outpaced bulge assembly, but this potentially very important result critically depends on our knowledge of the local scaling relations, which are still poorly known. In an archival study approved for Cycle 15, we characterized, for the first time, the intrinsic scatter of the BH mass-bulge luminosity relation and its dependence on AGN properties for a sample of 45 local quasars containing the most massive BHs hosted by early-type galaxies. Our analysis employs a sophisticated new technique to decompose the two-dimensional structure of the host galaxies with unprecedented accuracy. Here we propose to extend our program to a large, comprehensive sample of 223 lower mass, lower luminosity AGNs at z < 0.35, most of which are hosted by disk galaxies. We will derive accurate photometric parameters for the bulge, taking into account, when necessary complex components such as bars, spiral arms, and nonaxisymmetric structures. We will use these measurements to reevaluate the slope, zero point, and scatter of the BH mass-bulge luminosity relation, and their possible dependence on AGN and host galaxy properties. Combined with our previous analysis, our study covers the largest possible dynamic range in BH mass, AGN luminosity, and host galaxy morphological type. It will serve as a fundamental reference point for all future investigations of the cosmic evolution of the BH-host scaling relations.

  8. AGN Activity in Nucleated Galaxies as Measured by Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foord, Adi; Gallo, Elena; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Miller, Brendan P.; Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by theoretical expectations that nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in galactic centers may provide a favorable environment for supermassive black holes to form and/or efficiently grow, we set out to measure the fraction of nearby nucleated galaxies that also host an active galactic nucleus. We targeted a distance-limited sample of 98 objects with the Chandra X-ray Telescope, down to a uniform X-ray luminosity threshold of ˜1038 erg s-1. The sample is composed of 47 late-types and 51 early-types, enabling us to further investigate the active fraction as a function of galactic morphology. After correcting for contamination to the nuclear X-ray signal from bright X-ray binaries, we measure an active fraction f=11.2{ % }-4.9+7.4 (1σ C.L.) across the whole sample, in agreement with previous estimates based on a heterogeneous combination of optical, X-ray, and radio diagnostics, by Seth et al. After accounting for the different stellar mass distributions in our samples, we find no statistically significant difference in the active fraction of early- versus late-type nucleated galaxies, with f=10.6{ % }-4.9+11.9 and 10.8{ % }-6.3+11.3, respectively. For the early-type nucleated galaxies, we are able to carry out a controlled comparison with a parent sample of non-nucleated galaxies covering the same stellar mass range, again finding no statistically significant difference in the active fraction. Taken at face value, our findings suggest that the presence of an NSC does not facilitate or enhance accretion-powered emission from a nuclear supermassive black hole. This is true even for late-type nucleated galaxies, home to bluer NSCs and arguably larger gas reservoirs.

  9. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Barth, Aaron J.; Im, Myungshin

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (Hβ FWHM ≤ 2000 km s‑1) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (Hβ FWHM > 2000 km s‑1) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  10. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE TRUNCATION OF STAR FORMATION IN K+A GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael J. I.; Palamara, David; Moustakas, John; Caldwell, Nelson; Cool, Richard J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2009-09-20

    We have searched for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K+A galaxies, using multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The K+A galaxies, which have had their star formation rapidly truncated, are selected via their strong Balmer absorption lines and weak Halpha emission. Our sample consists of 24 K+A galaxies selected from 6594 0.10 < z < 0.35 galaxies brighter than I = 20 with optical spectroscopy from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Two thirds of the K+A galaxies are likely ongoing galaxy mergers, with nearby companion galaxies or tidal tails. Galaxy mergers may be responsible for the truncation of star formation, or we are observing the aftermath of merger triggered starbursts. As expected, the optical colors of K+A galaxies largely fall between blue galaxies with ongoing star formation and red passive galaxies. However, only 1% of the galaxies with colors between the red and blue populations are K+A galaxies, and we conclude that the truncation of star formation in K+A galaxies must have been unusually abrupt ({approx}<100 Myr). We examined the AGN content of K+A galaxies with both optical emission-line ratios (BPT diagrams) and Chandra X-ray imaging. At least half of all K+A galaxies display the optical emission-line ratios of AGNs, and a third of M{sub R} < -22 K+A galaxies host AGNs with X-ray luminosities of {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. The faintest K+A galaxies do not show clear evidence for hosting AGNs, having emission-line ratios consistent with photoionization by massive stars and few X-ray detections. We speculate that two mechanisms may be responsible for the truncation of star formation in K+A galaxies, with AGN feedback only playing a role in M{sub R} {approx}< -20.5 galaxies.

  11. The LMT Galaxies'3mm Spectroscopic Survey: Molecules as tracers of activity in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, O.; Rosa-González, D.; Schloerb, P.; Sánchez-Argüellez, D.; Hunt, L.; Narayanan, G.; Calzetti, D.; Yun, M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R. J.; Mayya, Y. D.; Chávez, M.; Montaña, A.; Pérez-García, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    The study of the molecular gas is fundamental for the understanding of the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions in galaxies, as well as the on- set and evolution of star formation and the growth of supermassive black holes. Unbiased extragalactic molecular line surveys at mm wavelengths are mandatory to detect many species and identify those that provide the best information about the physical properties around the nuclear regions. The instantaneous bandwidth of 37 GHz covering frequencies from 73 to 111 GHz of the RSR at the 32m-Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT, Sierra la Negra, Mexico), allows the simultaneous detection of a large number of molecular species and eliminates many systematic problems as varying pointing or calibration problems present in receivers with shorter coverage. We present high signal to noise millimeter spectra of a sample of 23 galaxies spanning a large range in infrared luminosities, nuclear activity, metallicity and morphological types. We started the analysis of their cold and dense molecular content based on molecular line ratios diagnostic diagrams and empirical relations between molecular line intensities and the properties of the host galaxies like nuclear activity, star forming rate, and metallicity.

  12. Loss-of-function of β-catenin bar-1 slows development and activates the Wnt pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    van der Bent, M Leontien; Sterken, Mark G; Volkers, Rita J M; Riksen, Joost A G; Schmid, Tobias; Hajnal, Alex; Kammenga, Jan E; Snoek, L Basten

    2014-05-13

    C. elegans is extensively used to study the Wnt-pathway and most of the core-signalling components are known. Four β-catenins are important gene expression regulators in Wnt-signalling. One of these, bar-1, is part of the canonical Wnt-pathway. Together with Wnt effector pop-1, bar-1 forms a transcription activation complex which regulates the transcription of downstream genes. The effects of bar-1 loss-of-function mutations on many phenotypes have been studied well. However, the effects on global gene expression are unknown. Here we report the effects of a loss-of-function mutation bar-1(ga80). By analysing the transcriptome and developmental phenotyping we show that bar-1(ga80) impairs developmental timing. This developmental difference confounds the comparison of the gene expression profile between the mutant and the reference strain. When corrected for this difference it was possible to identify genes that were directly affected by the bar-1 mutation. We show that the Wnt-pathway itself is activated, as well as transcription factors elt-3, pqm-1, mdl-1 and pha-4 and their associated genes. The outcomes imply that this response compensates for the loss of functional bar-1. Altogether we show that bar-1 loss-of function leads to delayed development possibly caused by an induction of a stress response, reflected by daf-16 activated genes.

  13. HI Emission in Nearby X-ray Detected Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Erin; Winter, L. M.; Zauderer, B.; Darling, J.; Koss, M.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured HI profiles in 96 nearby, active galaxies using the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Our sources contain active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) from Swift Gamma-ray Burst satellite’s Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 22-month survey. This survey is unique because the sources were detected in the hard X-ray, allowing us to include galaxies that are otherwise obscured in other bands. The HI profiles we gathered are combined with the published optical, infrared, and X-ray data. We present the systemic velocities, outflow velocities, and cold gas mass in the sources. The mass of the cold gas is compared to the luminous mass in stars in order to find clues to unlock the nature of the host galaxies. A comparison of HI with the bolometric luminosity of the AGN is made. Our observations examine how the reservoir of cold gas is correlated with luminosity, as well. Through these data, we look for evolutionary differences in host galaxy types in order to understand how super massive black holes are fueled.

  14. Herschel/SPIRE Submillimeter Spectra of Local Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Glenn, Jason; Isaak, Kate G.; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J up = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n_H_2 \\sim 103.2-103.9 cm-3 and T kin ~ 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H2 emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T kin < 30 K) and dense (n_H_2 \\gt 10^3 cm-3) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H2O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH+ lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  15. HERSCHEL/SPIRE SUBMILLIMETER SPECTRA OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Isaak, Kate G.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J{sub up} = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx} 10{sup 3.2}-10{sup 3.9} cm{sup -3} and T{sub kin} {approx} 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H{sub 2} emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T{sub kin} < 30 K) and dense (n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H{sub 2}O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH{sup +} lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  16. TURBULENT CAULDRON OF STARBIRTH IN NEARBY ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope offers a stunning unprecedented close-up view of a turbulent firestorm of starbirth along a nearly edge-on dust disk girdling Centaurus A, the nearest active galaxy to Earth. A ground-based telescopic view (upper left insert) shows that the dust lane girdles the entire elliptical galaxy. This lane has long been considered the dust remnant of a smaller spiral galaxy that merged with the large elliptical galaxy. The spiral galaxy deposited its gas and dust into the elliptical galaxy, and the shock of the collision compressed interstellar gas, precipitating a flurry of star formation. Resembling looming storm clouds, dark filaments of dust mixed with cold hydrogen gas are silhouetted against the incandescent yellow-orange glow from hot gas and stars behind it. Brilliant clusters of young blue stars lie along the edge of the dark dust rift. Outside the rift the sky is filled with the soft hazy glow of the galaxy's much older resident population of red giant and red dwarf stars. The dusty disk is tilted nearly edge-on, its inclination estimated to be only 10 or 20 degrees from our line-of-sight. The dust lane has not yet had enough time since the recent merger to settle down into a flat disk. At this oblique angle, bends and warps in the dust lane cause us to see a rippled 'washboard' structure. The picture is a mosaic of two Hubble Space Telescope images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, on Aug. 1, 1997 and Jan. 10, 1998. The approximately natural color is assembled from images taken in blue, green and red light. Details as small as seven light-years across can be resolved. The blue color is due to the light from extremely hot, newborn stars. The reddish-yellow color is due in part to hot gas, in part to older stars in the elliptical galaxy and in part to scattering of blue light by dust -- the same effect that produces brilliant orange sunsets on Earth. Centaurus A (NGC 5128) Fast Facts: Right Ascension: 13: 25.5 (hours

  17. TURBULENT CAULDRON OF STARBIRTH IN NEARBY ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope offers a stunning unprecedented close-up view of a turbulent firestorm of starbirth along a nearly edge-on dust disk girdling Centaurus A, the nearest active galaxy to Earth. A ground-based telescopic view (upper left insert) shows that the dust lane girdles the entire elliptical galaxy. This lane has long been considered the dust remnant of a smaller spiral galaxy that merged with the large elliptical galaxy. The spiral galaxy deposited its gas and dust into the elliptical galaxy, and the shock of the collision compressed interstellar gas, precipitating a flurry of star formation. Resembling looming storm clouds, dark filaments of dust mixed with cold hydrogen gas are silhouetted against the incandescent yellow-orange glow from hot gas and stars behind it. Brilliant clusters of young blue stars lie along the edge of the dark dust rift. Outside the rift the sky is filled with the soft hazy glow of the galaxy's much older resident population of red giant and red dwarf stars. The dusty disk is tilted nearly edge-on, its inclination estimated to be only 10 or 20 degrees from our line-of-sight. The dust lane has not yet had enough time since the recent merger to settle down into a flat disk. At this oblique angle, bends and warps in the dust lane cause us to see a rippled 'washboard' structure. The picture is a mosaic of two Hubble Space Telescope images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, on Aug. 1, 1997 and Jan. 10, 1998. The approximately natural color is assembled from images taken in blue, green and red light. Details as small as seven light-years across can be resolved. The blue color is due to the light from extremely hot, newborn stars. The reddish-yellow color is due in part to hot gas, in part to older stars in the elliptical galaxy and in part to scattering of blue light by dust -- the same effect that produces brilliant orange sunsets on Earth. Centaurus A (NGC 5128) Fast Facts: Right Ascension: 13: 25.5 (hours

  18. Stellar bars and the spatial distribution of infrared luminosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based 10 micron observations of the central region of over 100 infrared luminous galaxies are presented. A first order estimate of the spatial distribution of infrared emission in galaxies is obtained through a combination of ground-based and Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data. The galaxies are nearby and primarily noninteracting, permitting an unbiased investigation of correlations with Hubble type. Approximately 40% of the early-type barred galaxies in this sample are associated with enhanced luminosity in the central (approximately 1 kpc diameter) region. The underlying luminosity source is attributed to both Seyfert and star formation activity. Late-type spirals are different in that the spatial distribution of infrared emission and the infrared luminoisty are not strongly dependent on barred morphology.

  19. BAR Proteins PSTPIP1/2 Regulate Podosome Dynamics and the Resorption Activity of Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Sztacho, Martin; Segeletz, Sandra; Sanchez-Fernandez, Maria Arantzazu; Czupalla, Cornelia; Niehage, Christian; Hoflack, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption in vertebrates relies on the ability of osteoclasts to assemble F-actin-rich podosomes that condense into podosomal belts, forming sealing zones. Sealing zones segregate bone-facing ruffled membranes from other membrane domains, and disassemble when osteoclasts migrate to new areas. How podosome/sealing zone dynamics is regulated remains unknown. We illustrate the essential role of the membrane scaffolding F-BAR-Proline-Serine-Threonine Phosphatase Interacting Proteins (PSTPIP) 1 and 2 in this process. Whereas PSTPIP2 regulates podosome assembly, PSTPIP1 regulates their disassembly. PSTPIP1 recruits, through its F-BAR domain, the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6) that de-phosphophorylates the phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatases SHIP1/2 bound to the SH3 domain of PSTPIP1. Depletion of any component of this complex prevents sealing zone disassembly and increases osteoclast activity. Thus, our results illustrate the importance of BAR domain proteins in podosome structure and dynamics, and identify a new PSTPIP1/PTPN6/SHIP1/2-dependent negative feedback mechanism that counterbalances Src and PI(3,4,5)P3 signalling to control osteoclast cell polarity and activity during bone resorption. PMID:27760174

  20. The star formation rates of active galactic nuclei host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Rosario, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2016-05-01

    Using artificial neural network predictions of total infrared luminosities (LIR), we compare the host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs) of ˜21 000 optically selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), 466 low-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) and 721 mid-IR-selected AGN. SFR offsets (ΔSFR) relative to a sample of star-forming `main-sequence' galaxies (matched in M⋆, z and local environment) are computed for the AGN hosts. Optically selected AGN exhibit a wide range of ΔSFR, with a distribution skewed to low SFRs and a median ΔSFR = -0.06 dex. The LERGs have SFRs that are shifted to even lower values with a median ΔSFR = -0.5 dex. In contrast, mid-IR-selected AGN have, on average, SFRs enhanced by a factor of ˜1.5. We interpret the different distributions of ΔSFR amongst the different AGN classes in the context of the relative contribution of triggering by galaxy mergers. Whereas the LERGs are predominantly fuelled through low accretion rate secular processes which are not accompanied by enhancements in SFR, mergers, which can simultaneously boost SFRs, most frequently lead to powerful, obscured AGN.

  1. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A.; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself). PMID:27401954

  2. Golgi membrane fission requires the CtBP1-S/BARS-induced activation of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase δ.

    PubMed

    Pagliuso, Alessandro; Valente, Carmen; Giordano, Lucia Laura; Filograna, Angela; Li, Guiling; Circolo, Diego; Turacchio, Gabriele; Marzullo, Vincenzo Manuel; Mandrich, Luigi; Zhukovsky, Mikhail A; Formiggini, Fabio; Polishchuk, Roman S; Corda, Daniela; Luini, Alberto

    2016-07-12

    Membrane fission is an essential cellular process by which continuous membranes split into separate parts. We have previously identified CtBP1-S/BARS (BARS) as a key component of a protein complex that is required for fission of several endomembranes, including basolateral post-Golgi transport carriers. Assembly of this complex occurs at the Golgi apparatus, where BARS binds to the phosphoinositide kinase PI4KIIIβ through a 14-3-3γ dimer, as well as to ARF and the PKD and PAK kinases. We now report that, when incorporated into this complex, BARS binds to and activates a trans-Golgi lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase type δ (LPAATδ) that converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (PA); and that this reaction is essential for fission of the carriers. LPA and PA have unique biophysical properties, and their interconversion might facilitate the fission process either directly or indirectly (via recruitment of proteins that bind to PA, including BARS itself).

  3. Properties of Bars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Preethi

    2009-12-01

    Early work on bar fractions suffered from poor sample sizes which limited the study of correlations between bar fraction and physical properties. Recent large surveys like SDSS and COSMOS have helped rectify this deficiency. Sheth et al. (2008) using a sample of 2000 galaxies from COSMOS, have shown that bar fractions decrease with redshift as claimed by Abraham et al. (1999) and van den Bergh et al. (2000) . In addition, they find the bar fraction of spiral galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass, color and bulge prominence such that more massive, redder, concentrated galaxies have a larger bar fraction than less massive, bluer, diskier galaxies. Barazza et al. (2008) using 2000 galaxies from SDSS find results counter to Sheth et al. (2008) i.e., bar fractions increase with decreasing mass and bluer colors (corresponding to late type galaxies). Using a larger sample of 15000 visually classified SDSS galaxies (which includes bar classifications) I further investigate the properties of barred galaxies in the local universe. In addition, I will describe the variation of total fine fraction (bars + rings +lenses) with physical properties and the effects of AGN on the observed fine fraction.

  4. Archaeology of active galaxies across the electromagnetic spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella

    2017-09-01

    Analytical and numerical galaxy-formation models indicate that active galactic nuclei (AGNs) likely play a prominent role in the formation and evolution of galaxies. However, quantifying this effect requires knowledge of how the nuclear activity proceeds throughout the life of a galaxy, whether it alternates with periods of quiescence and, if so, on what timescales these cycles occur. This topic has attracted growing interest, but making progress remains a challenging task. For optical and radio AGNs, a variety of techniques are used to perform a kind of `archaeology' that traces the signatures of past nuclear activity. Here we summarize recent findings regarding the lifecycle of an AGN from optical and radio observations. The limited picture we have so far suggests that these cycles can range from long periods of 107-108 yr to shorter periods of 104-105 yr, even reaching extreme events on timescales of just a few years. Together with simulations, observational results regarding the multiple cycles of AGN activity help to create a complete picture of the AGN lifecycle.

  5. Galaxy IC 3639 with Obscured Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-07

    IC 3639, a galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, is seen in this image combining data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory. This galaxy contains an example of a supermassive black hole hidden by gas and dust. Researchers analyzed NuSTAR data from this object and compared them with previous observations from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Japanese-led Suzaku satellite. The findings from NuSTAR, which is more sensitive to higher energy X-rays than these observatories, confirm the nature of IC 3639 as an active galactic nucleus that is heavily obscured, and intrinsically much brighter than observed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21087

  6. X-rays and Gamma-rays from active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Photon-photon pair production in active galaxies is considered, and the concept of the annihilation efficiency, the efficiency of the conversion of continuum luminosity of greater than 511 keV into positron annihilation luminosity, is introduced. Equations that give the source's annihilation luminosity and 511-keV flux as a function of its size, continuum luminosity and distance are developed. These are applied to the available X-ray and gamma-ray data on active galaxies in order to make specific predictions. Efficiencies as high as over 6 percent and fluxes up to 0.0008 ph/sq cm s result. While the latter are below present limits, they are within the reach of advanced instruments now in development.

  7. AN OBSERVED LINK BETWEEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND VIOLENT DISK INSTABILITIES IN HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaud, Frederic; Juneau, Stephanie; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Mullaney, James; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Salmi, Fadia; Dekel, Avishai; Dickinson, Mark

    2012-09-20

    We provide evidence for a correlation between the presence of giant clumps and the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in disk galaxies. Giant clumps of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} arise from violent gravitational instability in gas-rich galaxies, and it has been proposed that this instability could feed supermassive black holes (BHs). We use emission line diagnostics to compare a sample of 14 clumpy (unstable) disks and a sample of 13 smoother (stable) disks at redshift z {approx} 0.7. The majority of clumpy disks in our sample have a high probability of containing AGNs. Their [O III] {lambda}5007 emission line is strongly excited, inconsistent with low-metallicity star formation (SF) alone. [Ne III] {lambda}3869 excitation is also higher. Stable disks rarely have such properties. Stacking ultra sensitive Chandra observations (4 Ms) reveals an X-ray excess in clumpy galaxies, which confirms the presence of AGNs. The clumpy galaxies in our intermediate-redshift sample have properties typical of gas-rich disk galaxies rather than mergers, being in particular on the main sequence of SF. This suggests that our findings apply to the physically similar and numerous gas-rich unstable disks at z > 1. Using the observed [O III] and X-ray luminosities, we conservatively estimate that AGNs hosted by clumpy disks have typical bolometric luminosities of the order of a few 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, BH growth rates m-dot{sub BH}{approx}10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and that these AGNs are substantially obscured in X-rays. This moderate-luminosity mode could provide a large fraction of today's BH mass with a high duty cycle (>10%), accretion bursts with higher luminosities being possible over shorter phases. Violent instabilities at high redshift (giant clumps) are a much more efficient driver of BH growth than the weak instabilities in nearby spirals (bars), and the evolution of disk instabilities with mass and redshift could explain the simultaneous downsizing of

  8. Triple Scoop from Galaxy Hunter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3

    Silver Dollar Galaxy: NGC 253 (figure 1) Located 10 million light-years away in the southern constellation Sculptor, the Silver Dollar galaxy, or NGC 253, is one of the brightest spiral galaxies in the night sky. In this edge-on view from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the wisps of blue represent relatively dustless areas of the galaxy that are actively forming stars. Areas of the galaxy with a soft golden glow indicate regions where the far-ultraviolet is heavily obscured by dust particles.

    Gravitational Dance: NGC 1512 and NGC 1510 (figure 2) In this image, the wide ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer show spiral galaxy NGC 1512 sitting slightly northwest of elliptical galaxy NGC 1510. The two galaxies are currently separated by a mere 68,000 light-years, leading many astronomers to suspect that a close encounter is currently in progress.

    The overlapping of two tightly wound spiral arm segments makes up the light blue inner ring of NGC 1512. Meanwhile, the galaxy's outer spiral arm is being distorted by strong gravitational interactions with NGC 1510.

    Galaxy Trio: NGC 5566, NGC 5560, and NGC 5569 (figure 3) NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a triplet of galaxies in the Virgo cluster: NGC 5560 (top galaxy), NGC 5566 (middle galaxy), and NGC 5569 (bottom galaxy).

    The inner ring in NGC 5566 is formed by two nearly overlapping bright arms, which themselves spring from the ends of a central bar. The bar is not visible in ultraviolet because it consists of older stars or low mass stars that do not emit energy at ultraviolet wavelengths. The outer disk of NGC 5566 appears warped, and the disk of NGC 5560 is clearly disturbed. Unlike its galactic neighbors, the disk of NGC 5569 does not appear to have been distorted by any passing

  9. A large difference in the progenitor masses of active and passive galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauwens, Bart; Franx, Marijn; Schaye, Joop

    2016-11-01

    Cumulative number density matching of galaxies is a method to observationally connect descendent galaxies to their typical main progenitors at higher redshifts and thereby to assess the evolution of galaxy properties. The accuracy of this method is limited due to galaxy merging and scatter in the stellar mass growth history of individual galaxies. Behroozi et al. have introduced a refinement of the method, based on abundance matching of observed galaxies to the Bolshoi dark matter-only simulation. The EAGLE cosmological hydrosimulation is well suited to test this method, because it reproduces the observed evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function and the passive fraction. We find agreement with the Behroozi et al. method for the complete sample of main progenitors of z = 0 galaxies, but we also find a strong dependence on the current star formation rate. Passive galaxies with a stellar mass up to 1010.75 M⊙ have a completely different median mass history than active galaxies of the same mass. This difference persists if we only select central galaxies. This means that the cumulative number density method should be applied separately to active and passive galaxies. Even then, the typical main progenitor of a z = 0 galaxy already spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass at z = 2.

  10. Nearby Galaxy is a Hotbed of Star Birth Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This new image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1569. This galaxy is a hotbed of vigorous star birth activity which blows huge bubbles that riddle its main body. The bubble structure is sculpted by the galactic super-winds and outflows caused by a colossal input of energy from collective supernova explosions that are linked with a massive episode of star birth. The bubbles seen in this image are made of hydrogen gas that glows when hit by the fierce wind and radiation from hot young stars and is racked by supernova shocks. Its 'star factories' are also manufacturing brilliant blue star clusters. NGC 1569 had a sudden onset of star birth about 25 million years ago, which subsided about the time the very earliest human ancestors appeared on Earth. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST.

  11. Nearby Galaxy is a Hotbed of Star Birth Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This new image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1569. This galaxy is a hotbed of vigorous star birth activity which blows huge bubbles that riddle its main body. The bubble structure is sculpted by the galactic super-winds and outflows caused by a colossal input of energy from collective supernova explosions that are linked with a massive episode of star birth. The bubbles seen in this image are made of hydrogen gas that glows when hit by the fierce wind and radiation from hot young stars and is racked by supernova shocks. Its 'star factories' are also manufacturing brilliant blue star clusters. NGC 1569 had a sudden onset of star birth about 25 million years ago, which subsided about the time the very earliest human ancestors appeared on Earth. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST.

  12. X-ray Photoexcited Extranuclear Gas in Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Herman

    2015-10-01

    I will present a summary of results from 16 years of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of gas in the neighborhood of Active Galactic Nuclei. Led by the prototypical Sy 2 galaxy NGC 1068, we now have many examples of circumnuclear gas that is excited by the central source. In galaxies with obscured nuclei, the gas is rich with emission lines from highly ionized species and radiative recombination continua. Outflows are apparent and several cases are resolved at the 1-5 level. The ionization models give velocity, density, and composition diagnostics. These outflows carry significant energy and momentum, affecting the energy budget of the local intergalactic medium. The X-ray Surveyor can examine the prevalence and impact of these ionization cones in the z1 universe.

  13. Gamma-ray bursts, QSOs and active galaxies.

    PubMed

    Burbidge, Geoffrey

    2007-05-15

    The similarity of the absorption spectra of gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources or afterglows with the absorption spectra of quasars (QSOs) suggests that QSOs and GRB sources are very closely related. Since most people believe that the redshifts of QSOs are of cosmological origin, it is natural to assume that GRBs or their afterglows also have cosmological redshifts. For some years a few of us have argued that there is much optical evidence suggesting a very different model for QSOs, in which their redshifts have a non-cosmological origin, and are ejected from low-redshift active galaxies. In this paper I extend these ideas to GRBs. In 2003, Burbidge (Burbidge 2003 Astrophys. J. 183, 112-120) showed that the redshift periodicity in the spectra of QSOs appears in the redshift of GRBs. This in turn means that both the QSOs and the GRB sources are similar objects ejected from comparatively low-redshift active galaxies. It is now clear that many of the GRBs of low redshift do appear in, or very near, active galaxies.A new and powerful result supporting this hypothesis has been produced by Prochter et al. (Prochter et al. 2006 Astrophys. J. Lett. 648, L93-L96). They show that in a survey for strong MgII absorption systems along the sightlines to long-duration GRBs, nearly every sightline shows at least one absorber. If the absorbers are intervening clouds or galaxies, only a small fraction should show absorption of this kind. The number found by Prochter et al. is four times higher than that normally found for the MgII absorption spectra of QSOs. They believe that this result is inconsistent with the intervening hypothesis and would require a statistical fluctuation greater than 99.1% probability. This is what we expect if the absorption is intrinsic to the GRBs and the redshifts are not associated with their distances. In this case, the absorption must be associated with gas ejected from the QSO. This in turn implies that the GRBs actually originate in comparatively low

  14. Ionization cones and radio ejecta in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. S.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.

    1994-01-01

    We report radio mapping at three frequencies of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5252, which is known to exhibit a spectacular pair of 'ionization cones' in optical emission-line images. The radio structure of the galaxy comprises an unresolved (less than 50 pc) source coincident with the optical nucleus, weak, narrow features extending approximately equal to 900 pc to north and south from the nucleus, and an unresolved radio source some 10 kpc from the nucleus. The inner parts of the extended radio structure and the off-nuclear source align well with the axis of the ionization cones. There are currently 11 Seyfert galaxies known to possess an ionization cone or a bi-cone; 8 of these galaxies also contain a linear (double, triple, or jet-like) nuclear radio structure. For this limited, incomplete sample, there is a tight alignment between cone and radi axes: the formal mean difference between the measured projections of these axes on the sky is only 6 deg, and the alignment may well be better than this at the location(s) closer to the nucleus where the collimation occurs. Although the degree of collimation is much worse for the ionizing photons than for the radio plasma, it is clear that they are collimated by the same, or coplanar, nulcear disks or tori. In particular, if the ionization cones result from absorption by dusty tori on the pc scale and the radio ejecta from accretion disks around the central black hole, the absence of differential precession indicates that either the gravitating mass distribution is close to spherical or the dusty torus has settled into a preferred plane. The cones currently known in late-type (but not early-type) spirals show a trend to align with the axis of the galaxy stellar disk. We argue that this alignment is either an observational selection effect or indicates that the gas accreted to power the nuclear activity has an internal origin in late-type spirals, but may have an external origin (e.g., a galaxy merger) in early-types. .

  15. DO QUIESCENT AND ACTIVE GALAXIES HAVE DIFFERENT M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} RELATIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Park, Daeseong; Kang, Wol-Rang; Schulze, Andreas; Kim, Sang Chul; Riechers, Dominik A.

    2013-07-20

    To investigate the validity of the assumption that quiescent galaxies and active galaxies follow the same black hole mass (M{sub BH})-stellar velocity dispersion ({sigma}{sub *}) relation, as required for the calibration of M{sub BH} estimators for broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we determine and compare the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relations, respectively, for quiescent and active galaxies. For the quiescent galaxy sample, composed of 72 dynamical M{sub BH} measurements, we update {sigma}{sub *} for 28 galaxies using homogeneous H-band measurements that are corrected for galaxy rotation. For active galaxies, we collect 25 reverberation-mapped AGNs and improve {sigma}{sub *} measurement for two objects. Combining the two samples, we determine the virial factor f, first by scaling the active galaxy sample to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of quiescent galaxies, and second by simultaneously fitting the quiescent and active galaxy samples, as f=5.1{sub -1.1}{sup +1.5} and f=5.9{sub -1.5}{sup +2.1}, respectively. The M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation of active galaxies appears to be shallower than that of quiescent galaxies. However, the discrepancy is caused by a difference in the accessible M{sub BH} distribution at given {sigma}{sub *}, primarily due to the difficulty of measuring reliable stellar velocity dispersion for the host galaxies of luminous AGNs. Accounting for the selection effects, we find that active and quiescent galaxies are consistent with following intrinsically the same M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation.

  16. Misaligned Disks as Obscurers in Active Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, A.; Elvis, M.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-06-02

    We review critically the evidence concerning the fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) which appear as Type 2 AGN, carefully distinguishing strict Type 2 AGN from both more lightly reddened Type 1 AGN, and from low excitation narrow line AGN, which may represent a different mode of activity. Low excitation AGN occur predominantly at low luminosities; after removing these, true Type 2 AGN represent 58{-+}5% of all AGN, and lightly reddened Type 1 AGN a further {approx}15%. Radio, IR, and volume-limited samples all agree in showing no change of Type 2 fraction with luminosity. X-ray samples do show a change with luminosity; we discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. We test a very simple picture which produces this Type 2 fraction with minimal assumptions. In this picture, infall from large scales occurs in random directions, but must eventually align with the inner accretion flow, producing a severely warped disk on parsec scales. If the re-alignment is dominated by tilt, with minimal twist, a wide range of covering factors is predicted in individual objects, but with an expected mean fraction of Type 2 AGN of exactly 50%. This 'tilted disc' picture predicts reasonable alignment of observed nuclear structures on average, but with distinct misalignments in individual cases. Initial case studies of the few well resolved objects show that such misalignments are indeed present.

  17. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (∼0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  18. Gish Bar Patera, Io: Geology and Volcanic Activity, 1996-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jason; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly; McEwen, Alfred; Keszthelyi, Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    Since the two Voyagers passed by Jupiter in 1979, it has been known that volcanic activity is ubiquitous on the surface of Io. With over 400 volcanic centers, Io is even more volcanically active than the earth with massive flood basalt-style eruptions and komatitite lavas a common occurrence. Additionally, some volcanoes appear to be giant lava lakes, with violent activity churning the crust of the lake for periods of 20 years or more. Finally, sulfur is believed to play a large role in Io's volcanism, be it as a primary lava or as a secondary product of large, high-temperature eruptions. By studying one volcano in particular, Gish Bar Patera, one can observe many of these characteristics in one volcanic center.

  19. Gish Bar Patera, Io: Geology and Volcanic Activity, 1996-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jason; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly; McEwen, Alfred; Keszthelyi, Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    Since the two Voyagers passed by Jupiter in 1979, it has been known that volcanic activity is ubiquitous on the surface of Io. With over 400 volcanic centers, Io is even more volcanically active than the earth with massive flood basalt-style eruptions and komatitite lavas a common occurrence. Additionally, some volcanoes appear to be giant lava lakes, with violent activity churning the crust of the lake for periods of 20 years or more. Finally, sulfur is believed to play a large role in Io's volcanism, be it as a primary lava or as a secondary product of large, high-temperature eruptions. By studying one volcano in particular, Gish Bar Patera, one can observe many of these characteristics in one volcanic center.

  20. EVIDENCE FOR WIDESPREAD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY AMONG MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Karen P.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew W.

    2013-02-10

    We quantify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a mass-complete (M {sub *} > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }) sample of 123 star-forming and quiescent galaxies at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5, using X-ray data from the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. 41% {+-} 7% of the galaxies are detected directly in X-rays, 22% {+-} 5% with rest-frame 0.5-8 keV luminosities consistent with hosting luminous AGNs (L {sub 0.5-8keV} > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}). The latter fraction is similar for star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and does not depend on galaxy stellar mass, suggesting that perhaps luminous AGNs are triggered by external effects such as mergers. We detect significant mean X-ray signals in stacked images for both the individually non-detected star-forming and quiescent galaxies, with spectra consistent with star formation only and/or a low-luminosity AGN in both cases. Comparing star formation rates inferred from the 2-10 keV luminosities to those from rest-frame IR+UV emission, we find evidence for an X-ray excess indicative of low-luminosity AGNs. Among the quiescent galaxies, the excess suggests that as many as 70%-100% of these contain low- or high-luminosity AGNs, while the corresponding fraction is lower among star-forming galaxies (43%-65%). Our discovery of the ubiquity of AGNs in massive, quiescent z {approx} 2 galaxies provides observational support for the importance of AGNs in impeding star formation during galaxy evolution.

  1. TVA sediment-disturbing activities within the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objectives of Task 5 were to review: (1) the extent of dredging, construction, and other sediment-disturbing activities conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in potentially contaminated areas of Watts Bar Reservoir; and (2) the disposition of the materials from these activities. This memorandum is the final report for Task 5. This memorandum describes major activities in the Watts Bar Reservoir and Melton Hill Reservoir areas of the Clinch River that possibly resulted in significant disturbance of potentially contaminated sediments. TVA records from the construction of Watts Bar Dam, Kingston Fossil Plant, and Melton Hill Dam were reviewed to facilitate qualitative description of the effect of these activities in disturbing potentially contaminated sediments. The critical period for these activities in disturbing contaminated sediments was during or after 1956 when the peak releases of radioactive contaminants occurred from the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  2. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN CLASH BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-10

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ∼350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ∼0.5–1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

  3. Is the cluster environment quenching the Seyfert activity in elliptical and spiral galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Krone-Martins, A.; Cameron, E.; Coelho, P.; Hattab, M. W.; de Val-Borro, M.; Hilbe, J. M.; Elliott, J.; Hagen, A.; COIN Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to investigate how the presence of Seyfert activity relates to their environment, herein represented by the galaxy cluster mass, M200, and the normalized cluster centric distance, r/r200. We achieved this by constructing an unbiased sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, with morphological classifications provided by the Galaxy Zoo Project. A propensity score matching approach is introduced to control the effects of confounding variables: stellar mass, galaxy colour, and star formation rate. The connection between Seyfert-activity and environmental properties in the de-biased sample is modelled within an HBM framework using the so-called logistic regression technique, suitable for the analysis of binary data (e.g. whether or not a galaxy hosts an AGN). Unlike standard ordinary least square fitting methods, our methodology naturally allows modelling the probability of Seyfert-AGN activity in galaxies on their natural scale, i.e. as a binary variable. Furthermore, we demonstrate how an HBM can incorporate information of each particular galaxy morphological type in an unified framework. In elliptical galaxies our analysis indicates a strong correlation of Seyfert-AGN activity with r/r200, and a weaker correlation with the mass of the host cluster. In spiral galaxies these trends do not appear, suggesting that the link between Seyfert activity and the properties of spiral galaxies are independent of the environment.

  4. The Nature and Nurture of Bars and Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Corsini, E. M.; Zarattini, S.

    2012-12-01

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at Mr ~= - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to Mr ~= - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.

  5. THE NATURE AND NURTURE OF BARS AND DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Zarattini, S.; Corsini, E. M.

    2012-12-10

    The effects that interactions produce on galaxy disks and how they modify the subsequent formation of bars need to be distinguished to fully understand the relationship between bars and environment. To this aim we derive the bar fraction in three different environments ranging from the field to Virgo and Coma Clusters, covering an unprecedentedly large range of galaxy luminosities (or, equivalently, stellar masses). We confirm that the fraction of barred galaxies strongly depends on galaxy luminosity. We also show that the difference between the bar fraction distributions as a function of galaxy luminosity (and mass) in the field and Coma Cluster is statistically significant, with Virgo being an intermediate case. The fraction of barred galaxies shows a maximum of about 50% at M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 20.5 in clusters, whereas the peak is shifted to M{sub r} {approx_equal} - 19 in the field. We interpret this result as a variation of the effect of environment on bar formation depending on galaxy luminosity. We speculate that brighter disk galaxies are stable enough against interactions to keep their cold structure, thus, the interactions are able to trigger bar formation. For fainter galaxies, the interactions become strong enough to heat up the disks inhibiting bar formation and even destroying the disks. Finally, we point out that the controversy regarding whether the bar fraction depends on environment could be resolved by taking into account the different luminosity ranges probed by the galaxy samples studied so far.

  6. The Tubulation Activity of a Fission Yeast F-BAR Protein Is Dispensable for Its Function in Cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Nathan A; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Feoktistova, Anna; Xu, Ping; Ohi, Melanie D; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Gould, Kathleen L

    2016-01-26

    F-BAR proteins link cellular membranes to the actin cytoskeleton in many biological processes. Here we investigated the function of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Imp2 F-BAR domain in cytokinesis and find that it is critical for Imp2's role in contractile ring constriction and disassembly. To understand mechanistically how the F-BAR domain functions, we determined its structure, elucidated how it interacts with membranes, and identified an interaction between dimers that allows helical oligomerization and membrane tubulation. Using mutations that block either membrane binding or tubulation, we find that membrane binding is required for Imp2's cytokinetic function but that oligomerization and tubulation, activities often deemed central to F-BAR protein function, are dispensable. Accordingly, F-BARs that do not have the capacity to tubulate membranes functionally substitute for the Imp2 F-BAR, establishing that its major role is as a cell-cycle-regulated bridge between the membrane and Imp2 protein partners, rather than as a driver of membrane curvature.

  7. High-energy gamma-ray observations of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    During the period from 1992 May to early 1992 November, the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory obtained high-energy gamma-ray data for most of the sky. A total of 18 active galaxies have been seen with high certainty, and it is expected that more will be found in the data when a more thorough analysis is complete. All of those that have been seen are radio-loud quasars or BL Lacertae objects; most have already been identified as blazars. No Seyfert galaxies have been found thus far. If the spectra are represented as a power law in energy, spectral slopes ranging from approximately -1.7 to -2.4 are found. A wide range of z-values exits in the observed sample, eight having values in excess of 1.0. Time variations have been seen, with the timescale for a significant change being as short as days in at least one case. These results imply the existence of very large numbers of relativistic particles, probably close to the central object. Although a large extrapolation is required, their existence also suggests that these active galactic nuclei may be the source of the extragalactic cosmic rays.

  8. Galactic Winds in Galaxies with Active Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lin; Yesuf, Hassen Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Post-starbursts galaxies are in a rapid transition from star-forming to quiescent, and are excellent candidates to test Active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback models. A key physical manifestation of AGN feedback is predicted to be galactic-scale powerful winds. We study winds in stacked spectra of 375 post-starburst AGN and of a control sample of star-forming (non-AGN) galaxies, both taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using a two component (ISM+wind) absorption line model of the Na I 5890,5896 A doublet, after accounting for the stellar photospheric absorption, we find that the post-starburst AGN have a centroid wind velocity shift of -174 +/- 24 km/s and a wind velocity dispersion of 148 +/- 10 km/s. In comparison, the control sample, matched in redshift, stellar mass, axis-ratio, and the 4000 angstrom break index, has a centroid wind velocity shift of -132 +/- 7 km/s and a wind velocity dispersion of 86 +/- 5 km/s. The equivalent widths due to the winds are slightly higher in post-starburst AGN (0.25 +/- 0.03 A) than in the control sample (0.14 +/- 0.01 A) while the ISM contribution to the total equivalent widths is much higher in the AGN (0.62 +/- 0.05 A) than in the control sample (0.15 +/- 0.01 A). The observed winds in the post-starburst AGN are not powerful enough to sweep significant amount gas out of the halos of the host galaxies, thereby cause rapid and permanent quenching of star-formation.

  9. CtBP1/BARS is an activator of phospholipase D1 necessary for agonist-induced macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    Haga, Yuki; Miwa, Noriko; Jahangeer, Saleem; Okada, Taro; Nakamura, Shun-ichi

    2009-05-06

    Vesicular trafficking such as macropinocytosis is a dynamic process that requires coordinated interactions between specialized proteins and lipids. A recent report suggests the involvement of CtBP1/BARS in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced macropinocytosis. Detailed mechanisms as to how lipid remodelling is regulated during macropinocytosis are still undefined. Here, we show that CtBP1/BARS is a physiological activator of PLD1 required in agonist-induced macropinocytosis. EGF-induced macropinocytosis was specifically blocked by 1-butanol but not by 2-butanol. In addition, stimulation of cells by serum or EGF resulted in the association of CtBP1/BARS with PLD1. Finally, CtBP1/BARS activated PLD1 in a synergistic manner with other PLD activators, including ADP-ribosylation factors as demonstrated by in vitro and intact cell systems. The present results shed light on the molecular basis of how the 'fission protein' CtBP1/BARS controls vesicular trafficking events including macropinocytosis.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the CFA Seyfert 2 Galaxies: The Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Paul; Pogge, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    We present an investigation of possible fueling mechanisms operating in the inner kiloparsec of Seyfert galaxies. We analyze visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images of 24 Seyfert 2 galaxies from the CfA Redshift Survey sample. In particular, we are searching for the morphological signatures of dynamical processes responsible for transporting gas from kiloparsec scales into the nucleus. The circumnuclear regions are very rich in gas and dust, often taking the form of nuclear spiral dust lanes on scales of a few hundred parsecs. While these nuclear spirals are found in 20 of our 24 Seyfert galaxies, we find only five nuclear bars among the entire sample, strongly reinforcing the conclusions of other investigators that nuclear bars are not the primary means of transporting this material into the nucleus. An estimate of the gas density in the nuclear spirals, based on extinction measurements, suggests that the nuclear spiral dust lanes are probably shocks in nuclear gas disks that are not strongly self-gravitating. Since shocks can dissipate energy and angular momentum, these spiral dust lanes may be the channels by which gas from the host galaxy disks is being fed into the central engines.

  11. A vibratory bar for upper body: feasibility and acute effects on EMGrms activity.

    PubMed

    Moras, Gerard; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Sergio; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Ranz, Daniel; Mujika, Iñigo

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a purpose-designed vibratory bar (VB) as a potential vibration training device and thereafter to assess its effects on upper-body muscles' electromyographic (EMG) activity during vibration. During session 1, 16 physically active males held the VB during the bench press exercise in an isometric extended position (EP) in the following vibration conditions selected in the inverter (i): no vibration (0), 20, 30, 40, and 50 Hzi. Maximal acceleration (Accmax), frequency (Freq), and peak-to-peak amplitude (Ampp-p) obtained at the center (C) and at the end (E) of the VB were assessed using an accelerometer. During session 2, EMGrms of the triceps, deltoid, and pectoralis major were recorded in EP and isometric flexion position (FP) at 0, 25, and 45 Hzi. The Accmax, Freq, and Ampp-p values ranged from 37.4 to 96.4 mxs, 18.5 to 30.8 Hz, and 4.6 to 6.1 mm, respectively. The accelerometer's position had a significant effect on the Accmax and Ampp-p. All Freq obtained at C and E were different (p < 0.001) to the Freqi. An increase (p < 0.05) in EMGrms was observed in both vibration conditions compared with 0 Hzi, except during 25Hzi for deltoid and pectoralis muscle in FP. Although no significant differences were found in any of the muscles between 45 Hzi and 25Hzi, the highest EMGrms was elicited at 45Hzi. Although the registered VBs' parameters seem appropriate for vibration training, the frequency in the FP should be higher than 25 Hzi to induce significant increases in EMGrms in deltoid and pectoralis muscles. The use of a vibratory bar may be a suitable system to simultaneously stimulate upper-body muscles.

  12. Dissecting galaxies: separating star formation, shock excitation and AGN activity in the central region of NGC 613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Medling, Anne M.; Shastri, Prajval; Maithil, Jaya; Kharb, Preeti; Banfield, Julie; Longbottom, Fergus; Dopita, Michael A.; Hampton, Elise J.; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Jin, Chichuan; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie

    2017-10-01

    The most rapidly evolving regions of galaxies often display complex optical spectra with emission lines excited by massive stars, shocks and accretion on to supermassive black holes. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) cannot be applied to such mixed spectra. In this paper, we isolate the contributions of star formation, shock excitation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity to the emission line luminosities of individual spatially resolved regions across the central 3 × 3 kpc2 region of the active barred spiral galaxy NGC 613. The star formation rate and AGN luminosity calculated from the decomposed emission line maps are in close agreement with independent estimates from data at other wavelengths. The star formation component traces the B-band stellar continuum emission, and the AGN component forms an ionization cone which is aligned with the nuclear radio jet. The optical line emission associated with shock excitation is cospatial with strong H2 and [Fe II] emission and with regions of high ionized gas velocity dispersion (σ ≳ 100 km s-1). The shock component also traces the outer boundary of the AGN ionization cone and may therefore be produced by outflowing material interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium. Our decomposition method makes it possible to determine the properties of star formation, shock excitation and AGN activity from optical spectra, without contamination from other ionization mechanisms.

  13. Development and testing of an active boring bar for increased chatter immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.

    1997-12-01

    Recent advances in smart materials have renewed interest in the development of improved manufacturing processes featuring sensing, processing, and active control. In particular, vibration suppression in metal cutting has received much attention because of its potential for enhancing part quality while reducing the time and cost of production. Although active tool clamps have been recently demonstrated, they are often accompanied by interfacing issues that limit their applicability to specific machines. Under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program, the project titled {open_quotes}Smart Cutting Tools for Precision Manufacturing{close_quotes} developed an alternative approach to active vibration control in machining. Using the boring process as a vehicle for exploration, a commercially available tool was modified to incorporate PZT stack actuators for active suppression of its bending modes. Since the modified tool requires no specialized mounting hardware, it can be readily mounted on many machines. Cutting tests conducted on a horizontal lathe fitted with a hardened steel workpiece verify that the actively damped boring bar yields significant vibration reduction and improved surface finishes as compared to an unmodified tool.

  14. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  15. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  16. AN EVOLUTIONARY PARADIGM FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALAXIES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Farrah, D.; Oliver, S.; Liddle, A. R.; Connolly, B.; Connolly, N.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Houck, J. R.; Prosper, H. B.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.

    2009-07-20

    We apply methods from Bayesian inferencing and graph theory to a data set of 102 mid-infrared spectra, and archival data from the optical to the millimeter, to construct an evolutionary paradigm for z < 0.4 infrared-luminous galaxies. We propose that the ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG) lifecycle consists of three phases. The first phase lasts from the initial encounter until approximately coalescence. It is characterized by homogeneous mid-IR spectral shapes, and IR emission mainly from star formation, with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in some cases. At the end of this phase, a ULIRG enters one of two evolutionary paths depending on the dynamics of the merger, the available quantities of gas, and the masses of the black holes in the progenitors. On one branch, the contributions from the starburst and the AGN to the total IR luminosity decline and increase, respectively. The IR spectral shapes are heterogeneous, likely due to feedback from AGN-driven winds. Some objects go through a brief QSO phase at the end. On the other branch, the decline of the starburst relative to the AGN is less pronounced, and few or no objects go through a QSO phase. We show that the 11.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature is a remarkably good diagnostic of evolutionary phase, and identify six ULIRGs that may be archetypes of key stages in this lifecycle.

  17. Galaxy gas as obscurer - II. Separating the galaxy-scale and nuclear obscurers of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-03-01

    The 'torus' obscurer of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is poorly understood in terms of its density, sub-structure and physical mechanisms. Large X-ray surveys provide model boundary constraints, for both Compton-thin and Compton-thick levels of obscuration, as obscured fractions are mean covering factors fcov. However, a major remaining uncertainty is host-galaxy obscuration. In Paper I, we discovered a relation of {NH} ∝ M_{star }^{1/3} for the obscuration of galaxy-scale gas. Here, we apply this observational relation to the AGN population, and find that galaxy-scale gas is responsible for a luminosity-independent fraction of Compton-thin AGN, but does not produce Compton-thick columns. With the host-galaxy obscuration understood, we present a model of the remaining nuclear obscurer, which is consistent with a range of observations. Our radiation-lifted torus model consists of a Compton-thick component (fcov ∼ 35 per cent) and a Compton-thin component (fcov ∼ 40 per cent), which depends on both black hole mass and luminosity. This provides a useful summary of observational constraints for torus modellers who attempt to reproduce this behaviour. It can also be employed as a sub-grid recipe in cosmological simulations that do not resolve the torus. We also investigate host-galaxy X-ray obscuration inside cosmological, hydrodynamic simulations (Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment; Illustris). The obscuration from ray-traced galaxy gas can agree with observations, but is highly sensitive to the chosen feedback assumptions.

  18. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope , and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground...investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging...40 ks) and XMM-Newton (50 ks). Here, we report the results from these observations and use sup- porting Hubble Space Telescope /Advanced Camera for

  19. Galaxy NGC5398

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-25

    This is an ultraviolet color image of the galaxy NGC5398 taken by NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer on June 7, 2003. NGC5398 is a barred spiral galaxy located 60 million light-years from Earth. The star formation is concentrated in the two bright regions of the image. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04633

  20. Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback at z ~ 2 and the Mutual Evolution of Active and Inactive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimatti, A.; Brusa, M.; Talia, M.; Mignoli, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Kurk, J.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Renzini, A.; Daddi, E.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between galaxies of intermediate stellar mass and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1 < z < 3 is investigated with a Galaxy Mass Assembly ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS) sample complemented with public data in the GOODS-South field. Using X-ray data, hidden AGNs are identified in unsuspected star-forming galaxies with no apparent signs of non-stellar activity. In the color-mass plane, two parallel trends emerge during the ~2 Gyr between the average redshifts z ~ 2.2 and z ~ 1.3: while the red sequence becomes significantly more populated by ellipticals, the majority of AGNs with L(2-10 keV) > 1042.3 erg s-1 disappear from the blue cloud/green valley where they were hosted predominantly by star-forming systems with disk and irregular morphologies. These results are even clearer when the rest-frame colors are corrected for dust reddening. At z ~ 2.2, the ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies (including two Type 1 AGNs) show possible gas outflows with velocities up to about -500 km s-1, which are observed neither in inactive systems at the same redshift, nor at lower redshifts. Such outflows indicate the presence of gas that can move faster than the escape velocities of active galaxies. These results suggest that feedback from moderately luminous AGNs (log LX < 44.5 erg s-1) played a key role at z >~ 2 by contributing to outflows capable of ejecting part of the interstellar medium and leading to a rapid decrease in star formation in host galaxies with stellar masses 10 < log({\\cal M}/M_{\\odot }) 11.

  1. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  2. Fueling nuclear activity in disk galaxies: Starbursts and monsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Clayton H.; Shlosman, Isaac

    1994-03-01

    We study the evolution of the gas distribution in a globally unstable galactic disk with a particular emphasis on the gasdynamics in the central kiloparsec and the fueling activity there. The two-component self-gravitating disk is embedded in a responsive halo of comparable mass. The gas and stars are evolved using a three-dimensional hybrid smoothed particle hydrodynamics/N-body code and the gravitational interactions are calculated using a hierarchical TREE algorithm. A massive 'star formation' is introduced when the gas becomes Jeans unstable and locally exceeds the critical density of approximately 100 solar mass pc-3. The newly formed OB stars deposit energy in the gas by means of radiation-driven winds and supernovae. This energy is partially thermalized (efficiency of a few percent); the rest is radiated away. Models without star formation are evolved for a comparison. The effect of a massive object at the disk center is studied by placing a 'seed' black hole (BH) of 5 x 107 solar mass with an accretion radius of 20 pc. The tendency of the system to form a massive object 'spontaneously' is tested in models without the BH. We find that for models without star formation the bar- or dynamical friction-driven inflows lead to (1) domination of the central kpc by a few massive clouds that evolve into a single object probably via a cloud binary system, with and without a 'seed' BH, (2) accretion onto the BH which has a sporadic character, and (3) formation of remnant disks around the BH with a radius of 60-80 pc which result from the capture and digestion of clouds. For models with star formation, we find that (1) the enrgy input into the gas induces angular momentum loss and inflow rates by a factor less than 3, (2) the star formation is concentrated mainly at the apocenters of the gaseous circulation in the stellar bar and in the nuclear region, (3) the nuclear starburst phase appears to be very luminous approximately 1045-1046 erg/s and episodic with a typical

  3. INSIGHTS ON THE FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND ACTIVITY OF MASSIVE GALAXIES FROM ULTRACOMPACT AND DISKY GALAXIES AT z = 2-3

    SciTech Connect

    Weinzirl, Tim; Jogee, Shardha; Conselice, Christopher J.; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Buitrago, Fernando; Papovich, Casey; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Bluck, Asa; Mobasher, Bahram; Lucas, Ray A.; Dickinson, Mark; Bauer, Amanda E.

    2011-12-10

    We present our results on the structure and activity of massive galaxies at z = 1-3 using one of the largest (166 with M{sub *} {>=} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }) and most diverse samples of massive galaxies derived from the GOODS-NICMOS survey: (1) Sersic fits to deep NIC3 F160W images indicate that the rest-frame optical structures of massive galaxies are very different at z = 2-3 compared to z {approx} 0. Approximately 40% of massive galaxies are ultracompact (r{sub e} {<=} 2 kpc), compared to less than 1% at z {approx} 0. Furthermore, most ({approx}65%) systems at z = 2-3 have a low Sersic index n {<=} 2, compared to {approx}13% at z {approx} 0. We present evidence that the n {<=} 2 systems at z = 2-3 likely contain prominent disks, unlike most massive z {approx} 0 systems. (2) There is a correlation between structure and star formation rates (SFRs). The majority ({approx}85%) of non-active galactic nucleus (AGN) massive galaxies at z = 2-3, with SFR high enough to yield a 5{sigma} (30 {mu}Jy) 24 {mu}m Spitzer detection, have low n {<=} 2. Such n {<=} 2 systems host the highest SFR. (3) The frequency of AGNs is {approx}40% at z = 2-3. Most ({approx}65%) AGN hosts have disky (n {<=} 2) morphologies. Ultracompact galaxies appear quiescent in terms of both AGN activity and star formation. (4) Large stellar surface densities imply massive galaxies at z = 2-3 formed via rapid, highly dissipative events at z > 2. The large fraction of n {<=} 2 disky systems suggests cold mode accretion complements gas-rich major mergers at z > 2. In order for massive galaxies at z = 2-3 to evolve into present-day massive E/S0s, they need to significantly increase (n, r{sub e} ). Dry minor and major mergers may play an important role in this process.

  4. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  5. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Grier, C. J.; Bentz, M. C.; Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Barth, A. J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Brotherton, M. S.; Coker, C. T.; Crawford, S. M.; Croxall, K. V.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eracleous, Michael; Joner, M. D.; Henderson, C. B.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Kaspi, Shai; Kim, S.; King, Anthea L.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; MacInnis, F.; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mason, M.; Montuori, Carmen; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Nguyen, M. L.; Okhmat, D. N.; Onken, Christopher A.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Pei, L.; Penny, Matthew T.; Poleski, Radosław; Rafter, Stephen; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Runnoe, Jessie; Sand, David J.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Sergeev, S. G.; Shappee, B. J.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Somers, Garrett; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D. A.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Tayar, Jamie; Treu, T.; Valenti, Stefano; Van Saders, J.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Yaniv; Winkler, H.; Zhu, W.

    2017-05-01

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014 targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a “changing look” AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-Hβ lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain Hγ and He ii λ4686 lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He ii λ4686 lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100-300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  6. Mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green valley galaxies and its depends on morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xu; Pan, Zhizheng; Lian, Jianhui

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies are categorized into two main populations, red quiescent galaxies and blue star-forming galaxies. One of the key questions is which physical mechanisms are responsible for quenching star formation activities in blue galaxies and the resulting transformation? In this talk, we present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of "green valley" galaxies in the COSMOS field and low redshift "green valley" galaxies in SDSS. Our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M* < 10^10.0 Msun blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5. Using image from SDSS and GALEX, we analyze the radial ultraviolet-optical color distributions in a sample of low redshift green valley galaxies, and investigate how quenching is processing in a galaxy. The early-type "green valley" galaxies (ETGs) have dramatically different radial NUV-r color distributions compared to late-type "green valley" galaxies (LTGs), most of ETGs have blue cores, nearly all LTGs have uniform color profiles that can be well-interpreted as red bulges plus blue disk components. These results suggest that the LTGs follow a general model by which quenching first occurs in the core regions, and then finally extend to the rest of the galaxy; for ETGs, their star formations are centrally concentrated. Our results can be re-examined and have important implications for the IFU surveys, such as MaNGA and SAMI (2013ApJ...776...14P, 2014ApJ...792L...4P, 2015MNRAS.446.1449L).

  7. Multi-wavelength studies of the statistical properties of active galaxies using Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Paronyan, G. M.

    2017-06-01

    Statistical studies of active galaxies (both AGN and Starburst) using large multi-wavelength data are presented, including new studies of Markarian galaxies, large sample of IR galaxies, variable radio sources, and large homogeneous sample of X-ray selected AGN. Markarian survey (the First Byurakan Survey) was digitized and the DFBS database was created, as the biggest spectroscopic database by the number of objects involved ( ~ 20 million). This database provides both 2D images and 1D spectra. We have carried out a number of projects aimed at revealing and multi-wavelength studies of active galaxies among optical, X-ray, IR and radio sources. Thousands of X-ray sources were identified from ROSAT, including many AGN (52% among all identified sources). IRAS PSC/FSC sources were studied having accurate positions from WISE and a large extragalactic sample was created for further search for AGNs. The fraction of active galaxies among IR-selected galaxies was estimated as 24%. Variable radio sources at 1.4 GHz were revealed by cross-correlation of NVSS and FIRST catalogues using the method introduced by us for optical variability. Radio-X-ray sources were revealed from NVSS and ROSAT for detection of new active galaxies. Big Data in astronomy is described that provide new possibilities for statistical research of active galaxies and other objects.

  8. Class I methanol megamasers: a potential probe of starburst activity and feedback in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Zhang, J.-S.; Wang, J.-Z.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Wu, Q.-W.; Wu, Z.-Z.

    2016-06-01

    Previous observations have shown that the distribution of 36.2-GHz class I methanol megamaser (MM) emission in Arp 220 is highly correlated with the diffuse X-rays. On this basis it was suggested that methanol MM may be produced either by the effects of galactic-outflow-driven shocks and/or cosmic rays. Here we report the results of a single-dish survey undertaken with the Greenbank Telescope (GBT) to improve our understanding of the pumping conditions of extragalactic class I methanol masers and their relationship to starburst and feedback processes within the host galaxies, towards a sample which includes 16 galaxies which show both extended soft X-ray emission, and either OH or H2O MM emission. Large baseline ripples in the GBT spectra limited our results to tentative detections towards 11 of the target galaxies. Analysis of these tentative detections shows that there are significant correlations between the methanol intensity and the host-galaxy infrared, radio and OH MM emission, but no correlation with the X-ray and H2O MM emission. Some sources show methanol emission significantly offset from the systemic velocity of the galaxy (by up to 1000 km s-1) and we propose that these are associated with galactic-scale outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) feedback. The combined observational properties suggest that class I methanol MMs are related to significant starburst and molecular outflow activity and hence may provide a potential probe of AGN feedback and starburst processes in the host galaxies.

  9. The Evolution of Galaxy Structure Over Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conselice, Christopher J.

    2014-08-01

    I present a comprehensive review of the evolution of galaxy structure in the Universe from the first galaxies currently observable at z ˜ 6 down to galaxies observable in the local Universe. Observed changes in galaxy structures reveal formation processes that only galaxy structural analyses can provide. This pedagogical review provides a detailed discussion of the major methods used to study galaxies morphologically and structurally, including the well-established visual method for morphology; Sérsic fitting to measure galaxy sizes and surface brightness profile shapes; and nonparametric structural methods [such as the concentration (C), asymmetry (A), clumpiness (S) (CAS) method and the Gini/M20 parameters, as well as newer structural indices]. These structural indices measure fundamental properties of galaxies, such as their scale, star-formation rate, and ongoing merger activity. Extensive observational results demonstrate how broad galaxy morphologies and structures change with time up to z ˜ 3, from small, compact and peculiar systems in the distant Universe to the formation of the Hubble sequence, dominated by spirals and ellipticals. Structural methods accurately identify galaxies in mergers and allow measurements of the merger history out to z ˜ 3. I depict properties and evolution of internal structures of galaxies, such as bulges, disks, bars, and at z>1 large star-forming clumps. I describe the structure and morphologies of host galaxies of active galactic nuclei and starbursts/submillimeter galaxies, along with how morphological galaxy quenching occurs. The role of environment in producing structural changes in galaxies over cosmic time is also discussed. Galaxy sizes can also change with time, with measured sizes up to a factor of 2-5 smaller at high redshift at a given stellar mass. I conclude with a discussion of how the evolving trends, in sizes, structures, and morphologies, reveal the formation mechanisms behind galaxies and provides a new

  10. THE INCIDENCE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN PURE DISK GALAXIES: THE SPITZER VIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Satyapal, S.; Mcalpine, W.; Gliozzi, M.; Boeker, T.; Heckman, T.

    2009-10-10

    Using the Spitzer telescope, we have conducted a high-resolution spectroscopic study of 18 bulgeless (Hubble type of Sd or Sdm) galaxies that show no definitive signatures of nuclear activity in their optical spectra. This is the first systematic mid-infrared (MIR) search for weak or hidden active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a statistically significant sample of bulgeless (Sd/Sdm) disk galaxies. Based on the detection of the high-ionization [Ne V] 14.3 mum line, we report the discovery of an AGN in 1 out of the 18 galaxies in the sample. This galaxy, NGC 4178, is a nearby edge-on Sd galaxy, which likely hosts a prominent nuclear star cluster (NSC). The bolometric luminosity of the AGN inferred from the [Ne V] line luminosity is approx8 x 10{sup 41} ergs s{sup -1}. This is almost 2 orders of magnitude greater than the luminosity of the AGN in NGC 4395, the best studied AGN in a bulgeless disk galaxy. Assuming that the AGN in NGC 4178 is radiating below the Eddington limit, the lower mass limit for the black hole is approx6 x 10{sup 3} M {sub sun}. The fact that none of the other galaxies in the sample shows any evidence for an AGN demonstrates that while the AGN detection rate based on MIR diagnostics is high (30%-40%) in optically quiescent galaxies with pseudobulges or weak classical bulges (Hubble type Sbc and Sc), it drops drastically in Sd/Sdm galaxies. Our observations, therefore, confirm that AGNs in completely bulgeless disk galaxies are not hidden in the optical but truly are rare. Of the three Sd galaxies with AGNs known so far, all have prominent NSCs, suggesting that in the absence of a well-defined bulge, the galaxy must possess an NSC in order to host an AGN. On the other hand, while the presence of an NSC appears to be a requirement for hosting an AGN in bulgeless galaxies, neither the properties of the NSC nor those of the host galaxy appear exceptional in late-type AGN host galaxies. The recipe for forming and growing a central black hole in a

  11. Secular Evolution of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Knapen, Johan H.

    2013-10-01

    Preface; 1. Secular evolution in disk galaxies John Kormendy; 2. Galaxy morphology Ronald J. Buta; 3. Dynamics of secular evolution James Binney; 4. Bars and secular evolution in disk galaxies: theoretical input E. Athanassoula; 5. Stellar populations Reynier F. Peletier; 6. Star formation rate indicators Daniela Calzetti; 7. The evolving interstellar medium Jacqueline van Gorkom; 8. Evolution of star formation and gas Nick Z. Scoville; 9. Cosmological evolution of galaxies Isaac Shlosman.

  12. A SiO 2-1 SURVEY TOWARD GAS-RICH ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Jiangshui; Shi, Yong; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2013-12-01

    In order to study the feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we performed a survey of SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) transition toward ten gas-rich active galaxies with the IRAM 30 m telescope. As the first survey of SiO in such galaxies, we detected SiO J = 2-1 (v = 0) emission in six galaxies above the 3σ level and one galaxy (NGC 3690) at the 2.7σ level. The detection rate is not related to the AGN type or to star formation activity. In comparison with M82, which is a pure star-forming galaxy without nuclear activity, our SiO detections could not be completely ascribed to being due to star formation activity. This suggests that the AGN feedback may be efficient in producing SiO molecules in such galaxies. Further surveys with large single-dish millimeter telescopes and interferometers are necessary for understanding the origin of SiO in galaxies with nuclear activity.

  13. Mid-infrared Colors of Dwarf Galaxies: Young Starbursts Mimicking Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Reines, Amy E.; Greene, Jenny E.; Stern, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Searching for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies is important for our understanding of the seed black holes that formed in the early universe. Here, we test infrared selection methods for AGN activity at low galaxy masses. Our parent sample consists of ˜18,000 nearby dwarf galaxies (M * < 3 × 109 M ⊙, z < 0.055) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with significant detections in the first three bands of the AllWISE data release from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). First, we demonstrate that the majority of optically selected AGNs in dwarf galaxies are not selected as AGNs using WISE infrared color diagnostics and that the infrared emission is dominated by the host galaxies. We then investigate the infrared properties of optically selected star-forming dwarf galaxies, finding that the galaxies with the reddest infrared colors are the most compact, with blue optical colors, young stellar ages, and large specific star formation rates. These results indicate that great care must be taken when selecting AGNs in dwarf galaxies using infrared colors, as star-forming dwarf galaxies are capable of heating dust in such a way that mimics the infrared colors of more luminous AGNs. In particular, a simple W1-W2 color cut alone should not be used to select AGNs in dwarf galaxies. With these complications in mind, we present a sample of 41 dwarf galaxies that fall in the WISE infrared color space typically occupied by more luminous AGNs and that are worthy of follow-up observations.

  14. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-10-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate luminosity AGNs from the Swift BAT sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u - r and g - r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGNs are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGNs in massive galaxies (log M{sub *} >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] {lambda}5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  15. Bar shapes and orbital stochasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassoula, E. )

    1990-06-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the isophotes or isodensities of bars in barred galaxies are not really elliptical in shape but more rectangular. The effect this might have on the orbits in two different types of bar potentials is studied, and it is found that in both cases the percentage of stochastic orbits is much larger when the shapes are more rectangularlike or, equivalently, when the m = 4 components are more important. This can be understood with the help of the Chirikov criterion, which can predict the limit for the onset of global stochasticity. 9 refs.

  16. DUST-CORRECTED COLORS REVEAL BIMODALITY IN THE HOST-GALAXY COLORS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AT z {approx} 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cardamone, Carolin N.; Megan Urry, C.; Brammer, Gabriel; Schawinski, Kevin; Treister, Ezequiel; Gawiser, Eric

    2010-09-20

    Using new, highly accurate photometric redshifts from the MUSYC medium-band survey in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S), we fit synthetic stellar population models to compare active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies to inactive galaxies at 0.8 {<=} z {<=} 1.2. We find that AGN host galaxies are predominantly massive galaxies on the red sequence and in the green valley of the color-mass diagram. Because both passive and dusty galaxies can appear red in optical colors, we use rest-frame near-infrared colors to separate passively evolving stellar populations from galaxies that are reddened by dust. As with the overall galaxy population, {approx}25% of the 'red' AGN host galaxies and {approx}75% of the 'green' AGN host galaxies have colors consistent with young stellar populations reddened by dust. The dust-corrected rest-frame optical colors are the blue colors of star-forming galaxies, which imply that these AGN hosts are not passively aging to the red sequence. At z {approx} 1, AGN activity is roughly evenly split between two modes of black hole growth: the first in passively evolving host galaxies, which may be heating up the galaxy's gas and preventing future episodes of star formation, and the second in dust-reddened young galaxies, which may be ionizing the galaxy's interstellar medium and shutting down star formation.

  17. Supermassive Black Hole Activity Within Local Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, E.; Treu, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results from an ongoing Chandra survey of 100 field early-type galaxies. This project investigates the influence of environment upon supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion within formally inactive galaxies. The volume-limited sample has been selected to be well-matched to the recently conducted AMUSE-Virgo survey, which studied SMBHs within cluster early-type galaxies. That work resulted in the detection of nuclear X-ray sources in 32/100 objects, establishing a firm lower limit of 24-34% to the SMBH occupation fraction of normal galaxies, and found the average Eddington-scaled X-ray luminosity to be a decreasing function of SMBH mass, evidence for accretion "downsizing" (Gallo et al. 2008, 2010). Galaxies in more isolated environments have distinct properties that might influence the rate of SMBH fueling. Relative to cluster sources, field early-type galaxies have a lower probability of mergers; they also likely retain a larger fraction of hot gas (due to reduced ram-pressure stripping) and apparently contain more cold gas and tend to have younger stellar populations. The X-ray detection fraction of the field early-type galaxies is found to be comparable to that of the AMUSE-Virgo survey. We correlate the average Eddington-scaled X-ray luminosity with SMBH mass for the observed objects and compare the relation to that found for cluster galaxies. We also calculate the rate of off-nuclear X-ray sources and discuss implications for X-ray binary populations within field early-type galaxies.

  18. Quantifying the mixing due to bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    We will present star formation histories and the stellar and gaseous metallicity gradients in the disk of a sample of 50 face-on spiral galaxies with and without bars observed with the integral field unit spectrograph PMAS. The final aim is to quantify the redistribution of mass and angular momentum in the galactic disks due to bars by comparing both the gas-phase and star-phase metallicity gradients on the disk of barred and non-barred galaxies. Numerical simulations have shown that strong gravitational torque by non-axisymmetric components induce evolutionary processes such as redistribution of mass and angular momentum in the galactic disks (Sellwood & Binney 2002) and consequent change of chemical abundance profiles. If we hope to understand chemical evolution gradients and their evolution we must understand the secular processes and re-arrangement of material by non-axisymmetric components and vice-versa. Furthermore, the re-arrangement of stellar disk material influences the interpretation of various critical observed metrics of Galaxy evolution, including the age-metallicity relation in the solar neighborhood and the local G-dwarf metallicity distribution. Perhaps the most obvious of these aforementioned non-axisymmetric components are bars - at least 2/3 of spiral galaxies host a bar, and possibly all disk galaxies have hosted a bar at some point in their evolution. While observationally it has been found that barred galaxies have shallower gas-phase metallicity gradients than non-barred galaxies, a complementary analysis of the stellar abundance profiles has not yet been undertaken. This is unfortunate because the study of both gas and stars is important in providing a complete picture, as the two components undergo (and suffer from) very different evolutionary processes.

  19. Feedback in the local Universe: Relation between star formation and AGN activity in early type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Sravani; O'Dea, Christopher; Baum, Stefi; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Whitmore, Samantha; Ahmed, Rabeea; Pierce, Katherine; Leary, Sara

    2015-08-01

    Aim: We address the relation between star formation and AGN activity in a large sample of nearby early type (E and S0) galaxies. The redshift range of the galaxies is 0.0002galaxy evolution and formation. Evidence of AGN feedback is found in massive galaxies in galaxy clusters. However, how common AGN feedback is in the local universe and in small scale systems is still not evident.Methods: To answer this question, we carried out a multiple wavelength study of a sample of 231 early type galaxies which were selected to have an apparent K-band magnitude brighter than 13.5 and whose positions correlate with Chandra ACIS-I and ACIS-S sources. The galaxies in the sample are unbiased regarding their star formation and radio source properties. Using the archival observations at radio, IR and UV from VLA, WISE and GALEX respectively, we obtained the radio power, estimate FUV star formation rate (SFR) and other galaxy properties to study AGN activity and ongoing star formation.Results: The relationship between radio power and stellar mass shows that there is an upper envelope of radio power that is a steep function of stellar luminosity. This suggests that less massive galaxies have low radio power while massive galaxies are capable of hosting powerful radio sources. The Radio-MIR relation shows that galaxies with P>=1022 WHz-1 are potential candidates for being AGN. About ~ 7% of the sample show evidence of ongoing star formation with SFR ranging from 10-3 to 1 M⊙yr-1. These are also less massive and radio faint suggesting the absence of active accretion. There is nearly equal fraction of star forming galaxies in radio faint (P<1022 WHz-1) and radio bright galaxies (P>=1022 WHz-1) . Only ~ 5% of the galaxies in our sample have P>=1022 WHz-1 and most of them do not show evidence of bright accretion disks. We see a weak correlation and a dispersion of

  20. Evidence for Quasar Activity Triggered by Galaxy Mergers in HST Observations of Dust-reddened Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Tanya; Lacy, Mark; Becker, Robert H.

    2008-02-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope ACS images of 13 dust-reddened type 1 quasars selected from the FIRST/2MASS Red Quasar Survey. These quasars have high intrinsic luminosities after correction for dust obscuration (-23.5 >= MB >= - 26.2 from K-magnitude). The images show strong evidence of recent or ongoing interaction in 11 of the 13 cases, even before the quasar nucleus is subtracted. None of the host galaxies are well fit by a simple elliptical profile. The fraction of quasars showing interaction is significantly higher than the 30% seen in samples of host galaxies of normal, unobscured quasars. There is a weak correlation between the amount of dust reddening and the magnitude of interaction in the host galaxy, measured using the Gini coefficient and the concentration index. Although few host galaxy studies of normal quasars are matched to ours in intrinsic quasar luminosity, no evidence has been found for a strong dependence of merger activity on host luminosity in samples of the host galaxies of normal quasars. We thus believe that the high merger fraction in our sample is related to their obscured nature, with a significant amount of reddening occurring in the host galaxy. The red quasar phenomenon seems to have an evolutionary explanation, with the young quasar spending the early part of its lifetime enshrouded in an interacting galaxy. This might be further indication of a link between AGNs and starburst galaxies.

  1. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    PubMed

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-03

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  2. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize2-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Brogan, Crystal L.

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first `seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  3. MAXI and GLAST Studies of Jets in Active Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; Kataoka, Jun; Sikora, Marek

    2008-10-13

    The recent launch of GLAST--coinciding with the MAXI workshop--opens a new era for studies of jet-dominated active galaxies, known as blazars. While the emission processes operating in various spectral bands in blazars are reasonably well understood, the knowledge of the details of the structure of the jet, location of the dissipation region with respect to the accreting black hole, and coupling of the jet to the accretion process are known only at a rudimentary level. Blazars are variable, and this provides an opportunity to use the variability in various bands--and in particular, the relationship of respective time series to each other--to explore the relative location of regions responsible for emission in the respective bands. Observationally, this requires well-sampled time series in as many spectral bands as possible. To this end, with its all-sky, sensitive monitoring capability, the recently launched GLAST, and MAXI, to be deployed in 2009, are the most promising instruments bound to provide good sampling in respectively the energetic gamma-ray, and the soft X-ray band. This paper highlights the inferences regarding blazar jets that can be gleaned from such joint observations.

  4. Mass Loss from the Nuclei of Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, Michael; Kraemer, Steven B.; George, Ian M.

    2003-01-01

    Blueshifted absorption lines in the UV and X-ray spectra of active galaxies reveal the presence of massive outflows of ionized gas from their nuclei. The intrinsic UV and X-ray absorbers show large global covering factors of the central continuum source, and the inferred mass loss rates are comparable to the mass accretion rates. Many absorbers show variable ionic column densities which are attributed to a combination of variable ionizing flux and motion of gas into and out of the line of sight . Detailed studies of the intrinsic absorbers. with the assistance of monitoring observations and photoionization models. provide constraints on their kinematics] physical conditions. and locations relative to the central continuum source. which range from the inner nucleus (approx.0.01 pc) to the galactic disk or halo (approx.10 kpc) . Dynamical models that make use of thermal winds. radiation pressure. and/or hydromagnetic flows have reached a level of sophistication that permits comparisons with the observational constraints .

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star formation in active and normal galaxies (Tsai+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M.; Hwang, C.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    We selected 104 active galaxies from the lists of Melendez et al. (2010MNRAS.406..493M), Condon et al. 1991 (cat. J/ApJ/378/65), and Ho & Ulvestad 2001 (cat. J/ApJS/133/77). Most of the sources are identified as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), and a few of them are classified as Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (LIRGs). We obtained 3.6 and 8μm infrared images of these galaxies from the Spitzer Archive (http://sha.ipac.caltech.edu/applications/Spitzer/SHA/) and 8GHz images from the VLA archive (http://archive.nrao.edu/archive/archiveimage.html). We also selected a nearby AGN sub-sample containing 21 radio-selected AGNs for further spatial analysis. We selected 25 nearby AGNs exhibiting no detected radio emission in order to compare with the results of the radio-selected sources. For comparison, we also selected normal galaxies with distances less than 15Mpc from the catalog of Tully 1994 (see cat. VII/145). We only selected the galaxies that have Spitzer archive data and are not identified as AGNs in either the Veron-Cetty & Veron 2006 (see cat. VII/258) AGN catalog or in the NED database (http://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/). Our results for the radio-selected and the non-radio-selected active galaxies are listed in Table1, and those for the normal galaxies are listed in Table2. (2 data files).

  6. The stellar mass distribution of S4G disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, Simón; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija

    2017-03-01

    We use 3.6 μm imaging from the S4G survey to characterize the typical stellar density profiles (Σ*) and bars as a function of fundamental galaxy parameters (e.g. the total stellar mass M *), providing observational constraints for galaxy simulation models to be compared with. We rescale galaxy images to a common frame determined by the size in physical units, by their disk scalelength, or by their bar size and orientation. We stack the resized images to obtain statistically representative average stellar disks and bars. For a given M * bin (>= 109 M ⊙), we find a significant difference in the stellar density profiles of barred and non-barred systems that gives evidence for bar-induced secular evolution of disk galaxies: (i) disks in barred galaxies show larger scalelengths and fainter extrapolated central surface brightnesses, (ii) the mean surface brightness profiles of barred and non-barred galaxies intersect each other slightly beyond the mean bar length, most likely at the bar corotation, and (iii) the central mass concentration of barred galaxies is larger (by almost a factor 2 when T < 5) than in their non-barred counterparts. We also show that early- and intermediate-type spirals (0 <= T < 5) host intrinsically narrower bars than the later types and S0s, whose bars are oval-shaped. We show a clear correlation between galaxy family and bar ellipticity.

  7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, STAR FORMATION, AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN BALMER BREAK GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 1

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Tello, J.; Donzelli, C.; Padilla, N.; Fujishiro, N.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hanami, H.; Hatsukade, B.

    2013-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic study with the derivation of the physical properties of 37 Balmer break galaxies, which have the necessary lines to locate them in star-forming-active galactic nuclei (AGNs) diagnostic diagrams. These galaxies span a redshift range from 0.045 to 0.93 and are somewhat less massive than similar samples of previous works. The studied sample has multiwavelength photometric data coverage from the ultraviolet to mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer bands. We investigate the connection between star formation and AGN activity via optical, mass-excitation (MEx), and MIR diagnostic diagrams. Through optical diagrams, 31 (84%) star-forming galaxies, two (5%) composite galaxies, and three (8%) AGNs were classified, whereas from the MEx diagram only one galaxy was classified as AGN. A total of 19 galaxies have photometry available in all the IRAC/Spitzer bands. Of these, three AGN candidates were not classified as AGN in the optical diagrams, suggesting they are dusty/obscured AGNs, or that nuclear star formation has diluted their contributions. By fitting the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies, we derived the stellar masses, dust reddening E(B - V), ages, and UV star formation rates (SFRs). Furthermore, the relationship between SFR surface density ({Sigma}{sub SFR}) and stellar mass surface density per time unit ({Sigma}{sub M{sub */{tau}}}) as a function of redshift was investigated using the [O II] {lambda}3727, 3729, H{alpha} {lambda}6563 luminosities, which revealed that both quantities are larger for higher redshift galaxies. We also studied the SFR and specific SFR (SSFR) versus stellar mass and color relations, with the more massive galaxies having higher SFR values but lower SSFR values than less massive galaxies. These results are consistent with previous ones showing that, at a given mass, high-redshift galaxies have on average larger SFR and SSFR values than low-redshift galaxies. Finally, bluer galaxies have larger SSFR values than redder

  8. Physical Properties, Star Formation, and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Balmer Break Galaxies at 0 < z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Tello, J.; Donzelli, C.; Padilla, N.; Fujishiro, N.; Hanami, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Hatsukade, B.

    2013-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic study with the derivation of the physical properties of 37 Balmer break galaxies, which have the necessary lines to locate them in star-forming-active galactic nuclei (AGNs) diagnostic diagrams. These galaxies span a redshift range from 0.045 to 0.93 and are somewhat less massive than similar samples of previous works. The studied sample has multiwavelength photometric data coverage from the ultraviolet to mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer bands. We investigate the connection between star formation and AGN activity via optical, mass-excitation (MEx), and MIR diagnostic diagrams. Through optical diagrams, 31 (84%) star-forming galaxies, two (5%) composite galaxies, and three (8%) AGNs were classified, whereas from the MEx diagram only one galaxy was classified as AGN. A total of 19 galaxies have photometry available in all the IRAC/Spitzer bands. Of these, three AGN candidates were not classified as AGN in the optical diagrams, suggesting they are dusty/obscured AGNs, or that nuclear star formation has diluted their contributions. By fitting the spectral energy distribution of the galaxies, we derived the stellar masses, dust reddening E(B - V), ages, and UV star formation rates (SFRs). Furthermore, the relationship between SFR surface density (ΣSFR) and stellar mass surface density per time unit (\\Sigma _{M_{\\ast }/\\tau }) as a function of redshift was investigated using the [O II] λ3727, 3729, Hα λ6563 luminosities, which revealed that both quantities are larger for higher redshift galaxies. We also studied the SFR and specific SFR (SSFR) versus stellar mass and color relations, with the more massive galaxies having higher SFR values but lower SSFR values than less massive galaxies. These results are consistent with previous ones showing that, at a given mass, high-redshift galaxies have on average larger SFR and SSFR values than low-redshift galaxies. Finally, bluer galaxies have larger SSFR values than redder galaxies and for a given

  9. Nuclear activity in galaxy pairs: a spectroscopic analysis of 48 UZC-BGPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, P.; Zitelli, V.; Marinoni, S.

    2008-06-01

    Context: The role played by interaction on galaxy formation and evolution continues to be debated. Several questions remain open, among them whether, and to what extent, galaxy interaction induce nuclear activity, as theoretical predictions, so far, have not been adequately supported by observations. Part of the uncertainty affecting the observational results is likely to be due to the limited sizes and the inhomogeneity of the samples. Aims: Galaxy pairs are ideal sites in which to investigate the role of interaction on nuclear activity, since the proximity, in redshift and in projected separation, between members make interaction and encounters highly probable. For this reason we have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of a large homogeneous sample of galaxy pairs (UZC-BGP) selected applying an objective neighbour search algorithm to a 3D galaxy catalog (UZC). Methods: We present the results of the nuclear spectral classification, performed using standard diagnostic diagrams, of 48 UZC-BGPs, which represents more than half of the whole sample and has an excellent morphological match with it. Results: The fraction of emission line galaxies in our pair sample is large, especially among spirals where it reaches 84% and 95%, for early and late spirals. Star Burst (SB) is the most frequent type of nuclear activity encountered (30% of galaxies), while AGNs (Active Galactic Nuclei) make only 19%. The fractions increase to 45% and 22% when considering only spirals. Late spirals are characterized by both an unusual increase (35%) of AGN activity and high luminosity (44% have MB < -20.0 + 5 log h). LLAGNs (Low Luminosity AGNs) are only 8% of the total number of galaxies, but this kind of activity could be present in another 10% of the galaxies (LLAGN candidates). If confirmed, these candidates would make LLAGNs constitute a significant fraction of the whole AGN (LLAGN + AGN) population, and raise the AGN population as a whole to 37%. Absorption line galaxies reside mostly

  10. AGN III—primordial activity in the nuclei of disk galaxies with pseudobulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komberg, B. V.; Ermash, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Observational data on the evolution of quasars and galaxies of various morphological types and numerical simulations carried out by various groups are used to argue that low-redshift ( z < 0.5) quasars of types I and II, identified with massive elliptical and spiral galaxies with classical bulges, cannot be undergoing a single, late phase of activity; i.e., their activity cannot be "primordial," and must have "flared up" at multiple times in the past. This means that their appearance at low z is associated with recurrence of their activity—i.e., with major mergers of gas-rich galaxies (so-called wet major mergers)—since their lifetimes in the active phase do not exceed a few times 107 yrs. Only objects we have referred to earlier as AGN III, which are associated with the nuclei of isolated, late-type spiral galaxies with low-mass, rapidly-rotating "pseudobulges," could represent primordial AGNs at low z. The black holes in such galaxies have masses M BH < 107 M ⊙, and the peculiarities of their nuclear spectra suggest that they may have very high specific rotational angular momenta per unit mass. Type I narrow-line (widths less than 2000 km/s) Seyfert galaxies (NLSyIs) with pseudobulges and black-hole masses M BH < 107 M ⊙ may be characteristic representatives of the AGN III population. Since NLSyI galaxies have pseudobulges while Type I broad-line Seyfert galaxies have classical bulges, these two types of galaxies cannot represent different evolutionary stages of a single type of object. It is possible that the precursors of NLSyIs are "Population A" quasars.

  11. WIDESPREAD AND HIDDEN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT >0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, Stephanie; Bournaud, Frederic; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willner, S. P.; Coil, Alison L.; Rosario, David J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Cooper, Michael C.; Frayer, David T.; and others

    2013-02-20

    We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70 {mu}m from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect 'normal' galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37% {+-} 3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.

  12. Constraining the Active Galactic Nucleus Contribution in a Multiwavelength Study of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S.B.; Schmitt, H.R.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Deo, R.P.; Mushotzky, R.F.; Bruhweiler, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the high- and low-ionization [O IV] (lambda)25.89 microns, [Ne III] (lambda)15.56 microns, and [Ne II] (lambda)12.81 microns emission lines with the aim of constraining the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation contributions for a sample of 103 Seyfert galaxies.We use the [O IV] and [Ne II] emission as tracers for the AGN power and star formation to investigate the ionization state of the emission-line gas.We find that Seyfert 2 galaxies have, on average, lower [O IV]/[Ne II] ratios than Seyfert 1 galaxies. This result suggests two possible scenarios: (1) Seyfert 2 galaxies have intrinsically weaker AGNs, or (2) Seyfert 2 galaxies have relatively higher star formation rates than Seyfert 1 galaxies. We estimate the fraction of [Ne II] directly associated with the AGNs and find that Seyfert 2 galaxies have a larger contribution from star formation, by a factor of approx.1.5 on average, than what is found in Seyfert 1 galaxies. Using the stellar component of [Ne II] as a tracer of the current star formation, we found similar star formation rates in Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies.We examined the mid- and far-infrared continua and found that [Ne II] is well correlated with the continuum luminosity at 60 microns and that both [Ne III] and [O IV] are better correlated with the 25 micron luminosities than with the continuum at longer wavelengths, suggesting that the mid-infrared continuum luminosity is dominated by the AGN, while the far-infrared luminosity is dominated by star formation. Overall, these results test the unified model of AGNs and suggest that the differences between Seyfert galaxies cannot be solely due to viewing angle dependence.

  13. Constraining the Active Galactic Nucleus Contribution in a Multiwavelength Study of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melendez, M.; Kraemer, S.B.; Schmitt, H.R.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Deo, R.P.; Mushotzky, R.F.; Bruhweiler, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the high- and low-ionization [O IV] (lambda)25.89 microns, [Ne III] (lambda)15.56 microns, and [Ne II] (lambda)12.81 microns emission lines with the aim of constraining the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation contributions for a sample of 103 Seyfert galaxies.We use the [O IV] and [Ne II] emission as tracers for the AGN power and star formation to investigate the ionization state of the emission-line gas.We find that Seyfert 2 galaxies have, on average, lower [O IV]/[Ne II] ratios than Seyfert 1 galaxies. This result suggests two possible scenarios: (1) Seyfert 2 galaxies have intrinsically weaker AGNs, or (2) Seyfert 2 galaxies have relatively higher star formation rates than Seyfert 1 galaxies. We estimate the fraction of [Ne II] directly associated with the AGNs and find that Seyfert 2 galaxies have a larger contribution from star formation, by a factor of approx.1.5 on average, than what is found in Seyfert 1 galaxies. Using the stellar component of [Ne II] as a tracer of the current star formation, we found similar star formation rates in Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies.We examined the mid- and far-infrared continua and found that [Ne II] is well correlated with the continuum luminosity at 60 microns and that both [Ne III] and [O IV] are better correlated with the 25 micron luminosities than with the continuum at longer wavelengths, suggesting that the mid-infrared continuum luminosity is dominated by the AGN, while the far-infrared luminosity is dominated by star formation. Overall, these results test the unified model of AGNs and suggest that the differences between Seyfert galaxies cannot be solely due to viewing angle dependence.

  14. COMBINING SEMIANALYTIC MODELS WITH SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: THE NEED FOR HEATING FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Short, C. J.; Thomas, P. A.

    2009-10-20

    We present hydrodynamical N-body simulations of clusters of galaxies with feedback taken from semianalytic models of galaxy formation. The advantage of this technique is that the source of feedback in our simulations is a population of galaxies that closely resembles that found in the real universe. We demonstrate that, to achieve the high entropy levels found in clusters, active galactic nuclei must inject a large fraction of their energy into the intergalactic/intracluster media throughout the growth period of the central black hole. These simulations reinforce the argument of Bower et al., who arrived at the same conclusion on the basis of purely semianalytic reasoning.

  15. Herschel Observed Stripe 82 Quasars and Their Host Galaxies: Connections between AGN Activity and host Galaxy Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. Y.; Wu, Xue-Bing

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present a study of 207 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar catalogs and the Herschel Stripe 82 survey. Quasars within this sample are high-luminosity quasars with a mean bolometric luminosity of 1046.4 erg s-1. The redshift range of this sample is within z < 4, with a mean value of 1.5 ± 0.78. Because we only selected quasars that have been detected in all three Herschel-SPIRE bands, the quasar sample is complete yet highly biased. Based on the multi-wavelength photometric observation data, we conducted a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting through UV to FIR. Parameters such as active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity, far-IR (FIR) luminosity, stellar mass, as well as many other AGN and galaxy properties are deduced from the SED fitting results. The mean star formation rate (SFR) of the sample is 419 M ⊙ yr-1 and the mean gas mass is ˜1011.3 M ⊙. All of these results point to an IR luminous quasar system. Compared with star formation main sequence (MS) galaxies, at least 80 out of 207 quasars are hosted by starburst galaxies. This supports the statement that luminous AGNs are more likely to be associated with major mergers. The SFR increases with the redshift up to z = 2. It is correlated with the AGN bolometric luminosity, where {L}{{FIR}}\\propto {L}{{Bol}}0.46+/- 0.03. The AGN bolometric luminosity is also correlated with the host galaxy mass and gas mass. Yet the correlation between L FIR and L Bol has higher significant level, implies that the link between AGN accretion and the SFR is more primal. The M BH/M * ratio of our sample is 0.02, higher than the value 0.005 in the local universe. It might indicate an evolutionary trend of the M BH-M * scaling relation.

  16. The dynamics and excitation of circumnuclear disks in radio-active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, Jeremy; Brown, Michael; Jannuzi, Buell; McGregor, Peter; Floyd, David; Jones, Heath; Ferrarese, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Powerful radio-active galaxies may harbor a heavily obscured Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), where the black hole is hidden by an optically and geometrically thick dust "torus". Near-IR spectroscopy with Adaptive Optics (AO) has shown that the ratio of atomic to molecular hydrogen varies greatly across the nuclear regions, thus allowing one to set limits of the size of the torus. AO IFU observations with Gemini and Keck will enable a study of a complete sample of early-type galaxies harboring radio AGNs, resulting in a complete picture of the kinematics and distribution of the gas around the nucleus, and trace the 2-D structure of the torus in these galaxies. The time is right to survey a complete sample of nearby radio-active galaxies to (1) characterize the dynamics of these circumnuclear disks as a function of galaxy mass and (2) outline the ecology of the gas flows that support them. %First we must see which of Brown et al's %complete sample of nearby radiogalaxies have emission As a first step, we need to determine which of our selected sample of 23 nearby radio-active galaxies have emission lines in J & H and are thus amenable to NIR IFU observations. This we propose to do with FLAMINGOS. To survey our sample for suitable objects for the Keck/Gemini follow-up will require approximately 22 nights distributed evenly over the next four observing semesters.%It will take 11 nights in 11B & 12B and

  17. Active Galaxy Winds from X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Optical Studies of Nearby Seyfert 1s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Mass outflows or winds from active galaxies may profoundly affect the evolution of their host galaxies by blowing away gas from star forming regions and recycling metals from near-nuclear supernovae into the galaxy disk. Such fundamental properties as the covering fraction, total energy, variability, and distance of these outflows are still unknown. We present new results in an effort to better understand the properties of active galaxy winds based on X-ray, optical, and UV observations of local Seyfert 1s. We show that the covering fraction, indicated through X-ray and optical spectroscopy, is higher than previous studies suggest. We also show new observations in the UV with the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), showing that the UV variability is at a much lower level than X-ray variability. The COS observations also reveal weak Ly-alpha outflows, which were difficult/impossible to detect in previous generations of UV spectrographs.

  18. New insight into the relation between star formation activity and dust content in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, Elisabete; Eminian, Celine; Charlot, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy

    2010-04-01

    We assemble a sample of 3258 low-redshift galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 with complementary photometric observations by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite at far-ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. We use a recent, simple but physically motivated model to interpret the observed spectral energy distributions of the galaxies in this sample in terms of statistical constraints on physical parameters describing the star formation history and dust content. The focus on a subsample of 1658 galaxies with highest signal-to-noise ratio observations enables us to investigate most clearly several strong correlations between various derived physical properties of galaxies. In particular, we find that the typical dust mass Md of a galaxy forming stars at a rate ψ can be estimated remarkably well using the formula over at least three orders of magnitude in both quantities. We also find that the dust-to-stellar mass ratio, the ratio of dust mass to star formation rate and the fraction of dust luminosity contributed by the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) all correlate strongly with specific star formation rate. A comparison with recent models of chemical and dust evolution of galaxies suggests that these correlations could arise, at least in part, from an evolutionary sequence. As galaxies form stars, their ISM becomes enriched in dust, while the drop in gas supply makes the specific star formation rate decrease. Interestingly, as a result, a young, actively star-forming galaxy with low dust-to-gas ratio may still be highly dusty (in the sense of a high dust-to-stellar mass ratio) because it contains large amounts of interstellar gas. This may be important for the interpretation of the infrared emission from young, gas-rich star-forming galaxies at high redshift. The results presented in this paper should be especially useful to improve the treatment of the ISM properties of galaxies

  19. Correlating The Star Formation Histories Of MaNGA Galaxies With Their Past AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ortiz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We investigate active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a primary mechanism affecting star formation in MaNGA galaxies. Using the Pipe3D code, we modeled the stellar population from MaNGA spectra and derived the star formation histories of 53 AGN host galaxies. We seek to compare the star formation histories of the host galaxies of AGN with the ages of their radio lobes to better understand the role of AGN feedback in the star formation histories of MaNGA galaxies. MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is one of the three core programs in the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS). MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematics of nearly 10,000 local galaxies through dithered observations using fiber integral field units (IFUs) that vary in diameter from 12" (19 fibers) to 32" (127 fibers). In this poster, we present initial results on the star formation histories of MaNGA AGN host galaxies. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  20. A GMRT study of Seyfert galaxies NGC 4235 and NGC 4594: evidence of episodic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharb, P.; Srivastava, S.; Singh, V.; Gallimore, J. F.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Ananda, Hota

    2016-06-01

    Low-frequency observations at 325 and 610 MHz have been carried out for two `radio-loud' Seyfert galaxies, NGC 4235 and NGC 4594 (Sombrero galaxy), using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The 610 MHz total intensity and 325-610 MHz spectral index images of NGC 4235 tentatively suggest the presence of a `relic' radio lobe, most likely from a previous episode of active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. This makes NGC 4235 only the second known Seyfert galaxy after Mrk 6 to show signatures of episodic activity. Spitzer and Herschel infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling using the CLUMPYDREAM code predicts star formation rates (SFRs) that are an order of magnitude lower than those required to power the radio lobes in these Seyferts (˜0.13-0.23 M⊙ yr-1 compared to the required SFR of ˜2.0-2.7 M⊙ yr-1 in NGC 4594 and NGC 4235, respectively). This finding along with the detection of parsec and sub-kpc radio jets in both Seyfert galaxies, that are roughly along the same position angles as the radio lobes, strongly support the suggestion that Seyfert lobes are AGN powered. SED modelling supports the `true' type 2 classification of NGC 4594: this galaxy lacks significant dust obscuration as well as a prominent broad-line region. Between the two Seyfert galaxies, there is an inverse relation between their radio-loudness and Eddington ratio and a direct relation between their Eddington-scaled jet power and bolometric power.

  1. [A novel method to determine the redshifts of active galaxies based on wavelet transform].

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang-Ping; Luo, A-Li; Jiang, Bin; Wei, Peng; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Liu, Rong

    2012-10-01

    Automatically determining redshifts of galaxies is very important for astronomical research on large samples, such as large-scale structure of cosmological significance. Galaxies are generally divided into normal galaxies and active galaxies, and the spectra of active galaxies mostly have more obvious emission lines. In the present paper, the authors present a novel method to determine spectral redshifts of active galaxies rapidly based on wavelet transformation mainly, and it does not need to extract line information accurately. This method includes the following steps: Firstly, we denoised a spectrum to be processed; Secondly, the low-frequency spectrum was extracted based on wavelet transform, and then we could get the residual spectrum through the denoised spectrum subtracting the low-frequency spectrum; Thirdly, the authors calculated the standard deviation of the residual spectrum and determined a threshold value T, then retained the wavelength set whose corresponding flux was greater than T; Fourthly, according to the wavelength form of all the standard lines, we calculated all the candidate redshifts; Finally, utilizing the density estimation method based on Parzen window, we determined the redshift point with maximum density, and the average value of its neighborhood would be the final redshift of this spectrum. The experiments on simulated data and real data from SDSS-DR7 show that this method is robust and its correct rate is encouraging. And it can be expected to be applied in the project of LAMOST.

  2. Direct verification of AGN feedback in active radio galaxies at z 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2015-06-01

    We propose an integral field spectroscopy of two high-z radio galaxies (HzRG) at z 2.5 with NIFS on the Gemini-N Telescope. These are being active at z 2.5, but are secure progenitors of massive quiescent galaxies in the local Universe. The close relationship between the extended Halpha emission discovered by our narrow-band imaging and the radio activity suggests that an AGN feedback is actually being at work in these HzRGs. Feedback by an AGN is considered to be one of the critical processes that regulate galaxy evolution, as suggested not only by theoretical studies but also by observational data. However, the details are largely unexplored yet. How and to what degree does an AGN influence the star formation and the physical state of interstellar gas of the hosting galaxies? Up to now, almost all the studies on the feedback have been relying on indirect evidences, but we now aim to directly verify whether an AGN gives negative/positive feedback to the host galaxies leading to quenching/enhancement of star forming activities. We reveal the kinematics and physical states of the associated nebular gas on a 1.6-3.2 kpc scale and investigate the mutual relation between star formation, outflows, and shocks within the galaxies.

  3. UV spectroscopy of low-redshift active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.-C.; Crenshaw, M.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of bright Seyfert 1 galaxies will be obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Observations will be used to pursue the following goals: (1) Broad and narrow components of the strong emission lines will be deconvolved. (2) Broad-line profiles will be extracted for comparison with kinematic models; line ratios will be determined. (3) Many weak UV and emission lines from optical spectra will be compared for reddening along line of sight and chemical composition. (4) Absorption lines from Galactic halo, intergalactic medium and Seyfert galaxy will be used to establish physical conditions/chemical composition of the gas. (5) Strong emission Fe II in the UV will be used to determine FE II/L-alpha ratios for comparison with photoionization models. Other tasks relating to GTO 1170 program will be performed. It appears that NLR clouds in NGC 5548 experience much higher level of ionizing flux than those Seyfert 2 galaxies. Future observations will determine if this result extends to other Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  4. THE MERGER HISTORY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS, AND DWARF GALAXIES OF HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 59

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Charlton, J. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Eracleous, M.; Gronwall, C.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Hill, A. R.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Johnson, K. E.; Walker, L. M.; Maybhate, A.; English, J.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2012-01-20

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (Hubble Space Telescope), infrared (Spitzer), and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} M{sub Sun }), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other are two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic H II regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at {approx}1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity active galactic nucleus in HCG 59A by its {approx}10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR spectral energy distribution. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  5. Fresh Activity in Old Systems: Radio AGNs in Fossil Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Kelley M.; Wilcots, Eric M.; Hartwick, Victoria L.

    2012-08-01

    We present the first systematic 1.4 GHz Very Large Array radio continuum survey of fossil galaxy group candidates. These are virialized systems believed to have assembled over a gigayear in the past through the merging of galaxy group members into a single, isolated, massive elliptical galaxy and featuring an extended hot X-ray halo. We use new photometric and spectroscopic data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to determine that three of the candidates are clearly not fossil groups. Of the remaining 30 candidates, 67% contain a radio-loud (L 1.4 GHz > 1023 W Hz-1) active galactic nucleus (AGN) at the center of their dominant elliptical galaxy. We find a weak correlation between the radio luminosity of the AGN and the X-ray luminosity of the halo suggesting that the AGN contributes to energy deposition into the intragroup medium. We only find a correlation between the radio and optical luminosity of the central elliptical galaxy when we include X-ray-selected, elliptically dominated non-fossil groups, indicating a weak relationship between AGN strength and the mass assembly history of the groups. The dominant elliptical galaxy of fossil groups is on average roughly an order of magnitude more luminous than normal group elliptical galaxies in optical, X-ray, and radio luminosities and our findings are consistent with previous results that the radio-loud fraction in elliptical galaxies is linked to the stellar mass of a population. The current level of activity in fossil groups suggests that AGN fueling continues long after the last major merger. We discuss several possibilities for fueling the AGN at the present epoch.

  6. GETTING TO THE HEART OF A GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This collage of images in visible and infrared light reveals how the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 is feeding material into its central region, igniting massive star birth and probably causing its bulge of stars to grow. The material also is fueling a black hole in the galaxy's core. A galaxy's bulge is a central, football-shaped structure composed of stars, gas, and dust. The black-and-white image in the center, taken by a ground-based telescope, displays the entire galaxy. But the telescope's resolution is not powerful enough to reveal the flurry of activity in the galaxy's hub. The blue box in the galaxy's central region outlines the area observed by the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's visible-light camera, the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The red box pinpoints a narrower view taken by the Hubble telescope's infrared camera, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). A barred spiral is characterized by a lane of stars, gas, and dust slashing across a galaxy's central region. It has a small bulge that is dominated by a disk of material. The spiral arms begin at both ends of the bar. The bar is funneling material into the hub, which triggers star formation and feeds the bulge. The visible-light picture at upper left is a close-up view of the galaxy's hub. The bright yellow orb is the nucleus. The dark material surrounding the orb is gas and dust that is being funneled into the central region by the bar. The blue regions pinpoint young star clusters. In the infrared image at lower right, the Hubble telescope penetrates the dust seen in the WFPC2 picture to reveal more clusters of young stars. The bright blue dots represent young star clusters; the brightest of the red dots are young star clusters enshrouded in dust and visible only in the infrared image. The fainter red dots are older star clusters. The WFPC2 image is a composite of three filters: near-ultraviolet (3327 Angstroms), visible (5552 Angstroms), and near-infrared (8269

  7. GETTING TO THE HEART OF A GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This collage of images in visible and infrared light reveals how the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 is feeding material into its central region, igniting massive star birth and probably causing its bulge of stars to grow. The material also is fueling a black hole in the galaxy's core. A galaxy's bulge is a central, football-shaped structure composed of stars, gas, and dust. The black-and-white image in the center, taken by a ground-based telescope, displays the entire galaxy. But the telescope's resolution is not powerful enough to reveal the flurry of activity in the galaxy's hub. The blue box in the galaxy's central region outlines the area observed by the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's visible-light camera, the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The red box pinpoints a narrower view taken by the Hubble telescope's infrared camera, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). A barred spiral is characterized by a lane of stars, gas, and dust slashing across a galaxy's central region. It has a small bulge that is dominated by a disk of material. The spiral arms begin at both ends of the bar. The bar is funneling material into the hub, which triggers star formation and feeds the bulge. The visible-light picture at upper left is a close-up view of the galaxy's hub. The bright yellow orb is the nucleus. The dark material surrounding the orb is gas and dust that is being funneled into the central region by the bar. The blue regions pinpoint young star clusters. In the infrared image at lower right, the Hubble telescope penetrates the dust seen in the WFPC2 picture to reveal more clusters of young stars. The bright blue dots represent young star clusters; the brightest of the red dots are young star clusters enshrouded in dust and visible only in the infrared image. The fainter red dots are older star clusters. The WFPC2 image is a composite of three filters: near-ultraviolet (3327 Angstroms), visible (5552 Angstroms), and near-infrared (8269

  8. MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL INDICATORS OF STAR FORMATION AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN NORMAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treyer, Marie; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted; Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Martins, Lucimara; Seibert, Mark; Van der Hulst, J. M.

    2010-08-20

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared (MIR) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, the continuum, and emission lines as probes of star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 100 'normal' and local (z {approx} 0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey, which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared and optical spectroscopy. The continuum and features were extracted using PAHFIT, a decomposition code which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths (EWs) up to {approx}30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Despite the lack of extreme objects in our sample (such as strong AGNs, low-metallicity galaxies, or ULIRGs), we find significant variations in PAH, continuum, and emission-line properties, and systematic trends between these MIR properties and optically derived physical properties, such as age, metallicity, and radiation field hardness. We revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH EWs and [Ne II]12.8 {mu}m/[O IV]25.9 {mu}m line ratios and find it to be in much better agreement with the standard optical SF/AGN classification than when spline decompositions are used, while also potentially revealing obscured AGNs. The luminosity of individual PAH components, of the continuum, and, with poorer statistics, of the neon emission lines and molecular hydrogen lines are found to be tightly correlated to the total infrared (TIR) luminosity, making individual MIR components good gauges of the total dust emission in SF galaxies. Like the TIR luminosity, these individual components can be used to estimate dust attenuation in the UV and in H{alpha} lines based on energy balance arguments. We also propose average scaling relations between these components and dust-corrected, H{alpha}-derived SF rates.

  9. Cosmic web and star formation activity in galaxies at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Darvish, B.; Mobasher, B.; Sales, L. V.; Sobral, D.; Scoville, N. Z.; Best, P.; Smail, I.

    2014-11-20

    We investigate the role of the delineated cosmic web/filaments on star formation activity by exploring a sample of 425 narrow-band selected Hα emitters, as well as 2846 color-color selected underlying star-forming galaxies for a large-scale structure at z = 0.84 in the COSMOS field from the HiZELS survey. Using the scale-independent Multi-scale Morphology Filter algorithm, we are able to quantitatively describe the density field and disentangle it into its major components: fields, filaments, and clusters. We show that the observed median star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, specific SFR, the mean SFR-mass relation, and its scatter for both Hα emitters and underlying star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on different classes of environment, in agreement with previous studies. However, the fraction of Hα emitters varies with environment and is enhanced in filamentary structures at z ∼ 1. We propose mild galaxy-galaxy interactions as the possible physical agent for the elevation of the fraction of Hα star-forming galaxies in filaments. Our results show that filaments are the likely physical environments that are often classed as the 'intermediate' densities and that the cosmic web likely plays a major role in galaxy formation and evolution which has so far been poorly investigated.

  10. Star Formation and AGN Activity in Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan

    2015-08-01

    In the local universe, Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs, L_IR > 10^12 L⊙) are all interacting and merging systems. We explore the evolution of the morphological and nuclear properties of (U)LIRGs over cosmic time using a large sample of galaxies from Her- schel observations of the CANDELS fields (including GOODS, COSMOS, and UDS). In particular, we investigate whether the role of galaxy mergers has changed between z ˜ 2 and now using the extensive visual classification catalogs produced by the CANDELS team. The combination of a selection from Herschel, near the peak of IR emission, and rest-frame optical morphologies from CANDELS, provides the ideal comparison to nearby (U)LIRGs. We also use rest-frame optical emission line diagnostics, X-ray luminosity, and MIR colors to separate AGN from star-formation dominated galaxies. We then study the how role of galaxy mergers and the presence of AGN activity correspond to the galaxy’s position in the star formation rate - stellar mass plane. Are galaxies that have specific star formation rates elevated above the main sequence more likely to be mergers? We investigate how AGN identified with different methods correspond to different morphologies and merger stages as well as position on the star formation rate - stellar mass plane.

  11. THE CLUSTERING OF GALAXIES AROUND RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Worpel, Hauke; Brown, Michael J. I.; Jones, D. Heath; Floyd, David J. E.; Beutler, Florian

    2013-07-20

    We examine the hypothesis that mergers and close encounters between galaxies can fuel active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by increasing the rate at which gas accretes toward the central black hole. We compare the clustering of galaxies around radio-loud AGNs with the clustering around a population of radio-quiet galaxies with similar masses, colors, and luminosities. Our catalog contains 2178 elliptical radio galaxies with flux densities greater than 2.8 mJy at 1.4 GHz from the Six Degree Field Galaxy Survey. We find tentative evidence that radio AGNs with more than 200 times the median radio power have, on average, more close (r < 160 kpc) companions than their radio-quiet counterparts, suggesting that mergers play a role in forming the most powerful radio galaxies. For ellipticals of fixed stellar mass, the radio power is neither a function of large-scale environment nor halo mass, consistent with the radio powers of ellipticals varying by orders of magnitude over billions of years.

  12. HST WFC3/IR OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HOST GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES GROW IN DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Treister, Ezequiel; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Simmons, Brooke; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2011-02-01

    We present the rest-frame optical morphologies of active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies at 1.5 < z < 3, using near-infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, the first such study of AGN host galaxies at these redshifts. The AGNs are X-ray-selected from the Chandra Deep Field South and have typical luminosities of 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}galaxies of these AGNs have low Sersic indices indicative of disk-dominated light profiles, suggesting that secular processes govern a significant fraction of the cosmic growth of black holes. That is, many black holes in the present-day universe grew much of their mass in disk-dominated galaxies and not in early-type galaxies or major mergers. The properties of the AGN host galaxies are furthermore indistinguishable from their parent galaxy population and we find no strong evolution in either effective radii or morphological mix between z {approx} 2 and z {approx} 0.05.

  13. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D.

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  14. Rapid X-Ray Variability of Active Galaxies. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, A. F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are luminous sources of X-rays. The thesis that the X-rays are generated within 10 gravitational radii from the central object is tested. A very sensitive search for rapid ( 1 day) X-ray variability from active galaxies was made.

  15. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - IV. Interactions trigger active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Scudder, Jillian M.

    2011-12-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are predicted to cause gas inflows leading to enhanced nuclear star formation. This prediction is borne out observationally, and is also supported by the gas-phase metallicity dilution in the inner regions of galaxies in close pairs. In this paper we test the further prediction that the gas inflows lead to enhanced accretion on to the central supermassive black hole, triggering activity in the nucleus. Based on a sample of 11 060 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies with a close companion (rp < 80 h-170 kpc, ΔV < 200 km s-1), we classify active galactic nuclei (AGN) based either on emission line ratios or on spectral classification as a quasar. The AGN fraction in the close pairs sample is compared to a control sample of 110 600 mass- and redshift-matched control galaxies with no nearby companion. We find a clear increase in the AGN fraction in close pairs of galaxies with projected separations < 40 h-170 kpc by up to a factor of 2.5 relative to the control sample [although the enhancement depends on the chosen signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) cut of the sample]. The increase in AGN fraction is strongest in equal-mass galaxy pairings, and weakest in the lower mass component of an unequal-mass pairing. The increased AGN fraction at small separations is accompanied by an enhancement in the number of 'composite' galaxies whose spectra are the result of photoionization by both AGN and stars. Our results indicate that AGN activity occurs (at least in some cases) well before final coalescence and concurrently with ongoing star formation. Finally, we find a marked increase at small projected separations of the fraction of pairs in which both galaxies harbour AGN. We demonstrate that the fraction of double AGN exceeds the expected random fraction, indicating that some pairs undergo correlated nuclear activity. We discuss some of the factors that have led to conflicting results in previous studies of AGN in close pairs. Taken together with complementary

  16. DO BARS DRIVE SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES?

    SciTech Connect

    Buta, Ronald J.; Knapen, Johan H.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Puerari, Ivanio; Block, David L. E-mail: jhk@iac.es E-mail: hsalo@sun3.oulu.fi E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: David.Block@wits.ac.za

    2009-05-15

    We present deep near-infrared K{sub s} -band Anglo-Australian Telescope Infrared Imager and Spectrograph observations of a selected sample of nearby barred spiral galaxies, including some with the strongest known bars. The sample covers a range of Hubble types from SB0{sup -} to SBc. The goal is to determine if the torque strengths of the spirals correlate with those of the bars, which might be expected if the bars actually drive the spirals as has been predicted by theoretical studies. This issue has implications for interpreting bar and spiral fractions at high redshift. Analysis of previous samples suggested that such a correlation exists in the near-infrared, where effects of extinction and star formation are less important. However, the earlier samples had only a few excessively strong bars. Our new sample largely confirms our previous studies, but still any correlation is relatively weak. We find two galaxies, NGC 7513 and UGC 10862, where there is only a weak spiral in the presence of a very strong bar. We suggest that some spirals probably are driven by their bars at the same pattern speed, but that this may be only when the bar is growing or if there is abundant gas and dissipation.

  17. Orthogonal Vertical Velocity Dispersion Distributions Produced by Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana

    2017-02-01

    In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions (σ) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct σ peaks on the minor axis of the inner bar, which we termed “σ-humps,” while two local σ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., “σ-hollows.” Analysis of numerical simulations shows that {σ }z-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed σ-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of {σ }z in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower {σ }z along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating {σ }z-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that {σ }z-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of stars in the presence of a sufficiently massive, vertically thin bar, even without an outer bar. Using self-consistent N-body simulations, we verify the existence of vertically thin bars in the nuclear-barred and S2B models that generate prominent σ-humps+hollows. Thus, the ubiquitous presence of σ-humps+hollows in S2Bs implies that inner bars are vertically thin. The addition of a bulge makes the {σ }z-humps more ambiguous and thus tends to somewhat hide the {σ }z-humps+hollows. We show that {σ }z may be used as a kinematic diagnostic of stellar components that have different thicknesses, providing a direct perspective on the morphology and thickness of nearly face-on bars and bulges with integral field unit spectroscopy.

  18. Bulges and discs in the local Universe. Linking the galaxy structure to star formation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morselli, L.; Popesso, P.; Erfanianfar, G.; Concas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We use a sample built on the SDSS DR7 catalogue and the bulge-disc decomposition of Simard et al. (2011, ApJS, 196, 11) to study how the bulge and disc components contribute to the parent galaxy's star formation activity, by determining its position in the star formation rate (SFR) - stellar mass (M⋆) plane at 0.02 < z < 0.1 and around the main sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. For this purpose, we use the bulge and disc colours as proxy for their SFRs, while the total galaxy SFR comes from Hα or D4000. We study the mean galaxy bulge-total mass ratio (B/T) as a function of the residual from the MS (ΔMS) and find that the B/T-ΔMS relation exhibits a parabola-like shape with the peak of the MS corresponding to the lowest B/Ts at any stellar mass. The lower and upper envelope of the MS are populated by galaxies with similar B/T, velocity dispersion and concentration (R90/R50) values. The mean values of such distributions indicate that the majority of the galaxies are characterised by classical bulges and not pseudo-bulges. Bulges above the MS are characterised by blue colours or, when red, by a high level of dust obscuration, thus indicating that in both cases they are actively star forming. When on the MS or below it, bulges are mostly red and dead. At stellar masses above 1010.5M⊙, bulges on the MS or in the green valley tend to be significantly redder than their counterparts in the quiescence region, despite similar levels of dust obscuration. This could be explained with different age or metallicity content, suggesting different evolutionary paths for bulges on the MS and green valley with respect to those in the quiescence region. The disc g-r colour anti-correlates at any mass with the distance from the MS, getting redder when approaching the MS lower envelope and the quiescence region. The anti-correlation flattens as a function of the stellar mass, likely due to a higher level of dust obscuration in massive SF galaxies. We conclude that the

  19. Stellar Mass Function of Active and Quiescent Galaxies via the Continuity Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapi, A.; Mancuso, C.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2017-09-01

    The continuity equation is developed for the stellar mass content of galaxies and exploited to derive the stellar mass function of active and quiescent galaxies over the redshift range z∼ 0{--}8. The continuity equation requires two specific inputs gauged from observations: (i) the star formation rate functions determined on the basis of the latest UV+far-IR/submillimeter/radio measurements and (ii) average star formation histories for individual galaxies, with different prescriptions for disks and spheroids. The continuity equation also includes a source term taking into account (dry) mergers, based on recent numerical simulations and consistent with observations. The stellar mass function derived from the continuity equation is coupled with the halo mass function and with the SFR functions to derive the star formation efficiency and the main sequence of star-forming galaxies via the abundance-matching technique. A remarkable agreement of the resulting stellar mass functions for active and quiescent galaxies of the galaxy main sequence, and of the star formation efficiency with current observations is found; the comparison with data also allows the characteristic timescales for star formation and quiescence of massive galaxies, the star formation history of their progenitors, and the amount of stellar mass added by in situ star formation versus that contributed by external merger events to be robustly constrained. The continuity equation is shown to yield quantitative outcomes that detailed physical models must comply with, that can provide a basis for improving the (subgrid) physical recipes implemented in theoretical approaches and numerical simulations, and that can offer a benchmark for forecasts on future observations with multiband coverage, as will become routinely achievable in the era of JWST.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Circumnuclear Environments of the CfA Seyfert Galaxies: Nuclear Spirals and Fueling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogge, Richard W.; Martini, Paul

    2002-01-01

    We present archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the nuclear regions of 43 of the 46 Seyfert galaxies found in the volume limited,spectroscopically complete CfA Redshift Survey sample. Using an improved method of image contrast enhancement, we created detailed high-quality " structure maps " that allow us to study the distributions of dust, star clusters, and emission-line gas in the circumnuclear regions (100-1000 pc scales) and in the associated host galaxy. Essentially all of these Seyfert galaxies have circumnuclear dust structures with morphologies ranging from grand-design two-armed spirals to chaotic dusty disks. In most Seyfert galaxies there is a clear physical connection between the nuclear dust spirals on hundreds of parsec scales and large-scale bars and spiral arms in the host galaxies proper. These connections are particularly striking in the interacting and barred galaxies. Such structures are predicted by numerical simulations of gas flows in barred and interacting galaxies and may be related to the fueling of active galactic nuclei by matter inflow from the host galaxy disks. We see no significant differences in the circumnuclear dust morphologies of Seyfert 1s and 2s, and very few Seyfert 2 nuclei are obscured by large-scale dust structures in the host galaxies. If Sevfert 2s are obscured Sevfert Is, then the obscuration must occur on smaller scales than those probed by HST.

  1. The line-emitting gas in active galaxies - A probe of the nuclear engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the basic questions regarding the structure of the engine powering active galactic nuclei (AGN), the nature of the interaction between the AGN and the host galaxy, and the origin and evolution of AGN. The study of the dynamics and physical characteristics of the line-emitting gas in these objects has proven fruitful in addressing many of these issues. Recent advances in optical and infrared detector technology combined with the development of superior ground-based instruments have produced efficient new tools for the study of the line-emitting gas on nuclear and Galactic scales. Programs which take advantage of two of these new techniques, Fabry-Perot imaging spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, are described in this paper. The origin of nuclear activity in galaxies is also addressed in a third project which aims at determining the nature of luminous infrared galaxies.

  2. The evolution of active galactic nuclei in clusters of galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGES

    Bufanda, E.; Hollowood, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; ...

    2016-12-13

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and environment provides important clues to AGN fueling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. Here, we analyze the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGN with L_X > 1043 ergs s-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5 L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.10.7. Our result is inmore » good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. But, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 through Year 3 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship between cluster AGN populations and redshift.« less

  3. Nuclear activity and stellar population of a sample of interacting galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastoriza, M. G.; Donzelli, C. J.; Bonatto, C.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the nuclear activity and stellar population in a sample of 27 physical galaxy pairs. Equivalent widths of absorption features are used to characterise the nuclear stellar population according to templates: most galaxies of the sample have important flux contributions from stars younger than 10(8) years. According to classical diagnostic-diagrams the galaxies in our sample are either classified as H II regions or have emission line ratios near the transition zone between H II regions and LINERs. Based on the observed spectra, only 4 galaxies show LINER properties and 1 nucleus is a Seyfert 2. We found that the spectrum of a transition object (38% of the sample) can be described by a combination of an AGN with an H II region. As a result, 20 galaxies of the present sample may host a low-luminosity active nucleus. Based on observations made at CASLEO and CTIO. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO) is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient\\'\\i ficas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  4. Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S

    2015-03-26

    Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).

  5. Star formation activity of intermediate redshift cluster galaxies out to the infall regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, B.; Ziegler, B.; Balogh, M.; Gilbank, D.; Fritz, A.; Jäger, K.

    2004-07-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of two galaxy clusters at z≈0.2, out to ˜4 Mpc. The two clusters VMF73 and VMF74 as identified by \\citet{VMFJQH98} were observed with multiple object spectroscopy using MOSCA at the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope. Both clusters lie in the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter field R285 and were selected from the X-ray Dark Cluster Survey \\citep{GBCZ04} that provides optical V- and I-band data. VMF73 and VMF74 are located at respective redshifts of z=0.25 and z=0.18 with velocity dispersions of 671 km s-1 and 442 km s-1, respectively. Both cluster velocity dispersions are consistent with Gaussians. The spectroscopic observations reach out to ˜2.5 virial radii. Line strength measurements of the emission lines Hα and [O II]λ3727 are used to assess the star formation activity of cluster galaxies which show radial and density dependences. The mean and median of both line strength distributions as well as the fraction of star forming galaxies increase with increasing clustercentric distance and decreasing local galaxy density. Except for two galaxies with strong Hα and [O II] emission, all of the cluster galaxies are normal star forming or passive galaxies. Our results are consistent with other studies that show the truncation in star formation occurs far from the cluster centre. Table A.1 is only available in electronic from at http//www.edpsciences.org

  6. The effects of X-rays from active galactic nuclei on the interstellar medium of the surrounding galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of an active nucleus on the large-scale properties of the host galaxy are examined, focusing on the effects of X-ray heating on the host galaxy's interstellar medium. The basic properties of AGNs and several questions concerning AGNs are reviewed. The relationship between X-ray heated winds and coronae is outlined. The case of X-ray heated winds in type 2 Seyfert galaxies is discussed.

  7. The Fermi Bubbles. I. Possible Evidence for Recent AGN Jet Activity in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2012-09-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50° (~10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR)-gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1-3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of ~0.1-0.5 Myr. The bipolar jets were ejected into the Galactic halo along the rotation axis of the Galaxy. Near the GC, the jets must be moderately light with a typical density contrast 0.001 <~ η <~ 0.1 relative to the ambient hot gas. The jets are energetically dominated by kinetic energy, and overpressured with either CR or thermal pressure which induces lateral jet expansion, creating fat CR bubbles as observed. The sharp edges of the bubbles imply that CR diffusion across the bubble surface is strongly suppressed. The jet activity induces a strong shock, which heats and compresses the ambient gas in the Galactic halo, potentially explaining the ROSAT X-ray shell features surrounding the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles provide plausible evidence for a recent powerful AGN jet activity in our Galaxy, providing new insights into the origin of the halo CR population and the channel through which massive black holes in disk galaxies release feedback energy during their growth.

  8. The EDGE--CALIFA Survey: Molecular Gas Depletion Time in Galaxy Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Dyas; Blitz, Leo; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wong, Tony H.; Ostriker, Eve C.; EDGE--CALIFA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of the EDGE--CALIFA survey, combining the power of optical Integral Field Unit and millimeter-interferometric observations to study the variations of molecular gas depletion time in the centers of 86 galaxies. Our key findings are the following. (1) About 25% of our sample shows deviations from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, namely a shorter depletion time in the centers relative to the disks. If the galaxy centers undergo star formation cycles, then they spend 25% of their duty cycles in a burst-mode period. (2) Barred galaxies tend to have shorter depletion time in the centers, presumably due to the dynamical effects induced by bars. (3) Galaxies with shorter depletion time in the centers tend to have higher ratio of stellar to molecular gas gravity, because that ratio sets the gravitational pressure per unit molecular gas mass that must be balanced by the energy and momentum feedback from star formation to maintain thermal and dynamical equilibrium states. (4) Both depletion time and bar dynamics affect the gradient of gas-phase metallicities, where unbarred galaxies with shorter depletion time in the centers show the steepest gradient, presumably due to high star formation activities that inject more metals and lack of gas mixing because bars are not present. We discuss possible scenarios that may cause the variations of depletion time in the centers and their implications within the context of galaxy evolution.

  9. J1216+0709: A Radio Galaxy with Three Episodes of AGN Jet Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Veeresh; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Kharb, Preeti; Srivastava, Shweta; Janardhan, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a “triple-double radio galaxy,” J1216+0709, detected in deep low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations. J1216+0709 is only the third radio galaxy, after B0925+420 and Speca, with three pairs of lobes resulting from three different episodes of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity. The 610 MHz GMRT image clearly displays an inner pair of lobes, a nearly coaxial middle pair of lobes, and a pair of outer lobes that is bent with respect to the axis of the inner pair of lobes. The total end-to-end projected sizes of the inner, middle, and outer lobes are 40″ (˜95 kpc), 1.‧65 (˜235 kpc), and 5.‧7 (˜814 kpc), respectively. Unlike the outer pair of lobes, both the inner and middle pairs of lobes exhibit asymmetries in arm lengths and flux densities, but in the opposite sense, i.e., the eastern sides are farther and also brighter than the western sides, thus, suggesting the possibility of the jet being intrinsically asymmetric rather than due to a relativistic beaming effect. The host galaxy is a bright elliptical (m r ˜ 16.56) with M SMBH ˜ 3.9 × 109 M ⊙ and a star formation rate of ˜{4.66}-1.61{{+4.65}} M ⊙ yr-1. The host galaxy resides in a small group of three galaxies (m r ≤ 17.77) and is possibly going through an interaction with faint dwarf galaxies in the neighborhood, which may have triggered the recent episodes of AGN activity.

  10. Tracing the evolution of active galactic nuclei host galaxies over the last 9 Gyr of cosmic time

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A. D.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Murray, S. S.; Paggi, A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Huang, J.-S.; Kraft, R.; Willner, S. P.; Hickox, R. C.; Coil, A. L.; Cooper, M. C.; Newman, J. A.; Weiner, B. J.

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of a combined galaxy population analysis for the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified at 0 < z < 1.4 within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Boötes, and DEEP2 surveys. We identified AGN in a uniform and unbiased manner at X-ray, infrared, and radio wavelengths. Supermassive black holes undergoing radiatively efficient accretion (detected as X-ray and/or infrared AGN) appear to be hosted in a separate and distinct galaxy population than AGN undergoing powerful mechanically dominated accretion (radio AGN). Consistent with some previous studies, radiatively efficient AGN appear to be preferentially hosted in modest star-forming galaxies, with little dependence on AGN or galaxy luminosity. AGN exhibiting radio-emitting jets due to mechanically dominated accretion are almost exclusively observed in massive, passive galaxies. Crucially, we now provide strong evidence that the observed host-galaxy trends are independent of redshift. In particular, these different accretion-mode AGN have remained as separate galaxy populations throughout the last 9 Gyr. Furthermore, it appears that galaxies hosting AGN have evolved along the same path as galaxies that are not hosting AGN with little evidence for distinctly separate evolution.

  11. Constraints on Feedback in the Local Universe: The Relation Between Star Formation and AGN Activity in Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaddi, Sravani; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi Alison

    2016-01-01

    We address the relation between star formation and AGN activity in a sample of 231 nearby (0.0002 < z < 0.0358) early type galaxies by carrying out a multi-wavelength study using archival observations in the UV, IR and radio. Our results indicate that early type galaxies in the current epoch are rarely powerful AGNs, with P < 1022 WHz-1 for a majority of the galaxies. Only massive galaxies are capable of hosting powerful radio sources while less massive galaxies are hosts to lower radio power sources. Evidence of ongoing star formation is seen in approximately 7% of the sample. The SFR of these galaxies is less than 0.1 M⊙yr-1. They also tend to be radio faint (P < 1022 WHz-1). There is a nearly equal fraction of star forming galaxies in radio faint (P < 1022 WHz-1) and radio bright galaxies (P ≥ 1022 WHz-1) suggesting that both star formation and radio mode feedback are constrained to be very low in our sample. We notice that our galaxy sample and the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) follow similar trends in radio power versus SFR. This may be produced if both radio power and SFR are related to stellar mass.

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: unveiling the nature of kinematically offset active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. T.; Schaefer, A. L.; Scott, N.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Ho, I.-T.; Medling, A. M.; Leslie, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S. M.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A. W.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Sharp, R.

    2015-08-01

    We have observed two kinematically offset active galactic nuclei (AGN), whose ionized gas is at a different line-of-sight velocity to their host galaxies, with the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI). One of the galaxies shows gas kinematics very different from the stellar kinematics, indicating a recent merger or accretion event. We demonstrate that the star formation associated with this event was triggered within the last 100 Myr. The other galaxy shows simple disc rotation in both gas and stellar kinematics, aligned with each other, but in the central region has signatures of an outflow driven by the AGN. Other than the outflow, neither galaxy shows any discontinuity in the ionized gas kinematics at the galaxy's centre. We conclude that in these two cases there is no direct evidence of the AGN being in a supermassive black hole binary system. Our study demonstrates that selecting kinematically offset AGN from single-fibre spectroscopy provides, by definition, samples of kinematically peculiar objects, but integral field spectroscopy or other data are required to determine their true nature.

  13. SYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES CONSEQUENT TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanfei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Ciotti, Luca

    2010-03-01

    Both radiative and mechanical feedback from active galactic nuclei have been found to be important for the evolution of elliptical galaxies. We compute how a shock may be driven from a central black hole into the gaseous envelope of an elliptical galaxy by such feedback (in the form of nuclear winds) using high resolution one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the synchrotron emission from the electron cosmic rays accelerated by the shocks (not the jets) in the central part of elliptical galaxies, and we also study the synchrotron spectrum's evolution using the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which is routinely applied to supernova remnants. We find quantitative consistency between the synchrotron radio emission produced via this mechanism with extant observations of elliptical galaxies which are undergoing outbursts. Additionally, we also find that synchrotron optical and X-ray emission can co-exist inside elliptical galaxies during a specific evolutionary phase subsequent to central outbursts. In fact, our calculations predict a peak synchrotron luminosity of {approx}1.3 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} at the frequency 5 GHz (radio band), of {approx}1.1 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} at 4.3 x 10{sup 14} Hz (corresponding to the absolute magnitude -10.4 in R band), and of {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 7} L{sub sun} at 2.4 x 10{sup 17} Hz (soft X-ray, 0.5-2.0 keV band).

  14. The BRAVE Program. I. Improved Bulge Stellar Velocity Dispersion Estimates for a Sample of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.

  15. Properties of galaxy groups in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - II. Active galactic nucleus feedback and star formation truncation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Croton, Darren J.; Moore, Ben

    2006-11-01

    Successfully reproducing the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and the bimodality in the galaxy distribution requires a mechanism that can truncate star formation in massive haloes. Current models of galaxy formation consider two such truncation mechanisms: strangulation, which acts on satellite galaxies, and active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, which predominantly affects central galaxies. The efficiencies of these processes set the blue fraction of galaxies, fblue(L, M), as a function of galaxy luminosity, L, and halo mass, M. In this paper, we use a galaxy group catalogue extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to determine fblue(L, M). To demonstrate the potential power of these data as a benchmark for galaxy formation models, we compare the results to the semi-analytical model for galaxy formation of Croton et al. Although this model accurately fits the global statistics of the galaxy population, as well as the shape of the conditional LF, there are significant discrepancies when the blue fraction of galaxies as a function of mass and luminosity is compared between the observations and the model. In particular, the model predicts (i) too many faint satellites in massive haloes, (ii) a blue fraction of satellites that is much too low, and (iii) a blue fraction of centrals that is too high and with an inverted luminosity dependence. In the same order, we argue that these discrepancies owe to (i) the neglect of tidal stripping in the semi-analytical model, (ii) the oversimplified treatment of strangulation, and (iii) improper modelling of dust extinction and/or AGN feedback. The data presented here will prove useful to test and calibrate future models of galaxy formation and, in particular, to discriminate between various models for AGN feedback and other star formation truncation mechanisms.

  16. The relationship of active galactic nuclei & quasars with their local galaxy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Natalie Erin

    We explore how the local environment is related to properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) of various luminosities. Recent simulations and observations are converging on the view that the extreme luminosity of quasars, the brightest of AGNs, is fueled in major mergers of gas-rich galaxies. In such a picture, quasars, the highest luminosity AGNs, are expected to be located in regions with a higher density of galaxies on small scales where mergers are more likely to take place. However, in this picture, the activity observed in low-luminosity AGNs is due to secular processes that are less dependent on the local galaxy density. To test this hypothesis, we compare the local photometric galaxy density on kiloparsec scales around spectroscopic type I and type II quasars to the local density around lower-luminosity spectroscopic type I and type II AGNs. To minimize projection effects and evolution in the photometric galaxy sample we use to characterize AGN environments, we place our random control sample at the same redshift as our AGNs and impose a narrow redshift window around both the AGNs and control targets. Our results support these merger models for bright AGN origins. We find that the brightest sources have overdensities that increase on the smallest scales compared to dimmer sources. In addition, we investigate the nature of the quasar and AGN environments themselves and find that the increased overdensity of early-type galaxies in the environments of bright type I sources suggests that they are located in richer cluster environments than dim sources. We measure increased environment overdensity with increased quasar black hole mass, consistent with the well- known M DMH - M BH relationship, and find evidence for quenching in the environments of high accretion efficiency type I quasars.

  17. The evolution of active galactic nuclei in clusters of galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Bufanda, E.; Hollowood, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Martini, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-L?vy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-12-13

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and environment provides important clues to AGN fueling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. Here, we analyze the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGN with L_X > 1043 ergs s-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5 L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1galaxies hosting AGN at high redshifts is greater than the low-redshift fraction at 3.6 sigma. In particular, the AGN fraction increases steeply at the highest redshifts in our sample at z>0.7. Our result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. But, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 through Year 3 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship between cluster AGN populations and redshift.

  18. Active galactic nuclei feedback, quiescence and circumgalactic medium metal enrichment in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenreich, Maximilian; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Emsellem, Eric

    2017-06-01

    We present three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations showing the effect of kinetic and radiative active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on a model galaxy representing a massive quiescent low-redshift early-type galaxy of M* = 8.41 × 1010 M⊙, harbouring an MBH = 4 × 108 M⊙ black hole surrounded by a cooling gaseous halo. We show that, for a total baryon fraction of ˜20 per cent of the cosmological value, feedback from the AGN can keep the galaxy quiescent for about 4.35 Gyr and with properties consistent with black hole mass and X-ray luminosity scaling relations. However, this can only be achieved if the AGN feedback model includes both kinetic and radiative feedback modes. The simulation with only kinetic feedback fails to keep the model galaxy fully quiescent, while one with only radiative feedback leads to excessive black hole growth. For higher baryon fractions (e.g. 50 per cent of the cosmological value), the X-ray luminosities exceed observed values by at least one order of magnitude, and rapid cooling results in a star-forming galaxy. The AGN plays a major role in keeping the circumgalactic gas at observed metallicities of Z/Z⊙ ≳ 0.3 within the central ˜30 kpc by venting nuclear gas enriched with metals from residual star formation activity. As indicated by previous cosmological simulations, our results are consistent with a model for which the black hole mass and the total baryon fraction are set at higher redshifts z > 1 and the AGN alone can keep the model galaxy on observed scaling relations. Models without AGN feedback violate both the quiescence criterion as well as circumgalactic medium metallicity constraints.

  19. HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, Ezequiel; Sanders, David B.; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-10-20

    We take advantage of the rich multiwavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Ms Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily obscured low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E {approx} 1-8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily obscured AGN at E > 5 keV. We further find that the relative strength of this AGN signal decays with decreasing IR luminosity, indicating a higher AGN fraction for more luminous IR sources. Together, these results strongly suggest the presence of a large number of obscured AGNs in IR-luminous galaxies. Using samples binned in terms of stellar mass in the host galaxy, we find a significant excess at E = 6-7 keV for sources with M > 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, consistent with a large obscured AGN population in high mass galaxies. In contrast, no strong evidence of AGN activity was found for less-massive galaxies. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, {approx}22%, occurs in heavily obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. There are also indications that the number of low-luminosity, heavily obscured AGNs does not evolve significantly with redshift, in contrast to the strong evolution seen in higher luminosity sources.

  20. The evolution of active galactic nuclei in clusters of galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Bufanda, E.; Hollowood, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Martini, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-12-13

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGN) and environment provides important clues to AGN fueling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. In this paper, we analyze the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGN with L_X > 1043 ergs s-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5 L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1galaxies hosting AGN at high redshifts is greater than the low-redshift fraction at 3.6 sigma. In particular, the AGN fraction increases steeply at the highest redshifts in our sample at z>0.7. This result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. However, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 through Year 3 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship between cluster AGN populations and redshift.

  1. The evolution of active galactic nuclei in clusters of galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufanda, E.; Hollowood, D.; Jeltema, T. E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Rozo, E.; Martini, P.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rooney, P.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The correlation between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and environment provides important clues to AGN fuelling and the relationship of black hole growth to galaxy evolution. In this paper, we analyse the fraction of galaxies in clusters hosting AGN as a function of redshift and cluster richness for X-ray-detected AGN associated with clusters of galaxies in Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. The present sample includes 33 AGNs with LX > 1043 erg s-1 in non-central, host galaxies with luminosity greater than 0.5L* from a total sample of 432 clusters in the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 0.95. Analysis of the present sample reveals that the AGN fraction in red-sequence cluster members has a strong positive correlation with redshift such that the AGN fraction increases by a factor of ∼8 from low to high redshift, and the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting AGN at high redshifts is greater than the low-redshift fraction at 3.6σ. In particular, the AGN fraction increases steeply at the highest redshifts in our sample at z > 0.7. This result is in good agreement with previous work and parallels the increase in star formation in cluster galaxies over the same redshift range. However, the AGN fraction in clusters is observed to have no significant correlation with cluster mass. Future analyses with DES Year 1 through Year 3 data will be able to clarify whether AGN activity is correlated to cluster mass and will tightly constrain the relationship between cluster AGN populations and redshift.

  2. A Dust-Penetrated Classification Scheme for Bars as Inferred from their Gravitational Force Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, R.; Block, D. L.

    2001-05-01

    The division of galaxies into barred (SB) and normal (S) spirals is a fundamental aspect of the Hubble galaxy classification system. This tuning fork view was revised by de Vaucouleurs, whose classification volume recognized apparent bar strength (SA, SAB, SB) as a continuous property of galaxies called the ``family.'' However, the SA, SAB, and SB families are purely visual judgments that can have little bearing on the actual bar strength in a given galaxy. Until recently, published bar judgments were based exclusively on blue light images, where internal extinction or star formation can completely mask a bar. Near-infrared camera arrays, which principally trace the old stellar population in both normal and barred galaxies, now facilitate a quantification of bar strength in terms of gravitational potentials and force fields. In this paper, we show that the maximum value of the ratio of the tangential force to the mean axisymmetric radial force is a quantitative measure of the strength of a bar that can be straightforwardly derived for many galaxies. We show that a wide range of true bar strengths characterizes the category SB, while category SAB corresponds to a narrower range of bar strengths. Based on the force ratio, we define seven classes of bar strength and incorporate these classes into a dust-penetrated classification system for spiral galaxies. This work was supported by NSF grant AST 9617154 and the Anglo-American Chairman's Fund, Mrs. M. Keeton, CEO.

  3. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S.; Wild, Vivienne; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during the post

  4. New active galactic nuclei detected in ROSAT All Sky Survey galaxies. II. The complete dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollatschny, W.; Kotulla, R.; Pietsch, W.; Bischoff, K.; Zetzl, M.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: The ROSAT ALL Sky Survey Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) has been correlated with the Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC) to identify new extragalactic counterparts. 550 reliable optical counterparts have been detected. However there existed no optical spectra for about 200 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) candidates before the ROSAT ALL Sky Survey (RASS) was completed. Methods: We took optical spectra of 176 X-ray candidates and companions at ESO, Calar Alto observatory and McDonald observatory. When necessary we used a line profile decomposition to measure line fluxes, widths and centers to classify their type of activity. Results: We discuss the redshift-, linewidth-, as well as optical and X-ray luminosity distribution of our ROSAT selected sample. 139 galaxies of our 166 X-ray counterparts have been identified as AGN with 93 being Seyfert 1 galaxies (61%). Eighteen of them (20%) are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies. 34 X-ray candidates (21%) are LINERs and only eight candidates (5%) are Seyfert 2. The ratio of the number of Seyfert 1 galaxies to Seyfert 2 galaxies is about 11/1. Optical surveys result in ratios of 1/1.4. The high fraction of detected Seyfert 1 galaxies is explained by the sensitivity of the ROSAT to soft X-rays which are heavily absorbed in type 2 AGN. Two X-ray candidates are HII-galaxies and 25 candidates (15%) show no signs of spectral activity. The AGN in our RASS selected sample exhibit slightly higher optical luminosities (MB = (-20.71 ± 1.75) mag) and similar X-ray luminosities (log(LX [ erg s-1] ) = 42.9 ± 1.7) compared to other AGN surveys. The Hα line width distribution (FWHM) of our newly identified ROSAT AGN sample is similar to the line widths distribution based on SDSS AGN. However, our newly identified RASS AGN have rather reddish colors explaining why they have not been detected before in ultraviolet or blue excess surveys.

  5. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK AT z ∼ 2 AND THE MUTUAL EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE AND INACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Cimatti, A.; Brusa, M.; Talia, M.; Rodighiero, G.; Kurk, J.; Cassata, P.; Halliday, C.; Renzini, A.; Daddi, E.

    2013-12-10

    The relationship between galaxies of intermediate stellar mass and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at 1 < z < 3 is investigated with a Galaxy Mass Assembly ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS) sample complemented with public data in the GOODS-South field. Using X-ray data, hidden AGNs are identified in unsuspected star-forming galaxies with no apparent signs of non-stellar activity. In the color-mass plane, two parallel trends emerge during the ∼2 Gyr between the average redshifts z ∼ 2.2 and z ∼ 1.3: while the red sequence becomes significantly more populated by ellipticals, the majority of AGNs with L(2-10 keV) > 10{sup 42.3} erg s{sup –1} disappear from the blue cloud/green valley where they were hosted predominantly by star-forming systems with disk and irregular morphologies. These results are even clearer when the rest-frame colors are corrected for dust reddening. At z ∼ 2.2, the ultraviolet spectra of active galaxies (including two Type 1 AGNs) show possible gas outflows with velocities up to about –500 km s{sup –1}, which are observed neither in inactive systems at the same redshift, nor at lower redshifts. Such outflows indicate the presence of gas that can move faster than the escape velocities of active galaxies. These results suggest that feedback from moderately luminous AGNs (log L{sub X} < 44.5 erg s{sup –1}) played a key role at z ≳ 2 by contributing to outflows capable of ejecting part of the interstellar medium and leading to a rapid decrease in star formation in host galaxies with stellar masses 10 < log(M/M{sub ⊙})< 11.

  6. nIFTY galaxy cluster simulations - III. The similarity and diversity of galaxies and subhaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Power, Chris; Yepes, Gustavo; Cui, Weiguang; Cunnama, Daniel; Kay, Scott T.; Sembolini, Federico; Beck, Alexander M.; Davé, Romeel; February, Sean; Huang, Shuiyao; Katz, Neal; McCarthy, Ian G.; Murante, Giuseppe; Perret, Valentin; Puchwein, Ewald; Saro, Alexandro; Teyssier, Romain

    2016-05-01

    We examine subhaloes and galaxies residing in a simulated Λ cold dark matter galaxy cluster (M^crit_{200}=1.1× 10^{15} h^{-1} M_{⊙}) produced by hydrodynamical codes ranging from classic smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), newer SPH codes, adaptive and moving mesh codes. These codes use subgrid models to capture galaxy formation physics. We compare how well these codes reproduce the same subhaloes/galaxies in gravity-only, non-radiative hydrodynamics and full feedback physics runs by looking at the overall subhalo/galaxy distribution and on an individual object basis. We find that the subhalo population is reproduced to within ≲10 per cent for both dark matter only and non-radiative runs, with individual objects showing code-to-code scatter of ≲0.1 dex, although the gas in non-radiative simulations shows significant scatter. Including feedback physics significantly increases the diversity. Subhalo mass and Vmax distributions vary by ≈20 per cent. The galaxy populations also show striking code-to-code variations. Although the Tully-Fisher relation is similar in almost all codes, the number of galaxies with 109 h- 1 M⊙ ≲ M* ≲ 1012 h- 1 M⊙ can differ by a factor of 4. Individual galaxies show code-to-code scatter of ˜0.5 dex in stellar mass. Moreover, systematic differences exist, with some codes producing galaxies 70 per cent smaller than others. The diversity partially arises from the inclusion/absence of active galactic nucleus feedback. Our results combined with our companion papers demonstrate that subgrid physics is not just subject to fine-tuning, but the complexity of building galaxies in all environments remains a challenge. We argue that even basic galaxy properties, such as stellar mass to halo mass, should be treated with errors bars of ˜0.2-0.4 dex.

  7. A water-vapour giga-maser in the active galaxy TXFS2226-184.

    PubMed

    Koekemoer, A M; Henkel, C; Greenhill, L J; Dey, A; van Breugel, W; Codella, C; Antonucci, R

    1995-12-14

    Active galactic nuclei are thought to be powered by gas falling into a massive black hole; the different types of active galaxy may arise because we view them through a thick torus of molecular gas at varying angles of inclination. One way to determine whether the black hole is surrounded by a torus, which would obscure the accretion disk around the black hole along certain lines of sight, is to search for water masers, as these exist only in regions with plentiful molecular gas. Since the first detection of an extra-galactic water maser in 1979, they have come to be associated primarily with active galaxies, and have even been used to probe the mass of the central engine. Here we report the detection of a water giga-maser in the radio galaxy TXFS2226-184. The strength of the emission supports a recently proposed theory of maser pumping that allows for even more powerful masers, which might be detectable at cosmological distances. Water masers may accordingly provide a way to determine distances to galaxies outside the usual distance ladder, providing an independent calibration of the Hubble constant.

  8. On the morphology of dust lanes in galactic bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Pérez, I.; Zurita, A.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Comerón, S.; Díaz-García, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our study is to use dynamical simulations to explore the influence of two important dynamical bar parameters, bar strength and bar pattern speed on the shape of the bar dust lanes. To quantify the shape of the dust lanes we have developed a new systematic method to measure the dust lane curvature. Previous numerical simulations have compared the curvature of bar dust lanes with the bar strength, predicting a relation between both parameters which has been supported by observational studies but with a large spread. We take into account the bar pattern speed to explore, simultaneously, the effect of both parameters on the dust lane shape. To that end, we separate our galactic bars in fast bars (1 < {R} < 1.4 ) and slow bars ({R} > 1.4 ), obtaining, as previous simulations, an inverse relation between the dust lane curvature and the bar strength for fast bars. For the first time, we extend the study to slow bars, finding a constant curvature as a function of the bar strength. As a result, we conclude that weak bars with straight dust lanes are candidates for slow bars. Finally, we have analysed a pilot sample of 10 S4G galaxies, obtaining dust lane curvatures lying within the range covered by the simulations.

  9. Distribution and kinematics of H I in the active elliptical galaxy NGC 1052

    SciTech Connect

    van Gorkom, J.H.; Knapp, G.R.; Raimond, E.; Faber, S.M.; Gallagher, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    The H I distribution in the active elliptical galaxy NGC 1052 has been mapped at a resolution of 1 arcmin with the VLA. The H I structure is about three times the size of the optical galaxy and is roughly perpendicular to its major axis. The H I has a circular velocity of approx.200 km/s, roughly constant with radius; the mass of the galaxy is 1.5 x 10/sup 11/ M/sub sun/ at a radius of 16 kpc (D = 13.4 Mpc), and the mass to blue luminosity ratio at this radius is M/L/sub B/ approx.15 M/sub sun//L/sub sun/. H I absorption is seen against the central radio continuum source, at both the systemic velocity and at redshifted velocities. The gas in NGC 1052, as in other ellipticals, has a rotation axis that is not aligned with the stellar rotation axis (the difference is 63/sup 0/) and a mean specific angular momentum that is considerably larger than that of the stars. The H I distribution is unusually irregular. In the southwest region of the galaxy, the distribution shows what appears to be a tidal tail, suggesting that the H I may have been acquired about 10/sup 9/ years ago. The presence of dust associated with the H I and the distribution and kinematics of the H I are consistent with capture of gas from a gas-rich dwarf or spiral. In the inner regions of the galaxy (r<5 kpc) the H I velocity field shows evidence of noncircular orbits and therefore possibly of a triaxial mass distribution for the galaxy. Alternatively the gas could be falling in toward the center.

  10. Detection and Inspection of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography with Microwave Excitation and Eddy Current Sensors.

    PubMed

    Szymanik, Barbara; Frankowski, Paweł Karol; Chady, Tomasz; John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah

    2016-02-16

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-sensor approach to the detection and inspection of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures. In connection with our past experience related to non-destructive testing of different materials, we propose using two potentially effective methods: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation and the eddy current technique. In this article active infrared thermography with microwave excitation is analyzed both by numerical modeling and experiments. This method, based on thermal imaging, due to its characteriatics should be considered as a preliminary method for the assessment of relatively shallowly located steel bar reinforcements. The eddy current technique, on the other hand, allows for more detailed evaluation and detection of deeply located rebars. In this paper a series of measurement results, together with the initial identification of certain features of steel reinforcement bars will be presented.

  11. Detection and Inspection of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography with Microwave Excitation and Eddy Current Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Szymanik, Barbara; Frankowski, Paweł Karol; Chady, Tomasz; John Chelliah, Cyril Robinson Azariah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-sensor approach to the detection and inspection of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures. In connection with our past experience related to non-destructive testing of different materials, we propose using two potentially effective methods: active infrared thermography with microwave excitation and the eddy current technique. In this article active infrared thermography with microwave excitation is analyzed both by numerical modeling and experiments. This method, based on thermal imaging, due to its characteriatics should be considered as a preliminary method for the assessment of relatively shallowly located steel bar reinforcements. The eddy current technique, on the other hand, allows for more detailed evaluation and detection of deeply located rebars. In this paper a series of measurement results, together with the initial identification of certain features of steel reinforcement bars will be presented. PMID:26891305

  12. The Unified Model and Evolution of Active Galaxies: Implications from a Spectropolarimetric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hien D.

    2003-02-01

    We extend the analysis presented in Paper I of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12 μm samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). We confirm that polarized (hidden) broad-line region (HBLR) S2s tend to have hotter circumnuclear dust temperatures, show mid-IR spectra more characteristic of Seyfert 1 galaxies (S1s), and are intrinsically more luminous than non-HBLR S2s. The levels of obscuration and circumnuclear star formation, however, appear to be similar between HBLR and non-HBLR S2 galaxies, based on an examination of various observational indicators. HBLR S2s, on average, share many similar large-scale, presumably isotropic, characteristics with S1s, as would be expected if the unified model is correct, while non-HBLR S2s generally do not. The active nuclear engines of non-HBLR S2s, then, appear to be truly weaker than HBLR S2s, which in turn are fully consistent with being S1s viewed from another direction. There is also evidence that the fraction of detected HBLRs increases with the radio power of the active galactic nucleus. Thus, all S2 galaxies may not be intrinsically similar in nature, and we speculate that evolutionary processes may be at work.

  13. BLAST OBSERVATIONS OF RESOLVED GALAXIES: TEMPERATURE PROFILES AND THE EFFECT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON FIR TO SUBMILLIMETER EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, Donald V.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (<25 Mpc) galaxies at 250, 350, and 500 mum. During its 2005 June flight from Sweden, BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the 2006 December flight from Antarctica, BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the galaxies observed by Spitzer. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a 'core fraction', an upper limit on the 'active galactic nucleus fraction' of these galaxies. We also find our resolved observations of these galaxies give a dust mass estimate 5-19 times larger than an unresolved observation would predict. Finally, we are able to use these data to derive a value for the dust mass absorption coefficient of kappa = 0.29 +- 0.03 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} at 250 mum. This study is an introduction to future higher-resolution and higher-sensitivity studies to be conducted by Herschel and SCUBA-2.

  14. Star Formation and AGN activity of X-ray selected AGN host galaxies in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon

    2017-01-01

    One of the ongoing issues for understanding the galaxy formation and evolution is how active galactic nuclei (AGNs) affect the growth of their host galaxies. We investigate the correlations between AGN activity and star formation properties of a large sample of ~3700 X-ray selected AGNs over a wide range of luminosities (42 < log Lx < 45) up to z~5 in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey. We perform a multi-component modeling from the far-infrared, when available, to the near-UV using AGN emission from the big-blue-bump (for Type 1 AGNs), a nuclear dust torus model, a galaxy model and a starburst component for the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analysis of SEDs, we derive AGN host galaxy properties, such as stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and AGN luminosities. We find that AGN host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming main sequence galaxies, suggesting no significant enhancement or quenching of star formation. The average SFR of AGN host galaxies shows a flat distribution in bins of AGN luminosity, consistent with recent ideas that the shorter variability timescale of AGN compared to star formation can lead to a flat relationship between the SFR and black hole accretion rates. Our results suggest that both star formation and nuclear activity in the majority of AGN host galaxies might be driven more by internal secular processes at z<3, implying that they have substantially grown at much earlier epoch.

  15. Obscuration, orientation, and the infrared properties of radio-loud active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Laurikainen, Eija

    1994-01-01

    We report on a study of the mid- and far-infrared (MFIR) properties of several different classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the IRAS database. Our goal is to try to improve the understanding of the possible relationships between the diverse classes of AGNs. The MFIR and radio properties of radio-loud AGNs are especially useful in this regard, since (excluding the blazar class, which we do not study here) the radio emission is thought to be emitted isotropically, and the radio and MFIR radiation should be much less affected by dust obscuration than radiation at shorter wavelengths. We have first compared samples of 3CR broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) and narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) matched in radio flux and mean redshift. We find that the BLRGs are stronger than the NLRGs by a factor of 4-5 in their mid-IR emission but are similar to the NLRGs in the far-IR. This is qualitatively consistent with recent 'unification' models for NLRGs and BLRGs which invoke thermal MFIR emission from dusty 'obscuring tori,' but there may be an additional source of far-IR emission present in the more luminous broad-line objects (the radio-loud quasars) studied previously by Heckman, Chambers & Postman (1992). We have also compared samples of Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) and Fanaroff-Riley class II (FRII) radio galaxies matched in radio flux and redshift. The FRII galaxies are stronger MFIR emitters than the FRI galaxies by a factor of about 4. This is consistent with suggestions that the central engine in FRI galaxies produces relatively little radiant energy per unit jet power (expecially since we find that the weak MFIR emission from the FRI galaxies may not be powered by the AGN). Comparing samples of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources versus non-GPS-CSS sources, we find that the GPS-CSS and non-GPS-CSS sources have similar MFIR strengths. This suggests that the efficiency of the conversion of jet kinetic energy

  16. The Hidden Lives of Galaxies: An Information & Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 2000-2001. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evolution of the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, James C.; Williamson, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Ethel

    This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) document presents activities on the properties of galaxies for additional curriculum support. The activities presented in this document include: (1) "How Big Is the Universe"; (2) "Identifying Galaxies"; (3) "Classifying Galaxies Using Hubble's Fork Diagram"; (4) "Identifying Unusual…

  17. Maximizing the entropy of histogram bar heights to explore neural activity: a simulation study on auditory and tactile fibers.

    PubMed

    Güçlü, Burak

    2005-01-01

    Neurophysiologists often use histograms to explore patterns of activity in neural spike trains. The bin size selected to construct a histogram is crucial: too large bin widths result in coarse histograms, too small bin widths expand unimportant detail. Peri-stimulus time (PST) histograms of simulated nerve fibers were studied in the current article. This class of histograms gives information about neural activity in the temporal domain and is a density estimate for the spike rate. Scott's rule based on modem statistical theory suggests that the optimal bin size is inversely proportional to the cube root of sample size. However, this estimate requires a priori knowledge about the density function. Moreover, there are no good algorithms for adaptive-mesh histograms, which have variable bin sizes to minimize estimation errors. Therefore, an unconventional technique is proposed here to help experimenters in practice. This novel method maximizes the entropy of histogram-bar heights to find the unique bin size, which generates the highest disorder in a histogram (i.e., the most complex histogram), and is useful as a starting point for neural data mining. Although the proposed method is ad hoc from a density-estimation point of view, it is simple, efficient and more helpful in the experimental setting where no prior statistical information on neural activity is available. The results of simulations based on the entropy method are also discussed in relation to Ellaway's cumulative-sum technique, which can detect subtle changes in neural activity in certain conditions.

  18. Galaxy NGC 55

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-10

    This image of the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 55 was taken by Galaxy Evolution Explorer on September 14, 2003, during 2 orbits. This galaxy lies 5.4 million light years from our Milky Way galaxy and is a member of the "local group" of galaxies that also includes the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the Magellanic clouds, and 40 other galaxies. The spiral disk of NGC 55 is inclined to our line of sight by approximately 80 degrees and so this galaxy looks cigar-shaped. This picture is a combination of Galaxy Evolution Explorer images taken with the far ultraviolet (colored blue) and near ultraviolet detectors, (colored red). The bright blue regions in this image are areas of active star formation detected in the ultraviolet by Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The red stars in this image are foreground stars in our own Milky Way galaxy. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04923

  19. The Evolution of Star Formation Activity in Cluster Galaxies Over 0.15 < z < 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Cory R.

    In this thesis, we explore 7.5 billion years of evolution in cluster galaxy star formation activity using a sample of 11 high-redshift (1 < z < 1.5) clusters from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, and 25 low-redshift (0.15 < z < 1) clusters from The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We compare cluster galaxy star formation to that of the field over 0.15 < z < 1.5 using 8000 galaxies from the UltraVISTA survey. Mid-infrared star formation rates are measured using Spitzer 24 mum data for isolated high-redshift galaxies. We calculate rest-frame ultraviolet star formation rates for low-redshift cluster members using Hubble Space Telescope observations. Using publically available mid-infrared and ultraviolet data for our field sample, we empirically derive scaling relations to adjust low-redshift cluster galaxy ultraviolet star formation rates to mid-infrared levels. We classify cluster galaxy morphology by visual inspection, and use quantitatively measured morphologies for field galaxies. Cluster late-type galaxies at z > 1 show enhanced star formation activity relative to the field, and account for nearly 90% of the overall star formation activity in high-redshift clusters. While high-redshift early-type galaxies are substantially quenched relative to cluster late-types, they still contribute 13% of the total cluster star formation activity. With early-type fractions increasing from 34 to 56% from z 1.5 → 1.16, we find that new cluster early-type galaxies are likely being formed around z 1.4. The fraction of early-type galaxies that are star-forming drops from 29 to 11% over this period, yet their specific star formation rates are roughly constant. These factors suggest that the events that created these new galaxies, possibly mergers, were both recent and gas-rich. With typical coverages of 50% of z < 1 cluster virial radii, we can only probe the cores of low-redshift clusters. We find that in this regime, the star formation activity of cluster

  20. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND SPHEROIDS. V. THE RELATION BETWEEN BLACK HOLE MASS AND HOST GALAXY LUMINOSITY FOR A SAMPLE OF 79 ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bennert, Vardha N.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the black hole (BH) mass-bulge luminosity relation using a sample of 52 active galaxies at z ∼ 0.36 and z ∼ 0.57 in the BH mass range of 10{sup 7.4}-10{sup 9.1} M {sub ☉}. By consistently applying multicomponent spectral and structural decomposition to high-quality Keck spectra and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images, BH masses (M {sub BH}) are estimated using the Hβ broad emission line combined with the 5100 Å nuclear luminosity, and bulge luminosities (L {sub bul}) are derived from surface photometry. Comparing the resulting M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation to local active galaxies and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution of the form M {sub BH}/L {sub bul}∝(1 + z){sup γ} with γ = 1.8 ± 0.7, consistent with BH growth preceding that of the host galaxies. Including an additional sample of 27 active galaxies with 0.5 < z < 1.9 taken from the literature and measured in a consistent way, we obtain γ = 0.9 ± 0.7 for the M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation and γ = 0.4 ± 0.5 for the M {sub BH}-total host galaxy luminosity (L {sub host}) relation. The results strengthen the findings from our previous studies and provide additional evidence for host galaxy bulge growth being dominated by disk-to-bulge transformation via minor mergers and/or disk instabilities.

  1. The host galaxies of active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguín-Iglesias, A.; León-Tavares, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Chavushyan, V.; Tornikoski, M.; Valtaoja, E.; Añorve, C.; Valdés, J.; Carrasco, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep near-infrared (NIR) images of a sample of 19 intermediate-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.0) radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) with powerful relativistic jets (L1.4 GHz > 1027 W Hz-1), previously classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars. We also compile host galaxy and nuclear magnitudes for blazars from literature. The combined sample (this work and compilation) contains 100 radio-loud AGN with host galaxy detections and a broad range of radio luminosities L1.4 GHz ˜ 1023.7-1028.3 W Hz-1, allowing us to divide our sample into high-luminosity blazars (HLBs) and low-luminosity blazars (LLBs). The host galaxies of our sample are bright and seem to follow the μe-Reff relation for ellipticals and bulges. The two populations of blazars show different behaviours in the MK,nuclear -MK,bulge plane, where a statistically significant correlation is observed for HLBs. Although it may be affected by selection effects, this correlation suggests a close coupling between the accretion mode of the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy, which could be interpreted in terms of AGN feedback. Our findings are consistent with semi-analytical models where low-luminosity AGN emit the bulk of their energy in the form of radio jets, producing a strong feedback mechanism, and high-luminosity AGN are affected by galaxy mergers and interactions, which provide a common supply of cold gas to feed both nuclear activity and star formation episodes.

  2. The discovery of five new H2O megamasers in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braatz, J. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Henkel, C.

    1994-01-01

    H2O megamasers with (isotropic) luminosities between 60 and 200 solar luminosity (H(sub 0) = 75 km/s/Mpc) have been detected in the Seyfert 2 galaxies Mrk 1, Mrk 1210, and NGC 5506 and in the LINERs NGC 1052 and NGC 2639. No megamasers have been found in Seyfert 1's. The galaxies have redshifts between 1500 and 4800 km/s and are the most distant H2O sources reported to date. NGC 1052 is also the first elliptical galaxy known to contain an H2O maser. The intensity distribution of an H2O five-point map obtained toward NGC 5506 shows that the H2O emission is pointlike compared to the 40 sec telescope beam. The lack of CO emission in NGC 1052 implies a conservative lower limit to the H2O brightness temperature of 1000 K, thus ruling out a thermal origin for the H2O emission. The success of this survey relative to other recent searches makes it evident that H2O megamasers are preferentially found in galaxies with active nuclei.

  3. The discovery of five new H2O megamasers in active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braatz, J. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Henkel, C.

    1994-01-01

    H2O megamasers with (isotropic) luminosities between 60 and 200 solar luminosity (H(sub 0) = 75 km/s/Mpc) have been detected in the Seyfert 2 galaxies Mrk 1, Mrk 1210, and NGC 5506 and in the LINERs NGC 1052 and NGC 2639. No megamasers have been found in Seyfert 1's. The galaxies have redshifts between 1500 and 4800 km/s and are the most distant H2O sources reported to date. NGC 1052 is also the first elliptical galaxy known to contain an H2O maser. The intensity distribution of an H2O five-point map obtained toward NGC 5506 shows that the H2O emission is pointlike compared to the 40 sec telescope beam. The lack of CO emission in NGC 1052 implies a conservative lower limit to the H2O brightness temperature of 1000 K, thus ruling out a thermal origin for the H2O emission. The success of this survey relative to other recent searches makes it evident that H2O megamasers are preferentially found in galaxies with active nuclei.

  4. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Ando, Ryo; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H13CO+ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH3OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the synergy with sensitive mid-infrared spectroscopy, which will be implemented by JWST and SPICA to disentangle the complex nature of heavily obscured galaxies across the cosmic time.

  5. BROAD Hβ EMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso; Lazarova, Mariana S.; Auger, Matthew W.; Park, Daeseong E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hβ line virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  6. Mid- to far-infrared properties of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdis, G. E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Helou, G.; Farrah, D.; Hurley, P.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Charmandaris, V.; Cooray, A.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Dale, D.; Elbaz, D.; Feltre, A.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Huang, J.-S.; Morrison, G.; Oliver, S.; Page, M.; Scott, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-10-01

    We study the mid- to far-IR properties of a 24 μm-selected flux-limited sample (S24> 5 mJy) of 154 intermediate redshift (⟨ z ⟩ ~ 0.15), infrared luminous galaxies, drawn from the 5 Milli-Jansky Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey. By combining existing mid-IR spectroscopy and new Herschel SPIRE submm photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, we derived robust total infrared luminosity (LIR) and dust mass (Mdust) estimates and infered the relative contribution of the AGN to the infrared energy budget of the sources. We found that the total (8-1000 μm) infrared emission of galaxies with weak 6.2 μm PAH emission (EW6.2 ≤ 0.2 μm) is dominated by AGN activity, while for galaxies with EW6.2> 0.2 μm more than 50% of the LIR arises from star formation. We also found that for galaxies detected in the 250-500 μm Herschel bands an AGN has a statistically insignificant effect on the temperature of the cold dust and the far-IR colours of the host galaxy, which are primarily shaped by star formation activity. For star-forming galaxies we reveal an anti-correlation between the LIR-to-rest-frame 8 μm luminosity ratio, IR8 ≡ LIR/L8 and the strength of PAH features. We found that this anti-correlation is primarily driven by variations in the PAHsemission, and not by variations in the 5-15 μm mid-IR continuum emission. Using the [Ne iii]/[Ne ii] line ratio as a tracer of the hardness of the radiation field, we confirm that galaxies with harder radiation fields tend to exhibit weaker PAH features, and found that they have higher IR8 values and higher dust-mass-weighted luminosities (LIR/Mdust), the latter being a proxy for the dust temperature (Td). We argue that these trends originate either from variations in the environment of the star-forming regions or are caused by variations in the age of the starburst. Finally, we provide scaling relations that will allow estimating LIR, based on single-band observations with the mid-infrared instrument

  7. Feasibility of externally activated self-repairing concrete with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy reinforcing bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, Sanjay; Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Suzuki, Yusuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Araki, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of an externally activated self-repairing technique for concrete members with epoxy injection network and Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy (SEA) reinforcing bars (rebars). Compared to existing crack self-repairing and self-healing techniques, the epoxy injection network has the following strengths: (1) Different from the self-repairing methods using brittle containers or tubes for adhesives, the proposed self-repair process can be performed repeatedly and is feasible for onsite concrete casting. (2) Different from the autogenic self-healing techniques, full strength recovery can be achieved in a shorter time period without the necessity of water. This paper attempts to enhance the self-repairing capability of the epoxy injection network by reducing residual cracks by using cost-effective Cu-based SEA bars. The effectiveness of the present technique is examined using concrete beam specimens reinforced by 3 types of bars. The first specimen is reinforced by steel deformed bars, the second by steel threaded bars, and finally by SEA threaded rebars. The tests were performed with a 3 point cyclic loading with increasing amplitude. From the test results, effective self-repairing was confirmed for small deformation levels irrespective of the reinforcement types. Effective self-repairing was observed in the SEA reinforced specimen even under much larger deformations. Nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to confirm the experimental findings.

  8. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Silverman, John D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Patton, David R.

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  9. Changing Ionization Conditions in SDSS Galaxies with Active Galactic Nuclei as a Function of Environment from Pairs to Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Silverman, John D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Patton, David R.

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  10. Detailed Analysis of Starburst and AGN Activity in Blue E/S0 Galaxies in RESOLVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Ashley; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Norman, Dara J.; Norris, Mark A.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We identify a population of ~120 blue E/S0 galaxies among the ~1350 galaxies that are targeted for spectroscopy and have measured morphologies in the highly complete REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local Volume (RESOLVE) survey. Blue E/S0s are identified as being early type objects morphologically classified between E and S0/a that fall on the blue sequence. Most (~85%) of our blue E/S0s have stellar masses <10^10 M_sun. Using pPXF, we have measured the stellar velocity dispersions (sigma values) from high resolution 485 - 550 nm spectroscopy for ~15% of the blue E/S0 sample. Using three variations of the M_BH -- sigma relation, this kinematic subsample is estimated to typically host central black holes within the range log M_BH = 4-6 M_sun. Following up on previous suggestions of nuclear activity in the blue E/S0 population, we investigate nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity occurring within the full sample. Preliminary results from cross-checking known AGN catalogs with the blue E/S0 sample have revealed nuclear activity in ~20 of these galaxies based on heterogeneous criteria (BPT line ratio analysis, spectral line broadening, etc.), some of which may not entirely distinguish starburst from AGN activity. In an attempt to break the degeneracy between AGN and starburst activity, we perform detailed spectral analysis for a few of the galaxies with kinematic data. We also consider the viability of alternate AGN detection methods based on L_Edd estimates calculated from the M_BH estimates. This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation through the CAP REU Program (ACI-1156614) and the RESOLVE Survey (AST-0955368) as well as the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  11. THE FERMI BUBBLES. I. POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR RECENT AGN JET ACTIVITY IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2012-09-10

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50 Degree-Sign ({approx}10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR)-gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1-3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of {approx}0.1-0.5 Myr. The bipolar jets were ejected into the Galactic halo along the rotation axis of the Galaxy. Near the GC, the jets must be moderately light with a typical density contrast 0.001 {approx}< {eta} {approx}< 0.1 relative to the ambient hot gas. The jets are energetically dominated by kinetic energy, and overpressured with either CR or thermal pressure which induces lateral jet expansion, creating fat CR bubbles as observed. The sharp edges of the bubbles imply that CR diffusion across the bubble surface is strongly suppressed. The jet activity induces a strong shock, which heats and compresses the ambient gas in the Galactic halo, potentially explaining the ROSAT X-ray shell features surrounding the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles provide plausible evidence for a recent powerful AGN jet activity in our Galaxy, providing new insights into the origin of the halo CR population and the channel through which massive black holes in disk galaxies release feedback energy during their growth.

  12. THE MID-INFRARED HIGH-IONIZATION LINES FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Rieke, George H.

    2010-12-20

    We used Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopic data on 426 galaxies including quasars, Seyferts, LINERs, and H II galaxies to investigate the relationship among the mid-IR emission lines. There is a tight linear correlation between the [Ne V]14.3 {mu}m and 24.3 {mu}m (97.1 eV) and the [O IV]25.9 {mu}m (54.9 eV) high-ionization emission lines. The correlation also holds for these high-ionization emission lines and the [Ne III]15.56 {mu}m (41 eV) emission line, although only for active galaxies. We used these correlations to calculate the [Ne III] excess due to star formation in Seyfert galaxies. We also estimated the [O IV] luminosity due to star formation in active galaxies and determined that it dominates the [O IV] emission only if the contribution of the active nucleus to the total luminosity is below 5%. We find that the active galactic nucleus dominates the [O IV] emission in most Seyfert galaxies, whereas star formation adequately explains the observed [O IV] emission in optically classified H II galaxies. Finally, we computed photoionization models to determine the physical conditions of the narrow-line region where these high-ionization lines originate. The estimated ionization parameter range is -2.8 < log U < -2.5 and the total hydrogen column density range is 20 < log n{sub H} (cm{sup -2}) < 21.

  13. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF GALAXY ZOO MERGERS: FREQUENCY OF BINARY ACTIVE NUCLEI IN MASSIVE MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Stacy H.; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Lintott, Chris J.; Oh, Kyuseok; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-07-10

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} that already have optical active galactic nucleus (AGN) signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N{sub H} {approx}< 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (<40 counts per nucleus; f{sub 2-10keV} {approx}< 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGNs in these mergers are rare (0%-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  14. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  15. The influence of local environment on the emergence of AGN activity in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, M. A.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Coziol, R.; Focardi, P.

    2011-11-01

    We have carried out a spectroscopic study to determine the frequency and nature of the nuclear activity found in compact groups. With this aim we chose two samples, one selected from the Hickson Compact Groups Catalogue and another one from the Updated Zwicky Catalogue of Compact Groups. With the analysis of 1056 galaxies we found that more than 71% present some kind of emission, most of them, being low luminosity AGN (L_{Hα}=10^{39} erg s^{-1}). From these we only detect broad components in 16 which means a remarkable deficiency of broad line AGNs as compared to narrow lineAGNs, despite the high frequency of active galaxies encountered ingeneral in these groups.

  16. NGC 1614 - An IR-luminous merger but not (yet?) an active galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.; Standord, S. A.; Unger, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    New observations of the merging galaxy NGC 1614 are described. The system has a nuclear region of QSO-like luminosity, but shows no direct evidence for an active nucleus. It is heavily and unevenly reddened across its nucleus, while infrared imaging also shows a 'ridge' of dust. The inner spiral structure of the galaxy has normal rotation for an inclined disk, as indicated by the H-alpha emission. A linear 'tail' to the S and extended arms to the E have more positive velocities, and probably are the remains of an interacting companion and the tidal plume(s) caused by the collision. The only H I seen in emission appears to coincide with bright knots of H-alpha and forbidden O III emission of the base of the tail. The lack of direct evidence for an active nucleus indicates that if NGC 1614 is a precursor to a Seyfert-like system the AGN has not yet turned on.

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES TO REDSHIFT 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Paul; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2009-08-10

    We have measured the luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) population in a large sample of clusters of galaxies and find evidence for a substantial increase in the cluster AGN population from z {approx} 0.05 to z {approx} 1.3. The present sample now includes 32 clusters of galaxies, including 15 clusters above z = 0.4, which corresponds to a three-fold increase compared to our previous work at high redshift. At z < 0.4, we have obtained new observations of AGN candidates in six additional clusters and found no new luminous AGN in cluster members. Our total sample of 17 low-redshift clusters contains only two luminous AGNs, while at high redshifts there are 18 such AGNs, or an average of more than one per cluster. We have characterized the evolution of luminous X-ray AGNs as the fraction of galaxies with M{sub R} < M* {sub R}(z) + 1 that host AGNs with rest-frame, hard X-ray [2-10 keV] luminosities L {sub X,H} {>=} 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN fraction increases from f{sub A} = 0.134{sup +0.18} {sub -0.087}% at a median z = 0.19 to f{sub A} = 1.00{sup +0.29} {sub -0.23}% at a median z = 0.72. Our best estimate of the evolution is a factor of 8 increase to z = 1 and the statistical significance of the increase is 3.8{sigma}. This dramatic evolution is qualitatively similar to the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population in clusters known as the Butcher-Oemler effect. We discuss the implications of this result for the coevolution of black holes and galaxies in clusters, the evolution of AGN feedback, searches for clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and the possible detection of environment-dependent downsizing.

  18. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ann, H. B.; Park, C.; Choi, Y. Y.

    2010-10-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02 < z < 0.04742 from SDSS DR7 supplemented by bright galaxies. We devise a diagnostic tool to select isolated galaxies in different environments using the projected separation (rp) normalized by the virial radius of the nearest neighbor (rvir,nei) and the local background density. We find that the isolation condition of rp > rvir,nei and ρ < ρbar well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests the importance to galaxy evolution of hydrodynamic interactions among galaxies within their virial radii.

  19. Morphodynamics of Bar Formation in Meandering Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Bar formation is an integral part of the morphodynamics of meandering rivers. Various theories predict bar formation and experimental and numerical simulations have produced bar forms. Various types of free and forced bars occur, associated with various stages of meander development and with meander morphology, as well as sediment supply. In some cases bars have been shown to move through channel systems, usually as parts of sediment waves. Data are still sparse on timescales and lifecycles of bar formation and integration into floodplains and on variability of bar formation over time. The extent to which bar behaviour conforms with theory and its contribution to meander morphodynamics are examined and quantified using data derived from photogrammetric mapping of courses at four dates and annual ground mapping along the course of an active meandering river over a period of nearly 30 years. The distribution, occurrence and types of bars are examined in relation to the position in the planform, the channel curvature and channel width and in relation to channel changes and bank erosion. Using GIS, the sizes and position of bars are tracked over time. Point bars (forced) emerge, as expected, as major components, but their degree of development varies in different types of bend. Temporal variation in activity and calibre of sediment varies with discharge events but also stage of development of bars. Mid-channel bars arise at certain points, largely associated with excessive erosion and widening of the channel. They exhibit a lifecycle of formation lasting a few years on the study river. Concave bank bars are also an important component of sedimentation and occur in zones of rapid migration. Formation is slower and comprises finer sediment than other bars. Free bars show little sign of moving through the bend forms and remain stable in position. They significantly affect bend morphology but interaction is complex through feedbacks. Free bars may not always persist and

  20. Chandra Observations of Galaxy Zoo Mergers: Frequency of Binary Active Nuclei in Massive Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Darg, Dan W.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Oh, Kyuseok; Bonning, Erin W.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the results from a Chandra pilot study of 12 massive galaxy mergers selected from Galaxy Zoo. The sample includes major mergers down to a host galaxy mass of 1011 M that already have optical AGN signatures in at least one of the progenitors. We find that the coincidences of optically selected active nuclei with mildly obscured (N(sub H) approx < 1.1 10(exp 22)/sq cm) X-ray nuclei are relatively common (8/12), but the detections are too faint (< 40 counts per nucleus; (sub -10) keV approx < 1.2 10(exp -13) erg/s/sq cm) to reliably separate starburst and nuclear activity as the origin of the X-ray emission. Only one merger is found to have confirmed binary X-ray nuclei, though the X-ray emission from its southern nucleus could be due solely to star formation. Thus, the occurrences of binary AGN in these mergers are rare (0-8%), unless most merger-induced active nuclei are very heavily obscured or Compton thick.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN GALAXIES AT z {approx_equal} 1.2 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Ideue, Y.; Nagao, T.; Sasaki, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Shioya, Y.; Saito, T.; Murayama, T.; Trump, J. R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Sanders, D. B.; McCracken, H.; Mobasher, B.

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the relation between the star formation activity in galaxies and environment at z {approx_equal} 1.2 in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field, using the fraction of [O II] emitters and the local galaxy density. The fraction of [O II] emitters appears to be almost constant over the surface density of galaxies between 0.2 and 10 Mpc{sup -2}. This trend is different from that seen in the local universe where the star formation activity is weaker in higher density regions. To understand this difference between z {approx} 1 and z {approx} 0, we study the fraction of non-isolated galaxies as a function of local galaxy density. We find that the fraction of non-isolated galaxies increases with increasing density. Our results suggest that the star formation in galaxies at z {approx} 1 is triggered by galaxy interaction and/or mergers.

  2. Uncertainties in the deprojection of the observed bar properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yanfei; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu

    2014-08-10

    In observations, it is important to deproject the two fundamental quantities characterizing a bar, i.e., its length (a) and ellipticity (e), to face-on values before any careful analyses. However, systematic estimation on the uncertainties of the commonly used deprojection methods is still lacking. Simulated galaxies are well suited in this study. We project two simulated barred galaxies onto a two-dimensional (2D) plane with different bar orientations and disk inclination angles (i). Bar properties are measured and deprojected with the popular deprojection methods in the literature. Generally speaking, deprojection uncertainties increase with increasing i. All of the deprojection methods behave badly when i is larger than 60°, due to the vertical thickness of the bar. Thus, future statistical studies of barred galaxies should exclude galaxies more inclined than 60°. At moderate inclination angles (i ≤ 60°), 2D deprojection methods (analytical and image stretching), and Fourier-based methods (Fourier decomposition and bar-interbar contrast) perform reasonably well with uncertainties ∼10% in both the bar length and ellipticity, whereas the uncertainties of the one-dimensional (1D) analytical deprojection can be as high as 100% in certain extreme cases. We find that different bar measurement methods show systematic differences in the deprojection uncertainties. We further discuss the deprojection uncertainty factors with the emphasis on the most important one, i.e., the three-dimensional structure of the bar itself. We construct two triaxial toy bar models that can qualitatively reproduce the results of the 1D and 2D analytical deprojections; they confirm that the vertical thickness of the bar is the main source of uncertainties.

  3. Les galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  4. Economic Impact of Smoke-Free Legislation: Did the Spanish Tobacco Control Law Affect the Economic Activity of Bars and Restaurants?

    PubMed

    García-Altés, Anna; Pinilla, Jaime; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Fernández, Esteve; López, Maria José

    2015-11-01

    The potential of smoke-free bans to negatively impact the hospitality business has been an argument of the hospitality and tobacco industry against such legislation. A partial smoke-free legislation was introduced in Spain in 2006 allowing smoking in most bars and restaurants due to the pressure of the hospitality sector. However, this partial ban was later amended in 2011 to include all the hospitality premises without exceptions. The stepped Spanish process permits to evaluate whether the entry into force of the smoke-free legislation had any effect on the economic activity of the hospitality sector. We employed a pooled time series cross-sectional design, with national data over 6 years (2006-2011). The dependent variable used was the total number of bars and restaurants per 100,000 inhabitants. The explanatory variables used were the average amount of spending per household in bars and restaurants, and the total unemployment rate in Spain by regions. For every 1% increase in the unemployment rate there was a 0.05% decrease in the number of bars and restaurants. In 2007, the number of bars and restaurants was significantly reduced by 13.06% (all others factors being held constant), 4.87% in 2008, and 10.42% in 2009. No statistically significant effect of the smoke-free legislation emerged from 2010 (6.76%) to 2011 (7.69%). The new Spanish smoke-free legislation had no effect on the number of bars and restaurants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Star formation and AGN activity in a sample of local luminous infrared galaxies through multiwavelength characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Alberdi, Antxon; Efstathiou, Andreas; Väisänen, Petri; Kankare, Erkki; Kool, Erik; Mattila, Seppo; Ramphul, Rajin; Ryder, Stuart

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear starbursts and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity are the main heating processes in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and their relationship is fundamental to understand galaxy evolution. In this paper, we study the star formation and AGN activity of a sample of 11 local LIRGs imaged with subarcsecond angular resolution at radio (8.4 GHz) and near-infrared (2.2 μm) wavelengths. This allows us to characterize the central kpc of these galaxies with a spatial resolution of ≃100 pc. In general, we find a good spatial correlation between the radio and the near-IR emission, although radio emission tends to be more concentrated in the nuclear regions. Additionally, we use an Markov Chain Monte Carlo code to model their multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) using template libraries of starburst, AGN and spheroidal/cirrus models, determining the luminosity contribution of each component, and finding that all sources in our sample are starburst-dominated, except for NGC 6926 with an AGN contribution of ≃64 per cent. Our sources show high star formation rates (40-167 M⊙ yr-1), supernova rates (0.4-2.0 SN yr-1) and similar starburst ages (13-29 Myr), except for the young starburst (9 Myr) in NGC 6926. A comparison of our derived star-forming parameters with estimates obtained from different IR and radio tracers shows an overall consistency among the different star formation tracers. AGN tracers based on mid-IR, high-ionization line ratios also show an overall agreement with our SED model fit estimates for the AGN. Finally, we use our wide-band Very Large Array observations to determine pixel-by-pixel radio spectral indices for all galaxies in our sample, finding a typical median value (α ≃ -0.8) for synchrotron-powered LIRGs.

  6. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  7. A Local Reference For Bar Studies In The Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Sheth, Kartik; S4G Team

    2015-08-01

    Stellar bars are present in ~2/3 of nearby spirals and play a critical role in the evolution of their hosts. With the advent of large high-resolution imaging surveys, bar studies are being extended to distant galaxies. However, photometric studies of the distant universe are invariably subject to the effects of band-shifting, the progressive shift of the photometric band to bluer rest-frame wavelengths. In order to reliably characterize the intrinsic evolution of bars with redshift, safe from band-shifting effects, it is necessary to establish a local anchor of how bar properties vary with wavelength. We present a detailed multi-band study of bar properties from UV through mid-infrared for a sample of 16 large nearby barred galaxies. Based on ellipticity and position angle profiles resulting from fitting elliptical isophotes to the 2D light distribution of each galaxy, we find that both the bar length and the bar ellipticity increase at bluer wavebands. We attribute the increase in bar length to the frequent presence of prominent star forming knots at the end of bars: these regions are significantly brighter in bluer bands, resulting in the “artificial” lengthening of the bar. The increase in bar ellipticity, on the other hand, is driven by the bulge size: the bulge, composed primarily of old/red stars, is less prominent at bluer bands, allowing for thinner ellipses to be fit within the bar region. The resulting effect is that bars appear longer and thinner at bluer bands. Although we find that ~50% of the bars disappear in the UV, the results on bar ellipticity and length extend to those cases in which the bar is still visible in the UV. These results imply that careful correction for band-shifting effects is necessary for high-z studies to reliably gauge any intrinsic evolution of the bar properties with redshift. In the light of the ample space-based optical data now available, this study may be used as a reference to implement band-shifting corrections to

  8. A LOCAL BASELINE OF THE BLACK HOLE MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: mauger@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    We derive spatially resolved stellar kinematics for a sample of 84 out of 104 observed local (0.02 < z < 0.09) galaxies hosting type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), based on long-slit spectra obtained at the 10 m W. M. Keck-1 Telescope. In addition to providing central stellar velocity dispersions, we measure major axis rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles using three separate wavelength regions, including the prominent Ca H and K, Mg Ib, and Ca II NIR stellar features. In this paper, we compare kinematic measurements of stellar velocity dispersion obtained for different apertures, wavelength regions, and signal-to-noise ratios, and provide recipes to cross-calibrate the measurements reducing systematic effects to the level of a few percent. We also provide simple recipes based on readily observable quantities such as global colors and Ca H and K equivalent width that will allow observers of high-redshift AGN hosts to increase the probability of obtaining reliable stellar kinematic measurements from unresolved spectra in the region surrounding the Ca H and K lines. In subsequent papers in this series, we will combine this unprecedented spectroscopic data set with surface photometry and black hole mass measurements to study in detail the scaling relations between host galaxy properties and black hole mass.

  9. The morphological evolution of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R G; van Den Bergh, S

    2001-08-17

    Many galaxies have taken on their familiar appearance relatively recently. In the distant Universe, galaxy morphology deviates significantly (and systematically) from that of nearby galaxies at redshifts (z) as low as 0.3. This corresponds to a time approximately 3.5 x 10(9) years in the past, which is only approximately 25% of the present age of the Universe. Beyond z = 0.5 (5 x 10(9) years in the past), spiral arms are less well developed and more chaotic, and barred spiral galaxies may become rarer. At z = 1, around 30% of the galaxy population is sufficiently peculiar that classification on Hubble's traditional "tuning fork" system is meaningless. On the other hand, some characteristics of galaxies have not changed much over time. The space density of luminous disk galaxies has not changed significantly since z = 1, indicating that although the general appearance of these galaxies has continuously changed over time, their overall numbers have been conserved.

  10. X-rays From Quasars and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightman, Alan P.

    1981-01-01

    Features of quasars and active galactic nuclei are discussed and include: the nature of the power source, the radiation processes, and the mechanism for the formation and collimation of long-lived jets of matter observed to emanate from the center of these of these objects. The phenomena that produce X-rays are highlighted.

  11. A connection between star formation activity and cosmic rays in the starburst galaxy M82.

    PubMed

    2009-12-10

    Although Galactic cosmic rays (protons and nuclei) are widely believed to be mainly accelerated by the winds and supernovae of massive stars, definitive evidence of this origin remains elusive nearly a century after their discovery. The active regions of starburst galaxies have exceptionally high rates of star formation, and their large size-more than 50 times the diameter of similar Galactic regions-uniquely enables reliable calorimetric measurements of their potentially high cosmic-ray density. The cosmic rays produced in the formation, life and death of massive stars in these regions are expected to produce diffuse gamma-ray emission through interactions with interstellar gas and radiation. M82, the prototype small starburst galaxy, is predicted to be the brightest starburst galaxy in terms of gamma-ray emission. Here we report the detection of >700-GeV gamma-rays from M82. From these data we determine a cosmic-ray density of 250 eV cm(-3) in the starburst core, which is about 500 times the average Galactic density. This links cosmic-ray acceleration to star formation activity, and suggests that supernovae and massive-star winds are the dominant accelerators.

  12. X-Ray Detected Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies at 0 < z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, K.; Goulding, A. D.; Greene, J. E.; Somerville, R. S.; Gallo, E.; Hickox, R. C.; Miller, B. P.; Reines, A. E.; Silverman, J. D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a sample of accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in dwarf galaxies at z\\lt 1. We identify dwarf galaxies in the NEWFIRM Medium Band Survey with stellar masses of {M}\\star \\lt 3× {10}9 {M}⊙ that have spectroscopic redshifts from the DEEP2 survey and lie within the region covered by deep (flux limit of ˜ 5× {10}-17{--}6× {10}-16 {erg} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1) archival Chandra X-ray data. From our sample of 605 dwarf galaxies, 10 exhibit X-ray emission consistent with that arising from active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. If black-hole mass scales roughly with stellar mass, then we expect that these AGNs are powered by SMBHs with masses of ˜ {10}5{--}{10}6 {M}⊙ and typical Eddington ratios of ˜ 5 % . Furthermore, we find an AGN fraction consistent with extrapolations of other searches of ˜ 0.6 % {--}3 % for {10}9 {M}⊙ ≤slant {M}\\star ≤slant 3× {10}9 {M}⊙ and 0.1\\lt z\\lt 0.6. Our AGN fraction is in good agreement with a semi-analytic model, suggesting that, as we search larger volumes, we may use comparisons between observed AGN fractions and models to understand seeding mechanisms in the early universe.

  13. Dust Grains and the Luminosity of Circumnuclear Water Masers in Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collison, Alan J.; Watson, William D.

    1995-01-01

    In previous calculations for the luminosities of 22 GHz water masers, the pumping is reduced and ultimately quenched with increasing depth into the gas because of trapping of the infrared (approximately equals 30-150 micrometers), spectral line radiation of the water molecule. When the absorption (and reemission) of infrared radiation by dust grains is included, we demonstrate that the pumping is no longer quenched but remains constant with increasing optical depth. A temperature difference between the grains and the gas is required. Such conditions are expected to occur, for example, in the circumnuclear masing environments created by X-rays in active galaxies. Here, the calculated 22 GHz maser luminosities are increased by more than an order of magnitude. Application to the well-studied, circumnuclear masing disk in the galaxy NGC 4258 yields a maser luminosity near that inferred from observations if the observed X-ray flux is assumed to be incident onto only the inner surface of the disk.

  14. Evolution of galaxy properties across the peak of cosmic activity in cosmological hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devriendt, Julien

    2015-08-01

    In this talk I will review how numerical hydrodynamics simulations predict galaxies evolve in the redshift range 1galaxy spins and the large scale cosmic web filaments in which they are embedded. Relative contributions to property evolution will be split between major and minor, gas rich and gas poor mergers as well as smooth accretion, and quantitatively assessed. Finally, switching from nurture to nature, I will also discuss the role played by various feedback processes, whether of stellar origin or driven by active nuclei, in driving such changes or freezing them in.

  15. An infrared jet in Centaurus A - A link to the extranuclear activity in distant radio galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Harvey, P. M.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Sellgren, K.; Mcgregor, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution NIR images of the visually obscured central region of Centaurus A (NGC 5128) were obtained with the University of Texas array camera on the AAT in June 1988, in order to investigate the effect of the active nucleus on the surrounding galaxy. The J (1.25 micron), H (1.65 micron), and K (2.2 micron) images of the central 40 arcsec of the galaxy revealed an emission feature extending about 10 arcsec northeast of the nucleus at the same position angle as the X-ray and radio jets. This jet is most prominent at the 1.25 micron wavelength, where its brightness was comparable to that of the nucleus. The observed properties of the 'infrared jet' were found to be similar to those seen in distant radio sources.

  16. An infrared jet in Centaurus A - A link to the extranuclear activity in distant radio galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall; Harvey, P. M.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Sellgren, K.; Mcgregor, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution NIR images of the visually obscured central region of Centaurus A (NGC 5128) were obtained with the University of Texas array camera on the AAT in June 1988, in order to investigate the effect of the active nucleus on the surrounding galaxy. The J (1.25 micron), H (1.65 micron), and K (2.2 micron) images of the central 40 arcsec of the galaxy revealed an emission feature extending about 10 arcsec northeast of the nucleus at the same position angle as the X-ray and radio jets. This jet is most prominent at the 1.25 micron wavelength, where its brightness was comparable to that of the nucleus. The observed properties of the 'infrared jet' were found to be similar to those seen in distant radio sources.

  17. Study of Starburst/Activity/Interaction Phenomena based on the Multiple Byurakan-IRAS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Gohar S.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-07-01

    The Byurakan-IRAS Galaxy (BIG) sample is the result of optical identifications of IRAS PSC sources at high-galactic latitudes using the First Byurakan Survey (FBS) low-dispersion spectra. Among the 1178 objects most are spiral galaxies and many have been proved to be AGN and starburst by spectroscopic observations, as well as there is a number of ULIRGs among these objects. BIG objects contain galaxy pairs, multiples, and small groups that are subject for study on the matter of the real IR-emitter in these systems. Given that these objects are powerful IR sources, they are considered as young systems indicating high rate of evolution and starburst activity exceeding 100 M o /yr. Spectroscopic observations show that all these systems are physical ones and we were able to measure the mutual distances and sizes for all components. Cross-correlations with the recent more accurate IR catalogues, such as 2MASS and WISE, as well as radio ones (NVSS, FIRST), provided accurate coordinates of the IR source and possibility to find the individual galaxy responsible for the IR. However, in almost half of the cases, IR position indicates the intermediate region between the components, which means that it comes from the system as a whole. Some more MW data have been matched to IR and radio to have an overall understanding on these systems. Given that these systems are mostly interacting/merging ones often containing AGN and most of them may be considered as powerful starbursts, it is possible to study starburst/activity/interaction phenomena and their interrelationship.

  18. TESTING DIAGNOSTICS OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z > 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Yan, Renbin; Juneau, Stephanie; McLean, Ian S.; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Villar, Victor

    2013-01-20

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z {approx} 1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in 2 hr exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional emission-line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [O III]/H{beta} ratio is insufficient as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicator at z > 1. For the four X-ray-detected galaxies, the classic diagnostics ([O III]/H{beta} versus [N II]/H{alpha} and [S II]/H{alpha}) remain consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that 'composite' galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona fide AGNs. Nearly {approx}2/3 of the z {approx} 1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or the classic diagnostics. Compared to the X-ray and line ratio classifications, the mass-excitation method remains effective at z > 1, but we show that the color-excitation method requires a new calibration to successfully identify AGNs at these redshifts.

  19. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Esquej, P.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Roche, P.; Mason, R. E.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Levenson, N. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Packham, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot {sub BH}) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot {sub BH} and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.

  20. Testing Diagnostics of Nuclear Activity and Star Formation in Galaxies at z > 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Konidaris, Nicholas P.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Faber, S. M.; McLean, Ian S.; Yan, Renbin; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Villar, Victor

    2013-01-01

    We present some of the first science data with the new Keck/MOSFIRE instrument to test the effectiveness of different AGN/SF diagnostics at z ~ 1.5. MOSFIRE spectra were obtained in three H-band multi-slit masks in the GOODS-S field, resulting in 2 hr exposures of 36 emission-line galaxies. We compare X-ray data with the traditional emission-line ratio diagnostics and the alternative mass-excitation and color-excitation diagrams, combining new MOSFIRE infrared data with previous HST/WFC3 infrared spectra (from the 3D-HST survey) and multiwavelength photometry. We demonstrate that a high [O III]/Hβ ratio is insufficient as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicator at z > 1. For the four X-ray-detected galaxies, the classic diagnostics ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα and [S II]/Hα) remain consistent with X-ray AGN/SF classification. The X-ray data also suggest that "composite" galaxies (with intermediate AGN/SF classification) host bona fide AGNs. Nearly ~2/3 of the z ~ 1.5 emission-line galaxies have nuclear activity detected by either X-rays or the classic diagnostics. Compared to the X-ray and line ratio classifications, the mass-excitation method remains effective at z > 1, but we show that the color-excitation method requires a new calibration to successfully identify AGNs at these redshifts. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation and operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California, and NASA.

  1. Bars as seen by Herschel and Sloan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolandi, Guido; Dotti, Massimo; Boselli, Alessandro; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    We present an observational study of the effect of bars on the gas component and on the star formation properties of their host galaxies in a statistically significant sample of resolved objects, the Herschel Reference Sample. The analysis of optical and far-infrared images allows us to identify a clear spatial correlation between stellar bars and the cold-gas distribution mapped by the warm dust emission. We find that the infrared counterparts of optically identified bars are either bar-like structures or dead central regions in which star formation is strongly suppressed. Similar morphologies are found in the distribution of star formation directly traced by Hα maps. The sizes of such optical and infrared structures correlate remarkably well, hinting at a causal connection. In the light of previous observations and of theoretical investigations in the literature, we interpret our findings as further evidence of the scenario in which bars drive strong inflows toward their host nuclei: young bars are still in the process of perturbing the gas and star formation clearly delineates the shape of the bars; old bars on the contrary already removed any gas within their extents, carving a dead region of negligible star formation.

  2. THE RELATION BETWEEN GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: AN RC3-SDSS PICTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Wilman, David J.; Erwin, Peter

    2012-02-20

    with other recent studies which indicate that bars are not strongly influenced by galaxy environment. Radio sources in high-mass central galaxies are common, similarly so for elliptical and S0 galaxies, with a frequency that increases with the halo mass. Emission-line active galactic nuclei (mostly LINERs) are more common in S0s, but show no strong trends with environment.

  3. The Relation between Galaxy Morphology and Environment in the Local Universe: An RC3-SDSS Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, David J.; Erwin, Peter

    2012-02-01

    We present results of an analysis of the local (z ~ 0) morphology-environment relation for 911 bright (MB < -19) galaxies, based on matching classical RC3 morphologies with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey based group catalog of Yang et al., which includes halo mass estimates. This allows us to study how the relative fractions of spirals, lenticulars, and ellipticals depend on halo mass over a range of 1011.7-1014.8 h -1 M ⊙, from isolated single-galaxy halos to massive groups and low-mass clusters. We pay particular attention to how morphology relates to central versus satellite status (where "central" galaxies are the most massive within their halo). The fraction of galaxies which are elliptical is a strong function of stellar mass; it is also a strong function of halo mass, but only for central galaxies. We interpret this as evidence for a scenario where elliptical galaxies are always formed, probably via mergers, as central galaxies within their halos, with satellite ellipticals being previously central galaxies accreted onto a larger halo. The overall fraction of galaxies which are S0 increases strongly with halo mass, from ~10% to ~70%. Here, too, we find striking differences between the central and satellite populations. 20% ± 2% of central galaxies with stellar masses M * > 1010.5 M ⊙ are S0 regardless of halo mass, but satellite S0 galaxies are only found in massive (>1013 h -1 M ⊙) halos, where they are 69% ± 4% of the M * > 1010.5 M ⊙ satellite population. This suggests two channels for forming S0 galaxies: one which operates for central galaxies and another which transforms lower-mass ( M * <~ 1011 M ⊙) accreted spirals into satellite S0 galaxies in massive halos. Analysis of finer morphological structure (bars and rings in disk galaxies) shows some trends with stellar mass, but none with halo mass; this is consistent with other recent studies which indicate that bars are not strongly influenced by galaxy environment. Radio sources in high

  4. The Molecular Gas Content of z < 0.1 Radio Galaxies: Linking the Active Galactic Nucleus Accretion Mode to Host Galaxy Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Riechers, D. A.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main achievements in modern cosmology is the so-called unified model, which successfully describes most classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) within a single physical scheme. However, there is a particular class of radio-luminous AGNs that presently cannot be explained within this framework—the "low-excitation" radio AGN (LERAGN). Recently, a scenario has been put forward which predicts that LERAGNs and their regular "high-excitation" radio AGN (HERAGN) counterparts represent different (red sequence versus green valley) phases of galaxy evolution. These different evolutionary states are also expected to be reflected in their host galaxy properties, in particular their cold gas content. To test this, here we present CO(1→0) observations toward a sample of 11 of these systems conducted with CARMA. Combining our observations with literature data, we derive molecular gas masses (or upper limits) for a complete, representative, sample of 21 z < 0.1 radio AGNs. Our results yield that HERAGNs on average have a factor of ~7 higher gas masses than LERAGNs. We also infer younger stellar ages, lower stellar, halo, and central supermassive black masses, as well as higher black hole accretion efficiencies in HERAGNs relative to LERAGNs. These findings support the idea that HERAGNs and LERAGNs form two physically distinct populations of galaxies that reflect different stages of massive galaxy buildup.

  5. Near-infrared image of NGC 1068 - Bar-driven star formation and the circumnuclear composition

    SciTech Connect

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Greenhouse, M.; Johnson, P.; Hereld, M.; Majewski, S.; Chicago Univ., IL; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI )

    1989-08-01

    Consideration is given to differences in images of the core of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 at different wavelength regimes dominated by stellar photospheric emission. A stellar bar is observed at 1.6 and 2.2 microns, but not at shorter visual wavelength observations. Two explanations for these differences are examined: substantial stellar population variations with position and the effects of dust obscuration. The relation of the bar to active star formation is discussed. The mass of the central disk and bar is estimated at 2-3 X 10 to the 10th solar masses. It is found that the rate of star formation (100 solar masses/yr) is due to a large mass of molecular gas. 57 refs.

  6. The Topsy-Turvy Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    The captivating appearance of this image of the starburst galaxy NGC 1313, taken with the FORS instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope, belies its inner turmoil. The dense clustering of bright stars and gas in its arms, a sign of an ongoing boom of star births, shows a mere glimpse of the rough times it has seen. Probing ever deeper into the heart of the galaxy, astronomers have revealed many enigmas that continue to defy our understanding. ESO PR Photo 43a/06 ESO PR Photo 43a/06 The Topsy-Turvy Galaxy NGC 1313 This FORS image of the central parts of NGC 1313 shows a stunning natural beauty. The galaxy bears some resemblance to some of the Milky Way's closest neighbours, the Magellanic Clouds. NGC 1313 has a barred spiral shape, with the arms emanating outwards in a loose twist from the ends of the bar. The galaxy lies just 15 million light-years away from the Milky Way - a mere skip on cosmological scales. The spiral arms are a hotbed of star-forming activity, with numerous young clusters of hot stars being born continuously at a staggering rate out of the dense clouds of gas and dust. Their light blasts through the surrounding gas, creating an intricately beautiful pattern of light and dark nebulosity. But NGC 1313 is not just a pretty picture. A mere scratch beneath the elegant surface reveals evidence of some of the most puzzling problems facing astronomers in the science of stars and galaxies. Starburst galaxies are fascinating objects to study in their own right; in neighbouring galaxies, around one quarter of all massive stars are born in these powerful engines, at rates up to a thousand times higher than in our own Milky Way Galaxy. In the majority of starbursts the upsurge in star's births is triggered when two galaxies merge, or come too close to each other. The mutual attraction between the galaxies causes immense turmoil in the gas and dust, causing the sudden 'burst' in star formation. ESO PR Photo 43b/06 ESO PR Photo 43b/06 Larger View of NGC 1313

  7. Cosmological Studies with Galaxy Clusters, Active Galactic Nuclei, and Strongly Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, Nicholas Andrew

    The large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe provides scientists with one of the best laboratories for studying Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LambdaCDM) cosmology. Especially at high redshift, we see increased rates of galaxy cluster and galaxy merging in LSS relative to the field, which is useful for studying the hierarchical merging predicted by LambdaCDM. The largest identified bound structures, superclusters, have not yet virialized. Despite the wide range of dynamical states of their constituent galaxies, groups, and clusters, they are all still actively evolving, providing an ideal laboratory in which to study cluster and galaxy evolution. In this dissertation, I present original research on several aspects of LSS and LambdaCDM cosmology. Three separate studies are included, each one focusing on a different aspect. In the first study, we use X-ray and optical observations from nine galaxy clusters at high redshift, some embedded in larger structures and some isolated, to study their evolutionary states. We extract X-ray gas temperatures and luminosities as well as optical velocity dispersions. These cluster properties are compared using low-redshift scaling relations. In addition, we employ several tests of substructure, using velocity histograms, Dressler-Shectman tests, and centroiding offsets. We conclude that two clusters out of our sample are most likely unrelaxed, and find support for deviations from self-similarity in the redshift evolution of the Lx-T relation. Our numerous complementary tests of the evolutionary state of clusters suggest potential under-estimations of systematic error in studies employing only a single such test. In the second study, we use multi-band imaging and spectroscopy to study active galactic nuclei (AGN) in high-redshift LSS. The AGN were identified using X-ray imaging and matched to optical catalogs that contained spectroscopic redshifts to identify members of the structures. AGN host galaxies tended to be associated with the

  8. The effect of combined exercise with slings and a flexi-bar on muscle activity and pain in rotator cuff repair patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Woon; Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of combined exercise with slings and a Flexi-Bar on muscle activity and pain in rotator cuff repair patients. [Subjects and Methods] This research evaluated 20 rotator cuff repair patients divided randomly into groups of 10 as the control group and the experimental group. The experimental group performed combined exercise with slings and a Flexi-Bar. Both the experimental and control groups were treated with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator and continuous passive motion. Muscle activity was measured with surface electromyography. Pain was measured with the visual analogue scale. The paired t-test was used to compare groups before and after the experiment. The independent t-test was used to assess the differences in the degree of change between the two groups before and after the experiment. [Results] Subjects of both the experimental group and control group showed significant differences in muscle activity and pain. However, as compared with the control group, there was significant differences in the muscle activity and pain in the experimental group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that combined exercise with slings and a Flexi-Bar is effective in improving muscle activity and decreasing pain in rotator cuff repair patients. PMID:27821956

  9. Precise Masses of Black Holes in the Nuclei of Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatz, James A., III; Kuo, C.; Greene, J.; Condon, J.; Schenker, M.; Reid, M.; Impellizzeri, V.; Henkel, C.; Zaw, I.; Lo, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Most elliptical and bulged spiral galaxies contain a nuclear black hole having a mass that correlates with the bulge velocity dispersion (σ). This M-σ relation suggests there is a strong link between the formation of the nuclear black hole and the formation of its host galaxy. The relationship, however, is poorly constrained for low-mass (< 107.5 solar mass) black holes, where there are few measurements. In addition, optically measured BH masses can be uncertain by a factor of a few. Water vapor masers in the nuclei of AGN can trace the rotation curve of gas directly in the black hole's sphere of influence, and provide precise black hole masses (uncertainty < 20%). We are mapping circumnuclear masers in nearby active galaxies with the goal of assembling a statistically meaningful set of maser-determined black hole masses. In addition to constraining the M-σ relation at low mass, our observations will also help calibrate optical measurements of black hole masses. Here we present recent VLBI maser maps and black hole masses measured as part of this program.

  10. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH ANALYSIS OF NGC 4178: A BULGELESS GALAXY WITH AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, N. J.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Moran, S. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Giroletti, M.; Bergmann, M. P.; Seth, A. C.

    2013-11-10

    We present Gemini longslit optical spectroscopy and Very Large Array radio observations of the nuclear region of NGC 4178, a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy recently confirmed to host an active galactic nucleus (AGN) through infrared and X-ray observations. Our observations reveal that the dynamical center of the galaxy is coincident with the location of the Chandra X-ray point source discovered in a previous work, providing further support for the presence of an AGN. While the X-ray and IR observations provide robust evidence for an AGN, the optical spectrum shows no evidence for the AGN, underscoring the need for the penetrative power of mid-IR and X-ray observations in finding buried or weak AGNs in this class of galaxy. Finally, the upper limit to the radio flux, together with our previous X-ray and IR results, is consistent with the scenario in which NGC 4178 harbors a deeply buried AGN accreting at a high rate.

  11. The Main Sequences of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, C.; Lapi, A.; Shi, J.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Béthermin, M.; Danese, L.

    2016-12-01

    We provide a novel, unifying physical interpretation on the origin, average shape, scatter, and cosmic evolution for the main sequences of star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift z≳ 1. We achieve this goal in a model-independent way by exploiting: (i) the redshift-dependent star formation rate functions based on the latest UV/far-IR data from HST/Herschel, and related statistics of strong gravitationally lensed sources; (ii) deterministic evolutionary tracks for the history of star formation and black hole accretion, gauged on a wealth of multiwavelength observations including the observed Edd