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Sample records for barred olivine chondrules

  1. Nondestructive Method for Bulk Chemical Characterization of Barred Olivine Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Perez, M. A.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K. E.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2017-02-01

    This work develops a bulk chemical characterization of barred olivine chondrules based on the XRF analysis using a portable equipment at the National Research and Conservation Science Laboratory of Cultural Heritage (LANCIC-IF) in Mexico City.

  2. Barred olivine 'chondrules' in lunar spinel troctolite 62295

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roedder, E.; Weiblen, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Several objects have been found in sections of lunar igneous spinel troctolite 62295 that resemble certain meteoritic barred olivine chondrules. Each consists of an apparently spherical single crystal of Fo90 olivine, approximately 0.6-0.8 mm in diameter, containing a set of approximately 30-40 subparallel stringers of An95 plagioclase, whereas the stringers in ordinary meteoritic chondrules consist of glass. The olivine of the 62295 chondrules is also more magnesian, and is radially zoned, having a relatively iron-rich core and rim and an iron-poor intermediate zone. Several possible origins are proposed: impact-generated melt globules solidified in flight, spherical phenocrysts, and meteoritic chondrules, but none of these seems adequate to explain the detailed observations.

  3. Nepheline and sodalite in a barred olivine chondrule from the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpkin, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The discovery of nepheline and sodalite in association with glass in a barred olivine chondrule from the Allende C3V meteorite is reported, and the possible origin of the minerals is discussed. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive analysis indicates that the major minerals of the chondrule are olivine, bronzite and chromite, with olivine bars separated by glass of nearly pure plagioclase composition. The olivine is observed to have a composition richer in Fe than that predicted from olivine-liquid equilibria, indicating, along with the presence of plagioclase glass and small amounts of subcalcic diopside, the nonequilibrium crystallization of the barred olivine chondrule. The textural features of the chondrule are consistent with a liquid origin for nepheline and sodalite from the chondrule-forming liquid under nonequilibrium conditions.

  4. The origin of ferrous zoning in Allende chondrule olivines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Julia A.; Wood, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Very similar major and minor element compositions are noted in the ferrous olivine occurring in chondrules at olivine grain boundaries, along cracks in olivine grains, interleaved with enstatite, and in the inner portions of exposed olivine grain surface rims; simultaneous formation by a single process is therefore suggested. The ferrous chondrule olivine probably formed by the reaction of chondrules with very hot nebular vapors over a period of several hours, followed by the condensation of residual metal vapors onto those olivine surfaces that were in direct contact with the gas as the system cooled. The ferrous chondrule olivine that occurs interleaved with enstatite in Allende does not have a composition idendical to, and is not the precursor of, matrix olivine.

  5. Experimental Reproduction of Olivine rich Type-I Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert K.

    2005-01-01

    Ordinary chondritic meteorites are an abundant type of stony meteorite characterized by the presence of chondrules. Chondrules are small spheres consisting of silicate, metal, and sulfide minerals that experienced melting in the nebula before incorporation into chondritic meteorite parent bodies. Therefore, chondrules record a variety of processes that occurred in the early solar nebula. Two common types of unequilibrated chondrules with porphyritic textures include FeO-poor (type I) and FeO-rich (type II) each subdivided into an A (SiO2-poor) and B (SiO2-rich) series. Type IA chondrules include those with high proportions of olivine phenocrysts (>80% olivine) and type IB chondrules include those with high proportions of pyroxene phenocrysts (<20% olivine). An intermediate composition, type IAB chondrules include those chondrules in which the proportion of olivine phenocrysts is between 20-80%. We conducted high-temperature laboratory experiments (melting at 1550 C) to produce type I chondrules from average unequilibrated ordinary chondrite (UOC) material mixed with small amounts of additional olivine. The experiments were conducted by adding forsteritic rich olivine (San Carlos olivine, Fo 91) to UOC material (GRO 95544) in a 30/70 ratio, respectively. Results of these high temperature experiments suggest that we have replicated type IA chondrule textures and compositions with dynamic crystallization experiments in which a heterogeneous mixture of UOC (GRO 95544) and olivine (San Carlos olivine) were melted at 1550 C for 1 hr. and cooled at 5-1000 C/hr using graphite crucibles in evacuated silica tubes to provide a reducing environment.

  6. Thermal Histories of Barred Chondrules from Melts Generated Experimentally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Reséndiz, P.; Cervantes-de la Cruz, K.; Segura, A.; U'Ren, A.; Cruz-Ramírez, H.

    2017-02-01

    We simulate the formation of chondrules by melting olivine grains with 50W CO2 laser. We measure the temperature during and after the formation of the artificial chondrules. We will compare the melts characteristics with the natural chondrules.

  7. Chondrule Pyroxene Embedded in Cores of Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates from Allende: Evidence of Overlapping Formation Times of AOAs and Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Komatsu, M.; Nishijima, E.; Fukushima, H.; Yasuda, T.

    2016-08-01

    Coarse low-Ca pyroxene has been identified in two amoeboid olivine aggregates in the CV3 Allende. The pyroxene crystals appear to be relict chondrule phenocrysts. If so, the texture indicates overlapping formation times of AOAs and chondrules.

  8. Laboratory Experiments Bearing on the Origin and Evolution of Olivine-rich Chondrules

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Christensen, John N.; Ebel, Denton; Gaffney, Amy

    2011-06-24

    Evaporation rates of K2O, Na2O, and FeO from chondrule-like liquids and the associated potassium isotopic fractionation of the evaporation residues were measured to help understand the processes and conditions that affected the chemical and isotopic compositions of olivine-rich Type IA and Type IIA chondrules from Semarkona. Both types of chondrules show evidence of having been significantly or totally molten. However, these chondrules do not have large or systematic potassium isotopic fractionation of the sort found in the laboratory evaporation experiments. The experimental results reported here provide new data regarding the evaporation kinetics of sodium and potassium from a chondrule-like melt and the potassium isotopic fractionation of evaporation residues run under various conditions ranging from high vacuum to pressures of one bar of H2+CO2, or H2, or helium. The lack of systematic isotopic fractionation of potassium in the Type IIA and Type IA chondrules compared with what is found in the vacuum and one-bar evaporation residues is interpreted as indicating that they evolved in a partially closed system where the residence time of the surrounding gas was sufficiently long for it to have become saturated in the evaporating species and for isotopic equilibration between the gas and the melt. A diffusion couple experiment juxtaposing chondrule-like melts with different potassium concentrations showed that the diffusivity of potassium is sufficiently fast at liquidus temperatures (DK>2-10-4cm2/s at 1650-C) that diffusion-limited evaporation cannot explain why, despite their having been molten, the Type IIA and Type IA chondrules show no systematic potassium isotopic fractionation.

  9. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  10. Bulk compositions of chondrules in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Haggerty, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The bulk chemistries of 33 chondrules from the Allende meteorite were determined by electron microbeam analyses and the modal recombination model. Chondrules were selected on the basis of a petrographic study of 2755 inclusions, of which 997 are chondrules, classified as recrystallized olivine chondrules, euhedral olivine chondrules, anhedral olivine chondrules, glassy/skeletal olivine chondrules, barred olivine chondrules, and pyroxene type chondrules. The data indicate that nonequilibrium metastable paths of crystallization were followed, a model which is supported by olivine-liquid (glassy mesostases) relationships. Variations in olivine morphology are related to cooling rate, degree of supercooling, normative olivine, and calculated viscosities. The chondrules in Allende were derived from highly undersaturated ultramafic melts in which Fe-Ni-S-O immiscible liquids were produced. The chondrule suite exhibits systematic variations in volatile loss, and this relationship is used to support a melting event (however, neither the nature of this event nor the mechanism of melt formation is established).

  11. A comparison of FeO-rich, porphyritic olivine chondrules in unequilibrated chondrites and experimental analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    Experimentally produced analogues of porphyritic olivine (PO) chondrules in ordinary chondrites provide an important insight into chondrule formation processes. We have studied experimental samples with PO textures grown at three different cooling rates (2, 5 and 100 C/h), and samples that have been annealed at high temperatures (1000-1200 C) subsequent to cooling. These are compared with natural chondrules of similar composition and texture from the ordinary chondrites Semarkona (LL3.0) and ALH 81251 (LL3.3). Zoning properties of olivine grains indicate that the Semarkona chondrules cooled at comparable rates to the experiments. Zoning in olivine from chondrules in ALH 81251 is not consistent with cooling alone but indicates that the chondrules underwent an annealing process. Chromium loss from olivine is very rapid during annealing and calculated diffusion coefficients for Cr in olivine are very similar to those of Fe-Mg interdiffusion coefficients under the same conditions. Annealed experimental samples contain an aluminous, low-Ca pyroxene which forms by reaction of olivine and liquid. No similar reaction texture is observed in ALH 81251 chondrules, and this may be evidence that annealing of the natural samples took place at considerably lower temperatures than the experimental analogues. The study supports the model of chondrule formation in a cool nebula and metamorphism of partly equilibrated chondrites during reheating episodes on the chondrite parent bodies.

  12. Heterogeneity and O-16-Enrichments in Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Olivine from Chondrules in the Mokoia CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Two chondrules from Mokoia contain olivine in which oxygen isotopes are extremely heterogeneous, with some grains highly enriched in O-16. These data provide an important link between CAIs and chondrules. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Olivine dissolution in molten silicates: An experimental study with application to chondrule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulié, Camille; Libourel, Guy; Tissandier, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    Mg-rich olivine is a ubiquitous phase in type I porphyritic chondrules in various classes of chondritic meteorites. The anhedral shape of olivine grains, their size distribution, as well as their poikilitic textures within low-Ca pyroxene suggest that olivines suffer dissolution during chondrule formation. Owing to a set of high-temperature experiments (1450-1540 °C) we determined the kinetics of resorption of forsterite in molten silicates, using for the first time X-ray microtomography. Results indicate that forsterite dissolution in chondrule-like melts is a very fast process with rates that range from 5 μm min-1 to 22 μm min-1. Forsterite dissolution strongly depends on the melt composition, with rates decreasing with increasing the magnesium and/or the silica content of the melt. An empirical model based on forsterite saturation and viscosity of the starting melt composition successfully reproduces the forsteritic olivine dissolution rates as a function of temperature and composition for both our experiments and those of the literature. Application of our results to chondrules could explain the textures of zoned type I chondrules during their formation by gas-melt interaction. We show that the olivine/liquid ratio on one hand and the silica entrance from the gas phase (SiOg) into the chondrule melt on the other hand, have counteracting effects on the Mg-rich olivine dissolution behavior. Silica entrance would favor dissolution by maintaining disequilibrium between olivine and melt. Hence, this would explain the preferential dissolution of olivine as well as the preferential abundances of pyroxene at the margins of chondrules. Incipient dissolution would also occur in the silica-poorer melt of chondrule core but should be followed by crystallization of new olivine (overgrowth and/or newly grown crystals). While explaining textures and grain size distributions of olivines, as well as the centripetal distribution of low-Ca pyroxene in porphyritic chondrules

  14. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Most olivine relict grains in cosmic spherules selected for the present study are pristine and have not been disturbed during their atmospheric entry, thereby preserving their chemical, mineralogical and isotopic compositions. In order to understand the origin of the particles, oxygen isotope compositions of relict olivine grains in twelve cosmic spherules collected from deep sea sediments of the Indian Ocean were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most of the data lie close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line, with Δ17O ranging from -5‰ to 0‰. The data overlap oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites such as CV, CK, CR and CM, which suggests that chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites are the source of relict grains in cosmic spherules. Chemical compositions of olivine in cosmic spherules are also very similar to chondrule olivine from carbonaceous chondrites. Several olivine relict grains in three cosmic spherules are 16O-rich (Δ17O -21.9‰ to -18.7‰), similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine grains from two cosmic spherules have δ18O values >+20‰, which could be interpreted as mixing with stratospheric oxygen during atmospheric entry.

  15. Experimental Replication of Relict "Dusty" Olivine in Type 1B Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Le, L.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Relict "dusty" olivine is considered to be a remnants of previous chondrule forming events based on petrographic and chemical evidence. Dynamic crystallization experiments confirm that dusty olivine can be produced by reduction of FeO-rich olivine in Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrite (UOC) material. The results of these experiments compliment those of who also produced dusty olivine, but from synthetic starting materials. Techniques: Dynamic crystallization experiments were conducted in which UOC material was reduced in presence of graphite. Starting material was coarsely ground GR095554 or WSG95300 that contained olivine of Fo 65-98. Approximately 75 mg. of UOC material was placed in a graphite crucible and sealed in an evacuated silica tube. The tube was suspended in a gas-mixing furnace operated at 1 log unit below the IW buffer. The experiments were as brief as 1.5 hrs up to 121 hrs. Results: Dusty olivine was produced readily in experiments melted at 1400 C for I hr. and cooled between 5 and 100 C/hr or melted at 1300-1400 C for 24 hours. Fe-rich olivine (dusty olivine precursors) that have been partially reduced were common in the experiments melted at 1400 C and cooled at 1000 C/hr or melted at 1200 C for 24 hrs. Relict olivine is absent in experiments melted at 1400 for 24 hrs, melted above 1400 C, or cooled more slowly than 10 C/hr. Relict olivine in the experiments has minimum Fo value of 83 . Thus even in the shortest experiments the most Fe-rich olivine has been altered significantly. The precursor olivine disappears in a few to many hours depending on temperature. The experiments show Fe-rich olivine in all stages of transition to the new dusty form. The olivine is reduced to form dusty olivine in a matter of a few hours at temperatures less than 1400 C and in minutes at higher temperatures. The reduction appears to proceed from the rim of the crystal inward with time. The reduction appears initially rectilinear as if controlled by

  16. A Relict-Grain-Bearing Porphyritic Olivine Compound Chondrule from LL3.0 Semarkona that Experienced Limited Remelting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Chondrule D8n in LL3.0 Semarkona is a porphyritic olivine (PO) chondrule, 1300 x 1900 microns in size, with a complicated thermal history. The oldest recognizable portion of D8n is a moderately high-FeO, PO chondrule that is modeled as having become enmeshed in a dust ball containing a small, intact, low-FeO porphyritic chondrule and fine-grained material consisting of forsterite, kamacite, troilite, and possibly reduced C. The final chondrule melting event may have been a heat pulse that preferentially melted the low-FeO material and produced a low-FeO, opaque-rich, exterior region, 45-140 microns in thickness, around the original chondrule. Ai one end of the exterior region, a kamacite- and troilite-rich lump 960 pm in length formed. During the final melting event, the coarse, moderately ferroan olivine phenocrysts within the original chondrule appear to have been partly resorbed (These relict phenocrysts have the highest concentrations of FeO, MnO, and Cr2O3-7.5, 0.20, and 0.61 wt%, respectively-in D8n.). Narrow olivine overgrowths crystallized around the phenocrysts following final chondrule melting; their compositions seem to reflect mixing between melt derived from the exterior region and the resorbed margins of the phenocrysts. During the melting event, FeO in the relict phenocrysts was reduced, producing numerous small blebs of Ni-poor metallic Fe along preexisting curvilinear fractures. The reduced olivine flanking the trails of metal blebs has lower FeO than the phenocrysts but virtually identical MnO and Cr2O3 contents. Subsequent parent-body aqueous alteration in the exterior region of the chondrule formed pentlandite and abundant magnetite.

  17. An experimental study of trace element partitioning between olivine, orthopyroxene and melt in chondrules - Equilibrium values and kinetic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, A. K.; Lofgren, G. E.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral/melt partition coefficients were measured using an ion microprobe for 32 elements in orthopyroxene and olivine in equilibrium and dynamic crystallization experiments on compositions corresponding to chondrules. The mineral/melt partition coefficients calculated from the measured concentrations for both olivine and orthopyroxene show very little change between equilibrium experiments and dynamic experiments with cooling rates of up to 100 C/h. The results provide a self-consistent set of partition coefficients that can be used in thermodynamic models of equilibrium and kinetic partitioning between olivine, orthopyroxene, and melt. These data can be used in models of partial melting and crystal fractionation in olivine- and orthopyroxene-rich systems, such as chondrules. The results may also be applicable to mantle peridotites, komatiitic and picritic lavas, and ultramafic intrusions.

  18. Amoeboid olivine aggregates with low-Ca pyroxenes: a genetic link between refractory inclusions and chondrules?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev, Michail I.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in primitive (unmetamorphosed and unaltered) carbonaceous chondrites are uniformly 16O-enriched (Δ 17O ˜ -20‰) and consist of forsterite (Fa <2), FeNi-metal, and a refractory component (individual CAIs and fine-grained minerals interspersed with forsterite grains) composed of Al-diopside, anorthite, ±spinel, and exceptionally rare melilite (Åk <15); some CAIs in AOAs have compact, igneous textures. Melilite in AOAs is replaced by a fine-grained mixture of spinel, Al-diopside, and anorthite. Spinel is corroded by anorthite or by Al-diopside. In ˜10% of > 500 AOAs studied in the CR, CV, CM, CO, CH, CB, and ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites Acfer 094, Adelaide, and LEW85332, forsterite is replaced to a various degree by low-Ca pyroxene. There are three major textural occurrences of low-Ca pyroxene in AOAs: (i) thin (<10 μm) discontinuous layers around forsterite grains or along forsterite grain boundaries in AOA peripheries; (ii) haloes and subhedral grains around FeNi-metal nodules in AOA peripheries, and (iii) thick (up to 70 μm) continuous layers with abundant tiny inclusions of FeNi-metal grains around AOAs. AOAs with low-Ca pyroxene appear to have experienced melting of various degrees. In the most extensively melted AOA in the CV chondrite Leoville, only spinel grains are relict; forsterite, anorthite and Al-diopside were melted. This AOA has an igneous rim of low-Ca pyroxene with abundant FeNi-metal nodules and is texturally similar to Type I chondrules. Based on these observations and thermodynamic analysis, we conclude that AOAs are aggregates of relatively low temperature solar nebular condensates originated in 16O-rich gaseous reservoir(s), probably CAI-forming region(s). Some of the CAIs were melted before aggregation into AOAs. Many AOAs must have also experienced melting, but of a much smaller degree than chondrules. Before and possibly after aggregation, melilite and spinel reacted with the gaseous SiO and Mg

  19. Chromite and olivine in type II chondrules in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites - Implications for thermal histories and group differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin

    1991-01-01

    Unequilibrated chromite and olivine margin compositions in type II chondrules are noted to differ systematically among three of the chondrite groups, suggesting that type II liquids differed in composition among the groups. These differences may be interpreted as indicators of different chemical compositions of the precursor solids which underwent melting, or, perhaps, as differences in the extent to which immiscible metal sulfide droplets were lost during chondrule formation. Because zinc is detectable only in type II chromites which have undergone reequilibration, the high zinc contents reported for chondritic chromites in other studies probably reflect redistribution during thermal metamorphism.

  20. Transmission electron microscopy of chondrule minerals in the Allende meteorite: constraints on the thermal and deformational history of granular olivine-pyroxene chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Wolfgang Friedrich; Weinbruch, Stephan; Walter, Rudolf; Müller-Beneke, Gerhild

    1995-02-01

    The microstructures of minerals of three granular olivine-pyroxene chondrules from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite have been studied by methods of transmission electron microscopy, including electron diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The main issue is to deduce the thermal and deformational history of the chondrules. The chondrules consist dominantly of olivine (Fa 3-36), mostly Mg-rich ones ( < Fa 15), and low-Fe ( < 3 mol%) pyroxenes along the join Mg 2Si 2O 6CaMgSi 2O 6. In addition, Ca-rich plagioclase (An 80-An 90), awaruite, magnetite, whitlockite, pentlandite, troilite, MgFeCrAl spinels, sodalite, nepheline and corundum were observed. Pyroxenes found are orthopyroxene (Opx), clinoenstatite (Cen), pigeonite (Pig), lamellar intergrowth of pigeonite and diopside (Pig/Di) on (001) and diopside (Di). The assemblages and chemical compositions of Pig, Pig/Di and Di indicate a subsolidus closure temperature of approximately 1345°C. The lamellar intergrowth Pig/Di was formed by exsolution. The average wavelength λ (periodicity) of the lamellae is 29 nm in chondrule 1, 25 nm in chondrule 2 and 33 nm in chondrule 3. A cooling rate between 25 and 0.4°C/h for the temperature interval 1350-1200°C is estimated from the wavelength λ of the exsolution lamellae. Independent information on the cooling rate is provided by the size of the b-antiphase domains (APDs) of Ca-rich plagioclase, which reflects the time-and temperature-dependent ordering of Al/Si. The size (average diameter) of the domains is 10-30 nm. Comparison with isothermal annealing experiments on Ca-rich plagioclases (An 70-An 100) yields a cooling rate between 12 and 0.03°C/h. Cooling rates derived from the microstructure of pyroxene and plagioclase are at least one order of magnitude lower than those obtained from dynamic crystallization experiments (e.g. Hewins, R. H. Meteorites and the Early Solar System, pp. 660-679, 1988). However, our estimate is only valid in a

  1. Relative abundances of chondrule primary textural types in ordinary chondrites and their bearing on conditions of chondrule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, J. L.; Keil, K.

    1981-03-01

    A petrographic survey of > 1600 chondrules in thin-sections of 12 different mildly to highly unequilibrated H-, L-, and Li-chondrites, as well as morphological and textural study of 141 whole chondrules separated from 11 of the same chondrites, was used to determine the relative abundances of definable chondrule primary textural types. Percentage abundances of various chondrule types are remarkably similar in all chondrites studied and are ˜47-52 porphyritic olivine-pyroxene (POP), 15-27 porphyritic olivine (P 0), 9-11 porphyritic pyroxene (PP), 34 barred olivine (BO), 7-9 radial pyroxene (RP), 2-5 granular olivine-pyroxene (GOP), 3-5 cryptocrystalline (C), and ≥ 1 metallic (M). Neither chondrule size nor shape is strongly correlated with textural type. Compound and cratered chondrules, which are interpreted as products of collisions between plastic chondrules, comprise ˜2-28% of non-porphyritic (RP, GOP, C) but only ˜2-9% of porphyritic (POP, PO, PP, BO) chondrules, leading to a model-dependent implication that non-porphyritic chondrules evolved at number densities (chondrules per unit volume of space) which were 102 to 104 times greater than those which prevailed during porphyritic chondrule formation (total range of ˜1 to ˜106 m-3. Distinctive "rims" of fine-grained sulfides and/or silicates occur on both porphyritic and non-porphyritic types and appear to post-date chondrule formation. Apparently, either the same process(es) contributed chondrules to all unequilibrated ordinary chondrites or, if genetically different, the various chondrule types were well mixed before incorporation into chondrites. Melting of pre-existing materials is the mechanism favored for chondrule formation.

  2. The formation and alteration of the Renazzo-like carbonaceous chondrites II: Linking O-isotope composition and oxidation state of chondrule olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Connolly, Harold C.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Davidson, Jemma; Domanik, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the formation conditions of type-I and type-II chondrules in the Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites, an in situ major- and minor-element and O-isotope study was conducted. Twenty-one ferromagnesian chondrules from three CR chondrites (GRA 95229, GRA 06100, and QUE 99177) were analyzed to establish an internally-consistent data set. From this study we infer that type-II chondrule precursors contained enhanced S-bearing dust and ice abundances relative to type-I chondrules. There is a relationship between the O-isotope composition and oxidation state of olivine, which may be related to the amount of 16O-poor ice and reduced carbon accreted by chondrule precursors before melting. Type-II chondrules formed under H2O/H2 ratios of ˜230-740 times solar. In contrast, type-I chondrules formed under more reducing conditions with lower H2O/H2 ratios of ˜10-100 times solar. We find a relationship between type-II chondrule petrology (relict free vs. relict grain-bearing) and O-isotope composition, which is due to degree of melting and exchange with a 16O-poor gas reservoir. The 16O-poor gas that interacted with both type-I and type-II chondrules is estimated to have an isotopic composition between ˜δ18Og = 13-27‰ and δ17Og = 10-22‰, different from the O-isotope composition of the water accreted by the CR chondrite parent body. Due to partial melting, type-I chondrules and relict grain-bearing type-II chondrules exchanged with the 16O-poor gas to a lower degree than relict-free type-II chondrules.

  3. A new estimate of the chondrule cooling rate deduced from an analysis of compositional zoning of relict olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-03-01

    Compositional zoning in chondrule phenocrysts records the crystallization environments in the early solar nebula. We modeled the growth of olivine phenocrysts from a silicate melt and proposed a new fractional crystallization model that provides a relation between the zoning profile and the cooling rate. In our model, we took elemental partitioning at a growing solid-liquid interface and time-dependent solute diffusion in the liquid into consideration. We assumed a local equilibrium condition, namely, that the compositions at the interface are equal to the equilibrium ones at a given temperature. We carried out numerical simulations of the fractional crystallization in one-dimensional planar geometry. The simulations revealed that under a constant cooling rate the growth velocity increases exponentially with time and a linear zoning profile forms in the solid as a result. We derived analytic formulae of the zoning profile, which reproduced the numerical results for wide ranges of crystallization conditions. The formulae provide a useful tool to estimate the cooling rate from the compositional zoning. Applying the formulae to low-FeO relict olivine grains in type II porphyritic chondrules observed by Wasson and Rubin, we estimate the cooling rate to be ∼200-2000 K s{sup –1}, which is greater than that expected from furnace-based experiments by orders of magnitude. Appropriate solar nebula environments for such rapid cooling conditions are discussed.

  4. Variations in the O-isotope composition of gas during the formation of chondrules from the CR chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Ogliore, Ryan C.; Hellebrand, Eric

    2014-05-01

    To better understand the environment of chondrule formation and constrain the O-isotope composition of the ambient gas in the Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrite chondrule-forming region, we studied the mineralogy, petrology, and in situ O-isotope compositions of olivine in 11 barred olivine (BO) chondrules and pyroxene and silica in three type I porphyritic chondrules from the CR chondrites Gao-Guenie (b), Graves Nunataks (GRA) 95229, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91082, and Shişr 033. BO chondrules experienced a higher degree of melting than porphyritic chondrules, and therefore, it has been hypothesized that they more accurately recorded the O-isotope composition of the gas in chondrule-forming regions. We studied the O-isotope composition of silica as it has been hypothesized to have formed via direct condensation from the gas.

  5. Size-distributions of chondrule types in the Inman and Allan Hills A77011 L3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Keil, K.

    1984-01-01

    The size distributions of barred-olivine (BO) and radial-pyroxene/cryptocrystalline (RPC) chondrules are investigated in a petrographic study of nine and 18 thin sections (respectively) of the L3 chondrites Inman and ALHA77011. It is found that the Inman chondrules are significantly larger than the ALHA77011 chondrules and that RPC chondrules in Inman and BO chondrules in ALHA77011 are relatively more numerous, but no significant difference in the BO and RPC size distributions is observed. A formation mechanism involving size sorting of dustball chondrule precursors by aerodynamic particle-gas interactions in a large region of the solar nebula, melting of sorted dustballs in relatively small regions, and chondrule mixing and agglomeration (from subreservoirs containing uniformly large or uniformly small chondrules of a particular compositional type) to form chondrites is proposed.

  6. Using the Fe/Mn Ratio of FeO-Rich Olivine In WILD 2, Chondrite Matrix, and Type IIA Chondrules to Disentangle Their Histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Le, L.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The Stardust Mission returned a large abundance of impactors from Comet 81P/Wild2 in the 5-30 m range. The preliminary examination of just a limited number of these particles showed that the collection captured abundant crystalline grains with a diverse mineralogy [1,2]. Many of these grains resemble those found in chondrite matrix and even contain fragments of chondrules and CAIs [1-3]. In particular, the olivine found in Wild 2 exhibits a wide compositional range (Fa0-97) with minor element abundances similar to the matrix olivine found in many carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). Despite the wide distribution of Fa content, the olivine found in the matrices of CCs, UOCs, and Wild 2 can be roughly lumped into two types based solely on fayalite content. In fact, in some cases, a distinct bi-modal distribution is observed.

  7. Relict and other anomalous grains in chondrules - Implications for chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kracher, A.; Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, K.

    1984-01-01

    Relict olivine and pyroxene grains have been identified in chondrules from ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites that probably did not crystallize in situ. Some of these olivines are clear, but others contain fine-grained Fe, Ni ('dusty olivines') and resemble previously described occurrences in ordinary chondrites. There are also chondrules in which all olivine is dusty. It is concluded that: (1) not all relict olivines are dusty, (2) not all dusty olivines crystallized outside the chondrule in which they occur, and (3) some dusty olivines were produced during chondrule formation by a reduction process that affected the whole chondrule. The occurrence of dusty olivines and relict pyroxenes and olivines in chondrules from carbonaceous as well as ordinary chondrites supports the argument that chondrules from all chondrites had similar origins and histories. It is proposed that chondrules and mineral fragments were transported across f(O2) gradients in the solar nebula while they were hot, or were reheated in an environment different from the one in which they formed. Partially molten chondrules sometimes incorporated mineral grains or chondrules with different redox states, producing compound chondrules and chondrules containing anomalous grains. Dusty olivines may also have formed when hot chondrules were transported to regions of lower oxygen fugacity.

  8. Relict grains in chondrules: Evidence for chondrule recycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of relict grains in chondrules, which offers some insight into the degree to which chondrule material was recycled in the chondrule-forming region, is discussed in this report. Relics are grains that clearly did not crystallize in situ in the host chondrule. They represent coarse-grained precursor material that did not melt during chondrule formation, and provide the only tangible record of chondrule precursor grains. Relics are commonly identified by a large difference in size, textural differences, and/or significant compositional differences compared with normal grains in the host chondrule. Two important types of relics are: (1) 'dusty,' metal-bearing grains of olivine and pyroxene; and (2) forsterite (Mg-rich olivine) grains present in FeO-rich chondrules.

  9. Chromite-rich mafic silicate chondrules in ordinary chondrites: Formation by impact melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    Chromium-rich chondrules constitute less than 0.1 percent of all ordinary chondrite (OC) chondrules and comprise three groups: chromian-spinel chondrules, chromian-spinel inclusions, and chromite-rich mafic silicate (CRMS) chondrules. Chromian-spinel chondrules (typically 100-300 microns in apparent diameter) exhibit granular, porphyritic and unusual textures and occur mainly in H chondrites. Their morphologies are distinct from the irregularly shaped chromian-spinel inclusions of similar mineralogy. Chromian-spinel chondrules and inclusions consist of grains of chromian-spinel embedded in plagioclase (Pl) or mesostasis of Pl composition. Many also contain accessory ilmenite (Ilm), high-Ca pyroxene (Px), merrillite (Mer), and rare olivine (Ol); some exhibit concentric mineral and chemical zoning. CRMS chondrules (300-1100 microns in apparent diameter) are generally larger than chromian-spinel chondrules and occur in all metamorphosed OC groups. Most CRMS chondrules are nearly spherical although a few are ellipsoidal with a/b aspect ratios ranging up to 1.7. Textures include cryptocrystalline, granular, radial, barred, and porphyritic varieties; some contain apparently relict grains. The chondrules consist of chromite (Chr), Ol and Pl, along with accessory Mer, troilite (Tr), metallic Fe-Ni (Met), Px and Ilm. The mesostasis in CRMS chondrules is nearly opaque in transmitted light; thus, they can be easily recognized in the optical microscope. Based on the similarity of mineralogy and chemistry between CRMS chondrules of different textures (opaque chromite-rich mesostasis, skeletal morphology of Ol grains, similar bulk compositions) we suggest that these chondrules form a genetically related population.

  10. Oriented crystallographic textures of olivine in quenched silicate melt spherules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.

    2015-12-01

    Olivine is one of the most common minerals in the planetary materials including solid Earth and chondritic meteorites. Olivine crystals show characteristic textures in chondrules and micrometeorites (MMs) depending on heating and cooling histories, especially in extraordinary quick cooling rates. We have constructed a fine particle free fall apparatus in a high temperature furnace and carried out crystallization experiments of fine particles with quick heating and quenching (Isobe and Gondo, 2013). The falling particles in the furnace can reach 1400 degrees C within 2 seconds, keep above 1400 degrees C more than 1 second, and are quenched within 1 second. Run products from olivine particles show various textures depending on proportions of three kinds of starting materials in the particles. Fayalite particles melt completely and form barred olivine-like spherules with low pyramid structures on the surface. Dendritic olivine crystals with regulated crystallographic orientation are developed in melted particles. Surface texture of melted particles may be affected by the dendritic olivine crystals grown in the spherules. Oriented dendrites of magnetite also occur between olivine crystals. The texture of oriented dendrite of olivine with tiny magnetite is quite similar to natural cosmic spherules (CSs). In the completely melted spherules, barred olivine-like structures can be seen. Due to extraordinary high cooling rate up to 2×10^6 degrees C/hour and degrees of supercooling, olivine bars show chained structure of H-shaped or hourglass shaped units which are distinctive characteristics for quick growth of olivine in quenching. In spite of quite short period of crystal growth processes, chained olivine aligns parallel bars in the almost entire spherule. Nucleation of barred olivine crystals may be initiated at surface of spherules. Starting points of olivine growth can be seen as peaks on surface of the spherules. The crystallographic textures of olivine develop

  11. Glass-rich chondrules in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Rubin, Alan E.

    1994-09-01

    There are two types of glass-rich chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (OC): (1) porphyritic chondrules containing 55-85 vol% glass or microcrystalline mesostasis and (2) nonporphyritic chondrules, containing 90-99 vol% glass. These two types are similar in mineralogy and bulk composition to previously described Al-rich chondrules in OC. In addition to Si-, Al- and Na-rich glass or Ca-Al-rich microcrystalline mesostasis, glass-rich chondrules contain dendritic and skeletal crystals of olivine, Al2O3-rich low-Ca pyroxene and fassaite. Some chondrules contain relict grains of forsterite +/- Mg-Al spinel. We suggest that glass-rich chondrules were formed early in nebular history by melting fine-grained precursor materials rich in refractory (Ca, Al, Ti) and moderately volatile (Na, K) components (possibly related to Ca-Al-rich inclusions) admixed with coarse relict forsterite and spinel grains derived from previously disrupted type-I chondrules.

  12. Congruent Melting Kinetics: Constraints on Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, James P.; Hess, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of melting and their applications to chondrule formation are discussed A model for the kinetics of congruent melting is developed and used to place constraints on the duration and maximum temperature experienced by the interiors of relict-bearing chondrules. Specifically, chondrules containing relict forsteritic olivine or enstatitic pyroxene cannot have been heated in excess of 1901 C or 1577 C, respectively, for more than a few seconds.

  13. Chondrule formation, metamorphism, brecciation, an important new primary chondrule group, and the classification of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Shaoxiong, Huang; Benoit, Paul H.

    1995-01-01

    The recently proposed compositional classification scheme for meteoritic chondrules divides the chondrules into groups depending on the composition of their two major phases, olivine (or pyroxene) and the mesostasis, both of which are genetically important. The scheme is here applied to discussions of three topics: the petrographic classification of Roosevelt County 075 (the least-metamorphosed H chondrite known), brecciation (an extremely important and ubiquitous process probably experienced by greater than 40% of all unequilibrated ordinary chondrites), and the group A5 chondrules in the least metamorphosed ordinary chondrites which have many similarities to chondrules in the highly metamorphosed 'equilibrated' chondrites. Since composition provides insights into both primary formation properties of the chondruies and the effects of metamorphism on the entire assemblage it is possible to determine the petrographic type of RC075 as 3.1 with unique certainty. Similarly, the near scheme can be applied to individual chondrules without knowledge of the petrographic type of the host chondrite, which makes it especially suitable for studying breccias. Finally, the new scheme has revealed the existence of chondrules not identified by previous techniques and which appear to be extremely important. Like group A1 and A2 chondrules (but unlike group B1 chondrules) the primitive group A5 chondruies did not supercool during formation, but unlike group A1 and A2 chondrules (and like group B1 chondrules) they did not suffer volatile loss and reduction during formation. It is concluded that the compositional classification scheme provides important new insights into the formation and history of chondrules and chondrites which would be overlooked by previous schemes.

  14. A Shocked Presolar Crystalline Olivine Within the Fine Grained Rim of an Allan Hills A77307 Chondrule: A Tracer for Parent Body Processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojic, A. N.; Leitner, J.; Hoppe, P.; Brenker, F. E.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a presolar crystalline olivine grain characterised by ATEM in its hosting fine grained rim, a large surrounding electron transparent area enables insights into alteration processes linked to parent body and terrestrial processing.

  15. Evaporation and recondensation of sodium in Semarkona Type II chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Zanda, Brigitte; Bendersky, Claire

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the Na distributions in Semarkona Type II chondrules by electron microprobe, analyzing olivine and melt inclusions in it, mesostasis and bulk chondrule, to see whether they indicate interactions with an ambient gas during chondrule formation. Sodium concentrations of bulk chondrule liquids, melt inclusions and mesostases can be explained to a first approximation by fractional crystallization of olivine ± pyroxene. The most primitive olivine cores in each chondrule are mostly between Fa 8 and Fa 13, with 0.0022-0.0069 ± 0.0013 wt.% Na 2O. Type IIA chondrule olivines have consistently higher Na contents than olivines in Type IIAB chondrules. We used the dependence of olivine-liquid Na partitioning on FeO in olivine as a measure of equilibration. Extreme olivine rim compositions are ˜Fa 35 and 0.03 wt.% Na 2O and are close to being in equilibrium with the mesostasis glass. Olivine cores compared with the bulk chondrule compositions, particularly in IIA chondrules, show very high apparent D Na, indicating disequilibrium and suggesting that chondrule initial melts were more Na-rich than present chondrule bulk compositions. The apparent D Na values correlate with the Na concentrations of the olivine, but not with concentrations in the bulk melt. We use equilibrium D Na to find the Na content of the true parent liquid and estimate that Type IIA chondrules lost more than half their Na and recondensation was incomplete, whereas Type IIAB chondrules recovered most of theirs in their mesostases . Glass inclusions in olivine have lower Na than expected from fractionation of bulk composition liquids, and mesostases have higher Na than expected in calculated daughter liquids formed by fractional crystallization alone. These observations also require open system behavior of chondrules, specifically evaporation of Na before formation of melt inclusions followed by recondensation of Na in mesostases. Within this record of evaporation followed by

  16. Tetrad effects in REE abundance patterns of chondrules from CM meteorites: Implications for aqueous alteration on the CM parent asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Mutsuo; Nakamura, Noboru; Kimura, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Lanthanide tetrad effect in bulk chondrules from two moderately altered CM chondrites, Murchison and Yamato-793321 (Y-793321), are reported for the first time. Twenty-three chondrules were petrographically characterized and analyzed for 10 rare earth elements (REE) and other trace and major elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) using the precise isotope dilution technique. The results indicate systematic depletion (several times) of alkali and alkaline earths compared to CV and CO chondrules. Most of the porphyritic olivine (8 PO) and olivine-pyroxene (4 POP), porphyritic and radial pyroxene (2 PP, 1 RP), and granular olivine (1 GO) chondrules show a light-REE (L-REE) depleted, heavy-REE (H-REE) smoothly fractionated pattern composed of four (upward convex) segments possessing a relatively large negative Eu anomaly (CI-normalized La/Sm, Lu/Er and Eu/Eu* ratios = 0.3-1: Eu*, normal value). On the other hand, all barred-olivine (5 BO) chondrules, a few PO and POP indicate almost a flat L-REE pattern. In addition, regardless of their textural types, nearly half of the chondrules have a variable degree of Ce and Yb anomalies, and/or L/H-REE discontinuity, which is similar to CV and CO chondrules. The observed L- and H-convex REE patterns accompanied with the negative Eu anomaly is the first known case for chondrules as well as meteoritic materials, but have been previously reported for geological samples such as sedimentary rocks, late stage igneous and metamorphic rocks, and are explained as the lanthanide tetrad effect, which plausibly results from fluid-rock interaction. We suggest that the marked REE fractionations occurred by the selective incorporation of L-, H-REEs and Eu into alteration products in the matrix during alteration processes on the CM parent body, but that the gas/solid REE fractionation characteristics established in the nebula have basically remained unchanged. We suggest that the tetrad effects observed here represent a new index of physico

  17. Impact jetting as the origin of chondrules.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brandon C; Minton, David A; Melosh, H J; Zuber, Maria T

    2015-01-15

    Chondrules are the millimetre-scale, previously molten, spherules found in most meteorites. Before chondrules formed, large differentiating planetesimals had already accreted. Volatile-rich olivine reveals that chondrules formed in extremely solid-rich environments, more like impact plumes than the solar nebula. The unique chondrules in CB chondrites probably formed in a vapour-melt plume produced by a hypervelocity impact with an impact velocity greater than 10 kilometres per second. An acceptable formation model for the overwhelming majority of chondrules, however, has not been established. Here we report that impacts can produce enough chondrules during the first five million years of planetary accretion to explain their observed abundance. Building on a previous study of impact jetting, we simulate protoplanetary impacts, finding that material is melted and ejected at high speed when the impact velocity exceeds 2.5 kilometres per second. Using a Monte Carlo accretion code, we estimate the location, timing, sizes, and velocities of chondrule-forming impacts. Ejecta size estimates indicate that jetted melt will form millimetre-scale droplets. Our radiative transfer models show that these droplets experience the expected cooling rates of ten to a thousand kelvin per hour. An impact origin for chondrules implies that meteorites are a byproduct of planet formation rather than leftover building material.

  18. Petrology and thermal history of type IA chondrules in the Semarkona (LL3.0) chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed petrologic studies have been made of 15 type IA, Fe-poor, porphyritic olivine chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0). Major and minor element concentrations in olivines, pyroxenes, and mesostases, and bulk composition so the chondrules are measured along with zoning profiles in the olivine and pyroxene crystals. The mineral compositions and textures are best interpreted in terms of closed system crystallization in which the olivines and pyroxenes crystallized in situ from a melt corresponding to the bulk composition of the chondrule. Relict olivine grains are not found in the chondrules. Crystallization probably occurred at a cooling rate of the order of 1000 C/hr. Precursor materials of the chondrules were composed of two components, one refractory Ca-, Al-, and Ti-rich, and one less refractory Si-, Fe-, Cr-, and Mn-rich. The evidence is consistent with Semarkona being one of the least metamorphosed ordinary chondrites.

  19. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE X-WIND MODEL FOR CHONDRULE AND CALCIUM-RICH, ALUMINUM-RICH INCLUSION FORMATION AND RADIONUCLIDE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Desch, S. J.; Morris, M. A.; Connolly, H. C.; Boss, Alan P.

    2010-12-10

    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Interpretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the 'X-wind' model of Shu et al. and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs, and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed <0.1 AU from the protostar, then flung by a magnetocentrifugal outflow to the 2-3 AU region to be incorporated into chondrites. Here we critically examine key assumptions and predictions of the X-wind model. We find a number of internal inconsistencies: theory and observation show no solid material exists at 0.1 AU; particles at 0.1 AU cannot escape being accreted into the star; particles at 0.1 AU will collide at speeds high enough to destroy them; thermal sputtering will prevent growth of particles; and launching of particles in magnetocentrifugal outflows is not modeled, and may not be possible. We also identify a number of incorrect predictions of the X-wind model: the oxygen fugacity where CAIs form is orders of magnitude too oxidizing, chondrule cooling rates are orders of magnitude lower than those experienced by barred olivine chondrules, chondrule-matrix complementarity is not predicted, and the SLRs are not produced in their observed proportions. We conclude that the X-wind model is not relevant to chondrule and CAI formation and SLR production. We discuss more plausible models for chondrule and CAI formation and SLR production.

  20. Water in type I chondrules of Paris CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephant, A.; Remusat, L.; Robert, F.

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen isotopic ratio and water concentration have been measured with the NanoSIMS in olivine, pyroxene and mesostasis in individual chondrules from the carbonaceous chondrites Paris (CM2), Renazzo (CR2) and ordinary chondrite Bishunpur (LL3). On average, chondrule pyroxenes in Renazzo, Bishunpur and Paris contain 893 ± 637 ppm (1SD), 879 ± 536 ppm and 791 ± 227 ppm H2O, respectively. Concentration of H2O in Chondrule olivines from Renazzo and Bishunpur is 156 ± 44 ppm and 222 ± 123 ppm, respectively. Olivines in the Paris chondrules have high water concentration (603 ± 145-1051 ± 253 ppm H2O) with a minimum mean value of 645 ± 99 ppm. δD ranges from -212 ± 125‰ to 15 ± 156‰ and from -166 ± 133‰ to 137 ± 176‰ in Renazzo and Bishunpur chondrule olivines, pyroxenes and mesostases, respectively. In Paris chondrules, δD ranges from -398 ± 23‰ to 366 ± 35‰; this represents an extreme variation over 764‰. Paris olivines and pyroxenes are either enriched or depleted in deuterium relative to the mesostasis and no systematic isotopic pattern is observed. Simple model of chondrules hydration during parent body hydrothermal alteration is difficult to reconcile with such isotopic heterogeneity. It is proposed that a hydrous component, having a δD of c.a. -400‰, in the chondrule precursors, has been outgassed at 800-900 °C in the gas phase. Nevertheless, a residual water fraction remains trapped in Paris chondrules. Quantitative modeling supports this scenario.

  1. In situ oxygen isotope compositions in olivines of different types of cosmic spherules: An assessment of relationships to chondritic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Jones, R. H.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic spherules collected from deep sea sediments of the Indian Ocean having different textures such as scoriaceous (4), relict-bearing (16), porphyritic (35) and barred olivine (2) were investigated for petrography, as well as high precision oxygen isotopic studies on olivine grains using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The oxide FeO/MgO ratios of large olivines (>20 μm) in cosmic spherules have low values similar to those seen in the olivines of carbonaceous chondrite chondrules, rather than matching the compositions of matrix. The oxygen isotope compositions of olivines in cosmic spherules have a wide range of δ18O, δ17O and Δ17O values as follows: -9 to 40‰, -13 to 22‰ and -11 to 6‰. Our results suggest that the oxygen isotope compositions of the scoriaceous, relict-bearing, porphyritic and barred spherules show provenance related to the carbonaceous (CM, CV, CO and CR) chondrites. The different types of spherules that has experienced varied atmospheric heating during entry has not significantly altered the Δ17O values. However, one of the relict-bearing spherules with a large relict grain has Δ17O = 5.7‰, suggesting that it is derived from 16O-poor material that is not recognized in the meteorite record. A majority of the spherules have Δ17O ranging from -4 to -2‰, similar to values in chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites, signifying that chondrules of carbonaceous chondrites are the major contributors to the flux of micrometeorites, with an insignificant fraction derived from ordinary chondrites. Furthermore, barred spherule data shows that during atmospheric entry an increase in ∼10‰ of δ18O value surges Δ17O value by ∼1‰.

  2. The group A3 chondrules of Krymka: Further evidence for major evaporative loss during the formation of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    Like Semarkona (type 3.0), Krymka (type 3.1) contains two distinct types of chondrule (namely groups A and B) which differ in their bulk compositions, phase compositions, and CL properties. The group A chondrules in both meteorites show evidence for major loss of material by evaporation(i.e. elemental abundance patterns, size, redox state, olivine-pyroxene abundances). Group A and B chondrules probably formed from common or very similar precursors by the same processes acting with different intensities, group A suffering greater mass-loss by evaporation and reduction of FeO and SiO2. While Krymka chondrules share many primary mineralogical and compositional properties with Semarkona chondrules, the minimal metamorphism it has suffered has also had a significant effect on its chondrules.

  3. Non-spherical Lobate Chondrules in CO3.0 Y-81020: General Implications for the Formation of Low-FeO Porphyritic Chondrules in CO Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Non-spherical chondrules (arbitrarily defined as having aspect ratios greater than or equal to 1.20) in CO3.0 chondrites comprise multi-lobate, distended, and highly irregular objects with rounded margins; they constitute approx. 70% of the type-I (low-FeO) porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020, approx. 75% of such chondrules in ALHA77307, and approx. 60% of those in Colony. Although the proportion of non-spherical type-I chondrules in LL3.0 Semarkona is comparable (approx. 60%), multi-lobate OC porphyritic chondrules (with lobe heights equivalent to a significant fraction of the mean chondrule diameter) are rare. If the non-spherical type-I chondrules in CO chondrites had formed from totally molten droplets, calculations indicate that they would have collapsed into spheres within approx. 10(exp -3) s, too little time for their 20-micrometer-size olivine phenocrysts to have grown from the melt. These olivine grains must therefore be relicts from an earlier chondrule generation; the final heating episode experienced by the non-spherical chondrules involved only minor amounts of melting and crystallization. The immediate precursors of the individual non-spherical chondrules may have been irregularly shaped chondrule fragments whose fracture surfaces were rounded during melting. Because non-spherical chondrules and circular chondrules form a continuum in shape and have similar grain sizes, mineral and mesostasis compositions, and modal abundances of non-opaque phases, they must have formed by related processes. We conclude that a large majority of low-FeO chondrules in CO3 chondrites experienced a late, low-degree melting event. Previous studies have shown that essentially all type-II (high-FeO) porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020 formed by repeated episodes of low-degree melting. It thus appears that the type-I and type-II porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020 (and, presumably, all CO3 chondrites) experienced analogous formation histories. Because these two types constitute

  4. Non-spherical lobate chondrules in CO3.0 Y-81020: General implications for the formation of low-FeO porphyritic chondrules in CO chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    2005-01-01

    Non-spherical chondrules (arbitrarily defined as having aspect ratios ≥1.20) in CO3.0 chondrites comprise multi-lobate, distended, and highly irregular objects with rounded margins; they constitute ˜70% of the type-I (low-FeO) porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020, ˜75% of such chondrules in ALHA77307, and ˜60% of those in Colony. Although the proportion of non-spherical type-I chondrules in LL3.0 Semarkona is comparable (˜60%), multi-lobate OC porphyritic chondrules (with lobe heights equivalent to a significant fraction of the mean chondrule diameter) are rare. If the non-spherical type-I chondrules in CO chondrites had formed from totally molten droplets, calculations indicate that they would have collapsed into spheres within ˜10 -3 s, too little time for their 20-μ m-size olivine phenocrysts to have grown from the melt. These olivine grains must therefore be relicts from an earlier chondrule generation; the final heating episode experienced by the non-spherical chondrules involved only minor amounts of melting and crystallization. The immediate precursors of the individual non-spherical chondrules may have been irregularly shaped chondrule fragments whose fracture surfaces were rounded during melting. Because non-spherical chondrules and "circular" chondrules form a continuum in shape and have similar grain sizes, mineral and mesostasis compositions, and modal abundances of non-opaque phases, they must have formed by related processes. We conclude that a large majority of low-FeO chondrules in CO3 chondrites experienced a late, low-degree melting event. Previous studies have shown that essentially all type-II (high-FeO) porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020 formed by repeated episodes of low-degree melting. It thus appears that the type-I and type-II porphyritic chondrules in Y-81020 (and, presumably, all CO3 chondrites) experienced analogous formation histories. Because these two types constitute ˜95% of all CO chondrules, it is clear that chondrule

  5. The lack of potassium-isotopic fractionation in Bishunpur chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.; Wang, Jingyuan; Zanda, B.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Hewins, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    In a search for evidence of evaporation during chondrule formation, the mesostases of 11 Bishunpur chondrules and melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in 7 of them have been analyzed for their alkali element abundances and K-isotopic compositions. Except for six points, all areas of the chondrules that were analyzed had δ41K compositions that were normal within error (typically ±3%, 2s̀). The six “anomalous” points are probably all artifacts. Experiments have shown that free evaporation of K leads to large 41K enrichments in the evaporation residues, consistent with Rayleigh fractionation. Under Rayleigh conditions, a 3% enrichment in δ41K is produced by ∼12% loss of K. The range of L-chondrite-normalized K/Al ratios (a measure of the K-elemental fractionation) in the areas analyzed vary by almost three orders of magnitude. If all chondrules started out with L-chondrite-like K abundances and the K loss occurred via Rayleigh fractionation, the most K-depleted chondrules would have had compositions of up to δ41K ≅ 200%. Clearly, K fractionation did not occur by evaporation under Rayleigh conditions. Yet experiments and modeling indicate that K should have been lost during chondrule formation under currently accepted formation conditions (peak temperature, cooling rate, etc.). Invoking precursors with variable alkali abundances to produce the range of K/Al fractionation in chondrules does not explain the K-isotopic data because any K that was present should still have experienced sufficient loss during melting for there to have been a measurable isotopic fractionation. If K loss and isotopic fractionation was inevitable during chondrule formation, the absence of K-isotopic fractionation in Bishunpur chondrules requires that they exchanged K with an isotopically normal reservoir during or after formation. There is evidence for alkali exchange between chondrules and rim-matrix in all unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. However, melt inclusions can have

  6. Tomographic study of shapes and metal abundances of Renazzo chondrules

    SciTech Connect

    Hertz, J.; Ebel, Denton; Weisberg, W.K.

    2003-05-19

    degree of partial melting and 'maturation' of the chondrules, as measured by lower fayalite content in olivine and higher P and Ni concentrations of interior metal. To quantify the degree of melting of chondrules, measured a convolution index (CVI) for each chondrule. The CVI, ranging from 1 to 2, is defined as the ratio of the measured perimeter of the chondrule to the perimeter of a circle with the same area as that measured for the chondrule. Correlation of the CVI with chemical data led to conclude that Renazzo chondrules formed 'by aggregation of numerous droplets in a dust-rich environment'.

  7. Oxygen Isotope Systematics of Chondrules from the Least Equilibrated H Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, N. T.; Kimura, M.; Ushikubo, T.; Valley, J. W.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bulk chondrules and their mineral separates in type 3 ordinary chondrites (UOC) show several % variability in the oxygen three isotope diagram with slope of approx.0.7 [1]. In contrast, ion microprobe analyses of olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts in ferromagnesian chondrules from LL 3.0-3.1 chondrites show mass dependent isotopic fractionation as large as 5% among type I (FeO-poor) chondrules, while type II (FeO-rich) chondrules show a narrow range (less than or equal to 1%) of compositions [2]. The .Delta(exp 17)O (=delta(exp 17)O-0.52xdelta(exp 18)O) values of olivine and pyroxene in these chondrules show a peak at approx.0.7% that are systematically lower than those of bulk chondrule analyses as well as the bulk LL chondrites [2]. Further analyses of glass in Semarkona chondrules show .17O values as high as +5% with highly fractionated d18O (max +18%), implying O-16-poor glass in chondrules were altered as a result of hydration in the parent body at low temperature [3]. Thus, chondrules in LL3.0-3.1 chondrites do not provide any direct evidence of oxygen isotope exchange between solid precursor and O-16-depleted gas during chondrule melting events. To compare the difference and/or similarity between chondrules from LL and H chondrites, we initiated systematic investigations of oxygen isotopes in chondrules from Yamato 793408 (H3.2), one of the least equilibrated H chondrite [4]. In our preliminary study of 4 chondrules, we reported distinct oxygen isotope ratios from dusty olivine and refractory forsterite (RF) grains compared to their host chondrules and confirmed their relict origins [5].

  8. Young Pb-Isotopic Ages of Chondrules in CB Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.

    2005-01-01

    CB (Bencubbin-type) carbonaceous chondrites differ in many ways from more familiar CV and CO carbonaceous chondrites and from ordinary chondrites. CB chondrites are very rich in Fe-Ni metal (50-70 vol%) and contain magnesian silicates mainly as angular to sub-rounded clasts (or chondrules) with barred olivine (BO) or cryptocrystalline (CC) textures. Both metal and silicates appear to have formed by condensation. The sizes of silicate clasts vary greatly between the two subgroups of CB chondrites: large (up to one cm) in CB(sub a) chondrites, and typically to much much less than 1 mm in CB(sub b) chondrites. The compositional and mineralogical differences between these subgroups and between the CB(sub s) and other types of chondrites suggest different environment and possibly different timing of chondrule formation. In order to constrain the timing of chondrule forming processes in CB(sub s) and understand genetic relationship between their subgroups, we have determined Pb-isotopic ages of silicate material from the CB(sub a) chondrite Gujba and CB(sub b) chondrite Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237 hereafter).

  9. Composition of chondrule silicates in LL3-5 chondrites and implications for their nebular history and parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Timothy J.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Jones, Rhian H.

    1991-01-01

    The composition of 75 type-IA and type-II porphyritic olivine chondrules from nine LL type 3 to type 5 chondrites was determined and was compared with that of chondrules from the Semarkona type 3.0 meteorite. Chemical data for silicates in the LL3.3-5 chondrites indicated that porphyritic olivine chondrules in these chondrites could be derived from chondrules similar to those from the Semarkona LL3.0, the least metamorphosed one of the known LL chondrites. It is shown that the chemical trends defined by the minerals of type-IA and type-II chondrules can be satisfactorily accounted for by the process of solid-state diffusive equilibration between minerals in chondrules and the opaque matrix rather than by changes in conditions during chondrule crystallization.

  10. The Formation of Chondrules: Petrologic Tests of the Shock Wave Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Love, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    Chondrules are mm-sized spheroidal igneous components of chondritic meteorites. They consist of olivine and orthopyroxene set in a glassy mesostasis with varying minor amounts of metals, sulfieds, oxides and carbon phases.

  11. Troilite in the Chondrules of Type-3 Ordinary Chondrites: Implications for Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Sailer, Alan L.; Wasson, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of primary troilite in chondrules requires that nebular temperatures were <650 K (the 50% condensation temperature of S) at the time of chondrule formation and that chondrules were molten for periods short enough (less than or equal to 10 s) to avoid significant volatilization of S. We examined 226 intact chondrules of all textural types from eight unshocked to weakly shocked ordinary chondrite falls of low petrologic type to determine the origin of troilite in chondrules; 68 chondrules are from LL3.0 Semarkona. There is a high probability that troilite is primary (i.e , was present among the chondrule precursors) if it is completely embedded in a mafic silicate phenocryst, located within one-half radius of the apparent chondrule center and is part of an opaque assemblage with an igneous texture Based on these criteria, 13% of the chondrules in Semarkona and in the set as a whole contain primary troilite. Most of the remaining chondrules contain troilite that is probably primary, but does not meet all three criteria. Troilite occurs next to tetratacnite in some opaque spherules within low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona, implying that the Ni required to form the tetrataenite came from the troilite Troilite can accommodate 5 mg/g Ni at high temperatures (> 1170 K) but much less Ni at lower temperatures; because this is far higher than the metamorphic temperature inferred for Semarkona (approx. 670 K), the troilite must be primary Primary troilite fitting the three criteria occurs in a smaller fraction of low-FeO [FeO/(FeO + MgO) in olivine and/or low-Ca pyroxene not greater than 0.0751 than high-FeO porphyritic chondrules in Semarkona (9% vs 33%) Coarse-grained low-FeO porphyritic chondrules appear to contain somewhat more troilite on average than those of medium grain size We found a few troilite-free, metallic-Fe-Ni-bearing, low-FeO chondrules that contain Na2O-bearing augite and Na2O- and K2O-rich mesostasis; these chondrules were probably formed after

  12. Chondrule formation during planetesimal accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Jutzi, Martin; Movshovitz, Naor

    2011-08-01

    We explore the idea that most chondrules formed as a consequence of inefficient pairwise accretion, when molten or partly molten planetesimals ~ 30-100 km diameter, similar in size, collided at velocities comparable to their two-body escape velocity ~ 100 m/s. Although too slow to produce shocks or disrupt targets, these collisions were messy, especially after ~ 1 Ma of dynamical excitation. In SPH simulations we find that the innermost portion of the projectile decelerates into the target, while the rest continues downrange in massive sheets. Unloading from pre-collision hydrostatic pressure P0 ~ 1-100 bar into the nebula, the melt achieves equilibrium with the surface energy of chondrule-sized droplets. Cooling is regulated post collision by the expansion of the optically thick sheets. on a timescale of hours-days. Much of the sheet rains back down onto the target to be reprocessed; the rest is dispersed.

  13. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ∼ 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  14. Chondrule magnetic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Obryan, M. V.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: chondrule magnetic properties; chondrules from the same meteorite; and REM values (the ratio for remanence initially measured to saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field). The preliminary field estimates for chondrules magnetizing environments range from minimal to a least several mT. These estimates are based on REM values and the characteristics of the remanence initially measured (natural remanence) thermal demagnetization compared to the saturation remanence in 1 Tesla field demagnetization.

  15. Condensation of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blander, M.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of current experimental results concerned with the kinetic constraints on chondrule formation showed that the major physical properties of chondrules could have been produced by direct condensation of metastable liquid silicates droplets from a hot gas in the primordial nebula. It is argued that such a condensation process would have to be followed by crystallization, accretion, and partial comminution of the droplets. The chemical mechanisms driving this process are described, including: nucleation constraints on comminution and crystallization; slow transformations and chemical reactions in chain silicates; and the slow diffusion of ions. It is shown that the physical mechanisms for chondrule condensation are applicable to a broad spectrum of chondrule sources.

  16. Complex zoning behavior in pyroxene in FeO-rich chondrules in the Semarkona ordinary chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the properties of silicate minerals in chondrules is essential to the interpretation of chondrule formation conditions. This study is further work in a series of petrologic studies of chondrules in the least equilibrated LL chondrite, Semarkona (LL3.0). The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) to understand chondrule formation conditions and nebular processes; and (2) to use the data as a basis for understanding the effects of metamorphism in more equilibrated chondrites. FeO-rich pyroxene in the chondrules described shows complex zoning behavior. Low-Ca clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, pigeonite, and augite are all observed, in various associations with one another. Coexisting olivine phenocrysts are also FeO-rich and strongly zoned. Compositional and zoning properties are similar to those observed in boninites and are interpreted as resulting from rapid cooling of individual chondrules.

  17. Petrology and mineralogy of Type II, FeO-rich chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) - Origin by closed-system fractional crystallization, with evidence for supercooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.

    1990-01-01

    The petrology of type II porphyritic olivine chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) has been studied in detail. Olivines in these chondrules are euhedral, Fe-rich, and are strongly zoned from cores to rims of grains in FeO (Fa10-30), Cr2O3 (0.2-0.6 wt pct), MnO (0.2-0.7 wt pct), and CaO (0.1-0.4 wt pct). Interstitial mesostasis is rich in Si, Al, and Ca and is glassy with abundant microcrystallites. Minor minerals include troilite, Fe,Ni metal, and chromite. Some olivine grains contain euhedral, fayalite-rich cores that are probably produced during initial supercooling of the chondrule melt. Rare relict grains of forsteritic olivine have compositions very similar to olivines in type IA chondrules in Semarkona and may result from disaggregation of such chondrules. Apart from these relics, all properties of type II chondrules can be described by closed-system fractional crystallization of droplets which were essentially entirely molten. Type IA chondrules may have formed from type II chondrules by loss of Fe and volatiles. Alternatively, the two chondrule types may have formed in regions of considerable diversity in the solar nebula from precursor materials with different Fe/Mg ratios.

  18. Fayalitic Olivine in Matrix of the Krymka LL3.1 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Prinz, M.

    1995-09-01

    the c direction of the larger olivine substrate. The larger, more magnesian olivine fragments are generally single crystals, but in some cases are associated with pyroxene (Fs(sub)(5-27),Wo(sub)(0.5-2)) or high-Ca pyroxene. These larger olivines are compositionally similar to chondrule olivines, whereas the fayalitic platelets are texturally and compositionally unlike olivines in chondrules. Fayalitic olivine with morphologies similar to those in Krymka matrix occur in the Chainpur LL3.4 and Ngawi LL3 matrix, but are much less common. These textures may have been characteristic of all primitive ordinary chondrite matrix, but were generally overprinted by metamorphic recrystallization. DISCUSSION: Fayalitic olivine in Krymka matrix records a process that has important implications for understanding the evolution of ordinary chondrites. It may form under oxidizing nebular conditions through solid state reactions in the presence of free silica, or vapor-solid reactions in a gas with a high silica activity [1,2]. Textural observations have been used to support a nebular origin for similar fayalitic olivine in CV3 matrix, and thermodynamic calculations indicate it could form in a nebula with a supersolar H2O/H2 ratio [3]. Vaporization experiments show that at ~10^(-6) bar and ~1650K olivine evaporates incongruently to produce a fayalitic vapor [4]. However, textural arguments favoring post-accretion formation of the fayalitic olivine in ordinary chondrite matrix and in CV3 dark inclusions have also been presented [5,6]. Thus, we consider three hypotheses for the formation of the fayalitic olivine in Krymka matrix: (1) vapor-solid reactions between a silica-rich vapor and metallic Fe degrees in the nebula, (2) vaporization of olivine-rich material to produce a fayalite vapor, followed by recondensation, or (3) parent body heating/dehydration of pre-existing phyllosilicates. Although the platy layered structure of some of the fayalitic olivine is suggestive of the layered

  19. Silica Under- and Oversaturated Mineral Assemblages in Chondrule Mesostases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Hutchison, R.

    1995-09-01

    In chondrules of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's), mesostases sometimes have compositions that are not in equilibrium with the co-existing minerals. Examples include highly silica-oversaturated mesostases in porphyritic olivine chondrules and feldspathoid-bearing mesostases in radiating pyroxene (enstatite) chondrules [1]. As part of a larger study of chondrules and clasts in UOC's, we report the results of a survey of the mineral assemblages in mesostases. Silica enrichment can manifest itself in mesostasis glass, with SiO2 contents up to 73wt%, or as silica polymorphs. Neither of these assemblages are in equilibrium with the olivine phenocrysts which comprise the bulk of the chondrules. Chondrule CC35 (type IIA [2]) separated from Chainpur (LL3.4) is an example of the latter. Mesostasis comprising 10% of CC35 contains An(sub)69-83, Ca-px (En(sub)44-52, Fs(sub)17-18, Wo(sub)31-39) and a silica polymorph. Silica oversaturation in chondrules can readily be attributed to abundant metastable olivine crystallisation, which drives residua towards quartz-, diopside- and feldspar-rich normative compositions. This could occur in chondrules crystallising as closed systems, so sampling of a larger, chemically fractionated reservoir need not necessarily be invoked, although silica-rich clasts provide evidence that an analogous process occurred in larger, open igneous systems [3]. Some silica undersaturated mineral assemblages in mesostases may also be explained by closed system crystallisation within chondrules. A radiating pyroxene chondrule in Chainpur (Chr1) contains interstitial nepheline and scapolite. Metastable crystallisation of enstatite from an initially chondritic melt composition, at low pressure, can create silica undersaturated residua. The LREE-enriched abundances of the Chr1 mesostasis minerals are consistent with this, having up to 19 x OC La and Eu/Eu* = 10 [4]. Similarly nepheline-bearing mesostasis identified in two Parnallee (LL3.6) chondrules

  20. Three Unusual Chondrules in the Bovedy (L3) Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, H. G. M.

    1993-07-01

    The Bovedy (L3) chondrite [1] has recently been studied petrographically using SEM and EMPA as part of a general review of the Irish meteorites. The following chondrules are notable: Chondrule 1. A covered thin-section of the Bovedy (Sprucefield) meteorite contains a very highly-strained, ellipsoidal, radiating pyroxene chondrule with a semi-major axis of 2mm. The elongation ratio, 2.6 x, is higher than values published elsewhere [2]. Chondrule 2. A slab of Bovedy (~48 cm^2) contains an exceptionally large, ellipsoidal, porphyritic olivine chondrule (semi-major axis = 1.4 cm, minor axis = 0.8 cm). This is among the largest droplet chondrule on record [2]. The chondrule is texturally identical to other PO chondrules in the meteorite. Chondrule 3. A polished thin-section, prepared from the above slab, contains an ellipsoidal-to-irregular shaped glassy chondrule (Fig. 1). SEM and EMPA confirm a composition of pyroxenitic glass (brown) with globular and elongate inclusions of silica glass (colorless). Representative EMPA of the brown glass (in wt%) is: SiO2 57.49, Al2O3 0.93, Cr2O3 0.38, FeO 14.22, MnO 0.63, MgO 23.32, CaO 2.69, Na2O 1.03 (no other elements detected). This can be recast as a pyroxene with formula Ca(sub)0.10 Na(sub)0.07 Fe(sub)0.43Mg(sub)1.26Al(sub)0.04 Cr(sub)0.01Mn(sub)0.02Si(sub)2.08O(sub)6. The composition corresponds closely with that reported by [3] for a silica pyroxenite clast from the same meteorite. It suggests that the chondrule was derived by rapid melting of the material represented by the clast, which has been interpreted as an igneous fractionate formed in a planetary environment. References: [1] Graham A. L. et al. (1976) GCA, 40, 529-535. [2] Grossman J. N. et al. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews, eds.), 619-659, Univ. Arizona. [3] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 283. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows a photograph of chondrule 3 photographed in

  1. Terminal particle from Stardust track 130: Probable Al-rich chondrule fragment from comet Wild 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joswiak, D. J.; Nakashima, D.; Brownlee, D. E.; Matrajt, G.; Ushikubo, T.; Kita, N. T.; Messenger, S.; Ito, M.

    2014-11-01

    A 4 × 6 μm terminal particle from Stardust track 130, named Bidi, is composed of a refractory assemblage of Fo97 olivine, Al- and Ti-bearing clinopyroxene and anorthite feldspar (An97). Mineralogically, Bidi resembles a number of components found in primitive chondritic meteorites including Al-rich chondrules, plagioclase-bearing type I ferromagnesian chondrules and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs). Measured widths of augite/pigeonite lamellae in the clinopyroxene indicate fast cooling rates suggesting that Bidi is more likely to be a chondrule fragment than an AOA. Bulk element concentrations, including an Al2O3 content of 10.2 wt%, further suggests that Bidi is more akin to Al-rich rather than ferromagnesian chondrules. This is supported by high anorthite content of the plagioclase feldspar, overall bulk composition and petrogenetic analysis using a cosmochemical Al2O3-Ca2SiO4-Mg2SiO4 phase diagram. Measured minor element abundances of individual minerals in Bidi generally support an Al-rich chondrule origin but are not definitive between any of the object types. Oxygen isotope ratios obtained from olivine (+minor high-Ca pyroxene)fall between the TF and CCAM lines and overlap similar minerals from chondrules in primitive chondrites but are generally distinct from pristine AOA minerals. Oxygen isotope ratios are similar to some minerals from both Al-rich and type I ferromagnesian chondrules in unequilibrated carbonaceous, enstatite and ordinary chondrites. Although no single piece of evidence uniquely identifies Bidi as a particular object type, the preponderance of data, including mineral assemblage, bulk composition, mineral chemistry, inferred cooling rates and oxygen isotope ratios, suggest that Bidi is more closely matched to Al-rich chondrules than AOAs or plagioclase-bearing type I ferromagnesian chondrules and likely originated in a chondrule-forming region in the inner solar system.

  2. A RELICT Spinel Grain in an Allende Ferromagnesian Chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, K.; Fujita, T.; Kitamura, M.; Nakamura, N.; Yurimoto, H.

    1993-07-01

    It is suggested that one of the refractory lithophile precursors in CV-CO chondrules was a hightemperature condensate from the nebular gas and was related to Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) [1-3]. However, little is known about refractory siderophile precursors in chondrules [4]. Allende barred olivine chondrule R-11 consists mainly of olivine (Fa(sub)7- 18), pyroxene (En(sub)93Fs(sub)1Wo(sub)6, En(sub)66Fs(sub)1Wo(sub)33), plagioclase (An(sub)80), Fe-poor spinel, and alkali-rich glass. The CI- chondrite normalized REE pattern of the chondrule, excluding a spinel grain, are fractionated, HREEdepleted (4.6-7.8 x CI) with a large positive Yb anomaly. The REE abundances are hump-shaped functions of elemental volatility, moderately refractory REE-enriched, suggesting that the refractory lithophile precursor component of R-11 could be a condensate from the nebular gas and related to Group 11 CAIs [1,2]. An interior portion of spinel is almost Fe-free, but in an outer zone (2040 micrometers in width) FeO contents increase rapidly. TiO(sub)2, Cr(sub)2O(sub)3, and V(sub)2O(sub)3 contents in core spinel are less than 0.5%, which is different from the V-rich nature of spinel in fluffy Type A CAIs [5]. The Fe-Mg zoning of spinel may have been generated by diffusional emplacement of Mg and Fe during chondrule-forming events. The spinel contains silicate inclusions and tiny metallic grains. The largest silicate inclusion is composed of Al,Ti-rich pyroxene and Ak 40 melilite. One of the submicrometersized grains was analyzed by SEM-EDS and found to be composed of refractory Pt-group metals with minor amounts of Fe and Ni. This is the first occurrence of refractory Pt-group metal nuggets in a ferromagnesian chondrule from the Allende meteorite. Tungsten, Os, Ir, Mo, and Ru are enriched 2-6 x 10^5 relative to CIs, and abundances of Pt and Rh decrease 2-10 x 10^4 with increasing volatility. In addition, abundances of Fe and Ni in the nugget are equal to or less than that CI chondrites

  3. Oxygen-isotope compositions of chondrule phenocrysts and matrix grains in Kakangari K-grouplet chondrite: Implication to a chondrule-matrix genetic relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.

    2015-02-01

    To investigate a possible relationship between chondrules and matrix, we studied mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and in situ O-isotope compositions of chondrules, clastic matrix grains, and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in the Kakangari K-grouplet chondrite. Most olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes in the Kakangari chondrules, matrix, and AOAs have similar magnesium-rich compositions, Fo∼95-97 (∼0.3-0.5 wt% MnO) and En∼90-96, respectively. These rather uniform chemical compositions of the different chondritic components are likely due to partial Fe-Mg-Mn equilibration during thermal metamorphism experienced by the host meteorite. Oxygen-isotope compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene grains in chondrules and matrix plot along a slope-1 line on a three O-isotope diagram and show a range from 16O-enriched composition similar to that of the Sun to 16O-depleted composition similar to the terrestrial O-isotope composition. Most olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes in chondrules are 16O-poor and plot on or close to the terrestrial mass-fractionation line (mean Δ17O values ±2 standard deviations: 0.0 ± 0.8‰ and +0.2 ± 0.9‰ for olivine and pyroxene, respectively), consistent with the previously reported compositions of bulk chondrules (Δ17O = -0.16 ± 0.70‰). In addition to these 16O-poor grains, a coarse-grained igneous rim surrounding a porphyritic chondrule contains abundant 16O-rich relict olivines (Δ17O ∼ -24‰). Oxygen-isotope compositions of olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes in matrix show a bimodal distribution: 12 out of 13 olivine and 4 out of 17 pyroxene grains measured are similarly 16O-rich (Δ17O ∼ -23.5 ± 2.9‰), others are similarly 16O-poor (Δ17O ∼ -0.1 ± 1.7‰). Due to slow oxygen self-diffusion, olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes largely retained their original oxygen-isotope compositions. The nearly identical O-isotope compositions between the chondrule phenocrysts and the 16O-poor matrix grains suggest both chondrules and matrix of

  4. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  5. Are some chondrule rims formed by impact processes? Observations and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T E; Schultz, P; Cassen, P; Brownlee, D; Podolak, M; Lissauer, J; Reynolds, R; Chang, S

    1991-01-01

    Observations and experimental evidence are presented to support the hypothesis that high-speed impact into a parent body regolith can best explain certain textures and compositions observed for rims on some chondrules. A study of 19 interclastic rimmed chondrules in the Weston (H 3/4) ordinary chondrite shows that two main rim types are present on porphyritic olivine-pyroxene (POP) and porphyritic pyroxene (PP) chondrules: granular and opaque rims. Granular rims are composed of welded, fine-grained host chondrule fragments. Bulk compositions of granular rims vary among chondrules, but each rim is compositionally dependent on that of the host chondrule. Opaque rims contain mineral and glass compositions distinctly different from those of the host, partially reacted chondrule mantle components, and some matrix grains. Opaque rims are greatly enriched in FeO (up to 63 wt%). The original chondrule pyroxene compositional zonation patterns and euhedral grain outlines are discontinuous at the chondrule/rim interface. Opaque rims are dominated by fayalitic olivine (Fa92-56), with high Al2O3 content (0.78-3.15%), which makes them distinctly different from primary olivine, but similar to Fe-olivine in chondrule rims of other meteorites. Thin zones of chondrule minerals adjacent to the present rims are intermediate in FeO content between the Mg-rich interior and the Fe-rich rim, which indicates a reaction relationship. Regardless of conclusions drawn regarding other types of rims, granular and opaque rim characteristics appear to be inconsistent with nebular condensation, in that host and matrix fragments are included within the rim. We have initiated a series of experiments, using the Ames two-stage light gas gun, to investigate the hypothesis that the Weston chondrule rims are the result of thermal and mechanical alteration upon impact into a low-density medium. Clusters of approximately 200-micron-sized silicate particles were fired into aerogel (density = 0.1 g cm-3) at

  6. EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, S. W.; McDonough, W. F.; NéMeth, P.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the matrix mineralogy in primitive EH3 chondrites Sahara 97072, ALH 84170, and LAR 06252 with transmission electron microscopy; measured the trace and major element compositions of Sahara 97072 matrix and ferromagnesian chondrules with laser-ablation, inductively coupled, plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS); and analyzed the bulk composition of Sahara 97072 with LA-ICPMS, solution ICPMS, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The fine-grained matrix of EH3 chondrites is unlike that in other chondrite groups, consisting primarily of enstatite, cristobalite, troilite, and kamacite with a notable absence of olivine. Matrix and pyroxene-rich chondrule compositions differ from one another and are distinct from the bulk meteorite. Refractory lithophile elements are enriched by a factor of 1.5-3 in chondrules relative to matrix, whereas the matrix is enriched in moderately volatile elements. The compositional relation between the chondrules and matrix is reminiscent of the difference between EH3 pyroxene-rich chondrules and EH3 Si-rich, highly sulfidized chondrules. Similar refractory element ratios between the matrix and the pyroxene-rich chondrules suggest the fine-grained material primarily consists of the shattered, sulfidized remains of the formerly pyroxene-rich chondrules with the minor addition of metal clasts. The matrix, chondrule, and metal-sulfide nodule compositions are probably complementary, suggesting all the components of the EH3 chondrites came from the same nebular reservoir.

  7. Oxygen isotope characteristics of chondrules from the Yamato-82094 ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite: Further evidence for common O-isotope environments sampled among carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, T. J.; Kimura, M.; Kita, N. T.

    2017-02-01

    High-precision secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was employed to investigate oxygen three isotopes of phenocrysts in 35 chondrules from the Yamato (Y) 82094 ungrouped 3.2 carbonaceous chondrite. Twenty-one of 21 chondrules have multiple homogeneous pyroxene data (∆17O 3SD analytical uncertainty: 0.7‰); 17 of 17 chondrules have multiple homogeneous pyroxene and plagioclase data. Twenty-one of 25 chondrules have one or more olivine data matching coexisting pyroxene data. Such homogeneous phenocrysts (1) are interpreted to have crystallized from the final chondrule melt, defining host O-isotope ratios; and (2) suggest efficient O-isotope exchange between ambient gas and chondrule melt during formation. Host values plot within 0.7‰ of the primitive chondrule mineral (PCM) line. Seventeen chondrules have relict olivine and/or spinel, with some δ17O and δ18O values approaching -40‰, similar to CAI or AOA-like precursors. Regarding host chondrule data, 22 of 34 have Mg#s of 98.8-99.5 and ∆17O of -3.9‰ to -6.1‰, consistent with most Acfer 094, CO, CR, and CV chondrite chondrules, and suggesting a common reduced O-isotope reservoir devoid of 16O-poor H2O. Six Y-82094 chondrules have ∆17O near -2.5‰, with Mg#s of 64-97, consistent with lower Mg# chondrules from Acfer 094, CO, CR, and CV chondrites; their signatures suggest precursors consisting of those forming Mg# 99, ∆17O: -5‰ ± 1‰ chondrules plus 16O-poor H2O, at high dust enrichments. Three type II chondrules plot slightly above the PCM line, near the terrestrial fractionation line (∆17O: +0.1‰). Their O-isotopes and olivine chemistry are like LL3 type II chondrules, suggesting they sampled ordinary chondrite-like chondrule precursors. Finally, three Mg# >99 chondrules have ∆17O of -6.7‰ to -8.1‰, potentially due to 16O-rich refractory precursor components. The predominance of Mg# 99, ∆17O: -5‰ ± 1‰ chondrules and a high chondrule-to-matrix ratio suggests bulk Y-82094

  8. Deformation and thermal histories of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3. 4) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The results of optical and TEM studies of chondrules in the Chainpur (LL3.4) chondrite are presented. Results were obtained, using a microprobe, from quantitative microchemical analyses for Mg, Fe, Si, and Ca for the chondrule olivine and pyroxene, showing that chondrules in the Chainpur chondrite experienced varied degrees of annealing and deformation. It is suggested that Chainpur may be an agglomerate of a breccia that experienced little overall deformation or heating during and after the final accumulation and compaction of its constituents. 75 refs.

  9. Origin of Chondrules and Matrix in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Ikeda, Y.

    1993-07-01

    We have recently shown that in Allende, chondrules and matrix are complementary in composition. Chondrules have low Fe/Cr ratios and matrix has high Fe/Cr ratios; the bulk meteorite has the CI ratio. Chondrules on the average have Ca/Al ratios below the solar system ratio of 1.10, which is also the bulk Allende ratio; matrix and related dark inclusions have ratios above 1.10. It was therefore concluded that chondrules and matrix formed from a single reservoir characteristic of the bulk Allende composition [1,2]. Recent reports on the CV meteorite Y-86751 [3,4] indicated the opposite relationship, with high Ca/Al ratios in chondrules and low ratios in matrix. Different compositions of individual components of Y-86751 and of Allende but similar bulk compositions of both meteorites may reveal important details on the preaccretionary evolution of the carbonaceous chondrites. We have therefore begun chemical analyses of the bulk of Y-86751 and its individual lithic components, chondrules, matrix, amoeboid olivine inclusions, Ca,Al-rich inclusions, etc. Results of the bulk analysis of Y-86751 show that this meteorite has (within the accuracy of the analysis) the same bulk composition as Allende. In particular, the Ca/Al ratio is within 3% of the average solar system ratio of 1.1 (by weight). The only statistically resolvable difference is the 50% higher content of Zn in Y-86751. Major-element INA analyses indicate a Ca/Al ratio above the chondritic ratio for several chondrules and opposite to that of average Allende chondrules [1]. Matrix samples have a tendency for low Ca/Al ratios, confirming EMP-matrix analyses [4]. The separates are presently analyzed for a large number of trace elements. After the analyses, separates will be investigated petrographically. The apparent disequilibrium among Allende components and the strong compositional zoning of olivine grains constrain the thermal history of the Allende parent body [e.g., 5]. Any metamorphic redistribution of Ca or

  10. Magnesium isotopic fractionation in chondrules from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, Audrey; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Simon, Steven B.; Grossman, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    We present high-precision measurements of the Mg isotopic compositions of a suite of types I and II chondrules separated from the Murchison and Murray CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. These chondrules are olivine- and pyroxene-rich and have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.012-0.316). The Mg isotopic compositions of Murray chondrules are on average lighter (δ26Mg ranging from -0.95‰ to -0.15‰ relative to the DSM-3 standard) than those of Murchison (δ26Mg ranging from -1.27‰ to +0.77‰). Taken together, the CM2 chondrules exhibit a narrower range of Mg isotopic compositions than those from CV and CB chondrites studied previously. The least-altered CM2 chondrules are on average lighter (average δ26Mg = -0.39 ± 0.30‰, 2SE) than the moderately to heavily altered CM2 chondrules (average δ26Mg = -0.11 ± 0.21‰, 2SE). The compositions of CM2 chondrules are consistent with isotopic fractionation toward heavy Mg being associated with the formation of secondary silicate phases on the CM2 parent body, but were also probably affected by volatilization and recondensation processes involved in their original formation. The low-Al CM2 chondrules analyzed here do not exhibit any mass-independent variations in 26Mg from the decay of 26Al, with the exception of two chondrules that show only small variations just outside of the analytical error. In the case of the chondrule with the highest Al/Mg ratio (a type IAB chondrule from Murchison), the lack of resolvable 26Mg excess suggests that it either formed >1 Ma after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, or that its Al-Mg isotope systematics were reset by secondary alteration processes on the CM2 chondrite parent body after the decay of 26Al.

  11. Distribution of 26Al in the CR chondrite chondrule-forming region of the protoplanetary disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Ogliore, Ryan C.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Amelin, Yuri; Stirling, Claudine H.; Kaltenbach, Angela

    2017-03-01

    We report on the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of eight porphyritic chondrules (seven FeO-poor and one FeO-rich) from the Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites Graves Nunataks 95229, Grosvenor Mountains 03116, Pecora Escarpment 91082, and Queen Alexandra Range 99177, which experienced minor aqueous alteration and very mild thermal metamorphism. We find no evidence that these processes modified the oxygen- or Al-Mg isotope systematics of chondrules in these meteorites. Olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase within an individual chondrule have similar O-isotope compositions, suggesting crystallization from isotopically uniform melts. The only exceptions are relict grains in two of the chondrules; these grains are 16O-enriched relative to phenocrysts of the host chondrules. Only the FeO-rich chondrule shows a resolvable excesses of 26Mg, corresponding to an inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] of (2.5 ± 1.6) × 10-6 (±2SE). Combining these results with the previously reported Al-Mg isotope systematics of CR chondrules (Nagashima et al., 2014, Geochem. J. 48, 561), 7 of 22 chondrules (32%) measured show resolvable excesses of 26Mg; the presence of excess 26Mg does not correlate with the FeO content of chondrule silicates. In contrast, virtually all chondrules in weakly metamorphosed (petrologic type 3.0-3.1) unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs), Ornans-like carbonaceous (CO) chondrites, and the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094 show resolvable excesses of 26Mg. The inferred (26Al/27Al)0 in CR chondrules with resolvable excesses of 26Mg range from (1.0 ± 0.4) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 0.9) × 10-6, which is typically lower than (26Al/27Al)0 in the majority of chondrules from UOCs, COs, and Acfer 094. Based on the inferred (26Al/27Al)0, three populations of CR chondrules are recognized; the population characterized by low (26Al/27Al)0 (<3 × 10-6) is dominant. There are no noticeable

  12. Mass transfer of Fe during the serpentinization of olivine by SiO2 rich fluid at 300°C, 500 bars: Perspectives from mineral dissolution/precipitation rates and Fe isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syverson, D. D.; Tutolo, B. M.; Borrok, D. M.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    High temperature (~300°C) hydrothermal alteration of peridotites can produce an alteration assemblage abundant in Fe-bearing serpentine and magnetite without the presence of brucite. This is particularly so in systems with SiO2-rich fluids derived from the hydration of orthopyroxene in basaltic intrusions and gabbros [1]. Few experimental studies have investigated the effects of aSiO2(aq) on the rate of olivine serpentinization and none that have examined the Fe isotopic composition of olivine hydrolysis products. Thus, this study addresses these problems by using flexible gold cell hydrothermal equipment to react olivine (Fo90) and talc with a NaCl-bearing fluid at 300 °C and 500 bars for ~90 days; providing time-series solution chemistry data coupled with Fe isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and Mössbauer measurements of reactant olivine and the serpentinization product. Talc is used to elevate the aSiO2(aq)above the serpentine-brucite buffer, effectively preventing brucite formation and allowing only the formation of Fe-bearing serpentine and magnetite from olivine alteration. Initial time series solution chemistry data indicate that the net rate of the serpentinization of olivine and talc dissolution is such that the experimental system is poised between the serpentine-brucite and serpentine-talc stability fields, with little H2 generated by the oxidation of Fe2+ upon formation of Fe-serpentine and magnetite. However, as the talc Si-source becomes effectively titrated, the continued hydration of olivine decreases the aSiO2(aq) towards the serpentine-brucite stability field concurrent with an increasing rate of H2 generation. This chemical transition likely reflects an enhanced rate of magnetite formation upon a decrease in the relative stability of Fe-serpentine. Fe isotope data indicate a slight enrichment trend in δ56Fe versus Fe3+/ΣFe of the altered mineral phases, magnetite > Fe-serpentine > olivine, although the observed inter-mineral fractionations

  13. Zoned chondrules in Semarkona: Evidence for high-and low-temperature processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, Jingyuan; Brearley, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    At least 15% of the low-FeO chondrules in Semarkona (LL3.0) have mesostases that are concentrically zoned in Na, with enrichments near the outer margins. We have studied zoned chondrules using electron microprobe methods (x-ray mapping plus quantitative analysis), ion micropobe analysis for trace elements and hydrogen isotopes, cathodoluminescence imaging, and transmission electron microscopy in order to determine what these objects can tell us about the environment in which chondrules formed and evolved. Mesostases in these chondrules are strongly zoned in all moderately volatile elements and H (interpreted as water). Calcium is depleted in areas of volatile enrichment. Titanium and Cr generally decrease toward the chondrule surfaces, whereas Al and Si may either increase or decrease, generally in opposite directions to one another; Mn follows Na in some chondrules but not in others; Fe and Mg are unzoned. D/H ratios increase in the water-rich areas of zoned chondrules. Mesostasis shows cathodoluminescence zoning in most zoned chondrules, with the brightest yellow color near the outside. Mesostasis in zoned chondrules appears to be glassy, with no evidence for devitrification. Systematic variations in zoning patterns among pyroxene- and olivine-rich chondrules may indicate that fractionation of low- and high-Ca pyroxene played some role in Ti, Cr, Mn, Si, Al, and some Ca zoning. But direct condensation of elements into hot chondrules, secondary melting of late condensates into the outer portions of chondrules, and subsolidus diffusion of elements into warm chondrules cannot account for the sub-parallel zoning profiles of many elements, the presence of H2O, or elemental abundance patterns. Zoning of moderately volatile elements and Ca may have been produced by hydration of chondrule glass without devitrification during aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. This could have induced structural changes in the glass allowing rapid diffusion and exchange of elements

  14. Constraining the Cooling Rates of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, S. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Anand, M.; Grady, M. M.

    2017-02-01

    The cooling rates of chondrules are an important constraint on chondrule formation. By measuring and modelling diffusion profiles between relict grain and overgrowth formed during cooling, we will calculate the cooling rate of the host chondrule.

  15. Cosmic setting for chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, K.

    1983-01-01

    Chondrules are igneous-textured, millimeter-sized, spherical to irregularly-shaped silicate objects which constitute the major component of most chondrites. There is agreement that chondrules were once molten. Models for chondrule origin can be divided into two categories. One involves a 'planetary' setting, which envisages chondrules forming on the surfaces of parent bodies. Melting mechanisms include impact and volcanism. The other category is concerned with a cosmic setting in the solar nebula, prior to nebula formation. Aspects regarding the impact on planetary surfaces are considered, taking into account chondrule abundances, the abundancy of agglutinates on the moon, comminution, hypervelocity impact pits, questions of age, and chondrule compositions. Attention is also given to collisions during accretion, collisions between molten planetesimals, volcanism, and virtues of a nebular setting.

  16. Evidence for primitive nebular components in chondrules from the Chainpur chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, J. N.; Wasson, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    In view of the fact that the least equilibrated ordinary chondrites contain chondrules that have changed little since the time of their formation in the early solar system, and are therefore excellent indicators of the physical and chemical nature of the solar nebula, 36 chondrules were separated from the Chainpur chondrite and analyzed for 20 elements and petrographic properties. The dominant nebular components found are: (1) a mixture of metal and sulfide whose composition is similar to whole rock metal and sulfide, (2) Ir-rich metal, (3) olivine-rich silicates, (4) pyroxene-rich silicates, and possibly (5) a component containing the more volatile lithophiles. Although etching experiments confirm that chondrule rims are enriched in metal, troilite and moderately volatile elements relative to the bulk chondrules, a large fraction of the volatiles remains in the unetched interior.

  17. The formation and alteration of the Renazzo-like carbonaceous chondrites III: Toward understanding the genesis of ferromagnesian chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Devin L.; Connolly, Harold C.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Zega, Thomas J.; Davidson, Jemma; Domanik, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the formation conditions of ferromagnesian chondrules from the Renazzo-like carbonaceous (CR) chondrites, a systematic study of 210 chondrules from 15 CR chondrites was conducted. The texture and composition of silicate and opaque minerals from each observed FeO-rich (type II) chondrule, and a representative number of FeO-poor (type I) chondrules, were studied to build a substantial and self-consistent data set. The average abundances and standard deviations of Cr2O3 in FeO-rich olivine phenocrysts are consistent with previous work that the CR chondrites are among the least thermally altered samples from the early solar system. Type II chondrules from the CR chondrites formed under highly variable conditions (e.g., precursor composition, redox conditions, cooling rate), with each chondrule recording a distinct igneous history. The opaque minerals within type II chondrules are consistent with formation during chondrule melting and cooling, starting as S- and Ni-rich liquids at 988-1350 °C, then cooling to form monosulfide solid solution (mss) that crystallized around olivine/pyroxene phenocrysts. During cooling, Fe,Ni-metal crystallized from the S- and Ni-rich liquid, and upon further cooling mss decomposed into pentlandite and pyrrhotite, with pentlandite exsolving from mss at 400-600 °C. The composition, texture, and inferred formation temperature of pentlandite within chondrules studied here is inconsistent with formation via aqueous alteration. However, some opaque minerals (Fe,Ni-metal versus magnetite and panethite) present in type II chondrules are a proxy for the degree of whole-rock aqueous alteration. The texture and composition of sulfide-bearing opaque minerals in Graves Nunataks 06100 and Grosvenor Mountains 03116 suggest that they are the most thermally altered CR chondrites.

  18. A Parent Magma for the Nakhla Martian Meteorite: Reconciliation of Estimates from 1-Bar Experiments, Magmatic Inclusions in Olivine, and Magmatic Inclusions in Augite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Goodrich, Cyrena Anne

    2001-01-01

    The composition of the parent magma for the Nakhla (martian) meteorite has been estimated from mineral-melt partitioning and from magmatic inclusions in olivine and in augite. These independent lines of evidence have converged on small range of likely compositions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Genetic relationship between Na-rich chondrules and Ca,Al-rich inclusions? - Formation of Na-rich chondrules by melting of refractory and volatile precursors in the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi

    2016-03-01

    Al-rich objects (Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), Al-rich chondrules, Al-rich fragments) occur in all chondrite classes. These objects can be centimeter-sized in CV3 carbonaceous chondrites, but they are generally much smaller in other chondrite groups and classes. Within the ordinary chondrites, most Al-rich objects are chondrules that vary from Ca- to Na-rich. Here, we have investigated the mineralogy and major element chemistry of 32 Na-rich chondrules and 3 Na-rich fragments from 15 different chondrites. Most objects (chondrules and chondrule fragments) are from ordinary chondrites (petrologic types 3.2-3.8), but two of the chondrules are from two CO3 chondrites, and three of the chondrules are from one Rumuruti (R)-chondrite. We found that these Na-rich objects have bulk Na2O-concentrations between 4.3 and 15.2 wt%. Texturally, they typically consist of euhedral to subhedral (often skeletal) mafic minerals (olivine and pyroxenes) embedded within a nepheline-normative, glassy mesostasis, which is brownish in transmitted light. In addition, some chondrules contain euhedral to subhedral spinel. Bulk chondrule compositions show group II, group III, and ultrarefractory rare earth element (REE) patterns similar to those found in CAIs. These results clearly demonstrate that the Na-rich chondrules must have been formed by melting of precursors containing an (ultra-)refractory element-rich component and Na-rich constituents. The Na-rich chondrules showed Sm and Eu anomalies, indicating that they must have formed at low oxygen fugacities. Based on the chemical composition of the Na-rich objects, we can rule out that they were formed as a result of planetary formation due to metasomatic processes or processes related to collisions between molten planetesimals.

  20. Producing chondrules by recycling and volatile loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, C. M. O.

    1994-01-01

    Interelement correlations observed in bulk chondrule INAA data, particularly between the refractory lithophiles, have led to the now generally accepted conclusion that the chondrule precursors were nebular condensates. However, it has been recently suggested that random sampling of fragments from a previous generation of chondrules could reproduce much of the observed range of bulk chondrule composition.

  1. Origin of plagioclase-olivine inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Y.J.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Wasserburg, G.J. )

    1991-02-01

    Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusions (POIs) are an abundant group of chondrule-like objects with igneous textures found in carbonaceous chondrites. POIs consist of plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene, and spinel, and cover a wide range of compositions between Type C Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and ferromagnesian chondrules. POIs are distinguished from CAIs by the absence of melilite, lack of refractory siderophile-rich opaque assemblages, more sodic plagioclase, and abundance of olivine and aluminousenstatite. Rare accessory minerals including armalcolite, zirconolite, rutile, and sapphirine are found in several POIs. The petrographic and chemical properties of POIs indicate that they are not condensates or evaporative residues but formed by melting or partial melting of pre-existing solids. Seven of fourteen POIs contain isotopically fractionated Mg, and despite their textures these POIs are not isotopically homogeneous. A comparison of the essential characteristics of POIs and CAIs suggests that the major processes leading to formation of POIs - including condensation, dust/gas fractionation, aggregation of chemically and isotopically disparate materials, and partial melting - are common to most CAIs and chondrules. We present a scenario for the formulation of these objects and conclude that the homogeneity of the final assemblage - CAI, POI, or chondrule - is primarily a reflection of the thermal history rather than the nature of precursor materials.

  2. Iodine-xenon, chemical, and petrographie studies of Semarkona chondrules: Evidence for the timing of aqueous alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swindle, T.D.; Grossman, J.N.; Olinger, C.T.; Garrison, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed INAA, petrographie, and noble gas analyses on seventeen chondrules from the Semarkona meteorite (LL3.0) primarily to study the relationship of the I-Xe system to other measured properties. We observe a range of ???10 Ma in apparent I-Xe ages. The three latest apparent ages fall in a cluster, suggesting the possibility of a common event. The initial 129I/127I ratio (R0) is apparently related to chondrule type and/or mineralogy, with nonporphyritic and pyroxene-rich chondrules showing evidence for lower R0'S (later apparent I-Xe ages) than porphyritic and olivine-rich chondrules. In addition, chondrules with sulfides on or near the surface have lower R0S than other chondrules. The 129Xe/132Xe ratio in the trapped Xe component anticorrelates with R0, consistent with evolution of a chronometer in a closed system or in multiple similar systems. On the basis of these correlations, we conclude that the variations in R0 represent variations in ages, and that later event(s), possibly aqueous alteration, preferentially affected chondrules with nonporphyritic textures and/or sulfide-rich exteriors about 10 Ma after the formation of the chondrules. ?? 1991.

  3. Iodine-xenon, chemical, and petrographic studies of Semarkona chondrules - Evidence for the timing of aqueous alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Grossman, J. N.; Olinger, C. T.; Garrison, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship of the I-Xe system of the Semarkona meteorite to other measured properties is investigated via INAA, petrographic, and noble-gas analyses on 17 chondrules from the meteorite. A range of not less than 10 Ma in apparent I-Xe ages is observed. The three latest apparent ages fall in a cluster, suggesting the possibility of a common event. It is argued that the initial I-129/I-127 ratio (R0) is related to chondrule type and/or mineralogy, with nonporphyritic and pyroxene-rich chondrules showing evidence for lower R0s than porphyritic and olivine-rich chondrules. Chondrules with sulfides on or near the surface have lower R0s than other chondrules. The He-129/Xe-132 ratio in the trapped Xe component anticorrelates with R0, consistent with the evolution of a chronometer in a closed system or in multiple systems. It is concluded that the variations in R0 represent variations in ages, and that later events, possibly aqueous alteration, preferentially affected chondrules with nonporphyritic textures and/or sulfide-rich exteriors about 10 Ma after the formation of the chondrules.

  4. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  5. Ubiquitous Low-FeO Relict Grains in Type II Chondrules and Limited Overgrowths on Phenocrysts Following the Final Melting Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Type II porphyritic chondrules commonly contain several large (>40 microns) olivine phenocrysts; furnace-based cooling rates based on the assumption that these phenocrysts grew in a single-stage melting-cooling event yield chondrule cooling-rate estimates of 0.01-1 K/s. Because other evidence indicates much higher cooling rates, we examined type 11 chondrules in the CO3.0 chondrites that have experienced only minimal parent-body alteration. We discovered three kinds of evidence indicating that only minor (4-10 microns) olivine growth occurred after the final melting event: (1) Nearly all (>90%) type II chondrules in CO3.0 chondrites contain low-FeO relict grains; overgrowths on these relicts are narrow, in the range of 2-12 microns. (2) Most type II chondrules contain some FeO-rich olivine grains with decurved surfaces and acute angles between faces indicating that the grains are fragments from an earlier generation of chondrules; the limited overgrowth thicknesses following the last melting event are too thin to disguise the shard-like nature of these grains. (3) Most type II chondrules contain many small (<20 microns) euhedral or subhedral phenocrysts with central compositions that are much more ferroan than the centers of the large phenocrysts; their small sizes document the small amount of growth that occurred after the final melting event. If overgrowth thicknesses were small (4-10 microns) after the final melting event, it follows that large fractions of coarse (>40 microns) high-FeO phenocrysts are relicts from earlier generations of chondrules, and that cooling rates after the last melting event were much more rapid than indicated by models based on a single melting event. These observations are thus inconsistent with the "classic" igneous model of formation of type II porphyritic chondrules by near-total melting of a precursor mix followed by olivine nucleation on a very limited number of nuclei (say, <10) and by growth to produce the large phenocrysts

  6. Classifying Chondrules Based on Cathodoluminesence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristarela, T. C.; Sears, D. W.

    2011-03-01

    Sears et al. (1991) proposed a scheme to classify chondrules based on cathodoluminesence color and electron microprobe analysis. This research evaluates that scheme and criticisms received from Grossman and Brearley (2005).

  7. Unusual chondrules in the Mbale ordinary chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. R.; Moore, C. B.

    1994-07-01

    Four chondrules with properties that distinguish them from the usual ferromagnesian chondrules have been found in the Mbale, Uganda, chondrite; three are dominated by chromite-rich and chromian spinel-rich phases and a fourth by an SiO2 phase. These chondrules are characterized by clearly defined visual chondrule boundaries, which is unexpected given the chondrite petrologic type (L6). Sharp chondrule boundaries appear to have remained due to the unique mineralogy of these chondrules, which enabled them to resist the effects of metamorphism and maintain their shape. Chondrule A is spherical in shape, about 850 microns in apparent diameter and black in color. Chondrule B is black in color, spherical, and about 1775 microns in apparent diameter. Chondrule C is spherical and about 3.0 mm in apparent diameter. Chondrule matrix is black in color and surrounds a conspicuous 800 x 900-microns, white, subhedral Ca-phosphate crystal. Chondrule D is ovate in shape with dimensions of approximately 4.5 x 3.5 mm. A 0.6-mm-thick, pale-green, fibrous, orthopyroxene rim is the most prominent characteristic of this chondrule. The current consensus regarding chondrule formation involves melting of preexisting dust by a transient heat source. However, phases such as chromite, chromian spinel, and SiO2 are not predicted to form via equilibrium condensation in the solar nebula. Volatile fractionation, which could produce a refractory-rich precursor and a volatile-rich precursor, or condensation under highly oxidizing, nonequilibrium conditions may be responsible for producing the chromite-rich chondrules. The small chromite grains may, however, result from the breakdown of a Cr-rich silicate to plagioclase and chromite during parent-body metamorphism. Chondrules A and B occur on the same thin section. Chondrules C and D were found in the same sample about 1 cm apart and represent two very different chondrule types.

  8. Strain Measurements of Chondrules and Refraction Inclusion in Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Fisher, Kent R.; Simon, Justin I.

    2013-01-01

    This study uses traditional strain measurement techniques, combined with X-ray computerized tomography (CT), to evaluate petrographic evidence in the Allende CV3 chondrite for preferred orientation and to measure strain in three dimensions. The existence of petrofabrics and lineations was first observed in carbonaceous meteorites in the 1960's. Yet, fifty years later only a few studies have reported that meteorites record such features. Impacts are often cited as the mechanism for this feature, although plastic deformation from overburden and nebular imbrication have also been proposed. Previous work conducted on the Leoville CV3 and the Parnallee LL3 chondrites, exhibited a minimum uniaxial shortening of 33% and 21%, respectively. Petrofabrics in Allende CV3 have been looked at before; previous workers using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) found a major-axis alignment of olivine inside dark inclusions and an "augen"-like preferred orientation of olivine grains around more competent chondrules

  9. Evidence in CO3.0 Chondrules for a drift in the O Isotopic Composition of the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Rubin, Alan E.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that materials such as magnetite that formed in asteroids tend to have higher Delta O-17 (=delta O-17 -0.52 delta O-18) values than those recorded in unaltered chondrules. Other recent studies have shown that, in sets of chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites, Delta O-17 tends to increase as the FeO contents of the silicates increase. We report a comparison of the O isotopic composition of olivine phenocrysts in low-FeO (Fal5) type II porphyritic chondrules in the highly primitive C03.0 chondrite Yamato-81020. In agreement with a similar study of chondrules in C03.0 ALH A77307 by Jones et al., Delta O-17 tends to increase with increasing FeO. We find that Delta O-17 values are resolved (but only marginally) between the two sets of olivine phenocrysts. In two of the high-FeO chondrules, the difference between Delta O-17 of the late-formed, high-FeO phenocryst olivine and those in the low-FeO cores of relict grains is well-resolved (although one of the relicts is interpreted to be a partly melted amoeboid olivine inclusion by Yurimoto and Wasson). It appears that, during much of the chondrule-forming period, there was a small upward drift in the Delta O-17 of nebular solids and that relict cores preserve the record of a different (and earlier) nebular environment.

  10. The effect of Na vapor on the Na content of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, R. Dean; Lofgren, Gary E.; Franzen, Hugo F.; Windom, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Chondrules contain higher concentrations of volatiles (Na) than expected for melt droplets in the solar nebula. Recent studies have proposed that chondrules may have formed under non-canonical nebular conditions such as in particle/gas-rich clumps. Such chondrule formation areas may have contained significant Na vapor. To test the hypothesis of whether a Na-rich vapor would minimize Na volatilization reaction rates in a chondrule analog and maintain the Na value of the melt, experiments were designed where a Na-rich vapor could be maintained around the sample. A starting material with a melting point lower that typical chondrules was required to keep the logistics of working with Na volatilization from NaCl within the realm of feasibility. The Knippa basalt, a MgO-rich alkali olivine basalt with a melting temperature of 1325 +/- 5 C and a Na2O content of 3.05 wt%, was used as the chondrule analog. Experiments were conducted in a 1 atm, gas-mixing furnace with the fO2 controlled by a CO/CO2 gas mixture and fixed at the I-W buffer curve. To determine the extent of Na loss from the sample, initial experiments were conducted at high temperatures (1300 C - 1350 C) for duration of up to 72 h without a Na-rich vapor present. Almost all (up to 98%) Na was volatilized in runs of 72 h. Subsequent trials were conducted at 1330 C for 16 h in the presence of a Na-rich vapor, supplied by a NaCl-filled crucible placed in the bottom of the furnace. Succeeding Knudsen cell weight-loss mass-spectrometry analysis of NaCl determined the P(sub Na) for these experimental conditions to be in the 10(exp -6) atm range. This value is considered high for nebula conditions but is still plausible for non-canonical environments. In these trials the Na2O content of the glass was maintained or in some cases increased; Na2O values ranged from 2.62% wt to 4.37% wt. The Na content of chondrules may be controlled by the Na vapor pressure in the chondrule formation region. Most heating events capable

  11. Ordinary Chondrite Chondrules: Oxygen Isotope Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, K.; Pack, A.; Hezel, D. C.

    2017-02-01

    Chondrules in some H and LL chondrites show positive/negative correlations between size and oxygen isotopic composition. This indicates that they exchanged oxygen with different oxygen reservoirs and cannot stem from a common chondrule population.

  12. Chondrule Accretion with a Growing Protoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Chondrules are primitive materials in the solar system. They were formed in about the first 3 Myr of the solar system’s history. This timescale is longer than that of Mars formation, and it is conceivable that protoplanets, planetesimals, and chondrules might have existed simultaneously in the solar nebula. Due to protoplanets’ perturbation on the planetesimal dynamics and chondrule accretion on them, all the formed chondrules are unlikely to be accreted by the planetesimals. We investigate the amount of chondrules accreted by planetesimals in such a condition. We assume that a protoplanet is in oligarchic growth, and we perform analytical calculations of chondrule accretion by both a protoplanet and planetesimals. Through the oligarchic growth stage, planetesimals accrete about half of the formed chondrules. The smallest planetesimals get the largest amount of chondrules, compared with the amount accreted by more massive planetesimals. We perform a parameter study and find that this fraction is not greatly changed for a wide range of parameter sets.

  13. Conference on Chondrules and Their Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.

    1983-01-01

    Chondrule parent materials, chondrule formation, and post-formational history are addressed. Contributions involving mineralogy petrology, geochemistry, geochronology, isotopic measurements, physical measurements, experimental studies, and theoretical studies are included.

  14. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  15. MAGNESIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FOR SINGLE STAGE FORMATION OF CB CHONDRULES BY COLLIDING PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Mia B.; Schiller, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-10-10

    Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite groups, implying a markedly distinct formation mechanism. Here, we report high-precision Mg-isotope data for 10 skeletal olivine chondrules from the Hammadah al Hamra 237 (HH237) chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrules. The {sup 27}Al/{sup 24}Mg ratios of individual chondrules are positively correlated to their stable Mg-isotope composition (μ{sup 25}Mg), indicating that the correlated variability was imparted by a volatility-controlled process (evaporation/condensation). The mass-independent {sup 26}Mg composition (μ{sup 26}Mg*) of chondrules is consistent with single stage formation from an initially homogeneous magnesium reservoir if the observed μ{sup 25}Mg variability was generated by non-ideal Rayleigh-type evaporative fractionation characterized by a β value of 0.5142, in agreement with experimental work. The magnitude of the mass-dependent fractionation (∼300 ppm) is significantly lower than that suggested by the increase in {sup 27}Al/{sup 24}Mg values, indicating substantial suppression of isotopic fractionation during evaporative loss of Mg, possibly due to evaporation at high Mg partial pressure. Thus, the Mg-isotope data of skeletal chondrules from HH237 are consistent with their origin as melts produced in the impact-generated plume of colliding planetesimals. The inferred μ{sup 26}Mg* value of –3.87 ± 0.93 ppm for the CB parent body is significantly lower than the bulk solar system value of 4.5 ± 1.1 ppm inferred from CI chondrites, suggesting that CB chondrites accreted material comprising an early formed {sup 26}Al-free component.

  16. Open-system behavior during chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Shaoxiong, H.; Benoit, P. H.

    1994-01-01

    The question of whether chondrules behaved as open systems during formation is crucial to our understanding of both chondrule and chondrite formation. The very large range of chondrule types is best summarized by the compositional classification scheme, wherein the primitive chondrule groups (i.e., those not produced by metamorphic processes) are A1, A2, A5, and B1. In the Semarkona (LL3.0) chondrite, 10.5%, 25.0%, 5.0%, and 56.9% (by number) of the chondrules are groups A1, A2, A5, and B1, respectively. We argue that groups A1 and A2 were produced by reduction and evaporation during chondrule formation of material originally resembling group B1 chondrules.

  17. Chondrules: The canonical and noncanonical views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Harold C.; Jones, Rhian H.

    2016-10-01

    Millimeter-scale rock particles called chondrules are the principal components of the most common meteorites, chondrites. Hence, chondrules were arguably the most abundant components of the early solar system at the time of planetesimal accretion. Despite their fundamental importance, the existence of chondrules would not be predicted from current observations and models of young planetary systems. There are many different models for chondrule formation, but no single model satisfies the many constraints determined from their mineralogical and chemical properties and from chondrule analog experiments. Significant recent progress has shown that several models can satisfy first-order constraints and successfully reproduce chondrule thermal histories. However, second- and third-order constraints such as chondrule size ranges, open system behavior, oxidation states, reheating, and chemical diversity have not generally been addressed. Chondrule formation models include those based on processes that are known to occur in protoplanetary disk environments, including interactions with the early active Sun, impacts and collisions between planetary bodies, and radiative heating. Other models for chondrule heating mechanisms are based on hypothetical processes that are possible but have not been observed, like shock waves, planetesimal bow shocks, and lightning. We examine the evidence for the canonical view of chondrule formation, in which chondrules were free-floating particles in the protoplanetary disk, and the noncanonical view, in which chondrules were the by-products of planetesimal formation. The fundamental difference between these approaches has a bearing on the importance of chondrules during planet formation and the relevance of chondrules to interpreting the evolution of protoplanetary disks and planetary systems.

  18. Impact-Induced Chondrule Deformation and Aqueous Alteration of CM2 Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, R. D.; Zolensky, M.; Ketcham, R. A.; Behr, W. M.; Martinez, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    Deformed chondrules in CM2 Murchison have been found to define a prominent foliation [1,2] and lineation [3] in 3D using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). It has been hypothesized that chondrules in foliated chondrites deform by "squeezing" into surrounding pore space [4,5], a process that also likely removes primary porosity [6]. However, shock stage classification based on olivine extinction in Murchison is consistently low (S1-S2) [4-5,7] implying that significant intracrystalline plastic deformation of olivine has not occurred. One objective of our study is therefore to determine the microstructural mechanisms and phases that are accommodating the impact stress and resulting in relative displacements within the chondrules. Another question regarding impact deformation in Murchison is whether it facilitated aqueous alteration as has been proposed for the CMs which generally show a positive correlation between degree of alteration and petrofabric strength [7,2]. As pointed out by [2], CM Murchison represents a unique counterpoint to this correlation: it has a strong petrofabric but a relatively low degree of aqueous alteration. However, Murchison may not represent an inconsistency to the proposed causal relationship between impact and alteration, if it can be established that the incipient aqueous alteration post-dated chondrule deformation. Methods: Two thin sections from Murchison sample USNM 5487 were cut approximately perpendicular to the foliation and parallel to lineation determined by XCT [1,3] and one section was additionally polished for EBSD. Using a combination of optical petrography, SEM, EDS, and EBSD several chondrules were characterized in detail to: determine phases, find microstructures indicative of strain, document the geometric relationships between grain-scale microstructures and the foliation and lineation direction, and look for textural relationships of alteration minerals (tochilinite and Mg-Fe serpentine) that indicate timing of their

  19. Correlations and zoning patterns of phosphorus and chromium in olivine from H chondrites and the LL chondrite Semarkona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCanta, M. C.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    Phosphorus zoning is observed in olivines in high-FeO (type IIA) chondrules in H chondrites over the entire range of petrologic grades: H3.1-H6. Features in P concentrations such as oscillatory and sector zoning, and high P cores are present in olivines that are otherwise unzoned in the divalent cations. Aluminum concentrations are low and not significantly associated with P zoning in chondrule olivines. In highly unequilibrated H chondrites, phosphorus zoning is generally positively correlated with Cr. Atomic Cr:P in olivine is roughly 1:1 (3:1 for one zone in one olivine in RC 075), consistent with Cr3+ charge-balancing P5+ substituting for Si4+. Normal igneous zonation involving the dominant chrome species Cr2+ was observed only in the LL3.0 chondrite Semarkona. In more equilibrated chondrites (H3.5-H3.8), Cr spatially correlated with P is occasionally observed but it is diffuse relative to the P zones. In H4-H6 chondrites, P-correlated Cr is absent. One signature of higher metamorphic grades (≥H3.8) is the presence of near matrix olivines that are devoid of P oscillatory zoning. The restriction to relatively high metamorphic grade and to grains near the chondrule-matrix interface suggests that this is a response to metasomatic processes. We also observed P-enriched halos near the chondrule-matrix interface in H3.3-H3.8 chondrites, likely reflecting the loss of P and Ca from mesostasis and precipitation of Ca phosphate near the chondrule surface. These halos are absent in equilibrated chondrites due to coarsening of the phosphate and in unequilibrated chondrites due to low degrees of metasomatism. Olivines in type IA chondrules show none of the P-zoning ubiquitous in type IIA chondrules or terrestrial igneous olivines, likely reflecting sequestration of P in reduced form within metallic alloys and sulfides during melting of type IA chondrules.

  20. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  1. The Compositional Classification of Chondrules and the Petrologic Type of an Especially Primitive H Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Huang, S.; Benoit, P. H.

    1993-07-01

    While LL chondrites of petrologic type <3.4 are relatively common, it has been only recently that a few H chondrites of type <3.4 have been reported. One of them is the heavily weathered Roosevelt County 075 [1]. Weathering and the lack of equilibration make classification uncertain, but it is probably an H chondrite. Weathering also makes it very difficult to assign a petrologic type. For example, removal of the weathering products by acid washing increased the TL sensitivity of RC075 by a factor of ~7, equivalent to a change in petrologic type estimate from 3.0 to 3.3, a major difference. The compositional classification scheme for chondrules [2,3] summarizes considerably more information than previous schemes [4-6], not least being that it tracks metamorphic effects as well as more thoroughly monitoring primary chondrule differences. It is also very easy to apply and almost 100% of the chondrules can be classified. As an example of its utility, we here show that application of the scheme to the chondrules in RC075 provides the best means of determining the petrologic type of this highly weathered, but very important, unequilibrated chondrite. The compositional classification scheme for chondrules divides them into eight classes (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) on the basis of the composition of the two major phases (phenocrysts and mesostasis) [2,3]. Among the changes that occur during metamorphism, olivines lose CaO and acquire uniform FeO, while the mesostases acquire oligoclase compositions having originally included compositions that were SiO2 rich (the B series), CaO rich (the A series), and Na2O rich (A5). These changes give rise to CL properties that can be used as an alternative to microprobe analysis and which, like microprobe data, are insensitive to weathering. Thus we were able to assign all of the almost 100 chondrules present in a 7 x 5-mm section of RC075 to compositional classes. The results are shown in Fig. 1, along with similar data from [3

  2. Petrology, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of aluminum-rich chondrules from CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Hsu, Weibiao; Li, Xianhua; Li, Qiuli; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Bulk major element composition, petrography, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of twenty Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) from five CV3 chondrites (Northwest Africa [NWA] 989, NWA 2086, NWA 2140, NWA 2697, NWA 3118) and the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite were studied and compared with those of ferromagnesian chondrules and refractory inclusions. Most ARCs are marginally Al-richer than ferromagnesian chondrules with bulk Al2O3 of 10-15 wt%. ARCs are texturally similar to ferromagnesian chondrules, composed primarily of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, spinel, Al-rich glass, and metallic phases. Minerals in ARCs have intermediate compositions. Low-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.6-8.8Wo0.7-9.3) has much higher Al2O3 and TiO2 contents (up to 12.5 and 2.3 wt%, respectively) than that in ferromagnesian chondrules. High-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.3-2.0Wo33-54) contains less Al2O3 and TiO2 than that in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Plagioclase (An77-99Ab1-23) is much more sodic than that in CAIs. Spinel is enriched in moderately volatile element Cr (up to 6.7 wt%) compared to that in CAIs. Al-rich enstatite coexists with anorthite and spinel in a glass-free chondrule, implying that the formation of Al-enstatite was not due to kinetic reasons but is likely due to the high Al2O3/CaO ratio (7.4) of the bulk chondrule. Three ARCs contain relict CAIs. Oxygen isotope compositions of ARCs are also intermediate between those of ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs. They vary from -39.4‰ to 13.9‰ in δ18O and yield a best fit line (slope = 0.88) close to the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line. Chondrules with 5-10 wt% bulk Al2O3 have a slightly more narrow range in δ18O (-32.5 to 5.9‰) along the CCAM line. Except for the ARCs with relict phases, however, most ARCs have oxygen isotope compositions (>-20‰ in δ18O) similar to those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules. ARCs are genetically related to both ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs, but the relationship between ARCs and

  3. Stardust to Planetesimals: A Chondrule Connection?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie; Bunch, Ted

    1997-01-01

    The unique nature of chondrules has been known for nearly two centuries. Modern techniques of analysis have shown that these millimeter sized silicate objects are among the oldest objects in our solar system. Researchers have devised textural and chemical classification systems for chondrules in an effort to determine their origins. It is agreed that most chondrules were molten at some point in their history, and experimental analogs suggest that the majority of chondrules formed from temperatures below 1600 C at cooling rates in the range of hundreds of degrees per hour. Although interstellar grains are present in chondrite matrices, their contribution as precursors to chondrule formation is unknown. Models for chondrule formation focus on the pre-planetary solar nebula conditions, although planetary impact models have had proponents.

  4. The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.; Ebel, D.S.; Ciesla, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Chondrules, which are roughly millimeter-sized silicate-rich spherules, dominate the most primitive meteorites, the chondrites. They formed as molten droplets and, judging from their abundances in chondrites, are the products of one of the most energetic processes that operated in the early inner solar system. The conditions and mechanism of chondrule formation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the abundance of the volatile element sodium remained relatively constant during chondrule formation. Prevention of the evaporation of sodium requires that chondrules formed in regions with much higher solid densities than predicted by known nebular concentration mechanisms. These regions would probably have been self-gravitating. Our model explains many other chemical characteristics of chondrules and also implies that chondrule and planetesimal formation were linked.

  5. Chondrules in the Sharps H3 chondrite - Evidence for intergroup compositional differences among ordinary chondrite chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Pernicka, Ernst

    1989-01-01

    Bulk compositions of 19 chondrules and one matrix-rich sample from H3.4 Sharps were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Samples were characterized petrographically, and mineral compositions were determined by electron microprobe analysis. There is constancy among ordinary chondrite (OC) groups in the compositional interrelationships of different chondrule types; e.g., in H3 as well as L3 and LL3 chondrites, porphyritic chondrules are more refractory than nonporphyritic chondrules. Precursor components of H3 chondrules are closely related to those of LL3 chondrules. The mean Ir/Ni, Ir/Co, and Ir/Au ratios of H3 chondrules differ from the corresponding ratios of LL3 chondrules at the 99, 90, and 79 percent confidence levels, respectively. The ratios in H3 chondrules exceed those in LL3 chondrules by amounts similar to those by which H whole-rocks exceed LL whole-rocks. These data suggest that there are primary systematic differences in bulk composition between H and LL chondrules. These differences support the inference that chondrule formation occurred after major nebular fractionation events had established the observed bulk compositional differences among OC groups.

  6. Spinel-bearing, Al-rich chondrules in two chondrite finds from Roosevelt County, New Mexico - Indicators of nebular and parent body processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, Timothy J.; Pun, Aurora; Keil, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Two rare spinel-bearing Al-rich chondrules are identified in chondrite finds from Roosevelt County, New Mexico-RC 071 (L4) and RC 072 (L5). These chondrules have unusual mineralogies dominated by highly and asymmetrically zoned Al-Cr-rich spinels. Two alternatives exist to explain the origin of this zoning-fractional crystallization or metamorphism. Fractional crystallization formed the zoning of the trivalent cations and caused a localized depletion in chromites around the large Al-Cr-rich spinels. Diffusive exchange and partitioning of Fe and Mg between olivine and spinel during parent-body metamorphism can explain the asymmetric zoning of these elements. The bulk compositions of the chondrules suggest affinities with the Na-Al-Cr-rich chondrules, as would be expected from the abundance of Al-Cr-rich spinels. The most important factors are the temperature to which the molten chondrule was heated and the cooling rate during crystallization. These two chondrules cooled rapidly from near the liquidus, as indicated by the zoning, occurrence and sizes of spinels, radiating chondrule textures and localized chromite depletions.

  7. Effect of metamorphism on isolated olivine grains in CO3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of a metamorphic sequence in the CO3 chondrite group has been shown previously to result in changes in properties of chondrule silicates. However, the role of isolated olivine grains during metamorphism of these chondrites has not been addressed. Isolated olivine grains in two metamorphosed CO3 chondrites, Lance and Isna, have been investigated in this study in order to assess the compositional properties of isolated olivine grains that may be attributable to metamorphism. Compositional changes in isolated olivines with increasing petrologic subtype are very similar to changes in chondrule olivines in the same chondrites. Olivine compositions from all occurrences (chondrules, isolated grains, and matrix) converge with increasing petrologic subtype. The degree of equilibration of minor elements is qualitatively related to the diffusion rate of each element in olivine, suggesting that diffusion-controlled processes are the most important processes responsible for compositional changes within the metamorphic sequence. The data are consistent with metamorphism taking place in a closed system on the CO3 chondrite parent body. Fe-poor olivine grains in metamorphosed chondrites are characterized by an Fe-rich rim, which is the result of diffusion of Fe into the grains from Fe-rich matrix. In some instances, 'complex', Fe-rich rims have been identified, which appear to have originated as igneous overgrowths and subsequently to have been overprinted by diffusion processes during metamorphism. Processes experienced by CO3 chondrites are more similar to those experienced by the ordinary chondrites than to those encountered by other carbonaceous chondrites, such as the CV3 group.

  8. Effect of metamorphism on isolated olivine grains in CO3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1993-06-01

    The presence of a metamorphic sequence in the CO3 chondrite group has been shown previously to result in changes in properties of chondrule silicates. However, the role of isolated olivine grains during metamorphism of these chondrites has not been addressed. Isolated olivine grains in two metamorphosed CO3 chondrites, Lance and Isna, have been investigated in this study in order to assess the compositional properties of isolated olivine grains that may be attributable to metamorphism. Compositional changes in isolated olivines with increasing petrologic subtype are very similar to changes in chondrule olivines in the same chondrites. Olivine compositions from all occurrences (chondrules, isolated grains, and matrix) converge with increasing petrologic subtype. The degree of equilibration of minor elements is qualitatively related to the diffusion rate of each element in olivine, suggesting that diffusion-controlled processes are the most important processes responsible for compositional changes within the metamorphic sequence. The data are consistent with metamorphism taking place in a closed system on the CO3 chondrite parent body. Fe-poor olivine grains in metamorphosed chondrites are characterized by an Fe-rich rim, which is the result of diffusion of Fe into the grains from Fe-rich matrix. In some instances, 'complex', Fe-rich rims have been identified, which appear to have originated as igneous overgrowths and subsequently to have been overprinted by diffusion processes during metamorphism. Processes experienced by CO3 chondrites are more similar to those experienced by the ordinary chondrites than to those encountered by other carbonaceous chondrites, such as the CV3 group.

  9. Planetesimal Collisions as a Chondrule Forming Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain unique spherical materials named chondrules: sub-mm sized silicate grains once melted in a high temperature condition in the solar nebula. We numerically explore one of the chondrule forming processes—planetesimal collisions. Previous studies have found that impact jetting via protoplanet–planetesimal collisions can make chondrules with 1% of the impactors’ mass, when the impact velocity exceeds 2.5 km s‑1. Based on the mineralogical data of chondrules, undifferentiated planetesimals would be more suitable for chondrule-forming collisions than potentially differentiated protoplanets. We examine planetesimal–planetesimal collisions using a shock physics code and find two things: one is that planetesimal–planetesimal collisions produce nearly the same amount of chondrules as protoplanet–planetesimal collisions (∼1%). The other is that the amount of produced chondrules becomes larger as the impact velocity increases when two planetesimals collide with each other. We also find that progenitors of chondrules can originate from deeper regions of large targets (planetesimals or protoplanets) than small impactors (planetesimals). The composition of targets is therefore important, to fully account for the mineralogical data of currently sampled chondrules.

  10. Mineralogy, Petrography, and Oxygen-Isotope Compositions of Carbonates and Olivines in Sutter"s Mill, CM Chondrite Breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, K.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Krot, A. N.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2012-09-01

    Sutter's Mill sample we studied has two CM-like lithologies, CM2.0 and CM2.1. O-isotope compositions of chondrule and AOA olivines plot along CCAM line. Dolomites and calcites plot below TF line. Calcites show a spread in δ18O values, +13 to +39‰.

  11. The Collisions of Chondrules Behind Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, F. J.; Hood, L. L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the reasons that the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of chondrules has remained so elusive is that each proposed mechanism must be able to explain a large number of features observed in chondrules. Most models of chondrule formation focus on matching the expected thermal histories of chondrules: rapid heating followed by cooling during crystallization at rates between approx. 10-1000 K/hr [1], and references therein]. Thus far, only models for large shock waves in the solar nebula have quantitatively shown that the thermal evolution of millimeter-sized particles in the nebula can match these inferred thermal histories [2-4]. While this is a positive step for the shock wave model, further testing is needed to see if other properties of chondrules can be explained in the context of this model. One area of interest is understanding the collisional evolution of chondrules after they encounter a shock wave. These collisions could lead to sticking, destruction, or bouncing. Here we focus on understanding what conditions are needed for these different outcomes to occur and try to reconcile the seemingly contradictory conclusions reached by studies of compound chondrule formation and chondrule destruction by collisions behind a shock wave.

  12. Precompaction exposure of chondrules and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polnau, E.; Eugster, O.; Burger, M.; Krähenbühl, U.; Marti, K.

    2001-06-01

    Following the discovery of an apparent precompaction irradiation of a chondrule, we studied the isotopic abundances of noble gases He, Ne, and Ar in separated chondrule and matrix samples of eight ordinary chondrites. The chondrules show systematically larger concentrations of cosmogenic He, Ne, and with one exception, Ar when compared to the corresponding matrix samples. Different exposure times were calculated based on production rates, which take into account the abundances of relevant target elements in each chondrule and matrix sample. The 81Kr-Kr method was used for samples of Bjurböle to verify that different exposure times are not due to either a bias in production rates or to systematic losses of noble gases from matrix. This method self-corrects for variable shielding, is independent of calculated production rates, and insensitive to gas loss. The results show that differences in exposure ages are due to different precompaction exposures of chondrules, or components thereof, before final assembly of the meteorite. For the Sena chondrite we studied various chondrule and matrix constituents. For this meteorite we found chondrule preexposures relative to the matrix material, with magnetic chondrules showing the largest effect.

  13. A Microanalytical (TEM) Study of Fine-grained Chondrule Rims in NWA 5717

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigolski, J. N.; Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Rahman, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5717 is a highly primitive ordinary chondrite of petrologic type 3.05 with ubiquitous fine-grained chondrule rims [1, 2]. Rims appear around approximately 60% of chondrules and are comprised of micron-sized mineral and lithic fragments and microchondrules that are embdedded in an FeO-rich submicron groundmass that compositionally resembles fayalitic olivine. Some rim clasts appear overprinted with FeO-rich material, suggesting secondary alteration that postdates rim formation. Here we present a microanalytical (TEM) study of the submicron component (i.e. the groundmass) of the rims in order to determine the crystal structures and compositions of their constituent phases and decipher the accretion and alteration history recorded in rims.

  14. Opaque Mineral Assemblages at Chondrule Boundaries in the Vigarano CV Chondrite: Evidence for Gas-Solid Reactions Following Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of opaque minerals in primitive ordinary chondrites suggest that metal grains exposed at chondrule boundaries were corroded when volatile elements recondensed after the transient heating event responsible for chondrule formation. Metal grains at chondrule boundaries in the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite are rimmed by troilite and fayalite. If these layers formed by gas solid reaction, then the composition of the corrosion products can provide information on the chondrule formation environment. Given the broad similarities among chondrules from different chondrite groups, similar scale layers should occur on chondrules in other primitive meteorite groups. Here I report on metal grains at chondrule boundaries in Vigarano (CV3).

  15. Aluminian Low-Ca Pyroxene in a Ca-Al-rich Chondrule from the Semarkona Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    A Ca-AI-rich chondrule (labeled G7) from the Semarkona LL3.0 ordinary chondrite (OC) consists of 73 vol% glassy mesostasis, 22 vol% skeletal forsterite. 3 vol% fassaite (i.e., Al-Ti diopside), and 2 vol% Al-rich, low-Ca pyroxene. The latter phase, which contains up to 16.3 wt% A1203, is among the most AI-rich, low-Ca pyroxene grains ever reported. It is inferred that 20% of the tetrahedral sites and 13% of the octahedral sites in this grain are occupied by Al. Approximately parallel optical extinction implies that the Al-rich, low-Ca pyroxene grains are probably orthorhombic, consistent with literature data that show that A1203 stabilizes the orthoenstatite structure relative to protoenstatite at low pressure. The order of crystallization in the chondrule was forsterite, AI-rich low-Ca pyroxene, and fassaite; the residual liquid vitrified during chondrule quenching. Phase relationships indicate that, for a G7-composition liquid at equilibrium, spinel and anorthite should crystallize early and orthopyroxene should not crystallize at all. The presence of AI-rich orthopyroxene in G7 is due mainly to the kinetic failure of anorthite to crystallize; this failure was caused by quenching of the G7 precursor droplet. Aluminum preferentially enters the relatively large B tetrahedra of orthopyroxene; because only one tetrahedral size occurs in fassaite, this phase contains higher mean concentrations of Al2O3 than the Al-rich orthopyroxene (17.8 and 14.7 wt%, respectively). Chondrule G7 may have formed by remelting an amoeboid olivine inclusion that entered the OC region of the solar nebula during an episode of chondrule formation.

  16. Flash melting of chondrule precursors in excess of 1600 C. Series 1: Type 2 (B1) chondrule composition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Hewins, Roger H.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1993-01-01

    Several questions in chondrule production remain an enigma despite years of experiments. What were the melting temperatures experienced by chondrules? What were the physical characteristics of chondrule precursors? How and why did volatile elements (i.e. Na) found within chondrules survive the formation process? We present the initial results of a series of experiments designed to investigate the above questions by using flash melting to duplicate the melting stage of chondrule formation.

  17. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  18. Relationships Among Intrinsic Properties of Ordinary Chondrites: Oxidation State, Bulk Chemistry, Oxygen-isotopic Composition, Petrologic Type, and Chondrule Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of ordinary chondrites (OC) reflect both nebular and asteroidal processes. OC are modeled here as having acquired nebular water, probably contained within phyllosilicates, during agglomeration. This component had high Ai70 and acted like an oxidizing agent during thermal metamorphism. The nebular origin of this component is consistent with negative correlations in H, L, and LL chondrites between oxidation state (represented by olivine Fa) and bulk concentration ratios of elements involved in the metal-silicate fractionation (e.g., NdSi, Ir/Si, Ir/Mn, Ir/Cr, Ir/Mg, Ni/Mg, As/Mg, Ga/Mg). LL chondrites acquired the greatest abundance of phyllosilicates with high (delta)O-17 among OC (and thus became the most oxidized group and the one with the heaviest O isotopes); H chondrites acquired the lowest abundance, becoming the most reduced OC group with the lightest O isotopes. Chondrule precursors may have grown larger and more ferroan with time in each OC agglomeration zone. Nebular turbulence may have controlled the sizes of chondrule precursors. H-chondrite chondrules (which are the smallest among OC) formed from the smallest precursors. In each OC region, low-FeO chondrules formed before high-FeO chondrules during repeated episodes of chondrule formation. During thermal metamorphism, phyllosilicates were dehydrated; the liberated water oxidized metallic Fe-Ni. This caused correlated changes with petrologic type including decreases in the modal abundance of metal, increases in olivine Fa and low-Ca pyroxene Fs, increases in the olivine/pyroxene ratio, and increases in the kamacite Co and Ni contents. As water (with its heavy 0 isotopes) was lost during metamorphism, inverse correlations between bulk (delta)O-18 and bulk (delta)O-17 with petrologic type were produced. The H5 chondrites that were ejected from their parent body approx.7.5 Ma ago during a major impact event probably had been within a few kilometers of each other since they accreted approx.4

  19. A chondrule - Evidence of energetic impact unlikely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, J. F.; Gault, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    It had been concluded by Lange and Larimer (1973) that the morphology and mineralogy of an unusual chondrule from the Ngawi meteorite are the results of a highly energetic impact within the solar nebula. The evidence for this conclusion is examined. It is found that the chondrule does not show evidence of high relative velocities in the solar nebula. It is pointed out that arguments against chondrule production by impact on planetary surfaces on the basis of ejection velocities are not supported by laboratory experiments.

  20. The origin of chondrules at jovian resonances

    PubMed

    Weidenschilling; Marzari; Hood

    1998-01-30

    Isotopic dating indicates that chondrules were produced a few million years after the solar nebula formed. This timing is incompatible with dynamical lifetimes of small particles in the nebula and short time scales for the formation of planetesimals. Temporal and dynamical constraints can be reconciled if chondrules were produced by heating of debris from disrupted first-generation planetesimals. Jovian resonances can excite planetesimal eccentricities enough to cause collisional disruption and melting of dust by bow shocks in the nebular gas. The ages of chondrules may indicate the times of Jupiter's formation and dissipation of gas from the asteroidal region.

  1. Tungsten isotopic constraints on the age and origin of chondrules

    PubMed Central

    Kleine, Thorsten; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Burkhardt, Christoph; Metzler, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Chondrules may have played a critical role in the earliest stages of planet formation by mediating the accumulation of dust into planetesimals. However, the origin of chondrules and their significance for planetesimal accretion remain enigmatic. Here, we show that chondrules and matrix in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende have complementary 183W anomalies resulting from the uneven distribution of presolar, stellar-derived dust. These data refute an origin of chondrules in protoplanetary collisions and, instead, indicate that chondrules and matrix formed together from a common reservoir of solar nebula dust. Because bulk Allende exhibits no 183W anomaly, chondrules and matrix must have accreted rapidly to their parent body, implying that the majority of chondrules from a given chondrite group formed in a narrow time interval. Based on Hf-W chronometry on Allende chondrules and matrix, this event occurred ∼2 million years after formation of the first solids, about coeval to chondrule formation in ordinary chondrites. PMID:26929340

  2. Formation of Chondrules by Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, M. A.; Boley, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    We describe and assess current shock models for chondrule formation, particularly those driven by gravitational disk instabilities and bow shocks. We discuss predictions made by shock models and further work needed.

  3. I-Xe Dating of Small Chondrules from the Bjurbole Meteorite Using RELAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, J. A.; Gilmour, J. D.; Ash, R. D.; Turner, G.

    1995-09-01

    Chondrules from the Bjurbole L4 meteorite have been widely used as a standard for I-Xe dating because of the good high temperature 129Xe-128Xe correlation [1] and small spread in their apparent ages determined by this technique. As part of an ongoing study [2,3], I-Xe analyses have been performed on several Bjurbole chondrules of sizes smaller than have hitherto been studied in order to determine if the chondrules and their constituent minerals are isochronous on a small scale. Use has been made of the ultra-sensitive RELAX resonance ionization xenon mass spectrometer, in conjunction with a laser probe for low-blank sample extraction [4] to analyse chondrule aliquots ranging in mass from 54 micrograms to 306 micrograms. Using data from five chondrules a spread of ages of 5Ma about the mean has been observed (129I t1/2=1.7x10^7 Ma), with specific excess (over the ordinary chondrite value [6]) 129Xe contents in the range 10x10^-12 to 1200x10^-12 cm3 STP g-1, consistent with previously reported values [2,5]. All the chondrules were completely molten at the highest laser probe powers used, hence it may be assumed that they were completely outgassed, in contrast to the data presented in [2]. This assumption is born out by the magnitudes of the specific excess 129Xe release. The smaller chondrules showed a sharper 129Xe release as a function of laser power as would be expected from the discussion of temperature gradients in [2]. Good isochrons were obtained except in the case of one sample (ABjC19) which contained very little excess 129Xe. The figure shows data from sample ABjC22, a 54 microgram aliquot from a 336 microgram chondrule. Excess 129Xe release and the ratio of excess 129Xe to excess 128Xe are plotted against extraction number (higher numbers correspond to higher temperatures). The fourth extraction gave rise to a 129Xe*/128Xe* ratio significantly different from the mean (error bars are one standard deviation) corresponding to an age apparently 3Ma older than

  4. An Evaluation of Microcomputer-Based Strain Analysis Techniques on Meteoritic Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, H. G. M.

    1995-09-01

    from macrophotographic tracings of four complete thin-sections (total area 8.2 cm2) and a sawn slab (49.45cm2), were digitally scanned using application Ofoto v. 1.0.0^(TM). Chondrule outline (pict) files were then exported to a fabric analysis program, Image v. 1.44, and Rf values obtained thereafter exported to a spreadsheet environment for manipulation. Fry analysis was undertaken with an interactive program, Fry v. 5.0 [9] using the same pict files as before. Chondrule central points were manually inserted and center-to-center distances, when calculated, were displayed on screen in a way which echoes mean chondrule strain and orientation. Results and Conclusion. 364 chondrule outlines (three thin-sections and a sawn slab) were analysed by R(sub)(f)/phi and Fry techniques. In its present form, the Fry technique was judged to be unsuited to chondrule shape analysis as it is too dependant on grain size, i.e. the smallest grain, and the need for a planar homogenous sample bearing several hundred grains [8]. Recent developments in the Fry technique [10] may make it more suitable for chondrule analysis. Representative strain (Rf) data obtained for parallel thin-sections Bovedy M5385b and M5385c (total of 158 chondrules) were 1.49 and 1.41 respectively. Corresponding phi values were 115.0 degrees and 114.6 degrees respectively (with respect to a fixed reference point). Rf data together with petrographic shock features noted, mostly in olivine (e.g. planar fractures, undulatory extinction and weak mosaicism), were suggestive of shock stage S3 [4]. The degree of chondrule flattening and the nature of the (S3) shock effects observed are comparable with artifically flattened chondrules belonging to the same shock stage [3, 11]. The R(sub)(f)/phi technique evaluated was found to be more precise and quantitative than other methods previously employed for measuring maximum and minimum chondrule axes and orientation. Furthermore, it can provide reliable strain (axial, orientation

  5. On the Lower Limit of Chondrule Cooling Rates: The Significance of Iron Loss in Dynamic Crystallization Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paque, Julie M.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1998-01-01

    It is unlikely that the presence of chondrules, and thus their formation, within the protoplanetary nebula would be predicted if it were not for their ubiquitous presence in most chondritic meteorites. The study of these enigmatic, igneous objects has a direct influence on how meteoritic and solar system researchers model the processes operating and the materials present within our protoplanetary nebula. Key to understanding chondrule formation is a determination of constraints on their thermal histories. The three important variables in this history are their peak melting temperatures, the duration of their melting at peak temperatures, and the rate at which these object cool. Although these three variables are interdependent, it is cooling rate that provides the most powerful constraint. Cooling rate has a direct affect on the development of both crystal morphology and the elemental distributions within these grains. To date, experiments have indicated that chondrule cooling rates are in the range of 10's to 100's of degrees per hour for porphyritic chondrules (the most abundant type). The cooling rate for radial and barred chondrules is thought to be more rapid. To generate these cooling rates (rapid relative to the cooling of the nebula as a whole, but slow compared to simple black body radiation) the environment of chondrule formation must have been localized, and the abundance of solid materials must have been greatly enhanced above a gas of solar composition. Thus accurate determinations of chondrule cooling rates is critical in understanding both their formation and the nebular environment in which they formed. In a quest to more accurately determine the lower limit on cooling rates and to determine in more detail the effects of Fe loss from a molten sample to Pt wire loops, Weinbruch et al. have explored this issue experimentally and reevaluated the findings of Radomsky and Hewins in light of their new results. The basic conclusions of their paper are an

  6. Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.

  7. Chondrule formation in the radiative accretional shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikina, T. V.; Ip, W.

    1994-01-01

    The physical, mineralogical, and isotopic properties of chondrules strongly indicate that they were formed by the rapid melting and resolidification of preexisting solids composed of primitive material. The chondrule precursors were heated to temperatures of about 1800 K in short high-temperature events, followed by cooling with a rate of 10(exp 2)-10(exp 3) K/hr. A heat input of about 1500 J/g is required to heat chondrule precursors to such a temperature and melt them. Lightning discharges and flares in the solar nebula, and heating of the chondrule precursors by friction with gas decelerated in the accretional shock or in a shock (of unspecified origin) within the solar nebula, have been discussed as possible mechanisms for chondrule formation. One advantage of chondrule formation in large-scale shocks is that a lot of dust material can be processed. An accretional shock, which is produced by infalling gas of the presolar cloud when it collides with the solar nebula, belongs to this type of shock. In 1984 Wood considered the possibility of chondrule formation in the accretional shock by heating of chondrule precursors by gas drag. He concluded that the density in the accreting material is much lower than needed to melt silicates at the distance of the asteroid belt if the accreting matter had the cosmic ratio of dust to gas, and the mass of the solar nebula did not exceed 2 solar mass units. Melting of chondrule precursors is difficult because of their effective cooling by thermal radiation. Suppression of the radiative cooling of individual grains in dust swarms, which are opaque to thermal emission, was considered to be the only possible means of chondrule formation in solar nebula shocks. Previous models of solid grain melting in solar nebula shocks have neglected gas cooling behind the shock front, i.e., they considered adiabatic shocks. In this paper we show that large dust grains could be heated much stronger than was supposed by these authors, because of

  8. Mineralogy and Texture Descriptions to Help Understand Chondrule Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, R. K.

    2017-02-01

    Alpha-numeric codes for (intra)chondrule textures, from a single chondrite or from many, allow for their detailed description, and enable observers to ponder the processes that may have affected chondrule formation.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Chondrules and CAIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Chondrules and CAI's" included the following reports:Metallic Chondrules in NWA 1390 (H3-6): Clues to Their History from Metallic Cu; Relationship Between Bulk Chemical Composition and Formation Age of Chondrules in Bishunpur and Krymka; Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates; An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule; Rare Earth Element Fractionation in Chondrules; Mineralogy and Petrology of Chondrules in Carbonaceous Chondrite NWA 770; Isotopic Cosmobarometry: A Synthesis of Concepts and Implications for Chondrule and CAI Formation Mechanisms; Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs; and Trace Element Compositions of the Sublayers Making Up W-L Rims on CAI .

  10. Chondrule-matrix relationships in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between chondrules and matrix (fine grained material with a grain size less than 5 micrometers) in chondritic meteorites has been the subject of considerable controversy and no consensus currently exists. The coexistence of these two components in meteorites with bulk compositions that deviate only slightly from CI abundances suggests that cosmochemically their origins are closely linked. Any consideration of the relationship between chondrules and matrix hinges to a large degree on the origin of matrix. The entire spectrum of models exists from matrix as a nebular product to derivation entirely from chondrules. Early models of solar nebular evolution viewed chondrites as a two-component mixture of high- and low-temperature condensates. However, this model has been challenged by the recognition that the nebula was probably not uniformly vaporized.

  11. The Origin of Silica-Rich Chondrules and Clasts in Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1992-07-01

    Chondrules and clasts containing a silica mineral or a silica glass are a minor but important constituent in many ordinary (Planner, 1983; Brigham et al., 1986) and some carbonaceous (Olsen, 1983) chondrites, and have been considered somewhat enigmatic. The recent discovery of a large, silica-rich igneous clast in the Bovedy (L3) chondrite (Ruzicka and Boynton, 1992) sheds light on the possible origin of other silica-rich objects. As discussed in Ruzicka and Boynton (1992), the Bovedy clast probably crystallized from an Lchondrite silicate magma in a relatively large magma body that had previously undergone olivine fractionation. The existence of similar fractionating magmas can also account for the origin of other silica-rich objects, as shown below. Pyroxene-silica objects. Chondrules (drop-formed objects) and clasts (irregularly shaped objects) consisting essentially of a mixture of orthopyroxene (opx) and a silica mineral (SiO2) have been found in various ordinary chondrites (Brigham et al., 1986). Brigham and coworkers (1986) proposed that these objects could be condensates. However, fractional crystallization of a liquid similar in composition to the Bovedy clast (Ruzicka and Boynton, 1992) will produce (Morse, 1980) the following solids: (a) orthopyroxenite, (b) an opx + SiO2 rock, and (c) a feldspar, SiO2 and pyroxene rock. Brecciation or remelting of rock (b), which lies on the opx-SiO2 join in the cristobalite primary crystallization field, could have produced the pyroxene-silica objects of Brigham et al. (1986) and Planner (1983). Fayalite-silica clasts. These clasts consist of SiO2, olivine (ol, Fa(sub)63-96), and highly variable amounts of opx and clinopyroxene (Brigham et al., 1986). Brigham et al. (1986) discussed various origins for these objects and concluded that none were entirely satisfactory, but that an accidental mixture of the various phases in them was probably the best hypothesis. However, a rock mainly containing SiO2 and fayalitic ol (Fa

  12. Artificial meteor ablation studies: Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Cunningham, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial meteor ablation was performed on a Mg-rich olivine sample using an arc-heated plasma of ionized air. Experimental conditions simulated a meteor traveling about 12 km/sec at an altitude of 70 km. The mineral content of the original olivine sample was 98% olivine (including traces of olivine alteration products) and 2% chromite. Forsterite content of the original olivine was Fo-89. After ablation, the forsterite content had increased to Fo-94 in the recrystallized olivine. In addition, lamella-like intergrowths of magnetite were prevalent constituents. Wherever magnetite occurred, there was an increase in Mg and a corresponding decrease in Fe for the recrystallized olivine. The Allende fusion crust consisted of a recrystallized olivine, which was more Mg-rich and Fe-deficient than the original meteorite's olivine, and abundant magnetite grains. Although troilite and pentlandite were the common opaque mineral constituents in this meteorite, magnetite was the principal opaque mineral found in the fusion crust.

  13. Remelting of refractory inclusions in the chondrule-forming regions: Evidence from chondrule-bearing type C calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from Allende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Chaussidon, Marc; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Paque, Julie

    2007-08-01

    We describe the mineralogy, petrology, oxygen, and magnesium isotope compositions of three coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (type C) Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) (ABC, TS26, and 93) that are associated with ferromagnesian chondrule-like silicate materials from the CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende. The CAIs consist of lath-shaped anorthite (An99), Cr-bearing Al-Ti-diopside (Al and Ti contents are highly variable), spinel, and highly åkermanitic and Na-rich melilite (Åk63-74, 0.4-0.6 wt% Na2O). TS26 and 93 lack Wark-Lovering rim layers; ABC is a CAI fragment missing the outermost part. The peripheral portions of TS26 and ABC are enriched in SiO2 and depleted in TiO2 and Al2O3 compared to their cores and contain relict ferromagnesian chondrule fragments composed of forsteritic olivine (Fa6-8) and low-Ca pyroxene/pigeonite (Fs1Wo1-9). The relict grains are corroded by Al-Ti-diopside of the host CAIs and surrounded by haloes of augite (Fs0.5Wo30-42). The outer portion of CAI 93 enriched in spinel is overgrown by coarse-grained pigeonite (Fs0.5-2Wo5-17), augite (Fs0.5Wo38-42), and anorthitic plagioclase (An84). Relict olivine and low-Ca pyroxene/pigeonite in ABC and TS26, and the pigeonite-augite rim around 93 are 16O-poor (Δ17O ˜ -1‰ to -8‰). Spinel and Al-Ti-diopside in cores of CAIs ABC, TS26, and 93 are 16O-enriched (Δ17O down to -20‰), whereas Al-Ti-diopside in the outer zones, as well as melilite and anorthite, are 16O-depleted to various degrees (Δ17O = -11‰ to 2‰). In contrast to typical Allende CAIs that have the canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of ˜5 × 10-5 ABC, 93, and TS26 are 26Al-poor with (26Al/27Al)0 ratios of (4.7 ± 1.4) × 10-6 (1.5 ± 1.8) × 10-6 <1.2 × 10-6 respectively. We conclude that ABC, TS26, and 93 experienced remelting with addition of ferromagnesian chondrule silicates and incomplete oxygen isotopic exchange in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir, probably in the chondrule-forming region. This melting episode could

  14. Physical properties of chondrules in different chondrite groups: Implications for multiple melting events in dusty environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2010-08-01

    Chondrite groups (CV, CK, CR) with large average chondrule sizes have low proportions of RP plus C chondrules, high proportions of enveloping compound chondrules, high proportions of chondrules with (thick) igneous rims, and relatively low proportions of type-I chondrules containing sulfide. In contrast, chondrite groups (CM, CO, OC, R, EH, EL) with smaller average chondrule sizes have the opposite properties. Equilibrated CK chondrites have plagioclase with relatively low Na; equilibrated OC, R, EH and EL chondrites have more sodic plagioclase. Enveloping compound chondrules and chondrules with igneous rims formed during a remelting event after the primary chondrule was incorporated into a dustball. Repeated episodes of remelting after chondrules were surrounded by dust would tend to produce large chondrules. RP and C chondrules formed by complete melting of their precursor assemblages; remelting of RP and C chondrules surrounded by dust would tend to produce porphyritic chondrules as small dust particles mixed with the melt, providing nuclei for crystallizing phenocrysts. This process would tend to diminish the numbers of RP and C chondrules. Correlations among these chondrule physical properties suggest that chondrite groups with large chondrules were typically surrounded by thick dust-rich mantles that formed in locally dusty nebular environments. Chondrules that were surrounded by thick dust mantles tended to cool more slowly because heat could not quickly radiate away. Slow cooling led to enhanced migration of sulfide to chondrule surfaces and more extensive sulfide evaporation. These chondrules also lost Na; the plagioclase that formed from equilibrated CK chondrites was thus depleted in Na.

  15. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, M.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamoto, T.; Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ≳ 7 km s{sup –1} at 1 AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup –1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup –1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5 AU and 3.5 AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  16. Experimental Reproduction of Type 1B Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Le, L.

    2002-01-01

    We have replicated type 1B chondrule textures and compositions with crystallization experiments in which UOC material was melted at 1400 deg.C and cooled at 5-1000 deg.C/hr using graphite crucibles in evacuated silica tubes to provide a reducing environment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. Evaporation of nebular fines during chondrule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.

    2008-06-01

    Studies of matrix in primitive chondrites provide our only detailed information about the fine fraction (diameter <2 μm) of solids in the solar nebula. A minor fraction of the fines, the presolar grains, offers information about the kinds of materials present in the molecular cloud that spawned the Solar System. Although some researchers have argued that chondritic matrix is relatively unaltered presolar matter, meteoritic chondrules bear witness to multiple high-temperature events each of which would have evaporated those fines that were inside the high-temperature fluid. Because heat is mainly transferred into the interior of chondrules by conduction, the surface temperatures of chondrules were probably at or above 2000 K. In contrast, the evaporation of mafic silicates in a canonical solar nebula occurs at around 1300 K and FeO-rich, amorphous, fine matrix evaporates at still lower temperatures, perhaps near 1200 K. Thus, during chondrule formation, the temperature of the placental bath was probably >700 K higher than the evaporation temperatures of nebular fines. The scale of chondrule forming events is not known. The currently popular shock models have typical scales of about 10 km. The scale of nebular lightning is less well defined, but is certainly much smaller, perhaps in the range 1 to 1000 m. In both cases the temperature pulses were long enough to evaporate submicrometer nebular fines. This interpretation disagrees with common views that meteoritic matrix is largely presolar in character and CI-chondrite-like in composition. It is inevitable that presolar grains (both those recognized by their anomalous isotopic compositions and those having solar-like compositions) that were within the hot fluid would also have evaporated. Chondrule formation appears to have continued down to the temperatures at which planetesimals formed, possibly around 250 K. At temperatures >600 K, the main form of C is gaseous CO. Although the conversion of CO to CH 4 at lower

  18. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  19. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Silica-merrihueite/roedderite-bearing chondrules and clasts in ordinary chondrites: New occurrences and possible origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Wasson, John T.

    1994-01-01

    Merrihueite (K,Na)2(Fe,Mg)5Si12O30 (na less than 0.5, fe greater than 0.5, where na = Na/(Na + K), fe = Fe/(Fe + Mg) in atomic ratio) is a rare mineral described only in several chondrules and irregularly-shaped fragments in the Mezo-Madaras L3 chondrite (Dodd et al., 1965; Wood and Holmberg, 1994). Roedderite (Na,K)2(Mg,Fe)5Si12O30 (na greater than 0.5, fe less than 0.5) has been found only in enstatite chondrites and in the reduced, subchondritic silicate inclusions in IAB irons (Fuchs, 1966; Rambaldi et al., 1984; Olsen, 1967). We described silica-roedderite-bearing clasts in L/LL3.5 ALHA77011 and LL3.7 ALHA77278, a silica-roedderite-bearing chondrule in L3 Mezo-Madaras, and a silica-merrihueite-bearing chondrule in L/LL3.5 ALHA77115. The findings of merrihueite and roedderite in ALHA77011, ALHA77115, ALHA77278 and Mezo-Madaras fill the compositional gap betweeen previously described roedderite in enstatite chondrites and silicate inclusions in IAB irons and merrihueite in Mezo-Madaras, suggesting that there is a complete solid solution of roedderite and merrihueite in meteorites. We infer that the silica- and merrihueite/roedderite-bearing chondrules and clasts experienced a complex formational history including: (a) fractional condensation in the solar nebular that produced Si-rich and Al-poor precursors, (b) melting of fractionated nebular solids resulting in the formation of silica-pyroxene chondrules, (c) in some cases, fragmentation in the nebula or on a parent body, (d) reaction of silica with alkali-rich gas that formed merrihueite/roedderite on a parent body, (e) formation of fayalitic olivine and feerosilite-rich pyroxene due to reaction of silica with oxidized Fe on a parent body, and (f) minor thermal metamorphism, possibly generated by impacts.

  1. New Evidence for 26Al in CAI and Chondrules from Type 3 Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Russell, S. S.; MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1996-03-01

    We have known since 1976 that 26A1 (tl/2 = 7.2 x 105 yrs) was alive in the early solar system, at a level of (26Al/27Al)o z 5 x 10-5 in calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAI). However, several outstanding questions remain. Little evidence for 26A1 has been found in other chondritic material, and none has been found in differentiated meteorites. These results might imply that 26A1 was heterogeneously distributed in the nebula or by mineralogic site in nebular dust, or they might reflect differences in time of formation. There are strict limitations on finding evidence of 26A1 in normal chondrules with bulk Al/Mg ~ 0.1, since even quenched, perfectly preserved, late-stage glasses would have low Al/Mg. Primary plagioclase crystals provide the only possibility, but these only crystallize rarely in melts within the compositional range of normal chondrules. Also, metamorphism can erase the evidence in high-AI/Mg phases. To address these issues, we have conducted a search for chondrules and CAI with high-Al/Mg phases suitable for ion-probe measurement in type 3 ordinary chondrites. Previous work has revealed evidence for 26Al in a plagioclase bearing, olivine-pyroxene class from Semarkona (LL3.0; (26Al/27Al)o = 7.7+/-2.1 x 10-6)), a plagioclase-rich object from Bovedy (L3.7?; 2.5+/-1.2 x 10-7), in separated plagioclase from St. Marguerite (H4; 2.0+/-0.6 x 10-7), an isolated hibonite grain from Dhajala (H3.8; 8.4+0.5 x 10-6), and in Al2O3 and hibonite grains ((26Al/27Al)o = 2-5 x 10-5; [GRH, unpublished]) from acid residues of Semarkona, Bishunpur (LL3.1), and Krymka (LL3.1). We have identified and measured Al-Mg isotope systematics in two CAI and seven chondrules from ordinary chondrites of low metamorphic grade and have found clear evidence for 26A1 in both CAI and in two chondrules.

  2. Relict Olivines in Micrometeorites: Precursors and Interactions in the Earth’s Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Dey, S.; Fernandes, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.

    2016-11-01

    Antarctica micrometeorites (˜1200) and cosmic spherules (˜5000) from deep sea sediments are studied using electron microscopy to identify Mg-rich olivine grains in order to determine the nature of the particle precursors. Mg-rich olivine (FeO < 5wt%) in micrometeorites suffers insignificant chemical modification during its history and is a well-preserved phase. We examine 420 forsterite grains enclosed in 162 micrometeorites of different types—unmelted, scoriaceous, and porphyritic—in this study. Forsterites in micrometeorites of different types are crystallized during their formation in solar nebula; their closest analogues are chondrule components of CV-type chondrites or volatile rich CM chondrites. The forsteritic olivines are suggested to have originated from a cluster of closely related carbonaceous asteroids that have Mg-rich olivines in the narrow range of CaO (0.1-0.3wt%), Al2O3 (0.0-0.3wt%), MnO (0.0-0.3wt%), and Cr2O3 (0.1-0.7wt%). Numerical simulations carried out with the Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) enable us to define the physical conditions of atmospheric entry that preserve the original compositions of the Mg-rich olivines in these particles. The chemical compositions of relict olivines affirm the role of heating at peak temperatures and the cooling rates of the micrometeorites. This modeling approach provides a foundation for understanding the ablation of the particles and the circumstances in which the relict grains tend to survive.

  3. Partitioning of Moderately Siderophile Elements Among Olivine, Silicate Melt, and Sulfide Melt: Constraints on Core Formation in the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaetani, Glenn A.; Grove, Timothy L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of Variations in the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur on the partitioning of first series transition metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni. and Cu) and W among coexisting sulfide melt, silicate melt, and olivine. Experiments were performed at 1 atm pressure, 1350 C, with the fugacities of oxygen and sulfur controlled by mixing CO2, CO, and SO2 gases. Starting compositions consisted of a CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O analog for a barred olivine chondrule from an ordinary chondrite and a synthetic komatiite. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2), conditions ranged from log of f(sub O2) = -7.9 to - 10.6, with log of f(sub S2) values ranging from - 1.0 to -2.5. Our experimental results demonstrate that the f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies of sulfide melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for the first series transition metals arc proportional to their valence states. The f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependencies for the partitioning of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu are weaker than predicted on the basis of their valence states. Variations in conditions have no significant effect on olivine/melt partitioning other than those resulting from f(sub O2)-induced changes in the valence state of a given element. The strong f(sub O2)/f(sub S2) dependence for the olivine/silicate melt partitioning of V is attributable to a change of valence state, from 4+ to 3+, with decreasing f(sub O2). Our experimentally determined partition coefficients are used to develop models for the segregation of sulfide and metal from the silicate portion of the early Earth and the Shergottite parent body (Mars). We find that the influence of S is not sufficient to explain the overabundance of siderophile and chalcophile elements that remained in the mantle of the Earth following core formation. Important constraints on core formation in Mars are provided by our experimental determination of the partitioning of Cu between silicate and sulfide melts. When combined with existing estimates for siderophile

  4. Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeney, S.; Ruzicka, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forsterite (Fo(sub 99-100)) is often present in chondrules as relict grains that did not crystallize in situ and as isolated grains outside of chondrules; both are surrounded by ferrous overgrowths which clearly formed at a later time, probably during chondrule formation. We performed microprobe analyses across forsterite-overgrowth interfaces in 12 chondrules and 4 isolated grains in the Sahara-97210 LL3.2 (Sahara), Wells LL3.3, and Chainpur LL3.4 chondrites and modelled diffusional exchange between forsterite and overgrowths, with the goal of constraining the thermal histories during chondrule formation. The cooling rates experienced by chondrules provide an important constraint on the origin and setting of these objects.

  5. Oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules in Allende and ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Molini-Velsko, C.; Onuma, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Olsen, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The ferromagnesian chondrules in Allende follow a trend in the oxygen three-isotope plot that diverges significantly from the 16-O mixing line defined by light and dark inclusions and the matrix of the meteorite. The trend probably results from isotopic exchange with an external gaseous reservoir during the process of chondrule formation sometime after the establishment of the isotopic compositions of the inclusions and matrix. The Allende chondrules approach, but do not reach, the isotopic compositions of chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, implying exchange with a similar ambient gas, but isotopically different solid precursors for the two types of meteorite.

  6. Shape, size, and distribution of magnetic particles in Bjurbole chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nava, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules from the Bjurbole chondritic meteorite (L4) exhibit saturation remanence magnetization (SIRM) values which vary over three orders of magnitude. REM values (Natural Remanence Magnetization/SIRM) for Allende (C3V) and Chainpur (LL3) are less than 0.01 but in Bjurbole some chondrules were found to have REM values greater than 0.1 with several greater than 0.2. REM values greater than 0.1 are abnormal and cannot be acquired during weak field cooling. If exposure to a strong field (whatever the source) during the chondrules' history is responsible for the high REM values, was such history associated with a different processing which might have resulted in different shape, size, and distribution of metal particles compared to chondrules having REM values of less than 0.01? Furthermore, magnetic hysteresis results show a broad range of magnetic hardness and other intrinsic magnetic properties. These features must be related to (1) size and amount of metal; and (2) properties of, and amount of, tetrataenite in the chondrules (all chondrules thus far subjected to thermomagnetic analysis show the presence of tetrataenite). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study is underway to determine the relationship between the shape, size, and distribution of metal particles within individual chondrules and the magnetic properties of these chondrules. Results from the SEM study in conjunction with magnetic property data may also help to discern effects from possible lightning strikes in the nebula prior to incorporation of the chondrules into the parent body.

  7. A refractory glass chondrule in the Vigarano chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Williams, R. J.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Fredriksson, K.

    1974-01-01

    Vigarano, a type 3 carbonaceous chondrite, contains a chondrule composed of highly refractory Ca- and Al-rich glass with minor spinel. The chondrule formed from material similar to the Ca-, Al-, Ti-rich aggregates that are common in Vigarano and other type 3 chondrites and formation of these refractory aggregates must predate formation of some Vigarano chondrules. Experiments with synthetic analogs and a comparison with studies in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 indicate a temperature for formation of the chondrule at or above 1700 C followed by very rapid cooling.

  8. Formation of chondrules and CAIs by nebular processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palme, H.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules are essential components of most chondritic meteorites. Carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of CI chondrites, contain 30-50% chondrules, ordinary and enstatite chondrites even more. A better understanding of chondrule formation will therefore lead to an improved understanding of the origin of meteorites. Most studies of chondrules are, however, concerned with their texture and mineralogy. As chondrules, by definition, passed through a molten stage, their present texture and mineralogy can only provide information on conditions of crystallization from a melt and the subsequent solid-state cooling history. Information concerning chondrule formation is contained in their chemical and isotopic composition. The two most important observations relevant to the chemistry of the chondrules are their generally low Fe content and the large compositional variability of chondrules from a single meteorite, reflected in major variations of Mg/Si ratios, of Al and other refractory element abundances, total Fe, metal (Fe, Ni), and sulfide. This large compositional variability is surprising considering the uniform and nearly solar composition of bulk chondrites, which, in some cases, consist of more than 90% of chondrules.

  9. "Black-colored olivines" in peridotites: dehydrogenation from hydrous olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Shoji; Hoshikawa, Chihiro; Miura, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Fresh olivines that are black to the naked eye are found in some dunites. Peridotites are easily converted to be black in color, when serpentinized, due to production of secondary fine magnetite particles. The dunites that contain fresh but black-colored olivines are usually coarse-grained. These coarse olivine grains are sometimes very heterogeneous in color; the blackish part grades to whitish parts in single grains. The black color is due to homegeneous distribution of minute (< 10 microns) black particles in olivine. They are rod-like or plate-like in shape in thin section, sometimes being aligned under crystallographic control of the host olivine. Olivines are clear and free of these inclusions around primary chromian spinel inclusions or chromian spinel lamellae (Arai, 1978). Raman spectroscopy indicates the minute black particles are magnetite always associated with diopside. It is interesting to note that olivine in mantle peridotites accompanied by the black-colored dunites is totally free of the black inclusions, giving the ordinary colors (pale yellow to whitish) of Mg-rich olivine. It is not likely that the magnetite inclusions formed through secondary oxidation of olivine by invasion of oxygen, which is possible along cracks or grain boundaries. They most probably formed due to dehydrogenation from primary OH-bearing olivines upon cooling. Hydrogen was quickly diffused out from the olivines to leave magnetite and excess silica. The excess silica was possibly combined with a monticellite component to form diopside. The OH-bearing (hydrous) olivines can be precipitated from hydrous magmas, and the hydrous nature of the magma can promote an increase in grain size due to faster diffusion of elements. The minute inclusions of magnetite + diopside is thus an indicator of primary hydrous character of host olivine.

  10. Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C.; Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Cooper, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Applicability of Henry's Law to helium solubility in olivine We have experimentally determined helium solubility in San Carlos olivine across a range of helium partial pressures (PHe) with the goal of quantifying how noble gases behave during partial melting of peridotite. Helium solubility in olivine correlates linearly with PHe between 55 and 1680 bar. This linear relationship suggests Henry's Law is applicable to helium dissolution into olivine up to 1680 bar PHe, providing a basis for extrapolation of solubility relationships determined at high PHe to natural systems. This is the first demonstration of Henry's Law for helium dissolution into olivine. Averaging all the data of the PHe series yields a Henry's coefficient of 3.8(×3.1)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. However, the population of Henry's coefficients shows a positive skew (skewness = 1.17), i.e. the data are skewed to higher values. This skew is reflected in the large standard deviation of the population of Henry's coefficients. Averaging the median values from each experiment yields a lower Henry's coefficient and standard deviation: 3.2(× 2.3)×10-12 mol g-1 bar-1. Combining the presently determined helium Henry's coefficient for olivine with previous determinations of helium Henry's coefficients for basaltic melts (e.g. 1) yields a partition coefficient of ~10-4. This value is similar to previous determinations obtained at higher PHe (2). The applicability of Henry's Law here suggests helium is incorporated onto relatively abundant sites within olivine that are not saturated by 1680 bar PHe or ~5×10-9 mol g-1. Large radius vacancies, i.e. oxygen vacancies, are energetically favorable sites for noble gas dissolution (3). However, oxygen vacancies are not abundant enough in San Carlos olivine to account for this solubility (e.g. 4), suggesting the 3x10-12 mol g-1 bar-1 Henry's coefficient is associated with interstitial dissolution of helium. Helium was dissolved into olivine using an externally heated

  11. An unusual layered mineral in chondrules and aggregates of the Allende carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and electron energy loss (EELS) spectroscopy examinations of the microstructures and phase relationships of minerals in opaque spherules in the Allende chondrules and aggregates are reported. The studies were carried out on petrographic thin sections which were ion-thinned. A significant metasomatic effect was observed in a highly oxidizing condition of a later cooled stage. An unusually layered Fe-, Ni-, and O-rich mineral related to serpentine was found to occur in the opaque specimen, and was judged to occur by alteration of olivine. It is noted that low temperature and a hydrous condition would have been required for the formation of the serpentine in the spherules, the first observed in Allende. It is suggested that the aqueous conditions occurred before the final stage of the meteorite formation, and proceeded in a nonterrestrial manner.

  12. Chondrules from the Earth and Moon: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Huang, S.; Benoit, P.

    1995-09-01

    Since chondrules are arguably the most important constituent of chondritic meteorites, deciphering their origin would constitute a major step towards understanding early solar system processes. We here draw attention to proposed chondrules found in lunar and terrestrial samples since their existence on these parent bodies would seriously constrain theories for the origin of meteoritic chondrules. Terrestrial chondrules. Graup has reported lithic chondrules in the crater suevite and both fluid drop and lithic chondrules in the fall-out suevite of the Ries Crater [1, see also 2]. He observed 115 fluid drop and 44 lithic chondrules (as well as 10 glass spherules). Fourteen were shown in figures. He argued that textures and sizes, and thus modes of formation, are very similar to those of meteoritic chondrules. The Ries chondrules often have fine-grained rims similar to those found on meteoritic chondrules and similar origins have been proposed for both kinds of rim [1. 3, 4]. There is little available data beyond Graup's initial descriptions and these objects require further study. Lunar chondrules. Chondrules have been found in Apollo 11, 14, 15, 16 and Luna 16 soils and breccias [5-11]. Both fluid drop and lithic chondrules have been reported, many with fine-grained rims. Again, because of the similarity in texture, similar formation details to those of meteoritic chondrules have been proposed for both the chondrules and their rims. Most lunar chondrules have ANT compositions, as opposed to basaltic compositions, either because nucleation of these compositions is favored or because of the more intense impact history of the lunar highlands [e.g. 11]. Lunar agglutinates, which constitute 50 vol% of some soil samples, have histories involving reduction and evaporation similar to those of group A meteoritic chondrules [12]. They differ from the chondrules mainly in size, shape, the presence of unmelted dust particles and abundant vesicles [12]. At the moment there appear

  13. Porphyritic Olivine-Pyroxene Clast in Kaidun: First Discovery of an Ordinary Chondrite Clast?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Makishima, J.; Koizumi, E.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Kaidun is an enigmatic meteorite showing a micro-brecciated texture composed of variable kinds of lithic clasts and mineral fragments. The constituent components range from primitive chondritic materials to differentiated achondritic materials, and thus believed to have originated from a large parent body accumulating materials from many different bodies in the asteroid belt. One of the interesting observations is that no ordinary chondrite component has been found yet, although C and E chondrites components are abundant. In this abstract, we report mineralogy of the clast (Kaidun #15415- 01.3.13a) showing a porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrule-like texture similar to those found in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.

  14. Olivine in terminal particles of Stardust aerogel tracks and analogous grains in chondrite matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Le, Loan

    2014-10-01

    The dearth of both major and minor element analyses of anhydrous silicate phases in chondrite matrix has thus far hindered their comparison to the Wild 2 samples. We present 68 analyses of olivine (Fa0-97) in the coarse-grained terminal particles of Stardust aerogel tracks and a comprehensive dataset (>103 analyses) of analogous olivine grains (5-30 μm) isolated in CI, CM, CR, CH, CO, CV3-oxidized, CV3-reduced, C3-ungrouped (Acfer 094 and Ningqiang), L/LL 3.0-4, EH3, and Kakangari chondrite matrix. These compositions reveal that Wild 2 likely accreted a diverse assortment of material that was radially transported from various carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite-forming regions. The Wild 2 olivine includes amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), refractory forsterite, type I and type II chondrule fragments and/or microchondrules, and rare relict grain compositions. In addition, we have identified one terminal particle that has no known compositional analog in the meteorite record and may be a signature of low-temperature, aqueous processing in the Kuiper Belt. The generally low Cr content of FeO-rich olivine in the Stardust samples indicates that they underwent mild thermal metamorphism, akin to a petrologic grade of 3.05-3.15.

  15. The Mexican Meteorite Nuevo Mercurio (H5): Characteristics of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-de La Cruz, K. E.; Ortega-Gutiérrez, F.

    2006-03-01

    A study of the chondrules of Nuevo Mercurio (H5). There are some primary characteristics that can be observed, such as the relationship between chondrule size and their texture, and presence of opaque minerals (troilite and/or Fe-Ni alloys).

  16. OC Chondrule, Rim and Matrix Compositions: A Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.

    1996-03-01

    The peak temperatures chondrules experienced, based on their liquidus temperatures, range from 1500 K to 2000 K. At these temperatures and nebular pressures most elements are volatile, but generally the alkali metals and S have been the only major elements considered as such. However, correlated variations in Mg and Al abundances, if they are not due to precursor compositions, require the loss of up to 50% of the SiO2 from some chondrules. The more volatile FeO would have been lost to an even greater extent. Here it is shown that if the material lost from chondrules recondenses onto the fine grained material which survived the chondrule forming process, chondrule rim and matrix compositions can be explained.

  17. CHONDRULE FORMATION IN BOW SHOCKS AROUND ECCENTRIC PLANETARY EMBRYOS

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Melissa A.; Desch, Steven J.; Athanassiadou, Themis; Boley, Aaron C.

    2012-06-10

    Recent isotopic studies of Martian meteorites by Dauphas and Pourmand have established that large ({approx}3000 km radius) planetary embryos existed in the solar nebula at the same time that chondrules-millimeter-sized igneous inclusions found in meteorites-were forming. We model the formation of chondrules by passage through bow shocks around such a planetary embryo on an eccentric orbit. We numerically model the hydrodynamics of the flow and find that such large bodies retain an atmosphere with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities allowing mixing of this atmosphere with the gas and particles flowing past the embryo. We calculate the trajectories of chondrules flowing past the body and find that they are not accreted by the protoplanet, but may instead flow through volatiles outgassed from the planet's magma ocean. In contrast, chondrules are accreted onto smaller planetesimals. We calculate the thermal histories of chondrules passing through the bow shock. We find that peak temperatures and cooling rates are consistent with the formation of the dominant, porphyritic texture of most chondrules, assuming a modest enhancement above the likely solar nebula average value of chondrule densities (by a factor of 10), attributable to settling of chondrule precursors to the midplane of the disk or turbulent concentration. We calculate the rate at which a planetary embryo's eccentricity is damped and conclude that a single planetary embryo scattered into an eccentric orbit can, over {approx}10{sup 5} years, produce {approx}10{sup 24} g of chondrules. In principle, a small number (1-10) of eccentric planetary embryos can melt the observed mass of chondrules in a manner consistent with all known constraints.

  18. An American on Paris: Extent of aqueous alteration of a CM chondrite and the petrography of its refractory and amoeboid olivine inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2015-09-01

    Paris is the least aqueously altered CM chondrite identified to date, classified as subtype 2.7; however, literature data indicate that some regions of this apparently brecciated meteorite may be subtype 2.9. The suite of CAIs in Paris includes 19% spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 19% spinel inclusions, 8% spinel-pyroxene-olivine inclusions, 43% pyroxene inclusions, 8% pyroxene-olivine inclusions, and 3% hibonite-bearing inclusions. Both simple and complex inclusions are present; some have nodular, banded, or distended structures. No melilite was identified in any of the inclusions in the present suite, but other recent studies have found a few rare occurrences of melilite in Paris CAIs. Because melilite is highly susceptible to aqueous alteration, it is likely that it was mostly destroyed during early-stage parent-body alteration. Two of the CAIs in this study are part of compound CAI-chondrule objects. Their presence suggests that there were transient heating events (probably associated with chondrule formation) in the nebula after chondrules and CAIs were admixed. Also present in Paris are a few amoeboid olivine inclusions (AOI) consisting of relatively coarse forsterite rims surrounding fine-grained, porous zones containing diopside and anorthite. The interior regions of the AOIs may represent fine-grained rimless CAIs that were incorporated into highly porous forsterite-rich dustballs. These assemblages were heated by an energy pulse that collapsed and coarsened their rims, but failed to melt their interiors.

  19. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of nickel and cobalt between olivine, silicate melt, and metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Karin; Grove, Timothy L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Recca, Steven I.; Zervas, Deborah A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oxygen fugacity, f(O2), on the partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between olivine, silicate melt, and metal was investigated in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O system, an analogue of a chondrule composition from an ordinary chondrite. The conditions were 1350 C and 1 atm, with values of f(O2) varying between 10 exp -5.5 and 10 exp -12.6 atm (i.e., the f(O2) range relevant for crystal/liquid processes in terrestrial planets and meteorite parent bodies). Results of chemical analysis showed that the values of the Ni and Co partitioning coefficients begin to decrease at values of f(O2) that are about 3.9 log units below the nickel-nickel oxide and cobalt-cobalt oxide buffers, respectively, near the metal saturation for the chondrule analogue composition.

  20. Fe/Mn in olivine of carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Ian M.

    1993-01-01

    Olivines in primitive meteorites show a range of Fe/Mn both within one grain and among grains suggesting that they have recorded changing conditions during or after growth. Because olivine should be an early forming phase, Fe/Mn is used here to infer these earliest conditions. Initial Fe/Mn in cores of isolated, euhedral forsterite in both C2 and C3 meteorites ranges from 25 to 35 but differs at grain edge. Murchison (C2) forsterites show Fe/Mn approaching 1.0 at the grain edge while Ornans Fe/Mn is near 60 at grain edge. These values are lower than the matrix Fe/Mn for both meteorites and the distinct difference in zoning profile indicates different processes operating during and after grain growth. The Fe/Mn of bulk samples from a particular source such as the Moon is nearly constant. Individual samples show variation suggesting that there is some fractionation of Mn from Fe. Minerals have their individual ranges of Fe/Mn which has been used to recognize different types of olivine within one meteorite. Extreme values of Fe/Mn below 1.0 occur in forsterite from some IDP's, UOC matrix, and C1 meteorites. There are apparently no detailed studies of Fe/Mn variation within single olivine grains. Forsterite grains in C2 and C3 carbonaceous chondrites show complex zoning, and the nearly pure forsterites (Fo greater than approximately 99.5) have high levels of some minor elements including Ti, Al, V, and Sc. There is disagreement on the original source of these grains and both chondrule and vapor growth have been proposed. In addition, there is clear evidence that diffusion has affected the outer margins but in some cases the whole grain. Within the cores, the FeO range is limited, and if growing under constant conditions, the Fe/Mn should be near constant as there is little fractionation of Mn from Fe by forsterite. Additionally, there are apparently no co-crystallizing phases as evidenced by a lack of common inclusions in the forsterites. These observations are now

  1. Magmatic sulfides in the porphyritic chondrules of EH enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Laurette; Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy; Tissandier, Laurent

    2016-12-01

    The nature and distribution of sulfides within 17 porphyritic chondrules of the Sahara 97096 EH3 enstatite chondrite have been studied by backscattered electron microscopy and electron microprobe in order to investigate the role of gas-melt interactions in the chondrule sulfide formation. Troilite (FeS) is systematically present and is the most abundant sulfide within the EH3 chondrite chondrules. It is found either poikilitically enclosed in low-Ca pyroxenes or scattered within the glassy mesostasis. Oldhamite (CaS) and niningerite [(Mg,Fe,Mn)S] are present in ≈60% of the chondrules studied. While oldhamite is preferentially present in the mesostasis, niningerite associated with silica is generally observed in contact with troilite and low-Ca pyroxene. The Sahara 97096 chondrule mesostases contain high abundances of alkali and volatile elements (average Na2O = 8.7 wt.%, K2O = 0.8 wt.%, Cl = 7100 ppm and S = 3700 ppm) as well as silica (average SiO2 = 62.8 wt.%). Our data suggest that most of the sulfides found in EH3 chondrite chondrules are magmatic minerals that formed after the dissolution of S from a volatile-rich gaseous environment into the molten chondrules. Troilite formation occurred via sulfur solubility within Fe-poor chondrule melts followed by sulfide saturation, which causes an immiscible iron sulfide liquid to separate from the silicate melt. The FeS saturation started at the same time as or prior to the crystallization of low-Ca pyroxene during the high temperature chondrule forming event(s). Protracted gas-melt interactions under high partial pressures of S and SiO led to the formation of niningerite-silica associations via destabilization of the previously formed FeS and low-Ca pyroxene. We also propose that formation of the oldhamite occurred via the sulfide saturation of Fe-poor chondrule melts at moderate S concentration due to the high degree of polymerization and the high Na-content of the chondrule melts, which allowed the activity of Ca

  2. Rock magnetic properties of dusty olivine: comparison and calibration of non-heating paleointensity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, S. L.; Harrison, R. J.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism of chondrule formation is an important outstanding question in cosmochemistry. Magnetic signals recorded by Fe-Ni nanoparticles in chondrules could carry clues to their origin. Recently, research in this area has focused on 'dusty olivine' in ordinary chondrites as potential carriers of pre-accretionary remanence. Dusty olivine is characterised by the presence of sub-micron Fe-Ni inclusions within the olivine host. These metal particles form via subsolidus reduction of the olivine during chondrule formation and are thought to be protected from subsequent chemical and thermal alteration by the host olivine. Three sets of synthetic dusty olivines have been produced, using natural olivine (average Ni-content of 0.3 wt%), synthetic Ni-containing olivine (0.1wt% Ni) and synthetic Ni-free olivine as starting materials. The starting materials were ground to powders, packed into a 8-27 mm3 graphite crucible, heated up to 1350°C under a pure CO gas flow and kept at this temperature for 10 minutes. After this the samples were held in fixed orientation and quenched into water in a range of known magnetic fields from 0.2 mT to 1.5 mT. We present a comparison of all non-heating methods commonly used for paleointensity determination of extraterrestrial material. All samples showed uni-directional, single-component demagnetization behaviour. Saturation REM ratio (NRM/SIRM) and REMc ratio show non-linear behaviour as function of applied field and a saturation value < 1. Using the REM' method the samples showed approximately constant REM' between 100 and 150 mT AF-field. Plotting the average values for this field range again shows non-linear behaviour and a saturation value < 1. Another approach we examined to obtain calibration curves for paleointensity determination is based on ARM measurents. We also present an analysis of a new FORC-based method of paleointensity determination applied to metallic Fe-bearing samples [1, 2]. The method uses a first-order reversal

  3. The circumplanetary nebular environment: A possible source region for chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, I. S.

    1994-01-01

    Hypotheses for the origin of chondrules fall into two broad groups: nebular and planetary. Arguments against the latter have prevailed in recent years such that, by default, the less testable nebular setting for chondrule formation is now generally favored. However, the recognition in ordinary chondrites of igneous clasts that probably formed on, or in, small planetoids hints that some parent bodies were still accreting after others had evolved magmatically and lost material to space, presumably by impact. If melting of planetoids can predate accretion, could the same early melting even be related to chondrule production? My affirmative response to this interesting question is expanded here in a chondrule-forming scenario, which incorporates both planetary and nebular features.

  4. Rb-Sr Chronology of Chondrules from Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, E.; Amelin, Y.

    2002-03-01

    Chondritic silicates and individual chondrules have been shown to be precise U-Pb chronometers. Rb-Sr has been analysed in those same materials to compare the behaviour of the two isotopic systems in silicates and phosphates.

  5. Records of Magnetic Fields in the Chondrule Formation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Weiss, B. P.; Kehayias, P.; Schrader, D. L.; Walsworth, R. L.

    2017-02-01

    Paleomagnetic measurements can potentially constrain the formation mechanism and location of chondrules. We will present results on LL and CR chondrites, which appear to have experienced strong and weak magnetic fields, respectively.

  6. The formation of chondrules: petrologic tests of the shock wave model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Love, S. G.

    1998-04-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized rounded igneous rocks within chondritic meteorites. Their textures and fractionated mineral chemistries suggest that they formed by repeated, localized, brief (minutes to hours) melting of cold aggregates of mineral dust in the protoplanetary nebula. Astrophysical models of chondrule formation have been unable to explain the petrologically diverse nature of chondrites. However, a nebular shock wave model for chondrule formation agrees with many of the observed petrologic and geochemical properties of chondrules and shows how particles within the nebula are sorted by size and how rims around chondrules are formed. It also explains the volatile-rich nature of chondrule rims and the chondrite matrix.

  7. Reinvestigation of the olivine-spinel transformation in Ni2SiO4 and the incongruent melting of Ni2SiO4 olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.-B.

    1974-01-01

    The olivine-spinel transformation and the melting behavior of Ni2SiO4 were investigated over the PT ranges of 20-40 kbar, 650-1200 C, and 5-13 kbar, 1600-1700 C, respectively. It was confirmed that Ni2SiO4 olivine melts incongruently at high pressures and that it is a stable phase until melting occurs. The PT slope of the incongruent melting curve is approximately 105 bars/deg. The olivine-spinel transformation curve was shown to be a reversible univariant curve, and could be expressed by the linear equation P(bars) equals 23,300 + 11.8 x T(deg C). The transformation curve determined by Akimoto et al. (1965) is nearly parallel to that of the present work, but lies at pressures about 12% lower.

  8. Silica-Fayalite-bearing Chondrules in Ordinary Chondrites: Evidence of Oxidation in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Wasson, J. T.

    1993-07-01

    Most ordinary chondrite (OC) chondrules have compositions similar to those of bulk OC in terms of lithophile-element abundances. There are only a few rare chondrule classes that deviate significantly from OC-like compositions; these include Al-rich chondrules, chromitic and chromite-bearing silicate chondrules, and silica-rich chondrules. We studied 41 thin sections of unequilibrated OC and found 82 silica-bearing chondrules that can be divided into two major categories: silica-pyroxene chondrules and silica-fayalite- pyroxene chondrules. These chondrules are more common in H (>3/cm^2) than in L and LL chondrites (<1/cm^2). Silica-pyroxene chondrules consist mainly of low-Ca pyroxene and silica and have radial and porphyritic textures. Silica-bearing radial pyroxene (RP) chondrules contain 5-10 vol% silica grains; the low-Ca pyroxene is uniform in individual chondrules but varies from one chondrule to another (Fs(sub)10.2- Fs(sub)31.5). Silica-bearing porphyritic pyroxene (PP) chondrules contain 15- 40 vol% silica; the low-Ca pyroxene varies in composition within individual PP chondrules and tends to be more magnesian than in the silica-bearing RP chondrules (Fs(sub)5.0-Fs(sub)21.1). Petrographic observations suggest that some PP chondrules were not completely molten; they appear to have cooled more slowly than the silica-bearing RP chondrules. Silica-fayalite-pyroxene chondrules consist of silica, fayalite, and low-Ca pyroxene; accessory high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase mesostasis, troilite, and metallic Fe-Ni are also present. Based on texture and the modal abundances of pyroxene and silica these chondrules can be divided into two types: (1) radial or porphyritic silica-fayalite-pyroxene chondrules containing 5-40 vol% silica and (2) granular silica-fayalite-pyroxene chondrules consisting almost entirely (90-95 vol%) of silica. Silica-fayalite-bearing pyroxene chondrules are texturally and compositionally similar to the silica-bearing pyroxene chondrules described

  9. Extremely Na- and Cl-rich chondrule from the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Aléon, J.; Ramon, E. C.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Brearley, A. J.

    2011-09-01

    We report on a study of Al3509, a large Na- and Cl-rich, radially-zoned object from the oxidized CV carbonaceous chondrite Allende. Al3509 consists of fine-grained ferroan olivine, ferroan Al-diopside, nepheline, sodalite, and andradite, and is crosscut by numerous veins of nepheline, sodalite, and ferroan Al-diopside. Some poorly-characterized phases of fine-grained material are also present; these phases contain no significant H 2O. The minerals listed above are commonly found in Allende CAIs and chondrules and are attributed to late-stage iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration of primary high-temperature minerals. Textural observations indicate that Al3509 is an igneous object. However, no residual crystals that might be relicts of pre-existing CAI or chondrule minerals were identified. To establish the levels of 26Al and 36Cl originally present, 26Al- 26Mg and 36Cl- 36S isotopic systematics in sodalite were investigated. Al3509 shows no evidence of radiogenic 26Mg ∗, establishing an upper limit of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio of 3 × 10 -6. All sodalite grains measured show large but variable excesses of 36S, which, however, do not correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratio. If these excesses are due to decay of 36Cl, local redistribution of radiogenic 36S ∗ after 36Cl had decayed is required. The oxygen-isotope pattern in Al3509 is the same as found in secondary minerals resulting from iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration of Allende CAIs and chondrules and in melilite and anorthite of most CAIs in Allende. The oxygen-isotope data suggest that the secondary minerals precipitated from or equilibrated with a fluid of similar oxygen-isotope composition. These observations suggest that the formation of Al3509 and alteration products in CAIs and chondrules in Allende requires a very similar fluid phase, greatly enriched in volatiles (e.g., Na and Cl) and with Δ 17O ˜ -3‰. We infer that internal heating of planetesimals by 26Al would efficiently transfer

  10. Combined Study of Highly Siderophile Elements and Cr Isotopes in the Chondrules of Unequilibrated Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlag, Y.; Becker, H.

    2017-02-01

    We are presenting the highly siderophile element abundances and Re-Os isotope systematics and Cr isotope composition of bulk chondrule fractions from unequilibrated chondrites to understand the chondrule formation processes.

  11. Nucleosynthetic and Mass-Dependent Titanium Isotope Variations in Individual Chondrules of Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbächler, M.; Bauer, K. K.; Fehr, M. A.; Chaumard, N.; Zanda, B.

    2017-02-01

    We present evidence for nucleosynthetic Ti isotope heterogeneity between individual chondrules of ordinary chondrites difficult to reconcile with chondrule formation from molten planetesimals. Metamorphism resulted in stable Ti isotope fractionation.

  12. Age Variations Among Ordinary Chondrites: U-Pb Chronology of Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, E.; Amelin, Y.

    2003-03-01

    We have continued our project of U-Pb dating of chondrules from ordinary chondrites. Some chondrules yield very precise dates, and the method continues to show promise for better understanding the thermal history of the chondrites.

  13. A Thermo-Mechanical 'Goldilocks' Regime for Impact Splash Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, T.; Golabek, G. J.; Dullemond, C. P.; Schönbächler, M.; Gerya, T. V.; Meyer, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new chondrule formation scenario where chondrules originate from the collision aftermath of small, partially molten planetesimals, which poses strong constraints on the formation conditions of the first planetesimal families.

  14. Mean Atomic Weight of Chondrules and Matrices in Semarkona, Allende and Sharps Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szurgot, M.

    2017-02-01

    Mean atomic weight Amean of chondrules and matrices of Semarkona, Allende and Sharps meteorites was determined using chemical composition and Amean(Fe/Si) dependence. Amean values of matrices are higher than chondrules and meteorites.

  15. Mineralogy and Petrology of Amoeboid Olivine Inclusions in CO3 Chondrites: Relationship to Parent-Body Aqueous Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chizmadia, Lysa J.; Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Petrographic and mineralogic studies of amoeboid olivine inclusions (AOIs) in CO3 carbonaceous chondrites reveal that they are sensitive indicators of parent-body aqueous and thermal alteration. As the petrologic subtype increases from 3.0 to 3.8, forsteritic olivine (Fa(sub 0-1)) is systematically converted into ferroan olivine (Fa(sub 60-75)). We infer that the Fe, Si and O entered the assemblage along grain boundaries, forming ferroan olivine that filled fractures and voids. As temperatures increased, Fe(+2) from the new olivine exchanged with Mg(+2) from the original AOI to form diffusive haloes around low-FeO cores. Cations of Mn(+2), Ca(+2) and Cr(+3) were also mobilized. The systematic changes in AOI textures and olivine compositional distributions can be used to refine the classification of CO3 chondrites into subtypes. In subtype 3.0, olivine occurs as small forsterite grains (Fa(sub 0-1)), free of ferroan olivine. In petrologic subtype 3.2, narrow veins of FeO-rich olivine have formed at forsterite grain boundaries. With increasing alteration, these veins thicken to form zones of ferroan olivine at the outside AOI margin and within the AOI interior. By subtype 3.7, there is a fairly broad olivine compositional distribution in the range Fa(sub 63-70), and by subtype 3.8, no forsterite remains and the high-Fa peak has narrowed, Fa(sub 64-67). Even at this stage, there is incomplete equilibration in the chondrite as a whole (e.g., data for coarse olivine grains in Isna (CO3.8) chondrules and lithic clasts show a peak at Fa(sub39)). We infer that the mineral changes in A01 identified in the low petrologic types required aqueous or hydrothermal fluids whereas those in subtypes greater than or equal to 3.3 largely reflect diffusive exchange within and between mineral grains without the aid of fluids.

  16. Enhanced olivine carbonation within a basalt as compared to single-phase experiments: the impact of redox and bulk composition on the dissolution kinetics of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissmann, O.; Brunet, F.; Martinez, I.; Guyot, F. J.; Verlaguet, A.; Pinquier, Y.; Garcia, B.; Chardin, M.; Kohler, E.; Daval, D.

    2014-12-01

    Olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, which is one of the major mineral constituents of mafic and ultramafic rocks, has an attractive potential for CO2 mineral sequestration, as it possesses a high content of carbonate-forming divalent cations and exhibits one of the highest dissolution rate amongst rock-forming minerals. This study reports drastic differences in carbonation yields between experiments performed on olivine-rich basalt samples and on olivine separates (a more restricted chemical system). Batch experiments were conducted in water at 150°C and pCO2 = 280 bars on a Mg-rich tholeiitic basalt (9.3 wt.% MgO and 12.2 wt.% CaO), composed of olivine, Ti-magnetite, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. After 45 days of reaction, 56 wt.% of the initial MgO has reacted with CO2 to form Fe-bearing magnesite (Mg0.8Fe0.2)CO3 along with minor calcium carbonates. The substantial decrease of olivine content upon carbonation supports the idea that ferroan magnesite formation mainly follows from olivine dissolution. In contrast, in experiments performed under similar run durations and P/T conditions with a San Carlos olivine separate (47.8 wt.% MgO) of similar grain size, only 5 wt.% of the initial MgO content reacted to form Fe-bearing magnesite. The overall carbonation kinetics of the basalt is enhanced by a factor of 40. It could be accounted for by differences in chemical and textural properties of the secondary-silica layer which covers reacted olivine grains in both types of sample. A TEM inspection of mineral surfaces shows that the thin amorphous silica layer (~100 nm) is porous in the case of the basalt sample and that it contains significant amounts of iron and aluminum. Thus, we propose that the composition of the olivine environment itself can strongly influence the olivine dissolution-carbonation process. Consequently, laboratory data obtained on olivine separates might yield a conservative estimate of the true carbonation potential of olivine-bearing basaltic rocks. More

  17. Chondrule Formation via Impact Jetting Triggered by Planetary Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Chondrules are one of the most primitive elements that can serve as a fundamental clue to the origin of our solar system. We investigate a formation scenario of chondrules that involves planetesimal collisions and the resultant impact jetting. Planetesimal collisions are the main agent to regulate planetary accretion that leads to the formation of terrestrial planets and cores of gas giants. The key component of this scenario is that ejected materials can melt when the impact velocity between colliding planetesimals exceeds about 2.5 km s-1. Previous simulations have shown that the process is efficient enough to reproduce the primordial abundance of chondrules. We examine this scenario carefully by performing semi-analytical calculations that are developed based on the results of direct N-body simulations. As found in the previous work, we confirm that planetesimal collisions that occur during planetary accretion can play an important role in forming chondrules. This arises because protoplanet-planetesimal collisions can achieve an impact velocity of about 2.5 km s-1 or higher, as protoplanets approach the isolation mass (Mp,iso). Assuming that the ejected mass is a fraction (Fch) of the colliding planetesimals’ mass, we show that the resultant abundance of chondrules is expressed well by FchMp,iso, as long as the formation of protoplanets is completed within a given disk lifetime. We perform a parameter study and examine how the abundance of chondrules and the timing of their formation change. We find that the impact jetting scenario generally works reasonably well for a certain range of parameters, while more dedicated work would be needed to include other physical processes that are neglected in this work and to examine their effects on chondrule formation.

  18. The experimental production of matrix lumps within chondrules: Evidence of post-formational processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Hewins, Roger H.

    1993-01-01

    The processes that acted upon chondrules after their formation are as important clues to the nature of the early solar nebula as are the exact processes that formed the chondrules. Recent experiments have studied the rim forming processes and the effects the processes have on chondrules. We present below information on how matrix inclusions found within chondrules may have been formed and the potential usefulness of this information.

  19. Origin of olivine at Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The central peaks of Copernicus are among the few lunar areas where near-infrared telescopic reflectance spectra indicate extensive exposures of olivine. Other parts of Copernicus crater and ejecta, which were derived from highland units in the upper parts of the target site, contain only low-Ca pyroxene as a mafic mineral. The exposure of compositionally distinct layers including the presence of extensive olivine may result from penetration to an anomalously deep layer of the crust or to the lunar mantle. It is suggested that the Procellarum basin and the younger, superposed Insularum basin have provided access to these normally deep-seated crustal or mantle materials by thinning the upper crustal material early in lunar history. The occurrences of olivine in portions of the compositionally heterogeneous Aristarchus Region, in a related geologic setting, may be due to the same sequence of early events.

  20. Trace Element Distribution in an Al-rich Chondrule from the Mokoia CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.; Schilk, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied an Al-rich chondrule from Mokoia. SIMS analyses of plagioclase and pyroxene show that the bulk chondrule REE pattern was originally like group II CAIs. The chondrule must have had precursor material that was a condensation product. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Forming chondrules in impact splashes. I. Radiative cooling model

    SciTech Connect

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-10

    The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets that solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al would help produce sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from numerical radiative transfer models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t {sub cool} and then drops with time t approximately as T ≅ T {sub 0}[(3/5)t/t {sub cool} + 2/5]{sup –5/3} for t > t {sub cool}. The time at which this temperature drop starts t {sub cool} depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the expansion velocity, and the size of the chondrule. During the early isothermal expansion phase the density is still so high that we expect the vapor of volatile elements to saturate so that no large volatile losses are expected.

  2. Dynamic crystallization experiments on chondrule melts in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary; Williams, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chondrules crystallized during the earliest formational history of the solar system; and, if crystal settling and flotation are indicators of crystallization in the presence of gravity, they formed without the influence of gravity. In fact, attempts to duplicate the crystallization history of chondrules in the laboratory have met with limited success, because of the difficulty of comparing objects formed under the influence of gravity with objects that did not. These comparisons are difficult because there are several recognized features introduced by the presence of gravity and no doubt some which are not yet recognized. As a result there are several microscale and macroscale aspects of chondrule petrology which are difficult to understand quantitatively. Most of the features relate to the settling or flotation of early formed crystals. The proposed experiments are briefly described.

  3. Implications of a phase-transition thermostat for chondrule melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    It is widely accepted that chondrules were formed in brief, localized nebular heating episodes. Given the apparent (at least local) high efficiency of chondrule formation, these thermal events seem to have occurred at a large number of different times and/or azimuthal locations in the solar nebula. It is reasonable to expect that the chondrule-forming events, whatever their underlying cause, were not all identical, but instead occurred with some spread of heating intensities. If this was so, it is puzzling that compositional and textural evidence points to peak temperatures certainly within 1400 - 1750 C, and in most cases within 1500 - 1550 C. This problem is addressed in this article and a possible explanation for this restricted range of peak temperatures is discussed.

  4. The formation of chondrules at high gas pressures in the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Galy, A; Young, E D; Ash, R D; O'Nions, R K

    2000-12-01

    High-precision magnesium isotope measurements of whole chondrules from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite meteorite show that some aluminum-rich Allende chondrules formed at or near the time of formation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and that some others formed later and incorporated precursors previously enriched in magnesium-26. Chondrule magnesium-25/magnesium-24 correlates with [magnesium]/[aluminum] and size, the aluminum-rich, smaller chondrules being the most enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium. These relations imply that high gas pressures prevailed during chondrule formation in the solar nebula.

  5. Shape, metal abundance, chemistry, and origin of chondrules in the Renazzo (CR) chondrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ebel, D.S.; Weisberg, M.K.; Hertz, J.; Campbell, A.J.

    2009-03-31

    We used synchrotron X-ray microtomography to image in 3-dimensions (3D) eight whole chondrules in a {approx}1 cm{sup 3} piece of the Renazzo (CR) chondrite at {approx}17 {micro}m per volume element (voxel) edge. We report the first volumetric (3D) measurement of metal/silicate ratios in chondrules and quantify indices of chondrule sphericity. Volumetric metal abundances in whole chondrules range from 1 to 37 volume % in 8 measured chondrules and by inspection in tomography data. We show that metal abundances and metal grain locations in individual chondrules cannot be reliably obtained from single random 2D sections. Samples were physically cut to intersect representative chondrules multiple times and to verify 3D data. Detailed 2D chemical analysis combined with 3D data yield highly variable whole-chondrule Mg/Si ratios with a supra-chondritic mean value, yet the chemically diverse, independently formed chondrules are mutually complementary in preserving chondritic (solar) Fe/Si ratios in the aggregate CR chondrite. These results are consistent with localized chondrule formation and rapid accretion resulting in chondrule + matrix aggregates (meteorite parent bodies) that preserve the bulk chondritic composition of source regions.

  6. Papers presented to the Conference on Chondrules and the Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are covered in the presented papers: (1) producing chondrules; (2) carbons, CAI's, and chondrules; (3) large scale processes in the solar nebula; (4) chondrule-matrix relationships in chondritic meteorites; (5) overview of nebula models; (6) constraints placed on the nature of chondrule precursors; (7) turbulent diffusion and concentration of chondrules in the protoplanetary nebula; (8) heating and cooling in the solar nebula; (9) crystallization trends of precursor pyroxene in ordinary chondrites; (10) precipitation induced vertical lightning in the protoplanetary nebula; (11) the role of chondrules in nebular fractionations of volatiles and other elements; (12) astronomical observations of phenomena in disks; (13) experimental constraints on models for origins of chondrules, and various other topics.

  7. Crystallographic orientations of olivine inclusions in diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, S.; Nestola, F.; Angel, R. J.; Nimis, P.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report for the first time the crystallographic orientations of olivine inclusions trapped in diamonds from the Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and analyze them together with all available data in the literature. The overall data set indicates no preferred orientation of the olivine inclusions with respect to their diamond hosts. However, diamonds containing multiple olivine inclusions sometimes show clusters of olivines with the same orientation in the same diamond host. We conclude that such clusters can only be interpreted as the remnants of single olivine crystals pre-dating the growth of the host diamonds.

  8. Supernova olivine from cometary dust.

    PubMed

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay P; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-07-29

    An interplanetary dust particle contains a submicrometer crystalline silicate aggregate of probable supernova origin. The grain has a pronounced enrichment in 18O/16O (13 times the solar value) and depletions in 17O/16O (one-third solar) and 29Si/28Si (<0.8 times solar), indicative of formation from a type II supernova. The aggregate contains olivine (forsterite 83) grains <100 nanometers in size, with microstructures that are consistent with minimal thermal alteration. This unusually iron-rich olivine grain could have formed by equilibrium condensation from cooling supernova ejecta if several different nucleosynthetic zones mixed in the proper proportions. The supernova grain is also partially encased in nitrogen-15-rich organic matter that likely formed in a presolar cold molecular cloud.

  9. Supernova olivine from cometary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay P.; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2005-01-01

    An interplanetary dust particle contains a submicrometer crystalline silicate aggregate of probable supernova origin. The grain has a pronounced enrichment in 18O/16O (13 times the solar value) and depletions in 17O/16O (one-third solar) and 29Si/28Si (<0.8 times solar), indicative of formation from a type II supernova. The aggregate contains olivine (forsterite 83) grains <100 nanometers in size, with microstructures that are consistent with minimal thermal alteration. This unusually iron-rich olivine grain could have formed by equilibrium condensation from cooling supernova ejecta if several different nucleosynthetic zones mixed in the proper proportions. The supernova grain is also partially encased in nitrogen-15-rich organic matter that likely formed in a presolar cold molecular cloud.

  10. How to form planetesimals from mm-sized chondrules and chondrule aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.

    2015-07-01

    The size distribution of asteroids and Kuiper belt objects in the solar system is difficult to reconcile with a bottom-up formation scenario due to the observed scarcity of objects smaller than ~100 km in size. Instead, planetesimals appear to form top-down, with large 100-1000 km bodies forming from the rapid gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small solid particles. In this paper we investigate the conditions under which solid particles can form dense clumps in a protoplanetary disk. We used a hydrodynamic code to model the interaction between solid particles and the gas inside a shearing box inside the disk, considering particle sizes from submillimeter-sized chondrules to meter-sized rocks. We found that particles down to millimeter sizes can form dense particle clouds through the run-away convergence of radial drift known as the streaming instability. We made a map of the range of conditions (strength of turbulence, particle mass-loading, disk mass, and distance to the star) that are prone to producing dense particle clumps. Finally, we estimate the distribution of collision speeds between mm-sized particles. We calculated the rate of sticking collisions and obtain a robust upper limit on the particle growth timescale of ~105 years. This means that mm-sized chondrule aggregates can grow on a timescale much smaller than the disk accretion timescale (~106-107 years). Our results suggest a pathway from the mm-sized grains found in primitive meteorites to fully formed asteroids. We speculate that asteroids may form from a positive feedback loop in which coagualation leads to particle clumping driven by the streaming instability. This clumping, in turn, reduces collision speeds and enhances coagulation. Future simulations should model coagulation and the streaming instability together to explore this feedback loop further. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. O-Isotope Features of Chondrules from Recent SIMS Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, T. J.; Ushikubo, T.; Nakashima, D.; Schrader, D. L.; Weisberg, M. K.; Kimura, M.; Kita, N. T.

    2017-02-01

    We highlight results of recent chondrule O-isotope studies by SIMS: (1) primary and secondary features based on the level of isotope homogeneity, (2) comparing ranges of host and relict data among chondrites, (3) O-isotope vs. major element links.

  12. Chondrules from the Outer Solar System: Results from Stardust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Hicks, L. J.

    2017-02-01

    Stardust samples of Comet Wild2 contain fragments similar to Type II FeMg and Al-rich chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. They may be the result of radial drift from the inner solar system or, alternatively, formation in the outer solar system.

  13. Refractory residues, condensates and chondrules from solar furnace experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Vertical access solar furnace experiments have produced refractory residues, condensates and chondrules that are similar to components of chondritic meteorites. In particular, Ca-Al-rich refractory residues similar in chemistry to inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites have been produced by partial evaporation of basaltic bulk rock samples. Fe-Mg-Si-rich condensates with distinctive microbotryoidal morphology have been collected from the same sample runs. Particle coatings and aggregates with virtually identical microbotryoidal morphology and major element chemistry have been identified in both the Allende and Murchison meteorites. Spattered drops from melt beads undergoing heating and partial evaporation resemble some meteoritic chondrules in their mineralogies, textures, grain size, and sorting. The spatter mechanism is highly efficient in the production of chondrules. If any of the refractory inclusions in chondrites are, in fact, partial evaporation residues, many meteoritic fluid drop chondrules must have been formed by this process. The hot central portion of the solar nebula, acting on a cloud of dust and gas, is the probable source of heat required to produce the fractionated chemistry and physical state of many of the components of chondritic meteorites.

  14. Sulfur Isotope Composition of Putative Primary Troilite in Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tachibana, Shogo; Huss, Gary R.

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur isotope compositions of putative primary troilites in chondrules from Bishunpur were measured by ion probe. These primary troilites have the same S isotope compositions as matrix troilites and thus appear to be isotopically unfractionated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Amoeboid olivine aggregates from CH carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide

    2014-08-01

    Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in CH carbonaceous chondrites are texturally and mineralogically similar to those in other carbonaceous chondrite groups. They show no evidence for alteration and thermal metamorphism in an asteroidal setting and consist of nearly pure forsterite (Fa<3; in wt%, CaO = 0.1-0.8, Cr2O3 = 0.04-0.48; MnO < 0.5), anorthite, Al-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 = 0.7-8.1; TiO2 < 1), Fe,Ni-metal, spinel, and, occasionally, low-Ca pyroxene (Fs1Wo2-3), and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAIs inside AOAs are composed of hibonite, grossite, melilite (Åk13-44), spinel, perovskite, Al,Ti-diopside (in wt%, Al2O3 up to 19.6; TiO2 up to 13.9), and anorthite. The CH AOAs, including CAIs within AOAs, have isotopically uniform 16O-rich compositions (average Δ17O = -23.4 ± 2.3‰, 2SD) and on a three-isotope oxygen diagram plot along ∼slope-1 line. The only exception is a low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 that shows a range of Δ17O values, from -24‰ to -13‰. Melilite, grossite, and hibonite in four CAIs within AOAs show no evidence for radiogenic 26Mg excess (δ26Mg). In contrast, anorthite in five out of six AOAs measured has δ26Mg corresponding to the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratio of (4.3 ± 0.7) × 10-5, (4.2 ± 0.6) × 10-5, (4.0 ± 0.3) × 10-5, (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10-5, and (3.0 ± 2.6) × 10-6. Anorthite in another AOA shows no resolvable δ26Mg excess; an upper limit on the initial 26Al/27Al ratio is 5 × 10-6. We infer that CH AOAs formed by gas-solid condensation and aggregation of the solar nebula condensates (forsterite and Fe,Ni-metal) mixed with the previously formed CAIs. Subsequently they experienced thermal annealing and possibly melting to a small degree in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir during a brief epoch of CAI formation. The low-Ca pyroxene-bearing AOA 1-103 may have experienced incomplete melting and isotope exchange in an 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. The lack of resolvable δ26Mg excess in melilite, grossite, and

  16. Mg-Fe2+ Exchange Between Olivine and Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. D.; Kelley, D. F.; Barton, M.

    2005-05-01

    and hence fO2 to be calculated for melts with total Fe reported as FeO. Values of fO2 calculated for 189 experimental olivine-melt pairs agree with reported values to ±0.22 log bar units.

  17. A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A CAI or AL-Rich Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Polymict ureilites are breccias interpreted to represent regolith formed on a ureilitic asteroid [1-3]. They consist of approximately 90-95% clasts of various ureilite types (olivine-pyroxene rocks with Fo 75-95), a few % indigenous feldspathic clasts, and a few % foreign clasts [4-20]. The foreign clasts are diverse, including fragments of H, L, LL and R chondrites, angrites, other achondrites, and dark clasts similar to CC [6,7,9-19]. We report a new type of foreign clast in polymict ureilite DaG 999. Methods: Clast 8 in Dar al Gani (DaG) 999/1 (Museum fur Naturkunde) was discovered during a survey of feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [19,20]. It was studied by BEI, EMPA, and X-ray mapping on the JEOL 8530F electron microprobe at ARES, JSC. Petrography and Mineral Compositions: Clast 8 is sub-rounded to irregular in shape, approximately 85 micrometers in diameter, and consists of approximately 68% pyroxene and 32% mesostasis (by area). Part of the pyroxene (top half of clast in Fig. 1a and 2) shows a coarse dendritic morphology; the rest appears massive. Mesostasis may be glassy and contains fine needles/grains of pyroxene. The pyroxene has very high CaO (23.5 wt.%) and Al2O3 (19.7 wt.%), with the formula: (Ca(0.91)Mg(0.63)Fe(0.01)Al(sup VI) (0.38)Cr(0.01)Ti(0.05)1.99 Si2O6. The bulk mesostasis also has very high Al2O3 (approximately 26 wt.%). A bulk composition for the clast was obtained by combining modal abundances with phase compositions (Table 1, Fig. 3). Discussion: The pyroxene in clast 8 has a Ca-Al-(Ti)- rich (fassaitic) composition that is clearly distinct from compositions of pyroxenes in main group ureilites [22] or indigenous feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [4-8]. It also has significantly higher Al than fassaite in angrites (up to approximately 12 wt.% [23]), which occur as xenoliths in polymict ureilites. Ca-Al-Ti rich pyroxenes are most commonly found in CAIs, Al-rich chondrules and other types of refractory

  18. Forming Chondrules in Impact Splashes II Volatile Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Harsono, Daniel; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Johansen, Anders

    2016-11-01

    Solving the mystery of the origin of chondrules is one of the most elusive goals in the field of meteoritics. Recently, the idea of planet(esimal) collisions releasing splashes of lava droplets, long considered out of favor, has been reconsidered as a possible origin of chondrules by several papers. One of the main problems with this idea is the lack of quantitative and simple models that can be used to test this scenario by directly comparing to the many known observables of chondrules. In Paper I of this series, we presented a simple thermal evolution model of a spherically symmetric expanding cloud of molten lava droplets that is assumed to emerge from a collision between two planetesimals. The production of lava could be either because the two planetesimals were already in a largely molten (or almost molten) state due to heating by 26Al, or due to impact jetting at higher impact velocities. In the present paper, number II of this series, we use this model to calculate whether or not volatile elements such as Na and K will remain abundant in these droplets or whether they will get depleted due to evaporation. The high density of the droplet cloud (e.g., small distance between adjacent droplets) causes the vapor to quickly reach saturation pressure and thus shuts down further evaporation. We show to what extent, and under which conditions, this keeps the abundances of these elements high, as is seen in chondrules. We find that for most parameters of our model (cloud mass, expansion velocity, initial temperature) the volatile elements Mg, Si, and Fe remain entirely in the chondrules. The Na and K abundances inside the droplets will initially stay mostly at their initial values due to the saturation of the vapor pressure, but at some point start to drop due to the cloud expansion. However, as soon as the temperature starts to decrease, most or all of the vapor recondenses again. At the end, the Na and K elements retain most of their initial abundances, albeit

  19. Growth of asteroids, planetary embryos, and Kuiper belt objects by chondrule accretion

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Anders; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Lacerda, Pedro; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized spherules that dominate primitive meteorites (chondrites) originating from the asteroid belt. The incorporation of chondrules into asteroidal bodies must be an important step in planet formation, but the mechanism is not understood. We show that the main growth of asteroids can result from gas drag–assisted accretion of chondrules. The largest planetesimals of a population with a characteristic radius of 100 km undergo runaway accretion of chondrules within ~3 My, forming planetary embryos up to Mars’s size along with smaller asteroids whose size distribution matches that of main belt asteroids. The aerodynamical accretion leads to size sorting of chondrules consistent with chondrites. Accretion of millimeter-sized chondrules and ice particles drives the growth of planetesimals beyond the ice line as well, but the growth time increases above the disc lifetime outside of 25 AU. The contribution of direct planetesimal accretion to the growth of both asteroids and Kuiper belt objects is minor. In contrast, planetesimal accretion and chondrule accretion play more equal roles in the formation of Moon-sized embryos in the terrestrial planet formation region. These embryos are isolated from each other and accrete planetesimals only at a low rate. However, the continued accretion of chondrules destabilizes the oligarchic configuration and leads to the formation of Mars-sized embryos and terrestrial planets by a combination of direct chondrule accretion and giant impacts. PMID:26601169

  20. Growth of asteroids, planetary embryos, and Kuiper belt objects by chondrule accretion.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Lacerda, Pedro; Bizzarro, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized spherules that dominate primitive meteorites (chondrites) originating from the asteroid belt. The incorporation of chondrules into asteroidal bodies must be an important step in planet formation, but the mechanism is not understood. We show that the main growth of asteroids can result from gas drag-assisted accretion of chondrules. The largest planetesimals of a population with a characteristic radius of 100 km undergo runaway accretion of chondrules within ~3 My, forming planetary embryos up to Mars's size along with smaller asteroids whose size distribution matches that of main belt asteroids. The aerodynamical accretion leads to size sorting of chondrules consistent with chondrites. Accretion of millimeter-sized chondrules and ice particles drives the growth of planetesimals beyond the ice line as well, but the growth time increases above the disc lifetime outside of 25 AU. The contribution of direct planetesimal accretion to the growth of both asteroids and Kuiper belt objects is minor. In contrast, planetesimal accretion and chondrule accretion play more equal roles in the formation of Moon-sized embryos in the terrestrial planet formation region. These embryos are isolated from each other and accrete planetesimals only at a low rate. However, the continued accretion of chondrules destabilizes the oligarchic configuration and leads to the formation of Mars-sized embryos and terrestrial planets by a combination of direct chondrule accretion and giant impacts.

  1. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions recycled during formation of porphyritic chondrules from CH carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; van Kooten, Elishevah M. M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We report on the mineralogy, petrography, and O-isotope compositions of ∼60 Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) incompletely melted during formation of porphyritic chondrules from the CH metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and Isheyevo (CH/CB). These include (i) relict polymineralic CAIs in porphyritic chondrules, (ii) CAIs surrounded by chondrule-like igneous rims, (iii) igneous pyroxene-rich and Type C-like CAIs, and (iv) plagioclase-rich chondrules with clusters of relict spinel grains. 26Al-26Mg systematics were measured in 10 relict CAIs and 11 CAI-bearing plagioclase-rich chondrules. Based on the mineralogy, the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation can be divided into grossite-rich (n = 13), hibonite-rich (n = 11), spinel ± melilite-rich (n = 33; these include plagioclase-rich chondrules with clusters of relict spinel grains) types. Mineralogical observations indicate that these CAIs were mixed with different proportions of ferromagnesian silicates and experienced incomplete melting and gas-melt interaction during chondrule formation. These processes resulted in partial or complete destruction of the CAI Wark-Lovering rims, replacement of melilite by Na-bearing plagioclase, and dissolution and overgrowth of nearly end-member spinel by chromium- and iron-bearing spinel. Only two relict CAIs and two CAI-bearing chondrules show resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg; the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios are (1.7 ± 1.3) × 10-6, (3.7 ± 3.1) × 10-7, (1.9 ± 0.9) × 10-6 and (4.9 ± 2.6) × 10-6. There is a large range of Δ17O among the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation, from ∼-37‰ to ∼-5‰; the unmelted minerals in individual CAIs, however, are isotopically uniform and systematically 16O-enriched relative to the host chondrules and chondrule-like igneous rims, which have Δ17O ranging from ∼-7‰ to ∼+4‰. Most of the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation are mineralogically and isotopically

  2. Electrical discharge heating of chondrules in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a rudimentary theoretical assessment of electrical discharge heating as a candidate mechanism for the formation of chondrules in the solar nebula. The discharge model combines estimates of the properties of the nebula, a mechanism for terrestrial thunderstorm electrification, and some fundamental electrical properties of gases. Large uncertainties in the model inputs limit these calculations to order-or-magnitude accuracy. Despite the uncertainty, it is possible to estimate an upper limit to the efficiency of nebular discharges at melting millimeter-sized stony objects. We find that electrical arcs analogous to terrestrial lightning could have occurred in the nebula, but that under most conditions these discharges probably could not have melted chondrules. Despite our difficulties, we believe the topic worthy of further investigation and suggest some experiments which could improve our understanding of nebular discharges.

  3. Turbulent Concentration of Chondrules: Size Distribution and Multifractal Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hogan, Robert C.; Paque, Julie M.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Size-selective concentration of particles in 3D turbulence may be related to collection of chondrules and other constituents into primitive bodies in a weakly turbulent protoplanetary nebula. In the terrestrial planet region, both the characteristic size and narrow size distribution of chondrules are explained, whereas "fluffier" particles would be concentrated in lower density, or more intensely turbulent, regions of the nebula. The spatial distribution of concentrated particle density obeys multifractal scaling, suggesting a dose tie to the turbulent cascade process. This scaling behavior allows predictions of the concentration probabilities to be made in the protoplanetary nebula, which are so large (> 10(exp 3) - 10(exp 4)) that further studies must be made of the role of mass loading.

  4. ^60Fe-^60Ni Systematics of Chondrules from UOC QUE 97008: Comparing Results from In Situ and Bulk Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Ogliore, R. C.; Chen, J. H.; Papanasstassiou, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    In order to better understand discrepancies between ^60Fe-^60Ni systematics of in situ and bulk chondrule measurements, we analyzed two chondrules from QUE 97008 (LL3.05) that were previously measured using TIMS.

  5. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2016-02-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s-1 are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  6. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  7. Unambiguous voids in Allende chondrules and refractory inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Ebel, D.S.

    2003-03-26

    Void space can be caused by thin section preparation. 3-dimensional tomographic analysis, prior to sectioning, shows that several very different types of voids are abundant in Allende meteorite inclusions. Formation models are proposed for each type. Void spaces in the components of chondritic meteorites have received little attention, perhaps due to ambiguities attendant upon their very existence, and also their origin. Computer-aided microtomography allows the 3-dimensional imaging and analysis of void spaces within solid objects. Several striking examples of void spaces, apparently enclosed by solid material, resulted from our observations of large chondrules and CAIs from the Allende (CV3) meteorite. These voids are 'unambiguous' because their existence cannot be ascribed to plucking during sample preparation, as would be the case in traditional 2-dimensional thin section petrography. Although we focus on large objects in Allende, preliminary observations indicate that void spaces are prevalent in chondrules and refractory inclusions in many meteorites. Voids remain ambiguous, however, because their structure and appearance vary between chondrules and CAIs, suggesting there may be different causes of void formation in particular objects. Some voids appear to have formed as a result of dilation during cooling. Others are evidence of hydrothermal leaching on the parent body followed by partial chemical replacement. Alternatively, vapor-mediated leaching and replacement may have occurred in the nebula. Yet another possibility is internal brecciation caused by impact, while the object was still free floating in the nebula, and perhaps still partially molten.

  8. The ascent of kimberlite: Insights from olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. C.; Russell, J. K.; Andrews, G. D. M.; Jones, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    Olivine xenocrysts are ubiquitous in kimberlite deposits worldwide and derive from the disaggregation of mantle-derived peridotitic xenoliths. Here, we provide descriptions of textural features in xenocrystic olivine from kimberlite deposits at the Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada and at Igwisi Hills volcano, Tanzania. We establish a relative sequence of textural events recorded by olivine during magma ascent through the cratonic mantle lithosphere, including: xenolith disaggregation, decompression fracturing expressed as mineral- and fluid-inclusion-rich sealed and healed cracks, grain size and shape modification by chemical dissolution and abrasion, late-stage crystallization of overgrowths on olivine xenocrysts, and lastly, mechanical milling and rounding of the olivine cargo prior to emplacement. Ascent through the lithosphere operates as a "kimberlite factory" wherein progressive upward dyke propagation of the initial carbonatitic melt fractures the overlying mantle to entrain and disaggregate mantle xenoliths. Preferential assimilation of orthopyroxene (Opx) xenocrysts by the silica-undersaturated carbonatitic melt leads to deep-seated exsolution of CO2-rich fluid generating buoyancy and supporting rapid ascent. Concomitant dissolution of olivine produces irregular-shaped relict grains preserved as cores to most kimberlitic olivine. Multiple generations of decompression cracks in olivine provide evidence for a progression in ambient fluid compositions (e.g., from carbonatitic to silicic) during ascent. Numerical modelling predicts tensile failure of xenoliths (disaggregation) and olivine (cracks) over ascent distances of 2-7 km and 15-25 km, respectively, at velocities of 0.1 to >4 m s-1. Efficient assimilation of Opx during ascent results in a silica-enriched, olivine-saturated kimberlitic melt (i.e. SiO2 >20 wt.%) that crystallizes overgrowths on partially digested and abraded olivine xenocrysts. Olivine saturation is constrained to occur at pressures <1 GPa; an

  9. Aligned olivine in the Springwater pallasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler-Gerace, Neva A.; Tait, Kimberly T.; Moser, Desmond E.; Barker, Ivan; Tian, Bob Y.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism by which olivine grains became embedded within iron-nickel alloy in pallasite meteorites continues to be a matter of scientific debate. Geochemical and textural observations have failed to fully elucidate the origin and history of the olivine crystals; however, little research attention has been devoted to their crystallographic orientations within the metal matrix. Using electron backscatter diffraction, we have collected crystallographic orientation data for 296 crystals within ˜65 cm2 sample surface from Springwater. Though no global crystallographic preferred orientation exists, very low misorientations are observed among [100] axes of olivine crystals within specific texturally defined domains. Combined with a thorough characterization of large-scale Springwater textures, the definitively nonrandom spatial distribution of olivine orientations provides clues regarding the nature of the olivine's initial formation environment as well as the sequence of events subsequent to metal incorporation.

  10. Extremely NA and CL Rich Chondrule AL3509 from the Allende Meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserburg, G J; Hutcheon, I D; Aleon, J; Ramon, E C; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Brearley, A J

    2011-04-07

    We report on the mineralogy, petrology, chemistry, oxygen isotopes, {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg and {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S isotope systematics of the Allende chondrule Al3509 discovered and described by [1] and [2]. This spherical object ({approx}1cm {phi}) contains {approx}10% Na and 1% Cl, and nearly pure {sup 129}Xe [({sup 129}Xe/{sup 127}I) = 1.1 x 10{sup -4} (3)]. This high enrichment in halogens makes it of interest in searching for radiogenic {sup 36}S from {sup 36}Cl (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) decay. While there is strong evidence for the presence of {sup 36}Cl in sodalite and wadalite in CV CAIs [4,5], some sodalites show no evidence for excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*). In contrast, high inferred initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl = 2 x 10{sup -5} has been found in wadalite from the Allende CAI AJEF [5]. The observed {sup 36}S excesses in sodalite are not correlated with radiogenic {sup 26}Mg, decay product of {sup 26}Al (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.72 Ma) [4]. From the inferred initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratios and consideration of both AGB and SNe stellar sources, {sup 36}Cl must be the product of charged particle irradiation within the early solar system. However, neither the specific nuclear production mechanism nor the irradiation site have been identified. Both sodalite and wadalite are found as late stage alteration products of CAIs together with grossular, monticellite, Al-rich pyroxene, wollastonite, nepheline, ferroan olivine, and ferroan pyroxenes. This late-stage alteration has been found to extensively change some CAIs in Allende, but clear residues of spinel, hibonite and Wark-Lovering rims are recognizable remnants of the original CAIs. The nature of the widespread volatile alteration process as well as that of the fluid phase remain controversial.

  11. Clear Evidence for Fe-60 in Silicate from a Semarkona Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.

    2004-01-01

    Fe-60 (t(sub 1/2) = 1.5 Ma) is key to understanding the sources of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system because it is the only one among those known from meteoritic material that is produced only in stars [1]. Within the last year, it has become clear that Fe-60 was present in sulfides from primitive ordinary and enstatite chondrites in amounts sufficient to require a recent stellar input [2-5]. The sulfide data indicate an initial Fe-60/Fe-56 ratio for the early solar system of between approx. 3 10(exp -7) and approx. 1.6 10(exp -6) [2-4]. However, iron (and nickel?) in sulfides is easily mobilized by very mild heating [e.g., 6], so there is considerable uncertainty over the true initial ratio. To resolve this uncertainty, we have begun a search for evidence of Fe-60 in silicates from primitive chondrites. In olivine from type 3.0-3.1 ordinary chondrites, diffusive exchange of iron and magnesium has not occurred to any significant degree, and diffusive exchange in pyroxene is slower [7]. However, the relatively small elemental fractionation of iron from nickel in silicates, coupled with the fact that the daughter nuclide, Ni-60, makes up approx. 26 % of normal nickel, make detection of excesses of radiogenic Ni-60 very difficult. Fortunately, we have found a fine-grained radiating-pyroxene chondrule in Semarkona (LL3.0) with a very high Fe/Ni ratio that gives clear evidence of Fe-60.

  12. Oxygen Isotopes of Chondrules in the Queen Alexandra Range 99177 CR3 Chondrite: Further Evidence for Systematic Relationships Between Chondrule Mg# and Δ^1^7O and the Role of Ice During Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, T. J.; Nakashima, D.; Ushikubo, T.; Kita, N. T.; Weisberg, M. K.

    2012-03-01

    QUE 99177 chondrules steadily rise in Δ^1^7O (-5 to -1 ‰) as Mg# decreases (99 to 97). Addition of +Δ1^7O H_2O ice to dry precursors could reduce chondrule Mg# (by oxidation during formation) while increasing Δ^1^7O. Estimated H_2O ice Δ^1^7O is 0.5 to 6‰.

  13. Metamorphism of the H-group chondrites - Implications from compositional and textural trends in chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, G.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses element bulk compositions of 373 chondrules from 18 H3 to H6 chondrites determined by broad-beam electron probe analysis. Bulk chondrule FeO and Al2O3 amounts increase and TiO2 and Cr2O3 decrease with increasing petrologic type; normative faylite, albite, and plagioclase amounts increase through the petrologic sequence. Chondrule diameters correlate with phenocryst sizes in porphyritic chondrules of type 3 chondrites, but this correlation is diminished in the higher petrologic types. The compositional trends in chondrules through the petrologic sequence are attributed to diffusion and equilibration among chondrules, and between chondrules and matrix in response to increasing degrees of thermal metamorphism. It is suggested that H-group chondrites are formed by accretion of high-temperature (chondrules) and low-temperature (matrix) materials. Internal reheating of the parent materials to different temperatures caused compositional equilibration, grain coarsening, and reduction of FeO to Fe(0) by carbon.

  14. Chondrules - Ubiquitous Chondritic Solids Tracking the Evolution of the Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarro, M.; Connelly, J. N.

    2017-02-01

    The only record of our solar system’s formation comes from mm- to cm-sized calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and chondrules. We review the chronology and stable isotopic compositions of chondrules and discuss the evolution of the protoplanetary disk.

  15. Metamorphism of the H-group chondrites - Implications from compositional and textural trends in chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, G.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1980-06-01

    The paper discusses element bulk compositions of 373 chondrules from 18 H3 to H6 chondrites determined by broad-beam electron probe analysis. Bulk chondrule FeO and Al2O3 amounts increase and TiO2 and Cr2O3 decrease with increasing petrologic type; normative faylite, albite, and plagioclase amounts increase through the petrologic sequence. Chondrule diameters correlate with phenocryst sizes in porphyritic chondrules of type 3 chondrites, but this correlation is diminished in the higher petrologic types. The compositional trends in chondrules through the petrologic sequence are attributed to diffusion and equilibration among chondrules, and between chondrules and matrix in response to increasing degrees of thermal metamorphism. It is suggested that H-group chondrites are formed by accretion of high-temperature (chondrules) and low-temperature (matrix) materials. Internal reheating of the parent materials to different temperatures caused compositional equilibration, grain coarsening, and reduction of FeO to Fe(0) by carbon.

  16. Iodine-Xenon dating of chondrules from the Qingzhen and Kota Kota enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, J. A.; Gilmour, J. D.; Turner, G.; Prinz, M.; Ash, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Initial 129I/ 127I values (I-Xe ages) have been obtained for individual mineralogically characterized chondrules and interchondrule matrix from the enstatite chondrites Qingzhen (EH3) and Kota Kota (EH3). In view of the absence of aqueous alteration and the low-peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by these meteorites, we suggest that the I-Xe ages for the chondrules record the event in which they were formed. These ages are within the range recorded for chondrules from ordinary chondrites, demonstrating that chondrules formed during the same time interval in the source regions of both ordinary chondrites and enstatite chondrites. The timing of this chondrule-forming episode or episodes brackets the I-Xe closure age of planetesimal bodies such as the Shallowater aubrite parent body. Although chondrule formation need not have occurred close to planetesimals, the existence of planetesimals at the same time as chondrule formation provides constraints on models of this process. Whichever mechanisms are proposed to form and transport chondrules, they must be compatible with models of the protosolar nebula which predict the formation of differentiated bodies on the same timescale at the same heliocentric distance.

  17. Partitioning Tungsten between Matrix Precursors and Chondrule Precursors through Relative Settling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of chondrites have found a tungsten isotopic anomaly between chondrules and matrix. Given the refractory nature of tungsten, this implies that W was carried into the solar nebula by at least two distinct families of pre-solar grains. The observed chondrule/matrix split requires that the distinct families were kept separate during the dust coagulation process, and that the two families of grain interacted with the chondrule formation mechanism differently. We take the co-existence of different families of solids in the same general orbital region at the chondrule-precursor size as given, and explore the requirements for them to have interacted with the chondrule formation process at significantly different rates. We show that this sorting of families of solids into chondrule- and matrix-destined dust had to have been at least as powerful a sorting mechanism as the relative settling of aerodynamically distinct grains at least two scale heights above the midplane. The requirement that the chondrule formation mechanism was correlated in some fashion with a dust-grain sorting mechanism argues strongly for spatially localized chondrule formation mechanisms such as turbulent dissipation in non-thermally ionized disk surface layers, and argues against volume-filling mechanisms such as planetesimal bow shocks.

  18. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.

  19. Crystallization kinetics of olivine-phyric shergottites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Megan E.; McSween, Harry Y.

    2014-08-01

    Crystal size distribution (CSD) and spatial distribution pattern (SDP) analyses are applied to the early crystallizing phases, olivine and pyroxene, in olivine-phyric shergottites (Elephant moraine [EET] 79001A, Dar al Gani [DaG] 476, and dhofar [Dho] 019) from each sampling locality inferred from Mars ejection ages. Trace element zonation patterns (P and Cr) in olivine are also used to characterize the crystallization history of these Martian basalts. Previously reported 2-D CSDs for these meteorites are re-evaluated using a newer stereographically corrected methodology. Kinks in the olivine CSD plots suggest several populations that crystallized under different conditions. CSDs for pyroxene in DaG 476 and EET 79001A reveal single populations that grew under steady-state conditions; pyroxenes in Dho 019 were too intergrown for CSD analysis. Magma chamber residence times of several days for small grains to several months for olivine megacrysts are calculated using the CSD slopes and growth rates inferred from previous experimental data. Phosphorus imaging in olivines in DaG 476 and Dho 019 indicate rapid growth of skeletal, sector-zoned, or patchy cores, probably in response to delayed nucleation, followed by slow growth, and finally rapid dendritic growth with back-filling to form oscillatory zoning in rims. SPD analyses indicate that olivine and pyroxene crystals grew or accumulated in clusters rather than as randomly distributed grains. These data reveal complex solidification histories for Martian basalts, and are generally consistent with the formation at depth of olivine megacryst cores, which were entrained in ascending magmas that crystallized pyroxenes, small olivines, and oscillatory rims on megacrysts.

  20. The origin and history of the metal and sulfide components of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, J. N.; Wasson, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis is used to determine the concentrations of 14 siderophile and other nonlithophilic elements in 31 chondrules from the extremely unequilibrated chondrite Semarkona. The results are presented in tables and graphs, characterized in detail, and compared with the results obtained for lithophile elements in the same samples by Grossman and Wasson (1983). The elements studied are found to be significantly more fractionated than the lithophile elements, with variations in chondrule/whole-rock abundances of up to a factor of 1000, a mean ratio of 0.2, and differences between Ni-rich and Ni-depleted chondrules. It is argued that the metal and sulfides in the chondrules represent the composition of the solar nebula before chondrule formation and already contained the siderophile and chalcophile elements, although some Fe was contained in silicates along with Ni, Co, Au, Ge and Se. The segregation of metals during a molten stage is considered of minor importance.

  1. Early scattering of the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in meteoritic chondrules

    PubMed Central

    Marrocchi, Yves; Chaussidon, Marc; Piani, Laurette; Libourel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules are submillimeter spherules representing the major constituent of nondifferentiated planetesimals formed in the solar protoplanetary disk. The link between the dynamics of the disk and the origin of chondrules remains enigmatic. Collisions between planetesimals formed at different heliocentric distances were frequent early in the evolution of the disk. We show that the presence, in some chondrules, of previously unrecognized magnetites of magmatic origin implies the formation of these chondrules under impact-generated oxidizing conditions. The three oxygen isotopes systematic of magmatic magnetites and silicates can only be explained by invoking an impact between silicate-rich and ice-rich planetesimals. This suggests that these peculiar chondrules are by-products of the early mixing in the disk of populations of planetesimals from the inner and outer solar system. PMID:27419237

  2. Olivine-dominated asteroids: Mineralogy and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Kelley, Michael S.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Lucas, Michael P.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Abell, Paul A.; Corre, Lucille Le

    2014-01-01

    Olivine-dominated asteroids are a rare type of objects formed either in nebular processes or through magmatic differentiation. The analysis of meteorite samples suggest that at least 100 parent bodies in the main belt experienced partial or complete melting and differentiation before being disrupted. However, only a few olivine-dominated asteroids, representative of the mantle of disrupted differentiated bodies, are known to exist. Due to the paucity of these objects in the main belt their origin and evolution have been a matter of great debate over the years. In this work we present a detailed mineralogical analysis of twelve olivine-dominated asteroids. We have obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectra (0.7-2.4 μm) of asteroids (246) Asporina, (289) Nenetta, (446) Aeternitas, (863) Benkoela, (4125) Lew Allen and (4490) Bamberry. Observations were conducted with the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i. This sample was complemented with spectra of six other olivine-dominated asteroids including (354) Eleonora, (984) Gretia, (1951) Lick, (2501) Lohja, (3819) Robinson and (5261) Eureka obtained by previous workers. Within our sample we distinguish two classes, one that we call monomineralic-olivine asteroids, which are those whose spectra only exhibit the 1 μm feature, and another referred to as olivine-rich asteroids, whose spectra exhibit the 1 μm feature and a weak (Band II depth ˜4%) 2 μm feature. For the monomineralic-olivine asteroids the olivine chemistry was found to range from ˜Fo49 to Fo70, consistent with the values measured for brachinites and R chondrites. In the case of the olivine-rich asteroids we determined their olivine and low-Ca pyroxene abundance using a new set of spectral calibrations derived from the analysis of R chondrites spectra. We found that the olivine abundance for these asteroids varies from 0.68 to 0.93, while the fraction of low-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene ranges from 0.6 to 0.9. A search for dynamical

  3. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  4. Trace elements in olivine and the petrogenesis of the intermediate, olivine-phyric shergottite NWA 10170

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Udry, Arya

    2017-02-01

    Olivine-phyric shergottites represent primitive basaltic to picritic rocks, spanning a large range of Mg# and olivine abundances. As primitive olivine-bearing magmas are commonly representative of their mantle source on Earth, understanding the petrology and evolution of olivine-phyric shergottites is critical in our understanding of Martian mantle compositions. We present data for the olivine-phyric shergottite Northwest Africa (NWA) 10170 to constrain the petrology with specific implications for magma plumbing-system dynamics. The calculated oxygen fugacity and bulk-rock REE concentrations (based on modal abundance) are consistent with a geochemically intermediate classification for NWA 10170, and overall similarity with NWA 6234. In addition, we present trace element data using laser ablation ICP-MS for coarse-grained olivine cores, and compare these data with terrestrial and Martian data sets. The olivines in NWA 10170 contain cores with compositions of Fo77 that evolve to rims with composition of Fo58, and are characterized by cores with low Ni contents (400-600 ppm). Nickel is compatible in olivine and such low Ni content for olivine cores in NWA 10170 suggests either early-stage fractionation and loss of olivine from the magma in a staging chamber at depth, or that Martian magmas have lower Ni than terrestrial magmas. We suggest that both are true in this case. Therefore, the magma does not represent a primary mantle melt, but rather has undergone 10-15% fractionation in a staging chamber prior to extrusion/intrusion at the surface of Mars. This further implies that careful evaluation of not only the Mg# but also the trace element concentrations of olivine needs to be conducted to evaluate pristine mantle melts versus those that have fractionated olivine (±pyroxene and oxide minerals) in staging chambers.

  5. An Amoeboid Olivine Aggregate in LEW 85300

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M. D.; Yamaguchi, A.; Fagan, T. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Shiran, N.; Mikouchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Amoeboid Olivine aggregates (AOAs) are irregularly shaped objects commonly observed in carbonaceous chondrites. Because they are composed of fine-grained olivine and Ca-Al-rich minerals, they are sensitive indicators for nebular process and parent body alteration of their parent bodies. Recently an AOA was found in a carbonaceous clast in polymict eucrite LEW 85300. The bulk major element composition of the clast matrix in LEW 85300 suggests a relation to CM, CO and CV chondrites, whereas bulk clast trace and major element compositions do not match any carbonaceous chondrite, suggesting they have a unique origin. Here we characterize the mineralogy of AOA in LEW 85300 and discuss the origin of the carbonaceous clasts. Results and Discussion: The AOA is located in an impact melt vein. Half of the aggregate shows recrystallization textures (euhedral pyroxene and molten metal/FeS) due to impact melting, but the remaining part preserves the original texture. The AOA is composed of olivine, FeS and Mg,Al-phyllosilicate. Individual olivine grains measure 1-8 microns, with Fe-rich rims, probably due to impact heating. Olivines in the AOA are highly forsteritic (Fo95-99), indicating that the AOA escaped thermal metamorphism [4]. Although no LIME (Low-Fe, Mn-Enriched) olivine is observed, forsterite composition and the coexistence of Mg,Al-phyllosilicate suggest that the AOA is similar to those in the Bali-type oxidized CV (CVoxB) and CR chondrites. However, it should be noted that fayalitic olivine, which commonly occurs in CVoxB AOA, is not observed in this AOA. Also, the smaller grain size (<8 microns) of olivine suggests they may be related to CM or CO chondrites. Therefore, we cannot exclude the possibility that the AOA originated from a unique carbonaceous chondrite.

  6. An experimental investigation of olivine morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for a morphological study of olivine and an experimental investigation performed to determine the degrees of supercooling and the cooling rates necessary to crystallize particular morphologies. Ten arbitrary categories of three-dimensional olivine crystal shape are identified: polyhedral, granular, hopper, chain, lattice, plate, branching, radiate, feather, and swallow-tail. The morphological study establishes that equant and tabular crystals are the common shapes of olivine, nonequant crystals are elongate parallel to the a or c axis, and skeletal crystals result when a particular form is missing or only partially developed. In the experiment, olivine crystals were grown by melting rock samples above their liquidus temperatures before initiating crystallization. The results show that olivine morphology changes systematically as a function of the degree of melt supercooling, the melt cooling rate, and the normative olivine and water contents of the melt. It is also found that each shape has a specific range of temperature stability which is essentially independent of melt composition.

  7. Evaporation in the young solar nebula as the origin of 'just-right' melting of chondrules

    PubMed

    Cohen; Hewins; Yu

    2000-08-10

    Chondrules are millimetre-sized, solidified melt spherules formed in the solar nebula by an early widespread heating event of uncertain nature. They were accreted into chondritic asteroids, which formed about 4.56 billion years ago and have not experienced melting or differentiation since that time. Chondrules have diverse chemical compositions, corresponding to liquidus temperatures in the range 1,350-1,800 degrees C. Most chondrules, however, show porphyritic textures (consisting of large crystals in a distinctly finer grained or glassy matrix), indicative of melting within the narrow range 0-50 degrees C below the liquidus. This suggests an unusual heating mechanism for chondrule precursors, which would raise each individual chondrule to just the right temperature (particular to individual bulk composition) in order to form porphyritic textures. Here we report the results of isothermal melting of a chondritic composition at nebular pressures. Our results suggest that evaporation stabilizes porphyritic textures over a wider range of temperatures below the liquidus (about 200 degrees C) than previously believed, thus removing the need for individual chondrule temperature buffering. In addition, we show that evaporation explains many chondrule bulk and mineral compositions that have hitherto been difficult to understand.

  8. Reduction, partial evaporation, and spattering - Possible chemical and physical processes in fluid drop chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major chemical differences between fluid drop chondrules and their probable parent materials may have resulted from the loss of volatiles such as S, H2O, Fe, and volatile siderophile elements by partial evaporation during the chondrule-forming process. Vertical access solar furnace experiments in vacuum and hydrogen have demonstrated such chemical fractionation trends using standard rock samples. The formation of immiscible iron droplets and spherules by in situ reduction of iron from silicate melt and the subsequent evaporation of the iron have been observed directly. During the time that the main sample bead is molten, many small spatter spherules are thrown off the main bead, thereby producing many additional chondrule-like melt spherules that cool rapidly and generate a population of spherules with size frequency distribution characteristics that closely approximate some populations of fluid drop chondrules in chondrites. It is possible that spatter-produced fluid drop chondrules dominate the meteoritic fluid drop chondrule populations. Such meteoritic chondrule populations should be chemically related by various relative amounts of iron and other volatile loss by vapor fractionation.

  9. Atom Probe Tomography of Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parman, S. W.; Gorman, B.; Jackson, C.; Cooper, R. F.; Jaeger, D.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present atom probe tomographic (APT) analyses of natural olivine. APT provides three-dimensional trace element and isotopic analysis with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. It has been used for many years in engineering and materials science, but has not been applied to geological materials because traditional APT can only be used on conducting (usually metal) samples. The recent development of laser assisted APT has changed this situation, and now semi-conductors and insulators can be analyzed (Marquis et al., 2009, Kelly et al 2007). Potentially, this opens APT to extensive use in geoscience as many Fe-bearing silicates are semi-conductors. In this study, we explore the capability of the new class of APT instrumentation to analyze geological materials. APT involves the controlled evaporation of small, cylindrical specimens (100's nm in diameter) within an electric field. Specimens are typically prepared using in-situ focused-ion-beam (FIB) liftout and shaping techniques. Evaporated atoms are accelerated to a detector plate that records the position of the atom with sub-nm precision. Evaporated atoms are measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, allowing both elemental and isotopic determination. Since the method progressively ablates into the needle, the final analytical result is a nm-scale 3-dimensional image in which the position and identity of each detected atom is known. Typical mass resolution is between 200 and 1200 (full-width at half maximum) and typical concentration detection limits are 10 ppm. The number of potential applications of APT to igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary materials is large, ranging from studies of mineral and melt inclusions, to fine scale layering in minerals, to reaction surfaces and diffusion profiles. Much recent progress in the geochemical and petrologic fields has been driven by the increasing spatial resolution of the ion probe and laser ablation ICPMS. The ability of APT to provide atom-scale mass

  10. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Christopher; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the plausibility of a planetary embryo bow shock as a mechanism for chondrule formation in the early solar system. A Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty early environment of the solar system will experience supersonic velocities relative to the circularly orbiting gas and dust. The resulting bow shock can thermally process solids that pass through it, with a wide range of possible conditions depending on impact radius. Volatile outgassing by the embryo along with some gas capture from the surrounding nebula can produce temporary atmospheres. We use radiation hydrodynamics simulations with direct particle integration to model the consequences of solids that encounter a bow shock produced by a 3000 km embryo with relative speeds to the gas of 5, 6, and 7 km/s. The embryos are envisaged to be surrounded by low- and high-mass atmospheres (0.75 and 6.25 Martian-mass atmospheres, respectively), and we explore different opacities for the gas. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and low dust opacity can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are most consistent with constraints set by chondrule furnace studies for plausible shock speeds.

  11. Chondrule-like objects and brown glasses in howardites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Fredriksson, Kurt; Rajan, Sundar; Noonan, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Chondrulelike objects and brown glasses were analyzed in the howardites, Bununu, Malvern, Monticello, Pavlovka, and Yamato 7308. The objects are very similar to chondrules in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Like the brown glasses, the chondrulelike objects could have been produced by impact melting that left some crystalline nuclei, followed by a slower cooling rate than for the glasses. Alternatively, these objects are chondrules implanted from chondrite impactors. They are, however, without rims or any adhering matrix. The brown glasses appear to represent melting of average regolithic surface material, except for Monticello and Y7308, both of which have some siliceous glasses. The siliceous glasses could not have been produced by vapor fractionation but by melting of differentiated lithologies such as fayalitic granites. Impact mechanics indicates that howardites with abundant brown glasses came from an asteroid larger than Vesta (greater than 400 km radius), upon which impacts occurred at relative velocities of up to 5 km/s. Howardites with little or no brown glasses came from a smaller parent body. It is concluded that at least two parent bodies are likely sources for the basaltic achondrites.

  12. Amoeboid olivine aggregates in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, L.; Steele, I. M.

    1976-01-01

    Greyish-brown irregularly-shaped aggregates composed predominantly of olivine make up nearly 2% of the Allende meteorite by volume. Many of the aggregates are constructed of subspherical lumps of micron-sized crystals of olivine, pyroxene, nepheline and sodalite surrounded by coarser-grained olivine. Rarely, anorthite, spinel and perovskite are also present. The olivine ranges in composition from Fo64 to Fo99. Pyroxenes range from aluminous diopside to hedenbergite to very Al-rich and Ti-Al-rich varieties. The nepheline contains 1.6-2.4% K2O and 1.6-5.2% CaO but the sodalite is significantly poorer in these elements. The spinel contains 2.1-13.4% FeO. Textural information and oxygen isotopic data suggest that the aggregates are composed of primary, solid condensates from the solar nebula. The perovskite, spinel and Ti-Al-rich pyroxenes are the remains of high-temperature condensates, but the olivine compositions and the presence of feldspathoids indicate that some of the grains continued to react with the solar nebular vapor in the temperature range 500-900 K.

  13. Immiscible silicate liquids and phosphoran olivine in Netschaëvo IIE silicate: Analogue for planetesimal core-mantle boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Roosbroek, Nadia; Hamann, Christopher; McKibbin, Seann; Greshake, Ansgar; Wirth, Richard; Pittarello, Lidia; Hecht, Lutz; Claeys, Philippe; Debaille, Vinciane

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated a piece of the Netschaëvo IIE iron meteorite containing a silicate inclusion by means of electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Netschaëvo contains chondrule-bearing clasts and impact melt rock clasts were also recently found. The examined inclusion belongs to the latter and is characterized by a porphyritic texture dominated by clusters of coarse-grained olivine and pyroxene, set in a fine-grained groundmass that consists of new crystals of olivine and a hyaline matrix. This matrix material has a quasi-basaltic composition in the inner part of the inclusion, whereas the edge of the inclusion has a lower SiO2 concentration and is enriched in MgO, P2O5, CaO, and FeO. Close to the metal host, the inclusion also contains euhedral Mg-chromite crystals and small (<2 μm), Si-rich globules. A TEM foil was cut from this glassy, silico-phosphate material. It shows that the material consists of elongated olivine crystallites containing up to 14 wt% P2O5, amorphous material, and interstitial Cl-apatite crystals. The Si-rich silicate glass globules show a second population of Fe-rich silicate glass droplets, indicating they formed by silicate liquid immiscibility. Together with the presence of phosphoran olivine and quenched Cl-apatite, these textures suggest rapid cooling and quenching as a consequence of an impact event. Moreover, the enrichment of phosphorus in the silicate inclusion close to the metal host (phosphoran olivine and Cl-apatite) indicates that phosphorus re-partitioned from the metal into the silicate phase upon cooling. This probably also took place in pallasite meteorites that contain late-crystallizing phases rich in phosphorus. Accordingly, our findings suggest that oxidation of phosphorus might be a general process in core-mantle environments, bearing on our understanding of planetesimal evolution. Thus, the Netschaëvo sample serves as a natural planetesimal core-mantle boundary experiment

  14. Harvesting the Decay Energy of 26-Al to Drive Lightning Discharge and Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, A.; Okuzumi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that positrons released in the decay of 26-Al cause large-scale charging of dense pebble regions. The charge separation is neutralized by lightning discharge and this can lead to the formation of chondrules.

  15. Titanium and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Individual Chondrules from Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, K. K.; Schönbächler, M.; Fehr, M. A.; Vennemann, T.; Chaumard, N.; Zanda, B.

    2016-08-01

    We measured Ti and triple-O isotope compositions of individual chondrules (characterized by CT scanning) from ordinary chondrites. We will discuss correlations between Ti and ∆17O and their implication for the origin of nucleosynthetic anomalies.

  16. Chondrule Formation Mechanisms in Protoplanetary Disks from Textural and Mineralogical Evidence Preserved in Unequilibrated Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Martinez-Jimenez, M.; Tanbakouei, S.

    2016-08-01

    We study the chondrule size distribution of pristine chondrites in order to explore if it mimics that one expected from splattering due to stochastic collisions, or from thermal coagulation of micron-sized dust available in the protoplanetary disk.

  17. Tungsten Isotopic Evidence for Coeval Metal-Silicate Fractionation and Chondrule Formation in Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, J. L.; Kruijer, T. S.; Kleine, T.

    2017-02-01

    Hf-W systematics of ordinary H, L, and LL chondrites indicate a nebular metal-silicate fractionation at 2–3 Ma after CAIs, implying chondrule formation and chondrite parent body accretion at that point in time.

  18. Different radiation and metamorphic history of the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, L. L.; Kalinina, G. V.

    1993-01-01

    Track and thermoluminescence parameters in chondrules from the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrite have been studied. Obtained results elucidate their individual shock-thermal history and the early pre-accretion stage of the meteorite parent body formation.

  19. Al-rich Chondrules: Petrologic Basis for Their Diversity, and Relation to Type C CAIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    Al-rich chondrules share mineralogical and chemical properties with, and are intermediate in a volatility sense between, CAIs and ferromagnesian chondrules. In some way they must be petrogenetic links between the two. A recent upsurge of interest in Al-rich chondrules is due to their constituent plagioclase feldspar and Al-rich glass being amenable to successful ion microprobe searches for radiogenic Mg-26, the decay product of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 720,000 y). This has allowed estimates to be made of the time duration between CAI formation and the onset of Al-rich (and possibly, by extension, ferromagnesian) chondrule formation, on the order of 1.5-2.5 million years.

  20. Cr and O Isotope Systematics in CV/CK Chondrite Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defouilloy, C.; Sanborn, M. E.; Yamakawa, A.; Kita, N. T.; Ebel, D. S.; Yin, Q.-Z.

    2017-02-01

    Combined in-situ high-precision measurements of Cr and O isotopic ratios reveal heterogeneities of compositions and the diversity of reservoirs of origin of silicate grains in CV/CK chondrite chondrules.

  1. The role of chondrules in nebular fractionations of volatiles and other elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    For at least 30 years, cosmochemists have been grappling with the question of how and why groups of geochemically and volatility related elements became fractionated in the major chondrite groups. At least five relatively independent fractionations are known. Virtually everyone who has thought about these facts has been attempted to attribute at least some of the fractionations to the physical separation or mixing of the visible components. By far the most abundant of these components in meteorites is chondrules, and indeed chondrules have long been suspected of playing a direct role in fractionation of volatile elements. The question addressed here is whether chondrules formed before or after chemical components became separated is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar system, as the answer constrains how, when, where, and from what chondrules formed, and tells us about how materials were processed in the nebula.

  2. Origin of spinel-rich chondrules and inclusions in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of three models of the origin of spinel-rich chondrules and inclusions presented here includes new calculations of the major-element refractory mineral condensation sequence from a gas of solar composition over a wide pressure interval. Condensation calculations show that spinel-rich chondrules did not crystallize from metastable liquid condensates, and that spinel-rich inclusions are not aggregates of refractory nebular condensates. It is proposed that spinel-rich objects are fractionated distillation residues of small aggregates of primitive dust that lost Ca, Si-rich partial melts by evaporation, ablation, or splashing during collisions. This model also explains why spinel-rich chondrules and inclusions (1) are usually smaller than melilite-rich chondrules and inclusions; (2) often have highly fractionated trace-element compositions; and (3) usually do not contain Pt-metal nuggets even when they are more enriched in the Pt-group metals than nugget-bearing melilite-rich objects.

  3. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  4. Manganese olivine I: Electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Quan; Wang, Z.-C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the point defect chemistry and the kinetic properties of manganese olivine Mn2SiO4, electrical conductivity ( ’) of single crystals was measured along either the [100] or the [010] direction. The experiments were carried out at temperatures T=850 1200 °C and oxygen fugacities f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 atm under both Mn oxide ( MO) buffered and MnSiO3 ( MS) buffered conditions. Under the same thermodynamic conditions, charge transport along [100] is 2.5 3.0 times faster than along [010]. At high oxygen fugacities, the electrical conductivity of samples buffered against MS is ˜1.6 times larger than that of samples buffered against MO; while at low oxygen fugacities, the electrical conductivity is nearly identical for the two buffer cases. The dependencies of electrical conductivity on oxygen fugacity and temperature are essentially the same for conduction along the [100] and [010] directions, as well as for samples coexisting with a solid-state buffer of either MO or MS. Hence, it is proposed that the same conduction mechanisms operate for samples of either orientation in contact with either solid-state buffer. The electrical conductivity data lie on concave upward curves on a log-log plot of σ vs f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } , giving rise to two f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regimes with different oxygen fugacity exponents. In the low-f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regime left( {f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } < 10^{ - 7} {text{atm}}} right), the f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 exponent, m, is 0, the MnSiO3-activity exponent, q, is ˜0, and the activation energy, Q, is 45 kJ/mol. In the high f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regime left( {f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } > 10^{ - 7} {text{atm}}} right), m=1/6, q=1/4 1/3, and Q=45 and 200 kJ/mol for T<1100 °C and T>1100 °C, respectively. Based on a comparison of experimental data with results from point defect chemistry calculations, it is

  5. 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Komatsu, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    We report the mineralogy, petrography, and in situ measured 26Al-26Mg systematics in chondrules from the least metamorphosed CV3 (Vigarano-type) chondrites, Kaba and Yamato (Y) 980145. Two Y 980145 chondrules measured show no resolvable excesses in 26Mg (26Mg∗), a decay product of a short-lived (t1/2 ∼0.7 Ma) radionuclide 26Al. Plagioclase in one of the chondrules is replaced by nepheline, indicative of thermal metamorphism. The lack of 26Mg∗ in the Y 980145 chondrules is most likely due to disturbance of their 26Al-26Mg systematics during the metamorphism. Although Kaba experienced extensive metasomatic alteration (<300 °C), it largely avoided subsequent thermal metamorphism, and the 26Al-26Mg systematics of its chondrules appear to be undisturbed. All eight Kaba chondrules measured show 26Mg∗, corresponding to the initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (2.9 ± 1.7) × 10-6 to (6.3 ± 2.7) × 10-6. If CV parent asteroid accreted rapidly after chondrule formation, the inferred (26Al/27Al)0 ratios in Kaba chondrules provide an upper limit on 26Al available in this asteroid at the time of its accretion. The estimated initial abundance of 26Al in the CV asteroid is too low to melt it and contradicts the existence of a molten core in this body suggested from the paleomagnetic records of Allende [Carporzen et al. (2011) Magnetic evidence for a partially differentiated carbonaceous chondrite parent body. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108, 6386-6389] and Kaba [Gattacceca et al. (2013) More evidence for a partially differentiated CV parent body from the meteorite Kaba. Lunar Planet. Sci.44, abstract#1721].

  6. I-Xe Dating: The Time Line of Chondrule Formation and Metamorphism in LL Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Refractory inclusions, considered to be the oldest solids formed in the solar nebula. (4567.2 0.6 Ma) [1], are common in many carbonaceous and in some ordinary and enstatite chondrites. High-precision Pb- Pb ages for CAI s and chondrules (from different meteorites) suggested that chondrule formation appeared to have started about 2 Ma later than that of CAIs [1]. However, recent 26Al/26Mg data suggest simultaneous formation of CAI s and chondrules in Allende [2]. The I-Xe ages of CAI s in Allende are about 2 Ma younger than the I-Xe ages of Allende chondrules [3] but, like all chronometers, the I-Xe system records closure time of its particular host phase. In the case of Allende CAI s, the major iodine-bearing phase is sodalite, a secondary phase presumably formed by aqueous alteration, so I-Xe reflects the post-formational processes in these objects. In chondrules the iodine host phases vary and can reflect formation and/or alteration but, to put chondrule ages on a quantative basis, some problems should first be addressed.

  7. Do comets have chondrules and CAIs? Evidence from the Leonid meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Campins, Humberto

    2004-10-01

    Chondrules, silicate spheres typically 0.1 to 1 mm in diameter, are the most abundant constituents in the most common meteorites falling on Earth, the ordinary chondrites. In addition, many primitive meteorites have calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The question of whether comets have chondrules or CAIs is relevant to understanding what the interior of a comet is like and what a cometary meteorite might be like. In addition, one prominent model for forming chondrules and CAIs, the X-wind model, predicts their presence in comets, while most other models do not. At present, the best way to search for chondrules and CAIs in comets is through meteor showers derived from comets, in particular, the Leonid meteor shower. Evidence potentially could be found in the overall mass distribution of the shower, in chemical analyses of meteors, or in light curves. There is no evidence for a chondrule abundance in the Leonid meteors similar to that found in chondritic meteorites. There is intriguing evidence for chondrule- or CAI-sized objects in a small fraction of the light curves, but further work is required to generate a definitive test.

  8. I-Xe measurements of CAIs and chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2004-08-01

    I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of CAIs in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.

  9. Mineralogy of Stardust Track 112 Particle: Relation to Amoeboid Olivine Aggregates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T.; Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Zolensky, M.; Ohsumi, K.

    2012-01-01

    The successful analysis of comet 81P/Wild 2 particles returned by the Stardust mission has revealed that the Wild 2 dust contains abundant silicate grains that are much larger than interstellar grains and appear to have formed in the inner regions of the solar nebula [1]. Wild 2 particles include minerals which are isotopically and mineralogically similar to CAIs [e.g., 2, 3] and chondrules [e.g., 4] in chondrites. In addition, particles similar to amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) also have been discovered [5, 6,7]. C2067,2,112,1 is a terminal particle recovered from track #112 (T112). Nakamura-Messenger et al. [7] showed that the forsterite grain in T112 has O-16 enrichment of approximately 40 0/00 (vs. SMOW) and possibly formed together with AOAs. In this study, we have examined the mineralogy of the T112 particle and compared the possible relationships between T112 and AOAs in primitive meteorites.

  10. Enhanced olivine carbonation within a basalt as compared to single-phase experiments: reevaluating the potential of CO2 mineral sequestration.

    PubMed

    Sissmann, Olivier; Brunet, Fabrice; Martinez, Isabelle; Guyot, François; Verlaguet, Anne; Pinquier, Yves; Daval, Damien

    2014-05-20

    Batch experiments were conducted in water at 150 °C and PCO2 = 280 bar on a Mg-rich tholeiitic basalt (9.3 wt % MgO and 12.2 wt % CaO) composed of olivine, Ti-magnetite, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene. After 45 days of reaction, 56 wt % of the initial MgO had reacted with CO2 to form Fe-bearing magnesite, (Mg0.8Fe0.2)CO3, along with minor calcium carbonates. The substantial decrease in olivine content upon carbonation supports the idea that ferroan magnesite formation mainly follows from olivine dissolution. In contrast, in experiments performed under similar run durations and P/T conditions with a San Carlos olivine separate (47.8 wt % MgO) of similar grain size, only 5 wt % of the initial MgO content reacted to form Fe-bearing magnesite. The overall carbonation kinetics of the basalt was enhanced by a factor of ca. 40. This could be explained by differences in the chemical and textural properties of the secondary silica layer that covers reacted olivine grains in both types of sample. Consequently, laboratory data obtained on olivine separates might yield a conservative estimate of the true carbonation potential of olivine-bearing basaltic rocks.

  11. Evolution of Olivine Composition in the Meteorite Fusion Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, L.; McKibbin, S.; Debaille, V.; Claeys, Ph.

    2016-08-01

    The change in composition in olivine overgrowth (multiple zoning) and in the newly crystallized olivine in the fusion crust of ureilite and H-chondrites can be explained by oxidation reactions, due to interaction between melt and atmosphere.

  12. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D

    2005-10-24

    The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.

  13. Direct shear of olivine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob A.; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the strengths of the individual dislocation slip systems in olivine is fundamental to understanding the flow behavior and the development of lattice-preferred orientation in olivine-rich rocks. The most direct measurements of the strengths of individual slip systems are from triaxial compression experiments on olivine single crystals. However, such experiments only allow for determination of flow laws for two of the four dominant slip systems in olivine. In order to measure the strengths of the (001)[100] and (100)[001] slip systems independently, we performed deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine in a direct shear geometry. Experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1000 ° to 1300 °C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, shear stresses of 60 to 334 MPa, and resultant shear strain rates of 7.4 × 10-6 to 2.1 × 10-3 s-1. At high-temperature (≥1200 °C) and low-stress (≤200 MPa) conditions, the strain rate of crystals oriented for direct shear on either the (001)[100] or the (100)[001] slip system follows a power law relationship with stress, whereas at lower temperatures and higher stresses, strain rate depends exponentially on stress. The flow laws derived from the mechanical data in this study are consistent with a transition from the operation of a climb-controlled dislocation mechanism during power-law creep to the operation of a glide-controlled dislocation mechanism during exponential creep. In the climb-controlled regime, crystals oriented for shear on the (001)[100] slip system are weaker than crystals orientated for shear on the (100)[001] slip system. In contrast, in the glide-controlled regime the opposite is observed. Extrapolation of flow laws determined for crystals sheared in orientations favorable for slip on these two slip systems to upper mantle conditions reveals that the (001)[100] slip system is weaker at temperatures and stresses that are typical of the asthenospheric mantle, whereas the (100

  14. Direct Shear of Olivine Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the strength of individual dislocation slip systems in olivine is fundamental to understanding the flow behavior and the development of lattice-preferred orientation in olivine-rich rocks. The most direct measurements of the strengths of individual slip systems are from triaxial compression experiments on olivine single crystals. However, such experiments only allow for determination of flow laws for two of the four dominate slip systems in olivine. In order to measure the strengths of the (001)[100] and (100)[001] slip systems independently, we performed deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine in a direct shear geometry. Experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1000° to 1300°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, shear stresses of 60 to 334 MPa, and resultant shear strain rates of 7.4 x 10-6 to 6.7 x 10-4 s-1. At high-temperature (≥1200°C) and low-stress (≤200 MPa) conditions, the strain rate of crystals oriented for direct shear on either the (001)[100] or the (100)[001] slip system follows a power law relationship with stress, whereas at lower temperatures and higher stresses, strain rate depends exponentially on stress. The flow laws derived from the mechanical data in this study are consistent with a transition from the operation of a climb-controlled dislocation mechanism during power-law creep to the operation of a glide-controlled dislocation mechanism during exponential creep. In the climb-controlled regime, crystals oriented for shear on the (001)[100] slip system are weaker than crystals orientated for shear on the (100)[001] slip system. In contrast, in the glide-controlled regime the opposite is observed. Extrapolation of flow laws determined for crystals sheared in orientations favorable for slip on these two slip systems to upper mantle conditions reveals that the (001)[100] slip system is weaker at temperatures and stresses that are typical of the asthenospheric mantle, whereas the (100)[001] slip

  15. Bleached chondrules: Evidence for widespread aqueous processes on the parent asteroids of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jeffrey N.; Alexander, Conel M. O'd.; Wang, Jianhua; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2000-05-01

    We present the first detailed study of a population of texturally distinct chondrules previously described by Kurat (1969), Christophe Michel-Lévy (1976) and Skinner et al. (1989) that are sharply depleted in alkalis and Al in their outer portions. These "bleached" chondrules, which are exclusively radial pyroxene (RP) and cryptocrystalline (C) in texture, have porous outer zones where mesostasis has been lost. Bleached chondrules are present in all type-3 ordinary chondrites, and are present in lower abundances in types 4-6. They are most abundant in the L and LL groups, apparently less common in H chondrites, and absent in enstatite chondrites. We used x-ray mapping and traditional electron microprobe techniques to characterize bleached chondrules in a cross-section of ordinary chondrites. We studied bleached chondrules from Semarkona by ion microprobe for trace elements and hydrogen isotopes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Chondrule bleaching was the result of low-temperature alteration by aqueous fluids flowing through fine-grained chondrite matrix prior to thermal metamorphism. During aqueous alteration, interstitial glass dissolved and was partially replaced by phyllosilicates, troilite was altered to pentlandite, but pyroxene was completely unaffected. Ca-rich zones formed at the inner margins of the bleached zones, either as the result of the early stages of metamorphism or due to fluid-chondrule reaction. The mineralogy of bleached chondrules is extremely sensitive to thermal metamorphism in type 3 ordinary chondrites, and bleached zones provide a favorable location for the growth of metamorphic minerals in higher petrologic types. The ubiquitous presence of bleached chondrules in ordinary chondrites implies that they all experienced aqueous alteration early in their asteroidal histories, but there is no relationship between the degree of alteration and metamorphic grade. A correlation between the oxidation state of chondrite groups and their

  16. Bleached chondrules: Evidence for widespread aqueous processes on the parent asteroids of ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, J.N.; Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Wang, Jingyuan; Brearley, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    We present the first detailed study of a population of texturally distinct chondrules previously described by Kurat (1969), Christophe Michel-Levy (1976), and Skinner et al. (1989) that are sharply depleted in alkalis and Al in their outer portions. These 'bleached' chondrules, which are exclusively radial pyroxene and cryptocrystalline in texture, have porous outer zones where mesostasis has been lost. Bleached chondrules are present in all type 3 ordinary chondrites and are present in lower abundances in types 4-6. They are most abundant in the L and LL groups, apparently less common in H chondrites, and absent in enstatite chondrites. We used x-ray mapping and traditional electron microprobe techniques to characterize bleached chondrules in a cross section of ordinary chondrites. We studied bleached chondrules from Semarkona by ion microprobe for trace elements and H isotopes, and by transmission electron microscopy. Chondrule bleaching was the result of low-temperature alteration by aqueous fluids flowing through fine-grained chondrite matrix prior to thermal metamorphism. During aqueous alteration, interstitial glass dissolved and was partially replaced by phyllosilicates, troilite was altered to pentlandite, but pyroxene was completely unaffected. Calcium-rich zones formed at the inner margins of the bleached zones, either as the result of the early stages of metamorphism or because of fluid-chondrule reaction. The mineralogy of bleached chondrules is extremely sensitive to thermal metamorphism in type 3 ordinary chondrites, and bleached zones provide a favorable location for the growth of metamorphic minerals in higher petrologic types. The ubiquitous presence of bleached chondrules in ordinary chondrites implies that they all experienced aqueous alteration early in their asteroidal histories, but there is no relationship between the degree of alteration and metamorphic grade. A correlation between the oxidation state of chondrite groups and their degree of

  17. Magnesium and 54Cr isotope compositions of carbonaceous chondrite chondrules - Insights into early disk processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Mia B.; Wielandt, Daniel; Schiller, Martin; Van Kooten, Elishevah M. M. E.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-10-01

    We report on the petrology, magnesium isotopes and mass-independent 54Cr/52Cr compositions (μ54Cr) of 42 chondrules from CV (Vigarano and NWA 3118) and CR (NWA 6043, NWA 801 and LAP 02342) chondrites. All sampled chondrules are classified as type IA or type IAB, have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.04-0.27) and display little or no evidence for secondary alteration processes. The CV and CR chondrules show variable 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg values corresponding to a range of mass-dependent fractionation of ∼500 ppm (parts per million) per atomic mass unit. This mass-dependent Mg isotope fractionation is interpreted as reflecting Mg isotope heterogeneity of the chondrule precursors and not the result of secondary alteration or volatility-controlled processes during chondrule formation. The CV and CR chondrule populations studied here are characterized by systematic deficits in the mass-independent component of 26Mg (μ26Mg∗) relative to the solar value defined by CI chondrites, which we interpret as reflecting formation from precursor material with a reduced initial abundance of 26Al compared to the canonical 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10-5. Model initial 26Al/27Al values of CV and CR chondrules vary from (1.5 ± 4.0) × 10-6 to (2.2 ± 0.4) × 10-5. The CV chondrules display significant μ54Cr variability, defining a range of compositions that is comparable to that observed for inner Solar System primitive and differentiated meteorites. In contrast, CR chondrites are characterized by a narrower range of μ54Cr values restricted to compositions typically observed for bulk carbonaceous chondrites. Collectively, these observations suggest that the CV chondrules formed from precursors that originated in various regions of the protoplanetary disk and were then transported to the accretion region of the CV parent asteroid whereas CR chondrule predominantly formed from precursor with carbonaceous chondrite-like μ54Cr signatures. The observed μ54Cr variability in chondrules from CV

  18. Magnesium and 54Cr isotope compositions of carbonaceous chondrite chondrules – Insights into early disk processes

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Mia B.; Wielandt, Daniel; Schiller, Martin; Van Kooten, Elishevah M.M.E.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We report on the petrology, magnesium isotopes and mass-independent 54Cr/52Cr compositions (μ54Cr) of 42 chondrules from CV (Vigarano and NWA 3118) and CR (NWA 6043, NWA 801 and LAP 02342) chondrites. All sampled chondrules are classified as type IA or type IAB, have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.04–0.27) and display little or no evidence for secondary alteration processes. The CV and CR chondrules show variable 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg values corresponding to a range of mass-dependent fractionation of ~500 ppm (parts per million) per atomic mass unit. This mass-dependent Mg isotope fractionation is interpreted as reflecting Mg isotope heterogeneity of the chondrule precursors and not the result of secondary alteration or volatility-controlled processes during chondrule formation. The CV and CR chondrule populations studied here are characterized by systematic deficits in the mass-independent component of 26Mg (μ26Mg*) relative to the solar value defined by CI chondrites, which we interpret as reflecting formation from precursor material with a reduced initial abundance of 26Al compared to the canonical 26Al/27Al of ~5 × 10−5. Model initial 26Al/27Al values of CV and CR chondrules vary from (1.5 ± 4.0) × 10−6 to (2.2 ± 0.4) × 10−5. The CV chondrules display significant μ54Cr variability, defining a range of compositions that is comparable to that observed for inner Solar System primitive and differentiated meteorites. In contrast, CR chondrites are characterized by a narrower range of μ54Cr values restricted to compositions typically observed for bulk carbonaceous chondrites. Collectively, these observations suggest that the CV chondrules formed from precursors that originated in various regions of the protoplanetary disk and were then transported to the accretion region of the CV parent asteroid whereas CR chondrule predominantly formed from precursor with carbonaceous chondrite-like μ54Cr signatures. The observed μ54Cr variability in chondrules from

  19. Magnesium and (54)Cr isotope compositions of carbonaceous chondrite chondrules - Insights into early disk processes.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Mia B; Wielandt, Daniel; Schiller, Martin; Van Kooten, Elishevah M M E; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-10-15

    We report on the petrology, magnesium isotopes and mass-independent (54)Cr/(52)Cr compositions (μ(54)Cr) of 42 chondrules from CV (Vigarano and NWA 3118) and CR (NWA 6043, NWA 801 and LAP 02342) chondrites. All sampled chondrules are classified as type IA or type IAB, have low (27)Al/(24)Mg ratios (0.04-0.27) and display little or no evidence for secondary alteration processes. The CV and CR chondrules show variable (25)Mg/(24)Mg and (26)Mg/(24)Mg values corresponding to a range of mass-dependent fractionation of ~500 ppm (parts per million) per atomic mass unit. This mass-dependent Mg isotope fractionation is interpreted as reflecting Mg isotope heterogeneity of the chondrule precursors and not the result of secondary alteration or volatility-controlled processes during chondrule formation. The CV and CR chondrule populations studied here are characterized by systematic deficits in the mass-independent component of (26)Mg (μ(26)Mg*) relative to the solar value defined by CI chondrites, which we interpret as reflecting formation from precursor material with a reduced initial abundance of (26)Al compared to the canonical (26)Al/(27)Al of ~5 × 10(-5). Model initial (26)Al/(27)Al values of CV and CR chondrules vary from (1.5 ± 4.0) × 10(-6) to (2.2 ± 0.4) × 10(-5). The CV chondrules display significant μ(54)Cr variability, defining a range of compositions that is comparable to that observed for inner Solar System primitive and differentiated meteorites. In contrast, CR chondrites are characterized by a narrower range of μ(54)Cr values restricted to compositions typically observed for bulk carbonaceous chondrites. Collectively, these observations suggest that the CV chondrules formed from precursors that originated in various regions of the protoplanetary disk and were then transported to the accretion region of the CV parent asteroid whereas CR chondrule predominantly formed from precursor with carbonaceous chondrite-like μ(54)Cr signatures. The observed

  20. Transmission electron microscopy of subsolidus oxidation and weathering of olivine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banfield, J.F.; Veblen, D.R.; Jones, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Olivine crystals in basaltic andesites which crop out in the Abert Rim, south-central Oregon have been studied by high-resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The observations reveal three distinct assemblages of alteration products that seem to correspond to three episodes of olivine oxidation. The olivine crystals contain rare, dense arrays of coherently intergrown Ti-free magnetite and inclusions of a phase inferred to be amorphous silica. We interpret this first assemblage to be the product of an early subsolidus oxidation event in the lava. The second olivine alteration assemblage contains complex ordered intergrowths on (001) of forsterite-rich olivine and laihunite (distorted olivine structure with Fe3+ charge balanced by vacancies). Based on experimental results for laihunite synthesis (Kondoh et al. 1985), these intergrowths probably formed by olivine oxidation between 400 and 800??C. The third episode of alteration involves the destruction of olivine by low-temperature hydrothermal alteration and weathering. Elongate etch-pits and channels in the margins of fresh olivine crystals contain semi-oriented bands of smectite. Olivine weathers to smectite and hematite, and subsequently to arrays of oriented hematite crystals. The textures resemble those reported by Eggleton (1984) and Smith et al. (1987). We find no evidence for a metastable phase intermediate between olivine and smectite ("M" - Eggleton 1984). The presence of laihunite exerts a strong control on the geometry of olivine weathering. Single laihunite layers and laihunite-forsteritic olivine intergrowths increase the resistance of crystals to weathering. Preferential development of channels between laihunite layers occurs where growth of laihunite produced compositional variations in olivine, rather than where coherency-strain is associated with laihunite-olivine interfaces. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Cotectic proportions of olivine and spinel in olivine-tholeiitic basalt and evaluation of pre-eruptive processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeder, Peter; Gofton, Emma; Thornber, Carl

    2006-01-01

    The volume %, distribution, texture and composition of coexisting olivine, Cr-spinel and glass has been determined in quenched lava samples from Hawaii, Iceland and mid-oceanic ridges. The volume ratio of olivine to spinel varies from 60 to 2800 and samples with >0·02% spinel have a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of approximately 100. A plot of wt % MgO vs ppm Cr for natural and experimental basaltic glasses suggests that the general trend of the glasses can be explained by the crystallization of a cotectic ratio of olivine to spinel of about 100. One group of samples has an olivine to spinel ratio of approximately 100, with skeletal olivine phenocrysts and small (<50 μm) spinel crystals that tend to be spatially associated with the olivine phenocrysts. The large number of spinel crystals included within olivine phenocrysts is thought to be due to skeletal olivine phenocrysts coming into physical contact with spinel by synneusis during the chaotic conditions of ascent and extrusion. A second group of samples tend to have large olivine phenocrysts relatively free of included spinel, a few large (>100 μm) spinel crystals that show evidence of two stages of growth, and a volume ratio of olivine to spinel of 100 to well over 1000. The olivine and spinel in this group have crystallized more slowly with little physical interaction, and show evidence that they have accumulated in a magma chamber.

  2. Constraints placed on the chondrule-forming process by merrihueite in the Mezoe-Madaras chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, John A.; Holmberg, Beth B.

    1994-01-01

    A few unusual chondrules in the Mezoe-Madaras L3 chondrite contain the peralkaline mineral merrihueite, (K, Na)2(Fe, Mg)5Si12O30, formed by reaction of free silica in the chondrules with K, Na, Fe-rich nebular gas. Vapor fractionation was required to create chondrules poor in Al and rich in Si, and the fractionated condensate produced had to aggregate into protochondrules very promptly (on the order of hours or less) to prevent it from mixing with dust of more generalized composition in the nebula. The traditional paradigm for chondrule formation, involving a series of unrelated events (chemical fractionation of precursor dust; clumping of the dust; melting of the dust-clumps), is inadequate for making these chondrules. A rapid process, all stages of which are related, is required. We propose that this occurred during the cooling and contraction of the volume of hot gas created by a small transient high-energy event in the nebula, of unspecified nature. Microdroplets of silicate melt created by condensation from the cooling, contracting gas had velocity vectors directed toward the center of the volume. Coalescence occurred in the crowded central zone where the microdroplets converged. The Mezoe-Madaras merriihueite-bearing chondrules may have been formed by an atypically low-energy nebular event, which achieved the needed chemical fractionations by only partially vaporizing precursor dust. More commonplace chondrule types may have been created by the same basic process, but involving higher-energy events in which precursor dust was completely vaporized and recondensed.

  3. Na, K-Rich Rim Around a Chondrule in Unequilibrated Ordinary Chondrite Lew 86018 (L3.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Han, J.; Marhas, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Ordinary chondrites represent the most abundant early Solar system extra-terrestrial (approximately 85% abundance) material available for laboratory studies and expectedly record the most extensive range of alterations effects from unmetamorphosed chondritic material to the highest temperatures of thermal metamorphism. The least metamorphosed chondrites belonging to petrologic type 3, the so called unequili-brated ordinary chondrites (UOCs), provide insights into alteration that happened during the primeval, ear-liest stage of Solar system formation. The higher grade petrologic types 4-6 ordinary chondrites on the other hand document up to near textural equilibrium (in type 6) extensive thermal metamorphism consisting of minerals and phases providing evidence of equilibration of heterogeneous mineral composition, solid-state recrystallization. Despite being the most abundant, the effect of alteration is less explicitly understood in ordinary chondrites (even less in UOCs) compared to other groups (e.g. CV, CO, CR). Additionally, the relationship between metasomatism (also referred as aqueous alteration or fluid-assisted metamorphism) and metamorphism (primarily thermal driven) has not been studied and alterations in the ordinary chondrites have been considered to have occurred in absence of fluids in general. Despite this conventional view, UOCs of lowest grades (3.0-3.2) show some evidence of low temperature (approximately 200 C), fluid assisted metamorphism in the form of the presence of phyllosilicates, ferroan olivine, and magnetites in their matrices and occasionally in chondrules. Here, we present petrographic and mineralogical studies of UOC, Lewis Hills (LEW) 86018 to further our understanding of the extent and relative importance of metasomatism and/or metamorphism in UOCs.

  4. Water loss from olivine hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Provost, A.; Schiano, P.; Cluzel, N.

    2009-12-01

    Water content in melt inclusions has long been used as an important index for the water content of the hosting magma. However, many studies have shown that post-entrapment diffusive re-equilibration can affect the water content of melt inclusions. This process must be considered when using melt inclusions to infer water content of the hosting magma. Theoretical model on the diffusive re-equilibration between melt inclusions and external melts showed that the re-equilibration rate depends on the diffusivity of the re-equilibrating species in the host mineral, the partition coefficient of this species between the host mineral and melt, and the geometry of the melt inclusion and host mineral. The water diffusivity in olivine and water partition coefficient between melt and olivine have been measured by recent studies, therefore the diffusive re-equilibration model can be tested by experiments. In this study, we carried out in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements on the water content of olivine hosted melt inclusions at high temperatures. Initial water content of the melt inclusions is about 4 wt%. A heating stage system is combined with a microscope FTIR and the absorption spectrum through the olivine and melt inclusion is repeatedly measured. Although the absorption band at around 3540 cm-1 has not be calibrated at high temperatures, it is assumed that the absorbance is linearly related to the total water concentration in the melt inclusion, and the relative water content can be inferred. Cautions have been exercised to maintain a consistent measurement spot such that the thickness of the melt inclusion within the beam path did not change significantly during each experiment. Oxygen fugacity in the heating stage is controlled by Zr purified Ar gas to be about 7 logarithm units below the QFM buffer and about 1 logarithm unit above the QIF buffer at 1473 K. Preliminary results showed that at 1430 and 1581 K, the total water content of the

  5. Turbulent Size Selection and Concentration of Chondrule-Sized Objects: Reynolds Number Invariance and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hogan, R.; Dobrovolskis, A.; Paque, J.

    2006-01-01

    It is generally agreed that individual chondrules formed as entities in a gaseous nebula prior to being accumulated into a meteorite parent body, within which they incur various forms of modification before arriving in our labs. While there are major unanswered questions about the properties of the nebula environment in which chondrules formed, the process by which the most primitive meteorites are formed overwhelmingly from chondrules must then be an aspect of "nebula processing". Textures in certain fragments of primitive meteorites might be summarized as being primarily chondrules and clastic, chondrule-sized, fragments of other minerals, each covered with a rim of fine dust with physical and chemical properties which are essentially independent of the composition and mineralogy of the underlying chondrule. This (unfortunately rather rare) texture was called "primary accretionary texture" to reflect their belief that it precedes subsequent stages in which fragmentation, comminution, mixing, heating, and other forms of alteration occur on the parent body(-ies). The size distribution of these chondrules and fragments, and the properties of their dusty rims, are key clues regarding the primary nebula accretion process. Even in the much more abundant meteorites which have clearly suffered internal mixing, abrasion, grinding, and even mineralogical alteration or replacement (due presumably to the collisional growth and heating process itself), key chondrule properties such as mean size and density remain relatively well defined, and well defined rims persist in many cases. It has been our goal to infer the key nebula processes indirectly from the properties of these very earliest primitive meteorites by making use of a theoretical framework in which the nebula possesses a plausible level of isotropic turbulence. We have shown that turbulence has the property of concentrating one particular particle size by orders of magnitude, where the preferentially concentrated

  6. Shock-produced olivine glass: First observation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeanloz, R.; Ahrens, T.J.; Lally, J.S.; Nord, G.L.; Christie, J.M.; Heuer, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations of an experimentally shock-deformed single crystal of natural peridot, (Mg0.88Fe 0.12SiO4 recovered from peak pressures of about 56 ?? 109 pascals revealed the presence of amorphous zones located within crystalline regions with a high density of tangled dislocations. This is the first reported observation ofolivine glass. The shocked sample exhibits a wide variation in the degree of shock deformation on a small scale, and the glass appears to be intimately associated with the highest density of dislocations. This study suggests that olivine glass may be formed as a result of shock at pressures above about 50 to 55 ?? 109 pascals and that further TEM observations of naturally shocked olivines may demonstrate the presence of glass.

  7. Single Chondrule K/Ar ages of Mexican Meteorites Using ID-TIMS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Sole, J.

    2007-05-01

    We have determined the K/Ar ages of two H5 ordinary meteorites: Cosina and Nuevo Mercurio, neither dated until this study. We analyzed several single chondrules - weighing few milligrams - of each meteorite. Ages were obtained by using very precise K content determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The K content in chondrules ranges between 650 and 1400 ppm. The 40Ar was measured by static vacuum noble gas mass spectrometry. Samples were fused with an infrared CO2 laser. Chondrule ages vary from 3.66 to 4.59 Ga for Cosina and from 4.20 to 4.87 Ga for Nuevo Mercurio. A comparison between our data and the published K/Ar ages of H and L whole rocks shows that dates obtained from single chondrules are older than those obtained from whole rocks and seem to preserve older events not evidenced in the WR ages. This implies that chondrules can preserve K/Ar ages very close to U-Pb crystallization ages.

  8. Evolution of the Magnetic Field during Chondrule Formation in Planetary Bow Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Chuhong; Desch, Steven; Boley, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Recent laboratory efforts (Fu et al., 2014, 2015) have constrained the remanent magnetizations of chondrules and the magnetic field strengths they were exposed to as they cooled below their Curie points. An outstanding question is whether these fields represent the background magnetic field of the solar nebula or were unique to the chondrule-forming environment. We investigate the amplification of the magnetic field above background values in a planetary bow shock, which is one proposed mechanism for chondrule formation. We use a hydrodynamic code to model the temperature and pressure around a 3000 km-radius planetary embryo as it moves supersonically through the nebula gas. We calculate the ionization of hot, shocked gas considering thermionic emission of electrons and ions from grains and thermal ionization of potassium. We calculate the magnetic diffusion rate, including Ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion (assuming a magnetic field strength comparable to 0.5 G). We compute the steady-state magnetic field around in the bow shock and find that behind the planet the field is amplified, but everywhere else it quickly diffuses out of the shocked region and recovers the background value. We consider the trajectories taken by chondrules behind the shock and present likely values of the magnetic field amplification experienced by chondrules as they cool after melting in the shock.

  9. 2D Size Distribution of Chondrules and Chondritic Fragments of an Ordinary Chondrite from Lut Desert (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorsandi, H.; Mirnejad, H.

    2014-09-01

    2D size measurement of chondrules and chondiritic fragments of a meteorite from Lut desert of Iran is conducted. Chondrules exhibit a size range of 55-1800 µm (average 437 µm). Chondiritic fragments show a size range of 46-1220 µm (average 261 µm).

  10. Mechanisms and Timescales for Reequilibration of Water in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, G. A.; O'Leary, J. A.; Shimizu, N.

    2009-12-01

    Water solubility in silicate melts drops substantially with decreasing pressure. A magma containing several weight % dissolved H2O in the shallow crust is left with only a few thousand ppm following eruption. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions provide information on the pre-eruptive H2O contents of degassed magmas because the strength of the host crystal protects the melt inclusion from the decompression experienced by the entraining magma. The principal uncertainty involved with interpreting pre-eruptive H2O concentrations from melt inclusions is the potential for diffusive loss or gain of H+ (protons) through the host olivine. It has been proposed that Fe redox reactions severely limit the proton flux, and that episodes of H2O loss/gain are easily identifiable through changes in oxidation state of the inclusion [1,2]. Results from hydration and dehydration experiments carried out on natural inclusion-bearing olivines and analyzed by SIMS confirm that H2O re-equilibratrion occurs rapidly via proton diffusion through the host olivine, and demonstrate that re-equilibration of oxygen fugacity within the inclusions occurs on comparable timescales via diffusion of point defects. Therefore, an olivine-hosted melt inclusion only provides a reliable record for the H2O content of the external melt with which it most recently equilibrated. Hydration experiments were performed on olivines from Puu Wahi, a scoria cone on the NE rift zone of Mauna Loa volcano. Melt inclusions initially containing 0.36±0.05 wt% H2O were held at 1 GPa and 1250°C in water enriched in 18O (18O/ΣO = 0.977) and D (2H/ΣH = 0.998) to map the transport of protons and oxygen during equilibration of melt inclusions with an external fluid. Dehydration experiments were carried out for 1 to 18 hrs at 1 bar and 1250 °C on inclusion-bearing olivines in scoria erupted from Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, in 1999. The initial concentration of H2O in these melt inclusions is uniformly high (3.6±0.6 wt%). All

  11. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.

    1982-02-01

    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  12. Exploring exogenic sources for the olivine on Asteroid (4) Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Dunn, Tasha; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Mann, Paul; Nathues, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The detection of olivine on Vesta is interesting because it may provide critical insights into planetary differentiation early in our Solar System's history. Ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Asteroid (4) Vesta have suggested the presence of olivine on the surface. These observations were reinforced by the discovery of olivine-rich HED meteorites from Vesta in recent years. However, analysis of data from NASA's Dawn spacecraft has shown that this "olivine-bearing unit" is actually impact melt in the ejecta of Oppia crater. The lack of widespread mantle olivine, exposed during the formation of the 19 km deep Rheasilvia basin on Vesta's South Pole, further complicated this picture. Ammannito et al. (Ammannito, E. et al. [2013a]. Nature 504, 122-125) reported the discovery of local scale olivine-rich units in the form of excavated material from the mantle using the Visible and InfraRed spectrometer (VIR) on Dawn. These sites are concentrated in the walls and ejecta of craters Arruntia (10.5 km in diameter) and Bellicia (41.7 km in diameter), located in the northern hemisphere, 350-430 km from Rheasilvia basin's rim. Here we explore alternative sources for the olivine in the northern hemisphere of Vesta by reanalyzing the data from the VIR instrument using laboratory spectral measurements of meteorites. Our rationale for using the published dataset was to bypass calibration issues and ensure a consistent dataset between the two studies. Our analysis of the VIR data shows that while the interpretation of their spectra as an olivine-rich unit is correct, the nature and origin of that olivine could be more complicated. We suggest that these olivine exposures could also be explained by the delivery of olivine-rich exogenic material. This hypothesis is supported by meteoritical evidence in the form of exogenic xenoliths containing significant amount of olivine in some of the HED meteorites from Vesta. Previous laboratory work on HEDs show that

  13. Dynamic crystallization of chondrule melts of porphyritic and radial pyroxene composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G.; Russell, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic crystallization experiments in which heterogeneous nucleation is an important variable have been completed on four melts of chondrule composition. Compositions were chosen to best represent chondrules with porphyritic pyroxene and radial pyroxene textures. Experimental results show that heterogeneous nucleation is essential for the formation of porphyritic textures. Without preexisting nuclei, too much supercooling is established before crystallization is initiated and the textures are more likely to be dendritic or radial. In the near total absence of nuclei, radial textures can form at cooling rates as slow as 5 C/hr in this study. By varying the heterogeneous nucleation conditions and having a melt in which the appropriate phases are stable or metastable, analogs to most of the recognized chondrule textures can be produced in a single melt composition.

  14. Fe and O isotope composition of meteorite fusion crusts: Possible natural analogues to chondrule formation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, Dominik C.; Poole, Graeme M.; Hoyes, Jack; Coles, Barry J.; Unsworth, Catherine; Albrecht, Nina; Smith, Caroline; RehkäMper, Mark; Pack, Andreas; Genge, Matthew; Russell, Sara S.

    2015-02-01

    Meteorite fusion crust formation is a brief event in a high-temperature (2000-12,000 K) and high-pressure (2-5 MPa) regime. We studied fusion crusts and bulk samples of 10 ordinary chondrite falls and 10 ordinary chondrite finds. The fusion crusts show a typical layering and most contain vesicles. All fusion crusts are enriched in heavy Fe isotopes, with δ56Fe values up to +0.35‰ relative to the solar system mean. On average, the δ56Fe of fusion crusts from finds is +0.23‰, which is 0.08‰ higher than the average from falls (+0.15‰). Higher δ56Fe in fusion crusts of finds correlate with bulk chondrite enrichments in mobile elements such as Ba and Sr. The δ56Fe signature of meteorite fusion crusts was produced by two processes (1) evaporation during atmospheric entry and (2) terrestrial weathering. Fusion crusts have either the same or higher δ18O (0.9-1.5‰) than their host chondrites, and the same is true for Δ17O. The differences in bulk chondrite and fusion crust oxygen isotope composition are explained by exchange of oxygen between the molten surface of the meteorites with the atmosphere and weathering. Meteorite fusion crust formation is qualitatively similar to conditions of chondrule formation. Therefore, fusion crusts may, at least to some extent, serve as a natural analogue to chondrule formation processes. Meteorite fusion crust and chondrules exhibit a similar extent of Fe isotope fractionation, supporting the idea that the Fe isotope signature of chondrules was established in a high-pressure environment that prevented large isotope fractionations. The exchange of O between a chondrule melt and an 16O-poor nebula as the cause for the observed nonmass dependent O isotope compositions in chondrules is supported by the same process, although to a much lower extent, in meteorite fusion crusts.

  15. Early cosmic ray irradiation of chondrules and prolonged accretion of primitive meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf-Kuis, Uta; Ott, Ulrich; Trieloff, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Chondrules, together with Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and matrix, are the major constituents of primitive meteorites. It is clear that chondrules formed as molten objects and the conditions under which this happened seem well constrained. Partially overlapping in age, but mostly ∼2-3 million years younger than the CAIs, they appear to have formed over an extended period of time (e.g., Kita et al., 2013). We have analyzed chondrules in two highly primitive CR3 meteorites, QUE 99177 and MET 00426, and find that they contain highly variable amounts of noble gases produced by irradiation with cosmic rays. The lack of implanted solar wind and the composition of the cosmogenic component in QUE 99177 chondrules argue against irradiation in a parent body regolith, which leaves irradiation in the early solar system as the most likely explanation. The cosmogenic composition also points to irradiation primarily by galactic cosmic rays (GCR), not solar cosmic rays (SCR), i.e. not by an active early sun. To allow effective production of cosmogenic isotopes by GCR, but not SCR, this should have happened rather "late" in a largely, but not completely, dust-free environment. Our results support the suggestion that chondrules formed as free-floating objects in the solar nebula; also consistent with the noble gas data is pre-irradiation in small (∼dm-size) aggregates that broke up before or during accretion to the CR parent body. In both cases, chondrules spent an extended period of time before incorporation into the most primitive meteorite parent bodies, which puts constraints on accretion time scales.

  16. Possible melting produced chondrule destruction in NWA 6604 CK4 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Ormandi, S.; Jozsa, S.

    2015-07-01

    In analyzing a thin section of the NWA 6604 CK4 meteorite, only altered chondrules and various components that are probably left behind the destruction of former chondrules can be observed. We suggest that melting, grain size decrease, resorption of the original chondrules, and crystallization of opaque minerals were the main processes that destroyed the chondrules. Four different events could be identified as having occurred during this alteration. First, opaques crystallized along former fractures producing chains of separated grains. Later, opaques and Ca-rich minerals crystallized together in veins and large melt pockets; this was the strongest recrystallization phase involving the largest volume of melt. This occurred along different fractures than the first phase above. During the third phase, only Ca-rich plagioclase crystallized along thin veins, and in a fourth phase, fractures formed again, partly along those formed during the second phases but without substantial mineral infill. Two simple possible case models should be considered for this meteorite: alteration by purely impact-driven processes or mainly by melt-driven processes. Although for CK4 chondrites, the shock-produced alteration driven by impact is the more accepted and widespread approach, melting is also compatible with the observed textural characteristics of chondrule destruction. During melting, recrystallization took place producing iron-rich minerals earlier and Ca-Si-rich ones later. The penetration of melts into veins contributed in the chondrule destruction. The stress directions also changed during these alterations, and minerals that formed later filled differently oriented fractures than the earlier ones. From our observations, we favor a view where heat-driven melting and recrystallization produced the destruction and uniform mineralogy in the sample.

  17. Iodine-xenon studies of petrographically and chemically characterized Chainpur chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Taylor, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    INAA, noble gas, and petrographic studies conducted on samples of 18 chondrules and matric material from the Chainpur (LL3) indicate that the I-129/I-127 ratio, R(0), varies by a factor of more than 10 among the chondrules. This corresponds to a greater-than-50 Ma span in apparent I-Xe ages. Models which invoke either gas-dust mixing or nebular heterogeneity cannot satisfactorily explain these data, any more than can hypotheses which attribute the variations to differences in formation age, metamorphic rate, or time of aqueous alteration. It is alternatively suggested that the variations represent periods of low-grade shock events.

  18. Search for Olivine Spectral Signatures on the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palomba, E.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Farina, M.; Frigeri, A.; Longobardo, A.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Sunshine, J.; McCord, T. B.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of olivines on Vesta were first postulated from traditional petrogenetic models which suggest the formation of olivine as lower crustal cumulates. An indirect confirmation is given by their presence as a minor component in some samples of diogenite meteorites, the harzburgitic diogenites and the dunitic diogenites, and as olivine mineral clasts in howardites. Another indication for this mineral was given by interpretations of groundbased and Hubble Space Telescope observations that suggested the presence of local olivine-bearing units on the surface of Vesta. The VIR instrument onboard the DAWN mission has been mapping Vesta since July 2011. VIR acquired hyperspectral images of Vesta s surface in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 5.1 m during Approach, Survey and High Altitude Mapping (HAMO) orbits that allowed a 2/3 of the entire asteroid surface to be mapped. The VIR operative spectral interval, resolution and coverage is suitable for the detection and mapping of any olivine rich regions that may occur on the Vesta surface. The abundance of olivine in diogenites is typically lower than 10% but some samples richer in olivine are known. However, we do not expect to have extensive exposures of olivine-rich material on Vesta. Moreover, the partial overlap of olivine and pyroxene spectral signatures will make olivine difficult to detect. Different spectral parameters have been used to map olivine on extraterrestrial bodies, and here we discuss the different approaches used, and develop new ones specifically for Vesta. Our new methods are based on combinations of the spectral parameters relative to the 1 and 2 micron bands (the most prominent spectral features of Vesta surface in the visible and the infrared), such as band center locations, band depths, band areas, band area ratios. Before the direct application to the VIR data, the efficiency of each approach is evaluated by means of analysis of laboratory spectra of HED meteorites, pyroxenes, olivines

  19. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  20. Vaporization Studies of Olivine via Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.

  1. Discovery of Olivine in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, T.M.; Clark, R.N.; Bandfield, J.L.; Smith, M.D.; Pearl, J.C.; Christensen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    We have detected a 30,000-square-kilometer area rich in olivine in the Nili Fossae region of Mars. Nili Fossae has been interpreted as a complex of grabens and fractures related to the formation of the Isidis impact basin. We propose that post-impact faulting of this area has exposed subsurface layers rich in olivine. Linear mixture analysis of Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra shows surface exposures of 30% olivine, where the composition of the olivine ranges from Fo30 to Fo70.

  2. Geobarometry of ultramafic xenoliths from Loihi Seamount, Hawaii, on the basis of CO2 inclusions in olivine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1983-01-01

    Abundant fluid inclusions in olivine of dunite xenoliths (???1-3 cm) in basalt dredged from the young Loihi Seamount, 30 km southeast of Hawaii, are evidence for three coexisting immiscible fluid phases-silicate melt (now glass), sulfide melt (now solid), and dense supercritical CO2 (now liquid + gas)-during growth and later fracturing of some of these olivine crystals. Some olivine xenocrysts, probably from disaggregation of xenoliths, contain similar inclusions. Most of the inclusions (2-10 ??m) are on secondary planes, trapped during healing of fractures after the original crystal growth. Some such planes end abruptly within single crystals and are termed pseudosecondary, because they formed during the growth of the host olivine crystals. The "vapor" bubble in a few large (20-60 ??m), isolated, and hence primary, silicate melt inclusions is too large to be the result of simple differential shrinkage. Under correct viewing conditions, these bubbles are seen to consist of CO2 liquid and gas, with an aggregate ??{variant} = ??? 0.5-0.75 g cm-3, and represent trapped globules of dense supercritical CO2 (i.e., incipient "vesiculation" at depth). Some spinel crystals enclosed within olivine have attached CO2 blebs. Spherical sulfide blebs having widely variable volume ratios to CO2 and silicate glass are found in both primary and pseudosecondary inclusions, demonstrating that an immiscible sulfide melt was also present. Assuming olivine growth at ??? 1200??C and hydrostatic pressure from a liquid lava column, extrapolation of CO2 P-V-T data indicates that the primary inclusions were trapped at ??? 220-470 MPa (2200-4700 bars), or ??? 8-17 km depth in basalt magma of ??{variant} = 2.7 g cm-3. Because the temperature cannot change much during the rise to eruption, the range of CO2 densities reveals the change in pressure from that during original olivine growth to later deformation and rise to eruption on the sea floor. The presence of numerous decrepitated inclusions

  3. Mineralogical Comparison of Olivine in Shergottites and A Shocked L Chondrite: Implications for Shock Histories of Brown Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takenouchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Most Martian meteorites are heavily shocked, exhibiting numerous shock features, for example undulatory extinction of olivine and pyroxene, the presence of diaplectic glass ("maskelynite") and the formation of shock melt. Among these shock features, olivine darkening ("brown" olivine) is unique in Martian meteorites because no other meteorite group shows such a feature. Although the presence of brown olivine in shergottites was reported thirty years ago, detailed observation by TEM has not been performed until the NWA 2737 chassignite was discovered, whose olivine is darkened, being completely black in hand specimen. Fe metal nano-particles were found in NWA 2737 olivine which are considered to have been formed by olivine reduction during heavy shock. Subsequently, magnetite nano-particles were also found in other Martian meteorites and the coexistence of Fe metal and magnetite nano-particles was reported in the NWA 1950 shergottite and some Fe metal nano-particles were mantled by magnetite. Therefore, the formation process of nano-particles seems to be complex. Because "brown" olivine is unique to Martian meteorites, they have a potential to constrain their shock conditions. In order to better understand the shock history of Martian meteorites, we compared olivine in several shergottites with that in a highly-shocked L chondrite which contains ringwoodite.

  4. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity in dry olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Du Frane, W L; Roberts, J J; Toffelmier, D A; Tyburczy, J A

    2005-04-13

    [1] The electrical conductivity ({sigma}) was measured for a single crystal of San Carlos olivine (Fo{sub 89.1}) for all three principal orientations over oxygen fugacities 10{sup -7} < fO{sub 2} < 10{sup 1} Pa at 1100, 1200, and 1300 C. Fe-doped Pt electrodes were used in conjunction with a conservative range of fO{sub 2}, T, and time to reduce Fe loss resulting in data that is {approx}0.15 log units higher in conductivity than previous studies. At 1200 C and fO{sub 2} = 10{sup -1} Pa, {sigma}{sub [100]} = 10{sup -2.27} S/m, {sigma}{sub [010]} = 10{sup -2.49} S/m, {sigma}{sub [001]} = 10{sup -2.40} S/m. The dependences of {sigma} on T and fO{sub 2} have been simultaneously modeled with undifferentiated mixed conduction of small polarons and Mg vacancies to obtain steady-state fO{sub 2}-independent activation energies: Ea{sub [100]} = 0.32 eV, Ea{sub [010]} = 0.56 eV, Ea{sub [001]} = 0.71 eV. A single crystal of dry olivine would provide a maximum of {approx}10{sup 0.4} S/m azimuthal {sigma} contrast for T < 1500 C. The anisotropic results are combined to create an isotropic model with Ea = 0.53 eV.

  5. Extremely Na and Cl Rich Chondrule Al3509 from the Allende Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Aleon, J.; Ramon, E. C.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Brearley, A. J.

    2011-03-01

    This Ca-Al-rich chondrule is not a replacement product. It has ~10% Na and ~1% Cl. Large excesses of 36S were found uncorrelated with Cl and 26Al/27Al < 3 x 10^-6. It represents the fluid responsible for late alteration in volatile-rich outer layers prior to formation of Allende.

  6. INCORPORATION OF A LATE-FORMING CHONDRULE INTO COMET WILD 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Butterworth, A. L.; Gainsforth, Z.; Stodolna, J.; Westphal, A. J.; Joswiak, D.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2012-02-15

    We report the petrology, O isotopic composition, and Al-Mg isotope systematics of a chondrule fragment from the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2, returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust mission. This object shows characteristics of a type II chondrule that formed from an evolved oxygen isotopic reservoir. No evidence for extinct {sup 26}Al was found, with ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} < 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}. Assuming homogenous distribution of {sup 26}Al in the solar nebula, this particle crystallized at least 3 Myr after the earliest solar system objects-relatively late compared to most chondrules in meteorites. We interpret the presence of this object in a Kuiper Belt body as evidence of late, large-scale transport of small objects between the inner and outer solar nebula. Our observations constrain the formation of Jupiter (a barrier to outward transport if it formed further from the Sun than this cometary chondrule) to be more than 3 Myr after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions.

  7. Two forgotten pioneers of meteoritics - The discoverers of chondrules and etching figures in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeeva, A. I.

    A survey of the historical data shows that chondrules were discovered by John Lloyd Williams in 1799, as a result of the study of the Benares meteorite. The discovery of Widmanstatten structure by William Thompson (first publication on this subject in 1804) is also discussed.

  8. Fossil records of high level of 60Fe in chondrules from unequilibrated chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Chaussidon, Marc

    2014-07-01

    The short-lived now-extinct nuclide (SLN) 60Fe, which decays to 60Ni with a half-life of 2.62 Ma, is uniquely of stellar origin. Hence, its Solar System initial abundance yields information about the source of SLNs and the astrophysical environment in which the Solar System was born. Only a few chondrules (∼19) from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites have reported resolved 60Ni excesses using in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry implying Fe60/Fe56>∼0.6×10-7 in the early Solar System, and among these very few (3) have higher excesses implying Fe60/Fe56∼7×10-7 (Mishra et al., 2010; Mishra and Goswami, 2014; Telus et al., 2012). At variance, multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer studies of bulk samples and mineral separates from differentiated meteorites, angrites, achondrites, and chondrules suggest a low abundance of 60Fe/56Fe of ∼1.4×10-8 which would rule out the need for an external seeding of the early Solar with stellar 60Fe (Quitté et al., 2011; Tang and Dauphas, 2012). Two Semarkona chondrules and one Efremovka chondrule analyzed in the present study have mass fractionation corrected excess of up to ∼75 permil (‰) and give 60Fe isochrons with initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios of (7.8±3.7)×10-7, (3.8±1.6)×10-7, and (2.2±1.1)×10-7 (2σ), for Efremovka Ch 1, Semarkona Ch 12, and Semarkona Ch J5 respectively. The higher values of 60Fe/56Fe ratios seen in the chondrules of these least altered meteorites samples concur with and lend greater credence to the suggestion of a massive star as the source of 60Fe, and possibly of other short-lived nuclides, to the early Solar System. However, no definitive explanation (e.g. sample bias, effects of metamorphism, 60Fe heterogeneity) to the apparent disagreement with studies of bulk chondrules and chondrule fragments has been found.

  9. Non-equilibrium concepts lead to a unified explanation of the formation of chondrules and chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blander, Milton; Pelton, Arthur D.; Jung, In-Ho; Weber, Richard

    2004-12-01

    Calculations of the formation of seven types of chondrules in Semarkona from a gas of solar composition were performed with the Fact computer program to predict the chemistries of oxides, including silicates, developed by the authors and their colleagues. The constrained equilibrium theory was used in the calculations with two nucleation constraints suggested by nucleation theory. The first constraint was the blocking of Fe and other metal gaseous atoms from condensing to form solids or liquids because of the very high surface free energies and high surface tensions of the solid and liquid metals, respectively. The second constraint was the blocking of the condensation of solids and the formation of metastable liquid oxides (including silicates) well below their liquidus temperatures. Our laboratory experiments suggested subcooling of type IIA chondrule compositions of 400 degrees or more below the liquidus temperature. The blocking of iron leads to a supersaturation of Fe atoms, so that the partial pressure of Fe (pFe) is larger than the partial pressure at equilibrium (pFe(eq)). The supersaturation ratio S = pFe/pFe(eq) becomes larger than 1 and increases rapidly with a decrease in temperature. This drives the reaction Fe + H2O ??H2 + FeO to the right. With S = 100, the activity of FeO in the liquid droplet is 100 times as large as the value at equilibrium. The FeO activities are a function of temperature and provide relative average temperatures of the crystallization of chondrules. Our calculations for the LL3.0 chondrite Semarkona and our study of some non-equilibrium effects lead to accurate representations of the compositions of chondrules of types IA, IAB, IB, IIA, IIAB, IIB, and CC. Our concepts readily explain both the variety of FeO concentrations in the different chondrule types and the entire process of chondrule formation. Our theory is unified and could possibly explain the formation of chondrules in all chondritic meteorites as well as provide a

  10. The evolution of enstatite and chondrules in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: Evidence from iron-rich pyroxene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin; Fogel, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    FeO-rich (Fs(sub 6)-34) pyroxene lacking cathodoluminescence (CL), hereafter black pyroxene, is a major constituent of some of the chondrules and fragments in unequilibrated (type 3) enstatite chondrites (UECs). It contains structurally oriented zones of Cr-, Mn-, V-rich, FeO-poor enstatite with red CL, associated with mm-sized blebs of low-Ni, Fe-metal and, in some cases, silica. These occurrences represent clear evidence of pyroxene reduction. The black pyroxene is nearly always rimmed by minor element (Cr, Mn, V)-poor enstatite having a blue CL. More commonly, red and blue enstatites, unassociated with black pyroxene, occur as larger grains in chondrules and fragments, and these constitute the major silicate phases in UECs. The rare earth element (REE) abundance patterns of the black pyroxene are LREE-depleted. The blue enstatite rims, however, have a near-flat to LREE-enriched pattern, approx. 0.5-4x chondritic. The petrologic and trace element data indicate that the black pyroxene is from an earlier generation of chondrules that formed in a nebular region that was more oxidizing than that of the enstatite chondrites. Following solidification, these chondrules experienced a more reducing nebular environment and underwent reduction. Some, perhaps most, of the red enstatite that is common throughout the UECs may be the product of solid-state reduction of black pyroxene. The blue enstatite rims grew onto the surfaces of the black pyroxene and red enstatite as a result of condensation from a nebular gas. The evolutionary history of some of the enstatite and chondrules in enstatite chondrites can be expressed in a four-stage model that includes: Stage 1. Formation of chondrules in an oxidizing nebular environment. Stage 2. Solid-state reduction of the more oxidized chondrules and fragments to red enstatite in a more reducing nebular environment. Stage 3. Formation of blue enstatite rims on the black pyroxene as well as on the red enstatite. Stage 4. Reprocessing, by

  11. Diffusion and partition coefficients of minor and trace elements in San Carlos olivine at 1,300°C with some geochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandler, Carl; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.

    2009-11-01

    Lattice diffusion coefficients have been determined for 19 elements (Li, Be, Na, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Eu, Gd, Lu and Hf) in a single crystal of San Carlos olivine as a function of crystallographic orientation, at 1,300°C, 1 bar and fO2 = 10-8.3 bars, by equilibration with a synthetic silicate melt. Results for Li, Na, V, Cr, Fe and Zn are from diffusion of these elements out of the olivine, starting from their indigenous concentrations; those for all other elements are from diffusion into the olivine, from the silicate melt reservoir. Our 25-day experiment produced diffusion profiles 50 to > 700 μm in length, which are sufficiently long that precise analyses could be achieved by scanning laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, even at concentration levels well below 1 μg g-1. For the divalent cations Ca, Mn, Fe and Ni, profiles were also obtained by electron microprobe analysis. The results of the two methods agree well with each other, and are consistent with divalent cation diffusion coefficients previously determined using different experimental methodologies. Olivine/melt partition coefficients retrieved from the data are also consistent with other published partitioning data, indicating that element incorporation and transport in olivine in our experiment occurred via mechanisms appropriate to natural conditions. Most of the examined trace elements diffuse through olivine at similar rates to the major octahedral cations Fe and Mg, showing that cation charge and radius have little direct influence on diffusion rates. Aluminium and P remain low and constant in the olivine, implying negligible transport at our analytical scale, hence Al and P diffusion rates that are at least two orders of magnitude slower than the other cations studied here. All determined element diffusivities are anisotropic, with diffusion fastest along the [001] axis, except Y and the REEs, which diffuse isotropically. The results suggest that

  12. Olivine in the Southern Isidis Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this observation of the transition region between Libya Montes and the Isidis Basin on Mars at 17:16 UTC (12:16 p.m. EST) on January 2, 2007, near 3.6 degrees north latitude, 84.1 degrees east longitude. The image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The image is about 11 kilometers (7 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    The Isidis Basin resulted from of a gigantic impact on the surface of Mars early in the planet's history. The southern rim, where this target is located, is a region of complex geology and part of the planetary dichotomy boundary that separates the older southern highlands from the lower, younger northern plains. The image on the left was constructed from three visible wavelengths (RGB: 0.71, 0.60, 0.53 microns) and is a close approximation of how the surface would appear to the human eye. The image on the right was constructed from three infrared wavelengths (RGB: 2.49, 1.52, 1.08 microns) chosen to highlight variations in the mineralogy of the area. Of interest is that features in this image not only differ in color, but also in texture and morphology. The gray areas absorb similarly at all wavelengths used in this image, but display absorptions at other wavelengths related to the iron- and magesium-rich mineral pyroxene. The reddest areas absorb strongly at the wavelengths used for green and blue, which is attributable to another iron- and magesium-rich mineral, olivine. The brownish areas show subdued mineral absorptions and could represent some type of mixture between the other two materials. The presence of the mineral olivine is particularly interesting because olivine easily weathers to other minerals; thus, its presence indicates either the lack of weathering in this region or relatively recent exposure.

    CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal

  13. Boron, beryllium, and lithium, partitioning in olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Neroda, Elizabeth

    1996-05-01

    A one atmosphere experimental study was performed to determine the mineral/melt partition coefficients for B, Be, and Li in forsteritic olivine. Two compositions were chosen along the 1350{degrees}C isotherm, 1b (Fo{sub 17.3} Ab{sub 82.7} An{sub 0} by weight) and 8c (Fo{sub 30} Ab{sub 23.3} An{sub 47.8}, by weight) were then combined in equal amounts to form a composition was doped with 25ppm Li, B, Yb, Nb, Zr, Sr, and Hf, 50ppm Sm, and 100ppm Be, Nd, Ce, and Rb. Electron and ion microprobe analyses showed that the olivine crystals and surrounding glasses were homogeneous with respect to major and trace elements. Partition coefficients calculated from these analyses are as follows: 1b: D{sub B} = 4.41 ({+-} 2.3) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.45) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.54 ({+-} 0.21) E-01, 50/50: D{sub B} = 2.86 ({+-} 0.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 2.07 ({+-} 0.09) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.51 ({+-} 0.18) E-01, 8c: D{sub B} = 6.05 ({+-} 1.5) E-03, D{sub Be} = 1.81 ({+-} 0.03) E-03, D{sub Li} = 1.31 ({+-} 0.09) E-01. The results of this study will combined with similar data for other minerals as part of a larger study to understand the partitioning behavior of B, Be, and Li in melting of the upper mantle at subduction zones.

  14. The iodine-xenon system in clasts and chondrules from ordinary chondrites: Implications for early solar system chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Whitby, J. A.; Turner, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Hutchison, R.

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the iodine-xenon system in chondrules and clasts from ordinary chondrites. Cristobalite bearing clasts from Parnallee (LL3.6) closed to xenon loss 1-4 Ma after Bjurböle. Feline (a feldspar and nepheline rich clast also from Parnallee) closed at 7.04 +/- 0.15 Ma. 2 out of 3 chondrules from Parnallee that yielded well defined initial iodine ratios gave ages identical to Bjurböle's within error. A clast from Barwell (L5) has a well-defined initial iodine ratio corresponding to closure 3.62 +/- 0.60 Ma before Bjurböle. Partial disturbance and complete obliteration of the I-Xe system by shock are revealed in clasts from Julesburg (L3.6) and Quenggouk (H4) respectively. Partial disturbance by shock is capable of generating anomalously high initial iodine ratios. In some cases these could be misinterpreted, yielding erroneous ages. A macrochondrule from Isoulane-n-Amahar contains concentrations of iodine similar to 'ordinary' chondrules but, unlike most ordinary chondrules, contains no radiogenic 129Xe. This requires resetting 50 Ma or more later than most chondrules. The earliest chondrule ages in the I-Xe, Mn-Cr and Al-Mg systems are in reasonable agreement. This, and the frequent lack of evidence for metamorphism capable of resetting the I-Xe chronometer, leads us to conclude that (at least) the earliest chondrule I-Xe ages represent formation. If so, chondrule formation took place at a time when sizeable parent bodies were present in the solar system.

  15. Chondrites: The Compaction of Fine Matrix and Matrix-like Chondrule Rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, J. T.

    1995-09-01

    Primitive chondritic meteorites mainly consist of chondrules, sulfide+/-metal, and fine-grained matrix. The most unequilibrated chondrites preserve in their phase compositions and, to a lesser degree, their textures, many details about processes that occurred in the solar nebula. On the other hand, much of the textural evidence records processes that occurred in or on the parent body. I suggest that the low-porosity of chondrule matrix and matrix-like rims reflects compaction processes that occurred in asteroid-size bodies, and that neither matrix lumps nor compact matrix-like rims on chondrules could have achieved their observed low porosities in the solar nebula. Recent theoretical studies by Donn and Meakin (1) and Chokshi et al. (2) have concluded that grain-grain sticking in the solar nebula mainly produces fluffy structures having very high porosities (probably >>50%). If these structures grow large enough, they can provide an aerogel-like matrix that can trap chondrules as well as metal and sulfide grains, and thus form suitable precursors of chondritic meteorites. However, the strength of any such structure formed in the solar nebula must be a trivial fraction of that required to survive passage through the Earth's atmosphere in order to fall as a meteorite. The best evidence of accretionary structures appears to be that reported by Metzler et al. (3). They made SEM images of entire thin sections of CM chondrites, and showed that, in the best preserved chondrites, rims are present on all entitities--on chondrules, chondrule fragments, refractory inclusions, etc. A study by Krot and Wasson (4) shows a more complex situation in ordinary chondrites. Although matrix is common, a sizable fraction of chondrules are not surrounded by matrix-like rims. As summarized by Rubin and Krot (1995), there are reports of small textural and compositional differences between matrix lumps and mean matrix-like chondrule rims, but there is so much overlap in properties between

  16. The olivine macrocryst problem: New insights from minor and trace element compositions of olivine from Lac de Gras kimberlites, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussweiler, Yannick; Foley, Stephen F.; Prelević, Dejan; Jacob, Dorrit E.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents detailed petrographical and geochemical investigations on remarkably fresh olivines in kimberlites from the EKATI Diamond Mine™ located in the Tertiary/Cretaceous Lac de Gras kimberlite field within the Slave craton of Canada. Olivine, constituting about 42 vol.% of the analyzed samples, can be divided into two textural groups: (i) macrocrystic olivines, > 100 μm sub-rounded crystals and (ii) groundmass olivines, < 100 μm subhedral crystals. Olivines from both populations define two distinct chemical trends; a "mantle trend" with angular cores, showing low Ca (< 0.1 wt.% CaO) and high Ni (0.3-0.4 wt.% NiO) at varying Mg# (0.86-0.93), contrasts with a "melt trend" typified by thin (< 100 μm) rims with increasing Ca (up to 1.0 wt.% CaO) and decreasing Ni (down to 0.1 wt.% NiO) contents at constant Mg# (~ 0.915). These findings are in agreement with recent studies suggesting that virtually all olivine is composed of xenocrystic (i.e. mantle-related) cores with phenocrystic (i.e. melt-related) overgrowths, thereby challenging the traditional view that the origin of kimberlitic olivine can be distinguished based on size and morphology. The two main trends can be further resolved into sub-groups refining the crystallization history of olivine; the mantle trend indicates a multi-source origin that samples the layered lithosphere below the Slave craton, whereas the melt trend represents multi-stage crystallization comprising a differentiation trend starting at mantle conditions and a second trend controlled by the crystallization of additional phases (e.g. chromite) and changing magma conditions (e.g. oxidation). These trends are also seen in the concentrations of trace elements not routinely measured in olivine (e.g. Na, P, Ti, Co, Sc, Zr). Trace element mapping with LA-ICP-MS reveals the distribution of these elements within olivine grains. The trace element distribution between the two trends appears to be consistent with phenocrystic olivine

  17. Deciphering magma histories through phosphorus zoning in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; van Bergen, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since olivine is usually the first major phase to crystallize from basaltic magma, its primary chemistry is a sensitive tracer of the early evolution of volcanic systems. However, fast diffusion and homogenization under magmatic conditions frequently modifies the original composition of olivine, which hampers the reconstruction of cooling histories and magma evolution from the chemistry and zoning patterns of phenocrysts in erupted products. Phosphorous is a notable exception due to its sluggish diffusion in olivine crystals and silicate melts, as igneous olivines almost always display complex zoning patterns. Phosphorus zoning in olivine has been linked either to crystallization rate variations and diffusion controlled growth or to strong compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning. We illuminate the versatility of P-in-olivine with a comprehensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian potassium rich mafic lavas and the primitive melt inclusions (MI) that they host. The olivines are characterized by P concentrations from limit of quantification (22 ppm) to 435 ppm P with MIs containing up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-2 μm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory and large scale sector zoning in P, which is uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are virtually always surrounded by P-depleted zones that are also depleted in Cr and enriched in Al and Ti, which we attribute to a combination of supply-limited slow growth and melt compositional controls on partitioning behavior imposed by the boundary layer. We demonstrate that P zoning carries valuable information on the nature and timing of magmatic events such as mingling/mixing, wall-rock assimilation and subsequent re-equilibration processes. P-in-olivine is most promising to distinguish multiple generations of MIs, as a guide to study their mode of entrapment and to disclose the origin of primary heterogeneities.

  18. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  19. The fate of olivine in the lower crust: Pseudomorphs after olivine in coronitic metagabbro from the Grenville Orogen, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, J. L.; Jamieson, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Orthopyroxene-oxide symplectites after olivine are among the most enigmatic features of corona assemblages in metagabbros. Two coronitic metagabbro bodies from the Algonquin suite in the Grenville Orogen, Ontario, contain exceptionally well preserved orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxide symplectite formed during prograde Ottawan (ca. 1060 Ma) granulite-facies metamorphism. Based on textural evidence, we propose a new hypothesis for the formation of these symplectites. Under oxidising conditions associated with fluid infiltration, magmatic olivine and ilmenite underwent a coupled reaction whereby magnetite produced by oxidation of olivine replaced adjacent igneous ilmenite. Ilmenite was re-precipitated as a fine-grained intergrowth with orthopyroxene and some magnetite in the former olivine sites. This hypothesis is supported by textural evidence showing partial replacement of magmatic ilmenite by magnetite and a close spatial association between magmatic oxides and orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxide symplectite, which locally radiates from ilmenite into olivine. Measured orthopyroxene/oxide ratios in the symplectite (20-35% oxides) agree with the ratio predicted from the proposed reaction (ca. 30%). Coronas and pseudomorphs formed during high-grade metamorphism, with increasing fO2 interpreted to result from fluid infiltration at near-peak conditions of ca. 13 kbar, 800 °C. The same samples contain red-brown fine-grained aggregates interpreted as iddingsite pseudomorphs after olivine. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the iddingsite consists largely of amorphous silica and Fe-hydroxide; textural evidence indicates that it formed by late-stage oxidation and hydration of olivine that survived earlier metamorphism. The unusual co-occurrence of granulite-facies pseudomorphs after olivine with an alteration product formed at near-surface conditions indicates that some olivine may survive protracted high-grade metamorphism in environments where fluid access is limited.

  20. Secondary processing of chondrules and refractory inclusions (CAIs) by gasdynamic heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, M.; Prialnik, D.; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R.

    1993-01-01

    Results of calculations performed to determine the conditions necessary for producing the opaque rims on chondrules and CAI rims by high-speed entry into the transient atmosphere of an accreting meteorite parent body are presented. The sensitivity of these results to variations in critical parameters is investigated. The range of entry velocities which can produce such rims is shown to depend on the size, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity of the particles. For particles greater than 2 mm in radius, with thermal conductivities of 20,000 ergs/sm s K or lower, entry velocities of about 3 km/s suffice. For particle sizes less than 1 mm in radius, the range of encounter velocities that can produce rims is narrow or vanishing, regardless of the thermal conductivity, unless the melting temperature in the outer part of the chondrule has been reduced by compositional heterogeneity.

  1. Chondrules and Opaque Phases in Unequilibrated R Chondrites: A Comprehensive Assessment of Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. E.; Lauretta, D. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Berger, E. L.; Domanik, K.

    2016-01-01

    Equilibrated Rumuruti (R) chondrites record an oxygen fugacity between 0 and 3.5 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, and a sulfur fugacity (fS2) 2 log units above the iron-troilite buffer. They are more than an order of magnitude more oxidized than the ordinary chondrites [1], and orders of magnitude more sulfidized than solar values. Although the R chondrites have the highest (delta)O-17 value of any meteorites, analyses of unequilibrated R chondrites indicate chondrule formation in an oxygen isotope reservoir similar to that of the ordinary chondrite chondrules. We present the relationship of the R chondrite parent body to pre-accretionary volatiles O and S based on our analyses of unequilibrated R chondrite material in two thin sections from the meteorite Mount Prestrud (PRE) 95404.

  2. The Microstructure of a Micrometeorite Impact into Lunar Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Through TEM analysis of the cross-section of a ~20 µm diameter crater into an olivine single crystal we can see first-hand the effects of a single impact, including the creation of nanophase iron in the melt.

  3. Systematics of Vanadium in Olivine from Planetary Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    The systematics of vanadium in olivines from the Earth, Moon and Mars allows for the comparison of planetary basalt origin and igneous setting and process. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Olivine Deposits Associated with Impact Basins and Craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ody, A.; Poulet, F.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.; Carter, J.

    2011-12-01

    An analysis of the 1μm olivine spectral signature applied to the entire and final OMEGA dataset [1] shows numerous olivine-bearing deposits in the 3 main basins of Mars (Argyre, Isidis and Hellas). These signatures are among the strongest of Mars, which suggests compositions with higher iron content and/or larger grain size and/or larger abundance than the ones of widespread olivine-bearing deposits observed on large parts of the southern highlands [1]. A spectral modeling based on a radiative transfer model [2] indicates that their compositions are still close to the forsterite one with abundance in the range of [15,40%] and grain sizes of a few hundreds of μm. These deposits are exclusively localized on Noachian terrains. Distribution of these deposits around Argyre basin clearly takes the form of discontinuous patches of olivine-bearing rocks on the basin terrace, which strongly suggest that their formation is related to the basin formation event. Recent numerical simulations of basin formation show that impact that formed the Argyre basin could have excavated upper mantle materials and emplaced discontinuous patches of melted mantle on the basin terraces [3]. The observed olivine deposits in Argyre are thus interpreted as olivine-bearing material excavated from the upper mantle during the impact. Olivine deposits distribution around the Hellas basin is not as clear as for Argyre because of young resurfacing processes that strongly affected its region. Olivine deposits are fewer and mainly localized on the northern terrace of Hellas. Most of them are detected in crater ejecta, while a few similar to Argyre olivine discontinuous patches are also observed suggesting that a mantle origin as for Argyre is possible. Olivine has been detected by several datasets in the Nili Fossae region and in the south of Isidis basin. The spectral modeling of OMEGA spectra indicates an olivine abundance of about 40% and megacrysts of several millimeters for the region of Nili

  5. Thermo-Reflectance Spectra of Eros: Unambiguous Detection of Olivine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Hinrichs, J. L.; Urquhart-Kelly, M.; Wellnitz, D.; Bell, J. F., III; Clark, B. E.

    2001-01-01

    Olivine is readily detected on 433 Eros using the new thermo-reflectance spectral technique applied to near-IR spectra obtained at Eros by the NEAR spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Aluminum speeds up the hydrothermal alteration of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, Muriel; Daniel, Isabelle; Pollet-Villard, Marion

    2014-05-01

    The reactivity of ultramafic rocks toward hydrothermal fluids controls chemical fluxes at the interface between the internal and external reservoirs of silicate planets. On Earth, hydration of ultramafic rocks is ubiquitous and operates from deep subduction zones to shallow lithospheric environments where it considerably affects the physical and chemical properties of rocks and can interact with the biosphere. This process also has key emerging societal implications, such as the production of hydrogen as a source of carbon-free energy. To date, the chemical model systems used to reproduce olivine hydrothermal alteration lead to the formation of serpentine with sluggish reaction rates. Although aluminum is common in geological environments and in hydrothermal systems in particular, its role in serpentinization or olivine dissolution has not been investigated under hydrothermal conditions. Nevertheless, abundant Al supply is expected in fluids released from dehydration of metapelites in subduction zones as well as during the hydrothermal alteration of gabbros at mid-ocean ridges. Aluminum was also abundant in primitive environments of both the Earth and Mars, stored in either Al-rich minerals like plagioclase or Al-enriched ultramafic lavas. We have investigated the role of Al on the hydrothermal alteration of olivine in a series of experiments performed in a low-pressure diamond anvil cell while following the reaction progress in situ by optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were run for 4.5 to 7.5 days with two olivine grains reacted in saline water (0.5 molal NaCl) at 200°C and 300°C, and P=200 MPa. After two days, olivine crystals were fully transformed to an aluminous serpentine, also enriched in iron. The presence of Al in the hydrothermal fluid increases the rate of olivine serpentinization by more than one order of magnitude by enhancing olivine solubility and serpentine precipitation. The mechanism responsible for this increased solubility

  7. Volatile fractionation in the early solar system and chondrule/matrix complementarity

    PubMed Central

    Bland, Philip A.; Alard, Olivier; Benedix, Gretchen K.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Menzies, Olwyn N.; Watt, Lauren E.; Rogers, Nick W.

    2005-01-01

    Bulk chondritic meteorites and terrestrial planets show a monotonic depletion in moderately volatile and volatile elements relative to the Sun's photosphere and CI carbonaceous chondrites. Although volatile depletion was the most fundamental chemical process affecting the inner solar nebula, debate continues as to its cause. Carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive rocks available to us, and fine-grained, volatile-rich matrix is the most primitive component in these rocks. Several volatile depletion models posit a pristine matrix, with uniform CI-like chemistry across the different chondrite groups. To understand the nature of volatile fractionation, we studied minor and trace element abundances in fine-grained matrices of a variety of carbonaceous chondrites. We find that matrix trace element abundances are characteristic for a given chondrite group; they are depleted relative to CI chondrites, but are enriched relative to bulk compositions of their parent meteorites, particularly in volatile siderophile and chalcophile elements. This enrichment produces a highly nonmonotonic trace element pattern that requires a complementary depletion in chondrule compositions to achieve a monotonic bulk. We infer that carbonaceous chondrite matrices are not pristine: they formed from a material reservoir that was already depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements. Additional thermal processing occurred during chondrule formation, with exchange of volatile siderophile and chalcophile elements between chondrules and matrix. This chemical complementarity shows that these chondritic components formed in the same nebula region. PMID:16174733

  8. Space Weathering of Olivine: Samples, Experiments and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Olivine is a major constituent of chondritic bodies and its response to space weathering processes likely dominates the optical properties of asteroid regoliths (e.g. S- and many C-type asteroids). Analyses of olivine in returned samples and laboratory experiments provide details and insights regarding the mechanisms and rates of space weathering. Analyses of olivine grains from lunar soils and asteroid Itokawa reveal that they display solar wind damaged rims that are typically not amorphized despite long surface exposure ages, which are inferred from solar flare track densities (up to 10 (sup 7 y)). The olivine damaged rim width rapidly approaches approximately 120 nm in approximately 10 (sup 6 y) and then reaches steady-state with longer exposure times. The damaged rims are nanocrystalline with high dislocation densities, but crystalline order exists up to the outermost exposed surface. Sparse nanophase Fe metal inclusions occur in the damaged rims and are believed to be produced during irradiation through preferential sputtering of oxygen from the rims. The observed space weathering effects in lunar and Itokawa olivine grains are difficult to reconcile with laboratory irradiation studies and our numerical models that indicate that olivine surfaces should readily blister and amorphize on relatively short time scales (less than 10 (sup 3 y)). These results suggest that it is not just the ion fluence alone, but other variable, the ion flux that controls the type and extent of irradiation damage that develops in olivine. This flux dependence argues for caution in extrapolating between high flux laboratory experiments and the natural case. Additional measurements, experiments, and modeling are required to resolve the discrepancies among the observations and calculations involving solar wind processing of olivine.

  9. Origin of three-dimensional shapes of chondrules. I. Hydrodynamics simulations of rotating droplet exposed to high-velocity rarefied gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi; Doi, Masao

    2008-09-01

    The origin of three-dimensional shapes of chondrules is an important information to identify their formation mechanism in the early solar nebula. The measurement of their shapes by using X-ray computed topography suggested that they are usually close to perfect spheres, however, some of them have rugby-ball-like (prolate) shapes [Tsuchiyama, A., Shigeyoshi, R., Kawabata, T., Nakano, T., Uesugi, K., Shirono, S., 2003. Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1271-1272]. We considered that the prolate shapes reflect the deformations of chondrule precursor dust particles when they are heated and melted in the high velocity gas flow. In order to reveal the origin of chondrule shapes, we carried out the three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of a rotating molten chondrule exposed to the gas flow in the framework of the shock-wave heating model for chondrule formation. We adopted the gas ram pressure acting on the chondrule surface of p=10 dyncm in a typical shock wave. Considering that the chondrule precursor dust particle has an irregular shape before melting, the ram pressure causes a net torque to rotate the particle. The estimated angular velocity is ω=140 rads for the precursor radius of r=1 mm, though it has a different value depending on the irregularity of the shape. In addition, the rotation axis is likely to be perpendicular to the direction of the gas flow. Our calculations showed that the rotating molten chondrule elongates along the rotation axis, in contrast, shrinks perpendicularly to it. It is a prolate shape. The reason why the molten chondrule is deformed to a prolate shape was clearly discussed. Our study gives a complementary constraint for chondrule formation mechanisms, comparing with conventional chemical analyses and dynamic crystallization experiments that have mainly constrained the thermal evolutions of chondrules.

  10. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  11. Short Nuss bar procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  12. Chondrules of the Very First Generation in Bencubbin/CH-like Meteorites QUE94411 and Hammadah Al Hamra 237: Condensation Origin at High Ambient Nebular Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Meibom, Anders; Russell, Sara S.; Young, Edward; Alexander, Conel M.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Lofgren, Gary; Cuzzi, Jeff; Zipfel, Jutta; Keil, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    Chondrules in QUE94411 and HH 237 formed at high ambient T prior to condensation of Fe,Ni-metal following a large scale thermal event that resulted in complete vaporization of a solar nebula region. These chondrules escaped subsequent remelting.

  13. Minor elements in relict olivine grains of deep-sea spheres: Match with Mg-rich olivines from C2 meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.; Steele, I. M.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The bulk composition and relict minerals of meteoroid ablation spheres from deep sea sediments can be related to the parental material, and bulk compositions and elemental ratios favor a CI/CM affinity for most spheres. Although largely melted, some deep sea spheres (DSS) have retained rare grains apparently unmodified chemically by ablation heating or seawater alteration. Minor elements in relict olivines for comparison with compositions of olivines in known meteorites were analyzed. All relict olivines are very Mg rich. No terrestrial olivines match the chemical features which reinforces other evidence for an extraterrestrial origin. There is no match with achondritic olivines. Mg rich olivines occur in all types of carbonaceous meteorites, but the minor elements of most DSS olivines do not match with those for Allende (C3) olivines, and fit poorly with those of Murchison (C2) olivines. There is a good fit for Fe and Cr with those of the olivines in the unusual Belgica 7904 (C2) meteorite (3). It seems likely that the relict olivines of at least many deep sea spheres are chemically related to olivines in at least one C2 meteorite.

  14. Chemical and physical studies of chondrites. X - Cathodoluminescence and phase composition studies of metamorphism and nebular processes in chondrules of type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehart, John M.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Jie, LU; Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1992-01-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics of eight type-3 ordinary chondrites and one L5 chondrite were investigated with particular emphasis on detailed compositions of the relevant phases in four of these chondrites: Semarkona (type-3.0); Krymka (3.1); Allan Hills A77214 (3.5); and Dhajala (3.8). By sorting the chondrules into eight groups according to the CL of mesostasis and to certain compositional criteria and by determining the number of chondrules in these groups as a function of petrological type, it was possible to deduce genetic/evolutionary sequences of the chondrules. It is shown that there are major compositional differences in chondrules, which account for their CL properties and the chondrule groups.

  15. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    sediment model was used to simulate hydraulic conditions at Jackson Bar, located on the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway (BWT) in the vicinity of...1 Figure 2. November 2003 dredge cut at Jackson Bar, with RM shown in black ...at Jackson Bar, located on the Black Warrior-Tombigbee Waterway (BWT) in the vicinity of Jackson, AL. Jackson Bar, a sand bar, is located on the

  16. Extraction of in situ cosmogenic 14C from olivine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Lifton, N.A.; Timothy, Jull A.J.; Quade, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pretreatment and extraction techniques have been developed previously to extract in situ cosmogenic radiocarbon (in situ 14C) from quartz and carbonate. These minerals can be found in most environments on Earth, but are usually absent from mafic terrains. To fill this gap, we conducted numerous experiments aimed at extracting in situ 14C from olivine ((Fe,Mg)2SiO4). We were able to extract a stable and reproducible in situ 14C component from olivine using stepped heating and a lithium metaborate (LiBO2) flux, following treatment with dilute HNO3 over a variety of experimental conditions. However, measured concentrations for samples from the Tabernacle Hill basalt flow (17.3 ?? 0.3 ka4) in central Utah and the McCarty's basalt flow (3.0 ?? 0.2 ka) in western New Mexico were significantly lower than expected based on exposure of olivine in our samples to cosmic rays at each site. The source of the discrepancy is not clear. We speculate that in situ 14C atoms may not have been released from Mg-rich crystal lattices (the olivine composition at both sites was ~Fo65Fa35). Alternatively, a portion of the 14C atoms released from the olivine grains may have become trapped in synthetic spinel-like minerals that were created in the olivine-flux mixture during the extraction process, or were simply retained in the mixture itself. Regardless, the magnitude of the discrepancy appears to be inversely proportional to the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of the olivine separates. If we apply a simple correction factor based on the chemical composition of the separates, then corrected in situ 14C concentrations are similar to theoretical values at both sites. At this time, we do not know if this agreement is fortuitous or real. Future research should include measurement of in situ 14C concentrations in olivine from known-age basalt flows with different chemical compositions (i.e. more Fe-rich) to determine if this correction is robust for all olivine-bearing rocks. ?? 2010 by the Arizona

  17. Martian dunite NWA 2737: Integrated spectroscopic analyses of brown olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Klima, Rachel L.; Hiroi, Takahiro; Dyar, M. Darby; Lane, Melissa D.; Treiman, Allan H.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Bishop, Janice L.

    2008-06-01

    A second Martian meteorite has been identified that is composed primarily of heavily shocked dunite, Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737. This meteorite has several similarities to the Chassigny dunite cumulate, but the olivine is more Mg rich and, most notably, is very dark and visually brown. Carefully coordinated analyses of NWA 2737 whole-rock and olivine separates were undertaken using visible and near-infrared reflectance, midinfrared emission and reflectance, and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of the same samples along with detailed petrography, chemistry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Midinfrared spectra of this sample indicate that the olivine is fully crystalline and that its molecular structure remains intact. The unusual color and spectral properties that extend from the visible through the near-infrared part of the spectrum are shown to be due to nanophase metallic iron particles dispersed throughout the olivine during a major shock event on Mars. Although a minor amount of Fe3+ is present, it cannot account for the well-documented unusual optical properties of Martian meteorite NWA 2737. Perhaps unique to the Martian environment, this ``brown'' olivine exhibits spectral properties that can potentially be used to remotely explore the pressure-temperature history of surface geology as well as assess surface composition.

  18. Tracing Oxygen Fugacity in Asteroids and Meteorites Through Olivine Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunshine, J. M.; Bus, S. J.; Burbine, T. H.; McCoy, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    Olivine absorptions are known to dominate telescopic spectra of several asteroids. Among the meteorite collection, three groups (excluding Martian meteorites), the pallasites, brachinites, and R group chondrites are plausible analogs to olivine-rich asteroids in that they are dominated by olivine. These meteorite groups have distinct petrologic origins. The primitive achondrite brachinites (which include both depleted and undeleted subgroups) are products of relatively minor differentiation and evolved in oxidizing environments. R chondrites are also thought to have formed in high oxygen states, but are closely related to ordinary chondrites (yet with their own distinct compositions and oxygen isotopic signatures). In contrast, pallasites, widely thought to be mantle components from much more evolved bodies, formed in more reducing environments. Petrologic indicators that are identifiable in spectral data must be used in order to infer the petrologic history of asteroids from surveys of their actual population. As discussed below, olivine composition (e.g. Fa#) can provide key constraints in exploring the origin and significance of olivine dominated asteroids.

  19. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  20. Minor elements in lunar olivine as a petrologic indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Accurate electron microprobe analyses (approximately 50 ppm) were made for Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, and Ni in Mg-rich olivines which may derive from early lunar crust or deeper environments. Low-Ca contents consistently occur only in olivines from dunitic and troctolitic breccia: spinel troctolite and other rock types have high-Ca olivines suggesting derivation by near-surface processes. Rock 15445 has olivine with distinctly low CaO (approximately 0.01 wt.%). Chromium ranges to higher values (max.0.2 oxide wt.%) than for terrestrial harzburgites and lherzolites but is similar to the range in terrestrial komatiites. Divalent chromium may be indicated over trivalent Cr because olivines lack sufficient other elements for charge balance of the latter. NiO values in lunar specimens range from 0.00 to 0.07 wt.% and a weak anticorrelation with Cr2O3 suggests an oxidation state effect. Al2O3 values are mostly below 0.04-wt.% and show no obvious correlation with fragment type. TiO2 values lie below 0.13-wt.% and seem to correlate best with crystallization rate and plagioclase content of the host rock. High values of Al2O3 and TiO2 reported by other workers have not been confirmed, and are probably wrong.

  1. Magnetic Paleofield of Avanhandava H4 Chondrite's Matrix and Chondrules - Implications on Magnetic Fields in Early Solar System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, T.; Pesonen, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Avanhandava (H4) fall occurred in 1952 in Brazil. A total of 9.33 kg had been preserved after the meteorite brake up during the impact [1]. The meteorite contains large (0.1 - 2.0 mm) chon-drules that have clearly delineated boundaries with matrix. This characteristic allows us to pick up oriented individual chondrules and study their magnetic properties. The chondrules of the Avanhandava meteorite show a low and randomly oriented NRM (10-2 - 10-1 mAm2/kg). In contrast the matrix is strongly (100 - 101 mAm2/kg) and uniformly magnet-ized [2]. Various methods for paleofield determination have been applied on matrix and individual chondrules in order to determine possi-ble magnetizing processes and paleofields in early solar systems.. The laboratory experiments reveal approximate paleofields for matrix similar to present geomagnetic field. The paleofield de-termined for chondrules is approximately one order of magnitude lower comparing to values obtained for matrix. That suggests that chondrules are not magnetically contaminated by geomagnetic or artificial fields and they acquired their NRM prior their aggregation to Avanhandava parent body (random NRM directions). The matrix shows remarkable traces of terres-trial weathering and is uniformly magnetized. The paleofield re-sult for matrix indicates possible remagnetization caused by ter-restrial weathering. The terrestrial weathering of ordinary chon-drites is observed even on falls stored in museums and can sig-nificantly influence meteorite magnetic records [3, 4]. References: [1] Paar W. et al. 1976. Revista Brasileira de Geo-ciencias 6: 201-210. [2] Kohout T. and Pesonen L. J. 2005. 68th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting: 5202. [3] Kohout T. et al. 2004. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29: 885-897. [4] Lee M. R. and Bland P. A. 2004. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 68: 893-916.

  2. Effect of Mineralogy on the Rheological Properties of Olivine, Othopyroxene and Olivine/Orthopyroxene Mixtures at High Temperature and Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homburg, J. M.; Mei, S.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the influence of mineralogy on the rheological properties of the upper mantle, we have carried out a series of triaxial compressive creep experiments on olivine/orthopyroxene mixtures under high pressures (~6 GPa) and high temperatures (1373 - 1473 K) under anhydrous conditions. Experiments were performed using the deformation-DIA (D-DIA) apparatus on beamline X17B2 at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of three mineralogical compositions (olivine, orthopyroxene and 50:50 volumetric ratio of olivine:orthopyroxene) were prepared from fine-grained (~10 μm) mineral separates of San Carlos olivine and orthopyroxene. Orthopyroxene and olivine/orthopyroxene samples were cold pressed to attain a cylinder ~1 mm in length and 1.1 mm in diameter. The cold pressed sample was then stacked with a hot-pressed olivine sample of similar size and assembled with alumina pistons, a boron nitride sleeve and graphite resistance heater into a 6.2-mm edge length cubic pressure medium. Nickel disks were placed at the ends of both samples to act as strain markers. During each experiment, in-situ stress and strain measurements were obtained from X-ray diffraction and radiography, respectively. After annealing the samples at the pressure/temperature conditions of deformation for ~2 hours to insure compaction of the cold pressed sample, experiments were conducted at constant strain rates between 2.2x10^-5 and 3.3x10^-5 s^-1 up to axial strains of 5 to 20%. The orthopyroxene and olivine/orthopyroxene mixture deformed at approximately the same rate with the mixed phase system displaying some weakening relative to the single-phase system. This observation suggests that orthopyroxene may be controlling sample behavior in the mixed phase material. In contrast, the orthopyroxene and olivine/orthopyroxene samples crept ~ 2 - 3 times faster than olivine. This contrast in rheological behavior was observed at lower temperatures

  3. Petrographic, isotopic, and chemical studies of cristobalite- and tridymite-bearing chondrules and clasts in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, J. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Hutchison, R.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Morse, A. D.; Pillinger, C. T.; Long, V. P.

    1994-07-01

    The cristobalite in chondrules and clasts is uniquely O-16 depleted for chondritic material. Six alpha-cristobalite-bearing chondrules from Parnallee (LL3.6), one alpha-cristobalite xenolith from Farmington (L5), and one tridymite-bearing clast from Parnallee have been studied. Silica polymorphs were identified by x ray diffraction (XRD). Some of these chondrules have been described briefly. The tridymite-bearing clast is larger, 1.6 cm diameter, and contains clusters of needlelike tridymite grains (40 modal%) enclosed by clinoenstatite (En(88-91.5)). The clinoenstatite shows extreme compositional zonation towards its margins, to Wo20, Fs(75.6), En(4.3). Minor plagioclase (An(71-83)) is present. Bulk compositions of the tridymite-bearing clast and two alpha-cristobalite-rich chondrules were obtained by averaging Electron Probe Microanalysis (EMPA) analyses of 280-300 points in arrays on polished sections. The assemblage protoenstatite or clinoenstatite enclosing cristobalite and tridymite crystallizes at cooling rates of 0.01-0.23 C/s in experimental charges of 65.1 wt% SiO2 (remainder MgO) from starting temperatures of around 1550 C. Typical chondrule cooling rates also lie within this range, suggesting that these samples originated through flash melting of SiO2-rich, alkali- and Rare Earth Element (REE)-depleted solids. During or shortly after the flash heating events, the cristobalite and tridymite exchanged O with an O-16-poor gas. High degrees of O diffusion from an ambient gas may be due to the open structure of tridymite and cristobalite. The Si-isotopic ratios (P7-CONCEPT ion probe), of two alpha-cristobalite-bearing chondrules lie on the terrestrial fractionation line, showing that the chondrules are not derived from an exotic Si reservoir. All the silica-bearing samples analyzed so far are plotted on an O three-isotope plot with o.c chondrules. A least-squares best-fit line of slope 0.76 is defined, showing a marked deviation from the equilibrate

  4. Iddingzitized olivine in mantle xenoliths: evidence for (really) early alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, P. C.; Schultz, L.; Stier, N.

    2011-12-01

    Iddingsite is an alteration product of olivine (or pyroxene) that contains goethite and some combination of maghemite, hematite, orthopyroxene, Mg-rich phyllosilicates, amorphous silica, and a temperature and a pressure-appropriate SiO2 polymorph and lacks the definite structure or chemical composition requisite of classification as a mineral. The process of iddingsitization is most commonly discussed as a low-temperature, near-surface phenomenon involving the oxidation and inorganic hydroxylation of olivine during weathering. High-temperature iddingsite (sometimes referred to as magmatic iddingsite) is also discussed in the literature and is generally attributed to reactions that occur at low pressure in response unusually high water content and/or high oxygen fugacity in pre-eruptive mafic magmas or during the process of extrusion and cooling or to hydrothermal metasomatism. Xenoliths from the Ponderosa flow of the Uinkaret Volcanic Field located along the Colorado River just downstream from Lava Falls in the Western Grand Canyon include spinel-bearing dunite, harzburgite, and olivine-rich lherzolite samples that exhibit geochemical characteristics that are consistent with residues of 5-17% partial melting. Olivine from xenoliths collected from this flow contain olivine that is either entirely fresh (no evidence of alteration) or olivine that has been ubiquitously partially iddingzitized with some samples containing both the green-colored fresh samples and the red-colored altered samples mere centimeters apart. Preliminary in situ FTIR mapping of water peaks in the region of 3700-3000 cm-1 indicate notable peak near 3680 cm-1 (a region of the spectrum associated with the presences of serpentine minerals) in altered samples. Iddingsite exhibits two distinct morphologies in these samples, one thicker (about 1 micrometer across) occurring mostly along fractures in the olivine grains, and the other much thinner occurring along crystallographically-oriented planes in

  5. An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Sobolev, Stephan V; Nikogosian, Igor K

    2005-03-31

    More than 50 per cent of the Earth's upper mantle consists of olivine and it is generally thought that mantle-derived melts are generated in equilibrium with this mineral. Here, however, we show that the unusually high nickel and silicon contents of most parental Hawaiian magmas are inconsistent with a deep olivine-bearing source, because this mineral together with pyroxene buffers both nickel and silicon at lower levels. This can be resolved if the olivine of the mantle peridotite is consumed by reaction with melts derived from recycled oceanic crust, to form a secondary pyroxenitic source. Our modelling shows that more than half of Hawaiian magmas formed during the past 1 Myr came from this source. In addition, we estimate that the proportion of recycled (oceanic) crust varies from 30 per cent near the plume centre to insignificant levels at the plume edge. These results are also consistent with volcano volumes, magma volume flux and seismological observations.

  6. Exogenic olivine on Vesta from Dawn Framing Camera color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Schäfer, Michael; Thangjam, Guneshwar; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Christensen, Ulrich; Mengel, Kurt; Sierks, Holger; Vincent, Jean-Baptist; Cloutis, Edward A.; Russell, Christopher T.; Schäfer, Tanja; Gutierrez-Marques, Pablo; Hall, Ian; Ripken, Joachim; Büttner, Irene

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the results of a global survey of olivine-rich lithologies on (4) Vesta. We investigated Dawn Framing Camera (FC) High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) color cubes (∼60 m/pixel resolution) by using a method described in Thangjam et al. (Thangjam, G., Nathues, A., Mengel, K., Hoffmann, M., Schäfer, M., Reddy, V., Cloutis, E.A., Christensen, U., Sierks, H., Le Corre, L., Vincent, J.-B, Russell, C.T. [2014b]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. arXiv:1408.4687 [astro-ph.EP]). In total we identified 15 impact craters exhibiting olivine-rich (>40 wt.% ol) outcrops on their inner walls, some showing olivine-rich material also in their ejecta and floors. Olivine-rich sites are concentrated in the Bellicia, Arruntia and Pomponia region on Vesta's northern hemisphere. From our multi-color and stratigraphic analysis, we conclude that most, if not all, of the olivine-rich material identified is of exogenic origin, i.e. remnants of A- or/and S-type projectiles. The olivine-rich lithologies in the north are possibly ejecta of the ∼90 km diameter Albana crater. We cannot draw a final conclusion on their relative stratigraphic succession, but it seems that the dark material (Nathues, A., Hoffmann, M., Cloutis, E.A., Schäfer, M., Reddy, V., Christensen, U., Sierks, H., Thangjam, G.S., Le Corre, L., Mengel, K., Vincent, J.-B., Russell, C.T., Prettyman, T., Schmedemann, N., Kneissl, T., Raymond, C., Gutierrez-Marques, P., Hall, I. Büttner, I. [2014b]. Icarus (239, 222-237)) and the olivine-rich lithologies are of a similar age. The origin of some potential olivine-rich sites in the Rheasilvia basin and at crater Portia are ambiguous, i.e. these are either of endogenic or exogenic origin. However, the small number and size of these sites led us to conclude that olivine-rich mantle material, containing more than 40 wt.% of olivine, is basically absent on the present surface of Vesta. In combination with recent impact models of Veneneia and Rheasilvia (Clenet, H., Jutzi

  7. The identification of crystalline olivine in cometary silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campins, Humberto; Ryan, Eileen V.

    1989-01-01

    An intermediate-resolution spectrum of the 8-13 micron region in comet Halley is obtained which shows a prominent silicate emission feature with structure not observed before in other comets or in interstellar silicates. The presence of a strong 11.3 micron peak reported by Bregman and coworkers is confirmed, and evidence is found for additional structure in the band. By comparison with spectra of interplanetary dust particles and laboratory silicates, it is concluded that small crystalline olivine particles are a major component of the silicates in this comet; other silicates (e.g., amorphous or hydrated) must also be present. The identification of crystalline olivine in this part of the spectrum is supported by the observation of four peaks in 20-50 micron airborne spectra of this comet which have also been attributed to olivine.

  8. Gas-grain energy transfer in solar nebula shock waves: Implications for the origin of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Horanyi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules provide evidence for the occurrence of rapid transient heating events in the protoplanetary nebula. Astronomical evidence suggests that gas dynamic shock waves are likely to be excited in protostellar accretion disks by processes such as protosolar mass ejections, nonaxisymmetric structures in an evolving disk, and impact on the nebula surface of infalling 'clumps' of circumstellar gas. Previous detailed calculations of gas-grain energy and momentum transfer have supported the possibility that such shock waves could have melted pre-existing chondrule-sized grains. The main requirement for grains to reach melting temperatures in shock waves with plausibly low Mach numbers is that grains existed in dust-rich zones (optical depth greater than 1) where radiative cooling of a given grain can be nearly balanced by radiation from surrounding grains. Localized dust-rich zones also provide a means of explaining the apparent small spatial scale of heating events. For example, the scale size of at least some optically thick dust-rich zones must have been relatively small (less than 10 kilometers) to be consistent with petrologic evidence for accretion of hot material onto cold chondrules. The implied number density of mm-sized grains for these zones would be greater than 30 m(exp -3). In this paper, we make several improvements of our earlier calculations to include radiation self-consistently in the shock jump conditions, and we include heating of grains due to radiation from the shocked gas. In addition, we estimate the importance of momentum feedback of dust concentrations onto the shocked gas which would tend to reduce the efficiency of gas dynamic heating of grains in the center of the dust cloud.

  9. Water Retention and Rheology of Ti-doped, Synthetic Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, U.; Jackson, I.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Upper mantle flow laws are currently based almost entirely on experiments with olivine from San Carlos in Arizona. Synthetically produced olivine enables the exploration of the effects of trace elements on the rheology. We have conducted a range of experiments in a gas medium apparatus with solution-gelation derived olivine that show that titanium is the most effective in binding water in the olivine structure. The FTIR signature of this structurally bound water is most similar to that of water-undersaturated natural olivine with absorption bands at 3575 and 3525 cm-1. Water added, titanium-free solgel contains little water after hotpressing and shows adsorption bands at wavenumbers near 3200 cm-1. Noble metal capsules such as Pt or AuPd, providing more oxidizing conditions, are more effective in retaining water. Experiments with NiFe-lined welded Pt capsules retain no more water than NiFe lined samples without Pt capsule. Water retention is, however, again dependent on trace element content, with Ti doped samples containing tens of ppm after hotpressing. By comparison undoped samples run under the same conditions contain little water, again with different FTIR spectra to Ti-doped samples. Our experiments suggest that Ti by itself, or with water contents at the FTIR detection limit enhances diffusion creep rates relative to undoped, dry solgel olivine. Water contents around 10 ppm in NiFe wrapped samples show an enhancement of strain rates of more than one order of magnitude. The addition of Ti, together with the presence of water, also enhances grain growth. For more coarse-grained samples in the dislocation creep regime the enhancement of the stain rate as a function of water content is approximately consistent with the flow laws of Hirth and Kohlstedt (2003).

  10. The Identity of Hydrous Defects Controlling the Rheology of Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, U.; David, E. C.; Cline, C. J., II; Berry, A.; Jackson, I.

    2015-12-01

    The reduction of the creep strength of minerals due to the presence of water is well established. The nature of the relevant hydrous defect(s) is perhaps less well understood. Standard treatments examine intrinsic defects of a pure crystal, but impurity-related defects are not usually considered. Natural olivine contains monovalent (Na) and trivalent (e.g. Al) trace elements in concentrations that exceed the concentration of intrinsic defects by up to an order of magnitude. They therefore are potentially important as agents for water-weakening. Hydrated defects - both intrinsic and impurity-related - systematically affect infrared absorption spectra, which can therefore be used for their identification and quantification. Experiments with olivine in contact with a range of buffer assemblages (e.g. MgO and enstatite) have shown that the infrared spectra of natural olivine can only be reproduced experimentally in the presence of titanium. Doping with a range of trivalent cations shows systematics in the infrared spectra related to the ionic radius of the dopants, confirming that the spectra are sensitive to the bonding environment and can be used to identify particular defects. To investigate the relationship between hydrous, titanium-related defects and creep strength we conducted deformation experiments on synthetic Fo90 olivine that was buffered by enstatite and doped with titanium. The infrared spectra of the deformed samples show absorption bands at the same wave numbers and relative intensity as natural olivine, indicating that the experimental samples contain the same hydrous defects. Fitting the creep data from samples with a range of water contents determined from these absorption bands shows a near linear relationship between strain rate and water content, consistent with published observations. The experiments therefore show that the rheology of hydrous olivine is determined by hydrated impurity-related defects rather than intrinsic point defects.

  11. Grain Boundary Structurally-Bonded Water in Olivine Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous olivine has been extensively investigated because of its numerous geophysical and geochemical implications for the Earth's dynamic mantle. However, all previous experimental research has been concentrated on the water solubility in single crystals of olivine. Grain boundary as potential storage sites for water in the mantle has not been experimentally studied, in part because solubility experiments were always performed under water-saturated condition, rendering the examination of grain boundaries nearly impossible due to the presence of free water. In the present study we have conducted annealing experiments on forsterite at 5 - 6 GPa and 1200 °C and at water- undersaturated condition. Duration was typically 2 - 3 hours. A small amount of enstatite or periclase was added to the starting forsterite powder (including a few large olivine grains) to buffer the silica activity, while oxygen fugacity was controlled by using various capsule materials (Re, Fe, or BN). FTIR analyses were performed on both single crystal and polycrystalline olivine in doubly-polished thin section of each experimental charge. The results are as follows: (1) single crystal and polycrystalline olivine in the same charge always yielded similar IR pattern, indicating all absorption peaks are due to similar structurally-bonded water (i.e., hydroxyl); (2) water content of periclase-buffered (i.e., low silica activity) sample is at least one order of magnitude higher than those of enstatite-buffered and unbuffered (pure forsterite) samples; (3) under reducing environment (Fe or BN capsule), water content of polycrystalline olivine is always higher than that of single crystal by at lease a factor of 5, regardless of silica activity buffering. We therefore infer that large amount of structurally-bonded water is stored at grain boundaries; (4) with decreasing oxygen fugacity, IR spectra of olivine are increasingly dominated by an absorption peak centered

  12. Grinding methods to enhance the reactivity of olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Cathy A.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, Gilbert E.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) conducted studies of mechanical activation by conventional and ultra-fine grinding techniques to enhance olivine reactivity in mineral carbonation reactions. Activated olivine is one of several solid feed materials used at ARC in reactions with carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. This paper compares grinding techniques via energy demand data and product characteristics, including particle size distributions, surface areas, full width at half maximum (FWHM) XRD analyses, and particle morphology by SEM analyses. Reactivity was gauged by percent conversion to carbonate in subsequent carbonation tests.

  13. A Survey of Olivine Alteration Products Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuebler, K.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wang, A.; Haskin, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Identification of mineral alteration products will aid in the crucial task of interpreting past Martian environmental conditions, especially aqueous environments. Olivine has been identified at the surface of Mars and is readily altered in aqueous environments. Using Raman spectroscopy, we studied three rocks with altered olivine and compared the data with mineral chemistry from electron microprobe analysis. Although the alteration in all three samples has loosely been called iddingsite their appearances and modes of occurrences differ as described. Alteration products in all three samples are likely fine-grained mixtures.

  14. The complex relationship between olivine abundance and thermal inertia on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Romy D.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.

    2016-07-01

    We examine four olivine-bearing regions at a variety of spatial scales with thermal infrared, visible to near-infrared, and visible imagery data to investigate the hypothesis that the relationship between olivine abundance and thermal inertia (i.e., effective particle size) can be used to infer the occurrence of olivine chemical alteration during sediment production on Mars. As in previous work, Nili Fossae and Isidis Planitia show a positive correlation between thermal inertia and olivine abundance in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data, which could be interpreted as indicating olivine chemical weathering. However, geomorphological analysis reveals that relatively olivine-poor sediments are not derived from adjacent olivine-rich materials, and therefore, chemical weathering cannot be inferred based on the olivine-thermal inertia relationship alone. We identify two areas (Terra Cimmeria and Argyre Planitia) with significant olivine abundance and thermal inertias consistent with sand, but no adjacent rocky (parent) units having even greater olivine abundances. More broadly, global analysis with TES reveals that the most typical olivine abundance on Mars is ~5-7% and that olivine-bearing (5-25%) materials have a wide range of thermal inertias, commonly 25-600 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2. TES also indicates that the majority of olivine-rich (>25%) materials have apparent thermal inertias less than 400 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2. In summary, we find that the relationship between thermal inertia and olivine abundance alone cannot be used in infer olivine weathering in the examined areas, that olivine-bearing materials have a large range of thermal intertias, and therefore that a complex relationship between olivine abundance and thermal inertia exists on Mars.

  15. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  16. Breaking through the Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  17. Trace Element Compositions of Pallasite Olivine Grains and Pallasite Origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Pallasites are mixtures of metal with magnesian olivine. Most have similar metal compositions and olivine oxygen isotopic compositions; these are the main-group pallasites (PMG). The Eagle Station grouplet of pallasites (PES) have distinctive metal and olivine compositions and oxygen isotopic compositions. Pallasites are thought to have formed at the core-mantle boundary of their parent asteroids by mixing molten metal with solid olivine of either cumulatic or restitic origin. We have continued our investigation of pallasite olivines by doing in situ trace element analyses in order to further constrain their origin. We determined Al, P, Ca, Ga and first row transition element contents of olivine grains from suite of PMG and PES by LA-ICP-MS at JSC. Included in the PMG suite are some that have anomalous metal compositions (PMG-am) and atypically ferroan olivines (PMG-as). Our EMPA work has shown that there are unanticipated variations in olivine Fe/Mn, even within those PMG that have uni-form Fe/Mg. Manganese is homologous with Fe2+, and thus can be used the same way to investigate magmatic fractionation processes. It has an advantage for pallasite studies in that it is unaffected by redox exchange with the metal. PMG can be divided into three clusters on the basis of Mn/Mg; low, medium and high that can be thought of as less, typically and more fractionated in an igneous sense. The majority of PMG have medium Mn/Mg ratios. PMG-am occur in all three clusters; there does not seem to be any relationship between putative olivine igneous fractionation and metal composition. The PMG-as and one PMG-am make up the high Mn/Mg cluster; no PMG are in this cluster. The high Mn/Mg cluster ought to be the most fractionated (equivalent to the most Fe-rich in igneous suites), yet they have among the lowest contents of incompatible lithophile elements Al and Ti and the two PMG-as in this cluster also have low Ca and Sc contents. This is inconsistent with simple igneous

  18. Chemical zonation in olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcombe, M. E.; Fabbrizio, A.; Zhang, Youxue; Ma, C.; Le Voyer, M.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Saal, A. E.; Stolper, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Significant zonation in major, minor, trace, and volatile elements has been documented in naturally glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone and the Galapagos Islands. Components with a higher concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., MgO, FeO, Cr2O3, and MnO) are depleted at the edges of the zoned melt inclusions relative to their centers, whereas except for CaO, H2O, and F, components with a lower concentration in the host olivine than in the melt (e.g., Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, S, and Cl) are enriched near the melt inclusion edges. This zonation is due to formation of an olivine-depleted boundary layer in the adjacent melt in response to cooling and crystallization of olivine on the walls of the melt inclusions, concurrent with diffusive propagation of the boundary layer toward the inclusion center. Concentration profiles of some components in the melt inclusions exhibit multicomponent diffusion effects such as uphill diffusion (CaO, FeO) or slowing of the diffusion of typically rapidly diffusing components (Na2O, K2O) by coupling to slow diffusing components such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Concentrations of H2O and F decrease toward the edges of some of the Siqueiros melt inclusions, suggesting either that these components have been lost from the inclusions into the host olivine late in their cooling histories and/or that these components are exhibiting multicomponent diffusion effects. A model has been developed of the time-dependent evolution of MgO concentration profiles in melt inclusions due to simultaneous depletion of MgO at the inclusion walls due to olivine growth and diffusion of MgO in the melt inclusions in response to this depletion. Observed concentration profiles were fit to this model to constrain their thermal histories. Cooling rates determined by a single-stage linear cooling model are 150-13,000 °C h-1 from the liquidus down to ~1,000 °C, consistent with previously determined cooling rates for

  19. Solar Radiation Management and Olivine Dissolution Methods in Climate Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kone, S.

    2014-12-01

    An overview of solar radiation management and olivine dissolution methods allows to discuss, comparatively, the benefits and consequences of these two geoengineering techniques. The combination of those two techniques allows to concomitantly act on the two main agents intervening in global warming: solar radiation and carbon dioxide. The earth surface temperature increases due mainly to carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) that keeps the solar radiation and causes the global warming. Two complementary methods to mitigate climate change are overviewed: SRM method, which uses injected aerosols, aims to reduce the amount of the inbound solar radiation in atmosphere; and olivine dissolution in water, a key chemical reaction envisaged in climate engineering , aiming to reduce the amount of the carbon dioxide in extracting it from atmosphere. The SRM method works on scenarios of solar radiation decrease and the olivine dissolution method works as a carbon dioxide sequestration method. Olivine dissolution in water impacts negatively on the pH of rivers but positively in counteracting ocean acidification and in transporting the silica in ocean, which has benefits for diatom shell formation.

  20. Micromechanical modeling of the viscoplastic behavior of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelnau, O.; Blackman, D. K.; Lebensohn, R. A.; Ponte CastañEda, P.

    2008-09-01

    Efforts to couple mantle flow models with rheological theories of mineral deformation typically ignore the effect of texture development on flow evolution. The fact that there are only three easy slip systems for dislocation glide in olivine crystals leads to strong mechanical interactions between the grains as the deformation proceeds, and subsequent development of large viscoplastic anisotropy in polycrystals exhibiting pronounced Lattice Preferred Orientations. Using full-field simulations for creep in dry polycrystalline olivine at high temperature and low pressure, it is shown that very large stress and strain rate intragranular heterogeneities can build up with deformation, which increase dramatically with the strength of the hard slip system (included for the purpose of enabling general deformations). Compared with earlier nonlinear extensions of the Self-Consistent mean-field theory to simulate polycrystal deformation, the "Second-Order" method is the only one capable of accurately describing the effect of intraphase stress heterogeneities on the macroscopic flow stress, as well as on the local stress- and strain rate fluctuations in the material. In particular, this approach correctly predicts that olivine polycrystals can deform with only four independent slip systems. The resistance of the fourth system (or accommodation mechanism), which is likely provided by dislocation climb or grain boundary processes as has been observed experimentally, may essentially determine the flow stress of olivine polycrystals. We further show that the "tangent" model, which had been used extensively in prior geophysical studies of the mantle, departs significantly from the full-field reference solutions.

  1. A Study of Olivine Alteration to Iddingsite Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuebler, K. E.; Wang, Alian; Haskin, L. A.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2003-01-01

    A crucial task of Mars surface science is to determine past environmental conditions, especially aqueous environments and their nature. Identification of mineral alteration by water is one way to do this. Recent work interprets TES spectra as indicating altered basalt on Mars. Olivine, a primary basaltic mineral, is easily altered by aqueous solutions. Alteration assemblages of olivine may be specific to deuteric, hydrothermal, surface water, or metamorphic environments. Raman spectra are produced by molecular vibrations and provide direct means for studying and identifying alteration products. Here, we present a combined study of changes in the chemical composition and Raman spectra of an olivine as it alters to iddingsite. Iddingsite is found in some SNC meteorites and is presumably present on Mars. The term 'iddingsite' has been used as a catch-all term to describe reddish alteration products of olivine, although some authors ascribe a narrower definition: an angstrom-scale intergrowth of goethite and smectite (presumably saponite) formed in an oxidizing and fluid-rich environment. Alteration conserves Fe (albeit oxidized) but requires addition of Al and H2O and removal of Mg and Si. The smectite that forms may be removed by continued alteration. Dehydration of the goethite forms hematite. Our purpose is to study the mineral assemblage, determine the structural and chemical variability of the components with respect to the degree of alteration, and to find spectral indicators of alteration that will be useful during in-situ analyses on Mars.

  2. Blowing in the Wind: I. Velocities of Chondrule-sized Particles in a Turbulent Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hogan, Robert C.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Small but macroscopic particles - chondrules, higher temperature mineral inclusions, metal grains, and their like - dominate the fabric of primitive meteorites. The properties of these constituents, and their relationship to the fine dust grains which surround them, suggest that they led an extended existence in a gaseous protoplanetary nebula prior to their incorporation into their parent primitive bodies. In this paper we explore in some detail the velocities acquired by such particles in a turbulent nebula. We treat velocities in inertial space (relevant to diffusion), velocities relative to the gas and entrained microscopic dust (relevant to accretion of dust rims), and velocities relative to each other (relevant to collisions). We extend previous work by presenting explicit, closed-form solutions for the magnitude and size dependence of these velocities in this important particle size regime, and compare these expressions with new numerical calculations. The magnitude and size dependence of these velocities have immediate applications to chondrule and CAI rimming by fine dust, and to their diffusion in the nebula, which we explore separately.

  3. Measurements of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Rotondo, M.

    2005-10-12

    We report results from the BABAR Collaboration on the semileptonic B decays, highlighting the measurements of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vub and Vcb. We describe the techniques used to obtain the matrix element |Vcb| using the measurement of the inclusive B {yields} Xclv process and a large sample of exclusive B {yields} D*lv decays. The vertical bar Vub vertical bar matrix elements has been measured studying different kinematic variables of the B {yields} Xulv process, and also with the exclusive reconstruction of B {yields} {pi}({rho})lv decays.

  4. Olivine Crystallization and Mantle Potential Temperatures Beneath Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wonderly, A.; Putirka, K. D.; Atosa, A.; Hurwitz, S.

    2007-12-01

    New basalt samples from the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field provide evidence for some of the most primitive liquids yet recovered for the region, and yield clues regarding mantle processes. The sample distribution covers a large area and an extended period, and one sample in particular (basalt of Warm River) contains 11% MgO, with olivines that are in equilibrium with the host whole rock. Using olivine thermometry, we calculate both olivine crystallization and mantle potential temperatures (Tp, the temperature a parcel of mantle would have if it rose adiabatically to Earth's surface without melting) to test whether the alleged Yellowstone hot spot is truly hot. These tests make use of thermometers from (1) and (2), and we compare temperatures at Yellowstone with estimates from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, HSDP-2 (2, 3) and the Siqueiros Transform, near the East Pacific Rise (4). Assessment of olivine-liquid equilibrium is based on the Fe-Mg exchange coefficient between olivine and liquid, which is assumed to be 0.30+/-0.03 (5). In total, the Yellowstone lavas have mean crystallization temperatures of 1251+/-41°C (n=79) with a maximum of 1327°C. The mean temperature is similar to crystallization temperatures of basalts from Siqueiros (1264+/-21°C), but lower than the mean temperature for HDSP samples (1343+/-50°C). Mantle potential temperatures appear to approach an olivine-control line, which if valid, yields a mantle potential temperature of 1610°C, slightly higher than most Snake River Plain (SRP) lavas (Tp =1540°C). Applying the same model to lavas from the Siqueiros Transform yields a Tp of 1400°C, and so excess temperatures (relative to MORB) along the SRP are in the range of 140-209°C, consistent with a mantle plume interpretation for the Yellowstone hot spot track. These calculations presume that primitive melts have equilibrated with mantle olivine of Fo90 in composition; given the FeO contents of SRP lavas, parental liquids should

  5. Early Size Distributions of Chondrule Subgroups Overprinted by the Final Accumulation Process of Particle Components in Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCain, K. A.; Simon, J. I.; Cuzzi, J. N

    2015-01-01

    Populations of compositionally distinct particles are fundamental components of undifferentiated chondritic meteorites. Many theories explain the formation of chondrites, one class of which includes mechanisms for sorting the component particles in the solar nebula prior to their accretion. Mechanisms include sorting by mass, turbulent concentration, X-winds, and photophoresis, which will produce characteristic distributions of observable properties such as particle size. Distinguishing processes that occur in specific astrophysical environments requires characterization of particle types, which include refractory Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and less-refractory chondrules. Previous investigations of modal abundances of CAIs and chondrules exist, but differences within and between these two groups, both of which are made up of diverse subgroups with different thermal histories and chemical compositions, remain mostly unstudied. The presence of rims, a significant event occurring after the formation of at least some chondrules, have also yet to be considered with respect to sorting. Here we present the sizes of CAIs and chondrules in Allende with attention to the smallest sizes, subgroups, and particle rims.

  6. Pb-Pb dating of individual chondrules from the CBa chondrite Gujba: Assessment of the impact plume formation model

    PubMed Central

    Bollard, Jean; Connelly, James N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The CB chondrites are metal-rich meteorites with characteristics that sharply distinguish them from other chondrite groups. Their unusual chemical and petrologic features and a young formation age of bulk chondrules dated from the CBa chondrite Gujba are interpreted to reflect a single-stage impact origin. Here, we report high-precision internal isochrons for four individual chondrules of the Gujba chondrite to probe the formation history of CB chondrites and evaluate the concordancy of relevant short-lived radionuclide chronometers. All four chondrules define a brief formation interval with a weighted mean age of 4562.49 ± 0.21 Myr, consistent with its origin from the vapor-melt impact plume generated by colliding planetesimals. Formation in a debris disk mostly devoid of nebular gas and dust sets an upper limit for the solar protoplanetary disk lifetime at 4.8 ± 0.3 Myr. Finally, given the well-behaved Pb-Pb systematics of all four chondrules, a precise formation age and the concordancy of the Mn-Cr, Hf-W, and I-Xe short-lived radionuclide relative chronometers, we propose that Gujba may serve as a suitable time anchor for these systems. PMID:27429545

  7. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Volker

    2012-06-05

    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  8. Evidence for equilibrium conditions during the partitioning of nickel between olivine and komatiite liquids.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budahn, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Olivine-liquid partition coefficients for Ni(DNi), calculated from Ni vs MgO abundance variations in komatiite series basalts, compare favourably with experimentally determined values, if Ni variations in olivine-controlled basalts can be modelled with an equation that assumes equilibrium between the entire olivine crystal and its coexisting liquid.-J.A.Z.

  9. Dark matter trapping by stellar bars: the shadow bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Katz, Neal

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between the stellar disc and the dark-matter halo during bar formation and evolution using N-body simulations with fine temporal resolution and optimally chosen spatial resolution. We find that the forming stellar bar traps dark matter in the vicinity of the stellar bar into bar-supporting orbits. We call this feature the shadow bar. The shadow bar modifies both the location and magnitude of the angular momentum transfer between the disc and dark matter halo and adds 10 per cent to the mass of the stellar bar over 4 Gyr. The shadow bar is potentially observable by its density and velocity signature in spheroid stars and by direct dark matter detection experiments. Numerical tests demonstrate that the shadow bar can diminish the rate of angular momentum transport from the bar to the dark matter halo by more than a factor of 3 over the rate predicted by dynamical friction with an untrapped dark halo, and thus provides a possible physical explanation for the observed prevalence of fast bars in nature.

  10. Atmospheric argon contamination of ocean island basalt olivine phenocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parley, K. A.; Craig, H.

    1994-06-01

    40Ar/ 36Ar and helium and argon concentrations have been repeatedly measured on olivine phenocrysts in a single tholeiitic basalt (PIN-12) from the Juan Fernandez hotspot. Forty olivine splits were analyzed by crushing of bulk samples or laser fusion of single crystals. The measured 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios span a very large range (400-7700) and are consistent with binary mixing of two argon components. Unlike argon, helium in repeated measurements of this single basalt flow has a reproducible isotopic ratio, 17 times the air 3He/ 4He value. It is unlikely that such large variations in 40Ar/ 36Ar represent microscale mantle heterogeneity. Rather the results indicate highly variable mixing proportions of a mantle-derived radiogenic argon component ( 40Ar/ 36Ar ≫ 7700) and an isotopically air-like endmember that is almost certainly an atmospheric contaminant. This air-like constituent cannot be removed by physical and chemical treatments of the olivines. Analysis of individual crystals by laser fusion shows that both the radiogenic and the contaminant components are in fluid inclusions. Siting of the contaminant in inclusions requires the addition of airderived noble gases to hotspot magmas prior to or during emplacement, a process that may occur by assimilation of altered crust during crustal storage or, alternatively, by direct addition of air or seawater to the magma. In either case the olivines must continue to trap argon, presumably by fracture annealing and/or bubble enclosure, after the contaminating event. If atmospheric contamination is a general phenomenon, the 40Ar/ 36Ar composition of olivines (and possibly of basalt glasses as well) must be only a lower limit for the mantle source ratio. With the exception of helium, the other noble gases may be similarly compromised. Our results support contentions that lavas with near-atmospheric noble gas compositions reflect severe atmospheric contamination, rather than the air-like signature of an undegassed primitive

  11. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2010-11-23

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth's climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO(2) sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1-5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique.

  12. The geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2010-05-01

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth's climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate in more detail the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, the carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. We here show the consequences of this technique for the chemistry of the surface ocean at rates necessary for geoengineering. We calculate that olivine dissolution has the potential to sequestrate up to one Pg C yr-1 directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics. The carbon sequestration potential is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg C yr-1. Open water dissolution of fine grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1 to 5 Pg C yr-1 for the 21st century by this technique. At maximum this technique would reduce global warming by 1 K and counteract ocean acidification by a rise in surface ocean pH by 0.1 in the year 2100.

  13. Geoengineering potential of artificially enhanced silicate weathering of olivine

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Peter; Hartmann, Jens; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A.

    2010-01-01

    Geoengineering is a proposed action to manipulate Earth’s climate in order to counteract global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigate the potential of a specific geoengineering technique, carbon sequestration by artificially enhanced silicate weathering via the dissolution of olivine. This approach would not only operate against rising temperatures but would also oppose ocean acidification, because it influences the global climate via the carbon cycle. If important details of the marine chemistry are taken into consideration, a new mass ratio of CO2 sequestration per olivine dissolution of about 1 is achieved, 20% smaller than previously assumed. We calculate that this approach has the potential to sequestrate up to 1 Pg of C per year directly, if olivine is distributed as fine powder over land areas of the humid tropics, but this rate is limited by the saturation concentration of silicic acid. In our calculations for the Amazon and Congo river catchments, a maximum annual dissolution of 1.8 and 0.4 Pg of olivine seems possible, corresponding to the sequestration of 0.5 and 0.1 Pg of C per year, but these upper limit sequestration rates come at the environmental cost of pH values in the rivers rising to 8.2. Open water dissolution of fine-grained olivine and an enhancement of the biological pump by the rising riverine input of silicic acid might increase our estimate of the carbon sequestration, but additional research is needed here. We finally calculate with a carbon cycle model the consequences of sequestration rates of 1–5 Pg of C per year for the 21st century by this technique. PMID:21059941

  14. Open-system degassing, gas fluxing, and the growth and entrainment of olivine during small volume mafic eruptions: A case study of Volcan Jorullo, central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P. J.; Johnson, E. R.; Delgado Granados, H.

    2005-12-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions from mafic arc volcanoes commonly contain highly variable H2O and CO2 contents that are best explained by olivine crystallization over a wide range of depths during ascent and degassing. An excellent example of this is found in deposits from the 1759-1774 eruption of Jorullo volcano in the subduction-related Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Jorullo's earliest lavas are primitive (9.3 wt% MgO, Fo86-91 olivine), and lava compositions evolved over time as a result of crystal fractionation (Luhr and Carmichael, 1985). We analyzed melt inclusions in Mg-rich olivine from a 5-meter-thick proximal ash fall sequence. Melt inclusions from the basal tephra have variable H2O (<1-5.2 wt%) and CO2 (44-900 ppm), corresponding to crystallization pressures of <100 bars to 4.2 kb. This indicates that olivine crystallized over a range of depths extending from the mid-crust to very shallow levels beneath the volcano. Relations between H2O and incompatible K, Ti, and P, and comparison to experimental phase equilibria demonstrates that olivine crystallization is driven primarily by the effects of H2O loss from the melt during ascent. A puzzling feature of the H2O and CO2 data at Jorullo and other mafic arc volcanoes is that CO2 concentrations do not decrease as rapidly with degassing as is predicted by degassing models. A likely explanation involves open-system degassing in which relatively CO2-rich vapor fluxes upwards through the conduit. This vapor is probably released by crystallizing and degassing magma at greater depths within the system. Melt inclusions from the upper part of the tephra section at Jorullo have lower H2O (0.2-1.4 wt%) than inclusions from the basal tephra and no detectable CO2, suggesting shallow crystallization of degassed magma toward the end of the violent-Strombolian-style eruptions. The change in olivine crystallization depths over time probably results from evolution of the conduit system. During the early, pre-eruption stage, as

  15. Strained graphene Hall bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, S. P.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of strain, induced by a Gaussian bump, on the magnetic field dependent transport properties of a graphene Hall bar are investigated. The numerical simulations are performed using both classical and quantum mechanical transport theory and we found that both approaches exhibit similar characteristic features. The effects of the Gaussian bump are manifested by a decrease of the bend resistance, R B, around zero-magnetic field and the occurrence of side-peaks in R B. These features are explained as a consequence of bump-assisted scattering of electrons towards different terminals of the Hall bar. Using these features we are able to give an estimate of the size of the bump. Additional oscillations in R B are found in the quantum description that are due to the population/depopulation of Landau levels. The bump has a minor influence on the Hall resistance even for very high values of the pseudo-magnetic field. When the bump is placed outside the center of the Hall bar valley polarized electrons can be collected in the leads.

  16. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  17. Characterization by EBSD of dislocations and disclinations in olivine: implications for the rheology of olivine-rich aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, P.; Demouchy, S. A.; Beausir, B.; Taupin, V.; Fressengeas, C.

    2013-12-01

    The rheology of olivine-rich rocks remains poorly understood. Only intracrystalline deformation mechanisms involving dislocations are quite well known. In orthorhombic olivine only two slip directions, [100] and [001] can be activated. Most characterizations performed so far involve transmission electron microscopy studies at high magnifications or, at a larger scale, optical or scanning electron microscopy on decorated samples. In the latter case, no detailed characterization of the defects could be done. Orientation maps obtained from high-resolution electron backscattered diffraction allow recovering components of the lattice curvature tensor which in turn allow determination of components of the dislocation density tensor. The geometrically necessary dislocation content can thus be imaged. Recently Beausir & Fressengeas (2013) have shown that with this technique, components of the disclination density tensor could also be determined. Several examples have been provided in metallic alloys. In this study we show that olivine aggregates (both experimentally and naturally deformed) contain pervasive evidence of disclinations dipoles at grain boundaries. The implications on the plastic behavior of olivine rocks are discussed based on a numerical model of the response to an applied shear stress of a grain boundary made of disclinations. Beausir, B. & Fressengeas, C., Disclination densities from EBSD orientation mapping. International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (1), 137-146 (2013).

  18. Lattice preferred orientations of olivine in the schistosed antigorite serpentinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soda, Y.; Ando, J.; Mizukami, T.; Morishita, T.

    2011-12-01

    The lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of the schistosed antigorite serpentinite is considered as causes of the seismic anisotropy observed at the subduction zones (Katayama et al., 2009; Jung, 2011) and the natural examples are reported by several researchers (Bezacier et al., 2010; Hirauchi et al., 2010; Soda and Takagi, 2010). Formation process of the antigorite LPO is unclear, especially at primary serpentinized stage. To understand the development of micro-structures of antigorite serpentinite, we made structural analyses of serpentinite schist and the former peridotite fabric. Samples were taken from lenticular serpentinite bodies (< 1km) stack in Jurassic accretionary complex, Toba area, Southwest Japan. The serpentinite consist of olivine, antigorite, meta-clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel. The foliation and lineation of serpentinite is defined by parallel alignment of elongated olivine grain and antigorite blades, which make up mylonitic textures, such as a porphyroclast system and composite planar fabric. Antigorite blades show syn-kinematic growth in pressure shadows and pull-apart of olivine porphyroclast. In the less serpentinized part, antigorite blades are crystallized along the grain boundary of olivine. We measure the LPOs of coarse olivine grains in the serpentinite schist using a u-stage. The X, Y and Z directions represent directions of lineation, normal to lineation within the foliation and normal to foliation, respectively. The LPOs of olivine show point maximum or partial girdle distribution, and these concentrated crystal axes are incongruous with X, Y and Z direction. The a[100] axes of olivine are parallel to the serpentinite foliation, and form a point maximum several degrees away from the Y direction. The b[010] axes and the c[001] axes are concentrated Z and X direction forming a partial girdle normal to Y direction, respectively. Boudier et al. (2010) have reported the topotactic relationship between olivine and antigorite. They show that

  19. Olivine and Carbonate Globules in ALH84001: A Terrestrial Analog, and Implications for Water on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Carbonate globules in ALH84001 are associated with small olivine grains an unexpected finding because the olivines equilibrated at high T while the carbonate is chemically zoned and unequilibrated. A possible explanation comes from a terrestrial analog on Spitsbergen (Norway), where some carbonate globules grew in cavities left by aqueous dissolution of olivine. For ALH84001, the same process may have acted, with larger olivines dissolved out and smaller ones shielded inside orthopyroxene. Carbonate would have been deposited in holes where the olivine had been. Later shocks crushed remaining void space, and mobilized feldspathic glass around the carbonates.

  20. Chemical variation and zoning of olivine in lunar dunite 72415 - Near-surface accumulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Electron microprobe remeasurements have been used to reevaluate the range of olivine compositions, including CaO, in lunar dunite sample 72415 and compare that range with olivines in established plutonic rocks. Olivines from ferroan anorthosite 62237 and samples from the Stillwater intrusion were analyzed; literature data for other lunar and terrestrial plutonic samples were used for comparisons. The analyses show that the lunar dunite 72415 contains a range of olivine compositions, that the olivines are zoned, and that they have CaO abundances that are consistent with shallow hypabyssal rather than deep plutonic accumulation.

  1. Diffusion of REE, Hf and Sr in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmert, P.; Dohmen, R.; Chakraborty, S.

    2008-12-01

    We have determined diffusion coefficients of the rare earth elements Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Lu, and also of Sr and Hf, in single crystals of natural olivine at atmospheric pressure, at an oxygen fugacity of 10-5 Pa and a temperature of 1275 °C. Sources of diffusants were thin films of olivine composition doped with the relevant elements. Thin films were produced by PLD (pulsed laser deposition) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering) was used to measure thickness and stoichiometry of the films as well as to analyze the concentration profiles. The concentration profiles were numerically fitted to yield the following diffusion coefficients (D, in m2/s): log DCe: -19.61 ± 0.21; log DNd: -19.54 ± 0.11; log DSm: -19.15 ± 0.05; log DEu: -19.10; log DLu: -19.00, log DHf: -20.23 ± 0.07; log DSr: -18.7. Diffusion coefficients of the rare-earth elements increase from Ce to Lu, demonstrating the role of ionic radius in controlling diffusion because all REE are trivalent. The tetravalent and divalent cations hafnium and strontium diffuse an order of magnitude slower and faster, respectively, than the REE in olivine. This highlights the important influence of ionic charge on diffusion rates. The diffusion coefficients of the REE are slower by a few orders of magnitudes than the diffusion rate of Cr in olivine [1]. The rates found in this study are slower than those assumed by a model [2] for compositional modification of melt inclusions in olivine. Use of our data in their calculations indicates that it will take longer to modify the composition of melt inclusions in olivine (millions of years rather than thousands of years) but the fractionation of HREE from LREE will be larger. [1] Ganguly J, Ito M (2006) Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 70, 799-809. [2] Cottrell E, Spiegelman M, Langmuir CH (2002) Geochem Geophys Geosyst, doi:10.1029/2001GC000205

  2. Real Time Pore Structure Evolution during Olivine Mineral Carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Fusseis, F.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Xiao, X.

    2014-12-01

    Aqueous carbonation of ultramafic rocks has been proposed as a promising method for long-term, secure sequestration of carbon dioxide. While chemical kinetics data indicate that carbonation reaction in olivine is one of the fastest among the mg-bearing minerals, in practice, the factors that limit the extent and rate of carbonation in ultramafic rocks are fluid supply and flux. On the one hand, reaction products could produce passivating layer that prohibits further reactions. On the other hand, the increases in solid volume during carbonation could lead to cracking and create new fluid paths. Whether carbonation in ultramafic rocks is self-limiting or self-sustaining has been hotly debated. Experimental evidence of precipitation of reaction products during olivine carbonation was reported. To date, reaction-driven cracking has not been observed. In this paper, we present the first real-time pore structure evolution data using the x-ray synchrotron microtomography. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution was injected into porous olivine aggregates and in-situ pore structure change during olivine carbonation at a constant confining pressure (12 MPa) and a temperature of 200oC was captured at 30 min. interval for ~160 hours. Shortly after the experiment started, filling-in of the existing pores by precipitation of reaction products was visible. The size of the in-fills kept increasing as reactions continued. After ~48 hours, cracking around the in-fill materials became visible. After ~60 hours, these cracks started to show a clear polygonal pattern, similar to the crack patterns usually seen on the surface of drying mud. After ~72 hours, some of the cracks coalesced into large fractures that cut-through the olivine aggregates. New fractures continued to develop and at the end of the experiment, the sample was completely disintegrated by these fractures. We also conducted nanotomography experiments on a sub-volume of the reacted olivine aggregate. Orthogonal sets of

  3. I-Xe Dating: Comparison of I-Xe and Pb-Pb Ages of Richardton Chondrules and Separated Mineral Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Amelin, Y.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    I-Xe and Pb-Pb ages of individual Richardton chondrules and different mineral phases were compared in order to test the absolute I-Xe age normalization. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Multiple Mechanisms of Transient Heating Events in the Protoplanetary Disk: Evidence from Precursors of Chondrules and Igneous Ca,Al-Rich Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.; Libourel, G.; Miller, K. E.

    2017-02-01

    Here we review the mineralogy, petrography, O-isotope compositions, and trace element abundances of precursors of chondrules and igneous CAIs which provide important constraints on the mechanisms of transient heating events in the protoplanetary disk.

  5. The Carbon Participation in the Crystal-Chemistry Formation of the Porphyritic Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, A.; Segura, A.; Ostrooumov, M.

    2017-02-01

    In our experimental work we made a fusion with olivine Mg-rich or forsterite, anorthite, and graphite with a high degree of purity. The silicate minerals and graphite were subjected at ambient pressure (0 atm), using a CO2 laser.

  6. Non-nebular Origin of Dark Mantles Around Chondrules and Inclusions in CM Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigo-Rodriquez, Josep M.; Rubin, Alan E.; Wasson, John T.

    2006-01-01

    Our examination of nine CM chondrites that span the aqueous alteration sequence leads us to conclude that compact dark fine mantles surrounding chondrules and inclusions in CM chondrites are not discrete fine-grained rims acquired in the solar nebula as modeled by Metzler et al. [Accretionary dust mantles in CM chondrites: evidence for solar nebula processes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 1992, 2873-28971. Nebular processes that lead to agglomeration produce materials with porosities far higher than those in the dark mantles. We infer that the mantles were produced from porous nebular materials on the CM parent asteroid by impact-compaction (a process that produces the lowest porosity adjacent to chondrules and inclusions). Compaction was followed by aqueous alteration that formed tochilinite, serpentine, Ni-bearing sulfide, and other secondary products in voids in the interchondrule regions. Metzler et al. reported a correlation between mantle thickness and the radius of the enclosed object. In Yamato 791 198 we find no correlation when all sizes of central objects and dark lumps are included but a significant correlation (r(sup 2) = 0.44) if we limit consideration to central objects with radii >35 microns; a moderate correlation is also found in QUE 97990. We suggest that impact-induced shear of a plum-pudding-like precursor produced the observed "mantles"; these were shielded from comminution during impact events by the adjacent stronger chondrules and inclusions. Some mantles in CM chondrites with low degrees of alteration show distinct layers that may largely reflect differences in porosity. Typically, a gray, uniform inner layer is surrounded by an outer layer consisting of darker silicates with BSE-bright speckles. The CM-chondrite objects characterized as "primary accretionary rocks" by Metzler et al. did not form in the nebula, but rather on the parent body. The absence of solar-flare particle tracks and solar-wind-implanted rare gases in these clasts

  7. Grinding methods to enhance the reactivity of olivine

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Cathy A.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, Gilbert E.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2005-08-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) conducted studies of mechanical activation by conventional and ultrafine grinding techniques to enhance olivine reactivity in mineral carbonation reactions. Activated olivine is one of several solid feed materials used at ARC in reactions with carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. This paper compares grinding techniques via energy demand data and product characteristics, including particle size distributions, surface areas, full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) XRD analyses, and particle morphology by SEM analyses. Reactivity was calculated by percent conversion to carbonate in subsequent carbonation tests. Particle size reduction has the greatest impact on reactivity, and wet grinding is more energy efficient than dry grinding. Large additional inputs of energy to increase surface area or reduce crystallinity do not result in proportional improvements in reactivity.

  8. Waveform effects of a metastable olivine tongue in subducting slabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidale, John E.; Williams, Quentin; Houston, Heidi

    1991-01-01

    Velocity models of subducting slabs with a kinetically-depressed olivine to beta- and gamma-spinel transition are constructed, and the effect that such structures would have on teleseismic P waveforms are examined using a full-wave finite-difference method. These 2D calculations yielded waveforms at a range of distances in the downdip direction. The slab models included a wedge-shaped, low-velocity metastable olivine tongue (MOTO) to a depth of 670 km, as well as a plausible thermal anomaly; one model further included a 10-km-thick fast layer on the surface of the slab. The principal effect of MOTO is to produce grazing reflections at wide angles off the phase boundary, generating a secondary arrival 0 to 4 seconds after the initial arrival depending on the take-off angle. The amplitude and timing of this feature vary with the lateral location of the seismic source within the slab cross-section.

  9. Experimental evidence of reaction-induced fracturing during olivine carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenlu; Fusseis, Florian; Lisabeth, Harrison; Xing, Tiange; Xiao, Xianghui; De Andrade, Vincent; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Mineral carbonation, a process that binds CO2 in the form of carbonates by silicate weathering, is widespread on the Earth's surface. Because of the abundance of silicate rocks and the permanence of the carbonated solids, sequestering CO2 via mineral carbonation has generated lots of interests. However, it is unclear how the fluid-rock reaction proceeds to completion in spite of an increasing solid volume. We conducted a mineral carbonation experiment in which a sintered olivine aggregate reacted with a sodium bicarbonate solution at reservoir conditions. Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microtomographic images show cracks in polygonal patterns arising in the surface layers and propagating into the interior of the olivine aggregate. The nanotomography data reveal that the incipient cracks intersect at right angles. We infer that stretching due to nonuniform volume expansion generates polygonal cracking of the surfaces. Our data shed new lights on the processes that control hydration and carbonation of peridotite.

  10. First-principles studies of native defects in olivine phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Khang; Johannes, Michelle

    2011-03-01

    Olivine phosphates Li M PO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) are promising candidates for rechargeable Li-ion battery electrodes because of their energy storage capacity and electrochemical and thermal stability. It is known that native defects have strong effects on the performance of olivine phosphates. Yet, the formation and migration of these defects are not fully understood, and we expect that once such understanding has been established, one can envisage a solution for improving the materials' performance. In this talk, we present our first-principles density-functional theory studies of native point defects and defect complexes in Li M PO4 , and discuss the implications of these defects on the performance of the materials. Our results also provide guidelines for obtaining different native defects in experiments.

  11. The solubility of olivine in basaltic liquids - An ionic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzberg, C. T.

    1979-01-01

    A model is presented which enables the temperature at which olivine is in equilibrium with any alkali-depleted basaltic compound to be calculated to within + or - 30 C. It is noted that the error increases substantially when applied to terrestrial basalts which contain several weight percent alkalis. In addition the model predicts and quantifies the reduced activity of SiO4(4-) monomers due to increasing SiO2 concentrations in the melt. It is shown that the coordination of alumina in melts which precipitate olivine only appears to be dominantly octahedral, while titanium acts as a polmerizing agent by interconnecting previously isolated SiO4(4-) monomers. It is concluded that the model is sufficiently sensitive to show that there are small repulsive forces between Mg(2+) and calcium ions which are in association with normative diopside in the melt.

  12. Raman spectra of olivine measured in different planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, I.; Böttger, U.; Pavlov, S.; Grunow, D.; Jessberger, E. K.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2012-09-01

    Missions to bodies of our solar system are coming up and imply new instrumentation to be applied remotely and in situ. In ESA's ExoMars mission the Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) will identify minerals and organic compounds in Martian surface rocks and soils. Here we present the results of a Raman study of different olivines with variable Fo and Fa contents. We chose olivine because it is a rock forming mineral and is found as an abundant mineral in Martian meteorites. We determined the Raman spectra in different environmental conditions that include vacuum, 8mbar CO2 atmosphere and temperatures between room temperature and 10K. These environmental conditions resemble those on asteroids as well as on Mars and Moon. Thus our study investigates the influence of these varying conditions on the position and band width of the Raman lines, which is to be known when such investigations are performed in future space missions.

  13. Chemical frost weathering of olivine: Experimental study and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. L.; Huguenin, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    New experimental results are reported on the frost weathering of olivine. After first weathering, a decrease in Fe sup 2(+)M(2) absorption bands were noted. This decrease is related to the protonation of O(+) in the mineral. It is contented that this reaction may result in the regolith storage of 100 to 1000 m of H(sub 2) over the history of Mars.

  14. Chemical energy in cold-cloud aggregates - The origin of meteoritic chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    If interstellar particles and molecules accumulate into larger particles during the collapse of a cold cloud, the resulting aggregates contain a large store of internal chemical energy. It is here proposed that subsequent warming of these accumulates leads to a thermal runaway when exothermic chemical reactions begin within the aggregate. These, after cooling, are the crystalline chondrules found so abundantly within chondritic meteorites. Chemical energy can also heat meteoritic parent bodies of any size, and both thermal metamorphism and certain molten meteorites are proposed to have occurred in this way. If this new theory is correct, (1) the model of chemical condensation in a hot gaseous solar system is eliminated, and (2) a new way of studying the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium has been found. A simple dust experiment on a comet flyby is proposed to test some features of this controversy.

  15. Si-rich layer formation on olivine surfaces during reaction with water and supercritical carbon dioxide under conditions relevant for geologic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Jackson, A.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    The reaction of Mg-silicate minerals (i.e. olivine) with carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising method for secure, long-term, geologic carbon storage. Several technical challenges must be overcome before implementing mineral carbonation technology on a large scale, one of which is slow reaction kinetics. This study probes surface reaction limitations of olivine carbonation, specifically the formation of a passivating, Si-rich layer on olivine surfaces upon exposure to water and CO2 under sequestration conditions (elevated temperature and pressure). A series of batch reactions were performed at 60°C and 100 bar CO2 pressure in Dickson-style rocker bombs, varying the length of reaction and the amount of mixing (rocking). The initial aqueous phase was spiked with 29Si. Fluid samples were taken periodically and analyzed for cation content, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon. At the end of each experiment, the solid products were analyzed with a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP-RG) in order to measure the amount of 29Si incorporated into the Si-rich layer on reacted olivine grains. We also cut cross sections of reacted grains from each experiment using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) which were thinned to <100nm and imaged using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). SHRIMP-RG results show incorporation of 29Si on olivine grain surfaces reacted for 19 days with no mixing, and TEM images of olivine grains from the same experiment show an amorphous, Si-rich layer that is 30nm thick. Similarly, SHRIMP-RG results for olivine grains reacted for 19 days with mixing indicate 29SiO2 precipitation and TEM images reveal a Si-rich layer 60nm thick. In both experiments, EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) data show a step change in composition from the bulk rock to the surface layer in addition to the sharp crystalline/amorphous interface visible in the TEM images. Olivine from the unmixed experiment also has a slow decrease in Mg relative to Si

  16. Polaron formation and transport in olivine cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Michelle; Hoang, Khang

    2011-03-01

    One of the critical factors limiting Li ion battery performance is electronic conduction through the cathode material. In the olivine structure type materials, such as LiFe PO4 , the parent materials are insulators with a gap of approximately 4 (or more) eV. The withdrawal of an electron results not in a band-type hole state, but rather a localized polaronic state. Transport then occurs via hopping of the polaron through the crystal. The measured electronic conduction in olivine materials depends on the transition metal cation type. In this study, we use density functional theory to compare formation of polarons in olivine materials with different transition metal cations: Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. We show that the underlying electronic structure of the fully lithiated material (or fully delithiated material) essentially determines whether or not polaron formation is possible in localized d -states or whether the holes that result from adding or removing an electron reside in oxygen-derived states. We also investigate the facility of polaronic hopping by calculating the barrier between adjacent polaron sites in each of the four materials.

  17. Optical spectroscopic characterizations of laser irradiated olivine grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yazhou; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Ziwei; Yuan, Ye; Li, Shaolin; Hsu, Weibiao; Liu, Chujian

    2017-01-01

    Context. Visible and near-infrared spectra of asteroids are known to be susceptible to nanophase irons produced by space weathering processes, thus making mineral identifications difficult. Mid-infrared spectroscopy may retain more mineral features owing to its lattice vibrational nature. Aims: We investigate the structure and reflectance spectral feature changes of olivine grains before and after simulated space weathering. Methods: We irradiate olivine grains by using pulsed laser to simulate varying degrees of micrometeorite bombardments. Reflectance measurements from 0.5 to 25 μm and radiative transfer calculations were carried out in order to compare them with each other. Results: Both the experimental simulations and modeling results indicate that the mid-infrared spectral features of olivine grains can survive the intense irradiations. Although the Christansen Feature is slightly shifted to longer wavelength, major vibrational bands remain essentially unchanged, because the lattice structure is quite immune to even the strongest irradiations, as revealed by both the X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. Conclusions: Mid-infrared spectroscopy is much more immune to productions of nanophase irons and amorphous materials and thus may be used more reliably in remote detections of minerals on asteroid surfaces.

  18. Creep behavior of Fe-bearing olivine under hydrous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasaka, Miki; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2015-09-01

    To understand the effect of iron content on the creep behavior of olivine, (MgxFe(1 - x))2SiO4, under hydrous conditions, we have conducted tri-axial compressive creep experiments on samples of polycrystalline olivine with Mg contents of x = 0.53, 0.77, 0.90, and 1. Samples were deformed at stresses of 25 to 320 MPa, temperatures of 1050° to 1200°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, and a water fugacity of 300 MPa using a gas-medium high-pressure apparatus. Under hydrous conditions, our results yield the following expression for strain rate as a function of iron content for 0.53 ≤ x ≤ 0.90 in the dislocation creep regime: ɛ˙=ɛ˙0.90((1-x/0.1))1/2exp[226×1030.9-x/RT]. In this equation, the strain rate of San Carlos olivine, ɛ˙0.90, is a function of T, σ, and fH2O. As previously shown for anhydrous conditions, an increase in iron content directly increases creep rate. In addition, an increase in iron content increases hydrogen solubility and therefore indirectly increases creep rate. This flow law allows us to extrapolate our results to a wide range of mantle conditions, not only for Earth's mantle but also for the mantle of Mars.

  19. Value enhancement of olivine process dust through air classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiv, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    As a result of the production of dry olivine sand products at A/S Olivin's production plant at Åheim in western Norway, an annual quantity of some 20000-30000 t of process dust is produced. The bulk of this material is currently being sold as a slag conditioner at a relatively low price; hence, alternative uses of the process dust are now being sought. Information regarding the chemical composition of the material as a function of particle size facilitates product modifications through exclusion or mixing of individual size fractions. This paper demonstrates how such information can be obtained from air classification experiments when these are combined with chemical analysis of the produced size fractions. The classification and subsequent analysis of the olivine process dust revealed that the finer size fractions had high loss on ignition (LOI) values and were relatively low in MgO when compared with the bulk analysis. Removal of the finer fractions resulted in a remaining coarse product of significantly higher quality. The coarse material could be used as a raw material for further processing; it could be recycled or it could constitute a new product in itself.

  20. Molybdenum isotopic evidence for the origin of chondrules and a distinct genetic heritage of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, Gerrit; Burkhardt, Christoph; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Kleine, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies are powerful tracers to determine the provenance of meteorites and their components, and to identify genetic links between these materials. Here we show that chondrules and matrix separated from the Allende CV3 chondrite have complementary nucleosynthetic Mo isotope anomalies. These anomalies result from the enrichment of a presolar carrier enriched in s-process Mo into the matrix, and the corresponding depletion of this carrier in the chondrules. This carrier most likely is a metal and so the uneven distribution of presolar material probably results from metal-silicate fractionation during chondrule formation. The Mo isotope anomalies correlate with those reported for W isotopes on the same samples in an earlier study, suggesting that the isotope variations for both Mo and W are caused by the heterogeneous distribution of the same carrier. The isotopic complementary of chondrules and matrix indicates that both components are genetically linked and formed together from one common reservoir of solar nebula dust. As such, the isotopic data require that most chondrules formed in the solar nebula and are not a product of protoplanetary impacts. Allende chondrules and matrix together with bulk carbonaceous chondrites and some iron meteorites (groups IID, IIIF, and IVB) show uniform excesses in 92Mo, 95Mo, and 97Mo that result from the addition of supernova material to the solar nebula region in which these carbonaceous meteorites formed. Non-carbonaceous meteorites (enstatite and ordinary chondrites as well as most iron meteorites) do not contain this material, demonstrating that two distinct Mo isotope reservoirs co-existed in the early solar nebula that remained spatially separated for several million years. This separation was most likely achieved through the formation of the gas giants, which cleared the disk between the inner and outer solar system regions parental to the non-carbonaceous and carbonaceous meteorites. The Mo isotope

  1. Physeal bar equivalent.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Hamlet A; Shaughnessy, William J; Stans, Anthony A

    2016-09-29

    Premature partial physeal arrest without the formation of an osseous bar - physeal bar equivalent (PBE) - is uncommon. Four children with a PBE had an infection near the distal femoral physis before the age of 11 months. Some growth was achieved after resection of the PBE in each case. Of two cases diagnosed and treated early, one required only contralateral physeal arrests to achieve limb-length equality at maturity. The other, currently 8 years and 4 months old, has a 1.1-cm limb-length discrepancy 6 years after PBE resection and will require observation until maturity. Of two cases diagnosed and treated late, one required ipsilateral femoral lengthening and contralateral femoral shortening and physeal arrests to treat the limb-length discrepancy and angular deformity. The other, currently 7 years and 1 month old, has a 4.8-cm discrepancy and will need future surgical limb-length equalization. Early recognition and treatment of PBE is required to avoid severe limb-length inequality and angular deformity.

  2. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  3. Ringwoodite growth rates from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O: Metastable olivine must be nearly anhydrous to exist in the mantle transition zone

    SciTech Connect

    Du Frane, Wyatt L.; Sharp, Thomas G.; Mosenfelder, Jed L.; Leinenweber, Kurt

    2013-04-15

    It has been previously demonstrated that as little as 300 ppmw H2O increases wadsleyite and ringwoodite growth rates to magnitudes that are inconsistent with the metastable olivine hypothesis. To further test this hypothesis, we present new ringwoodite growth rate measurements from olivine with ~75 ppmw H2O at 18 GPa and 700, 900, and 1100 °C. These growth rates are nearly identical to those from olivine with ~300 ppmw H2O, and significantly higher than those from nominally anhydrous olivine. We infer that transformation of olivine with 75-300 ppmw H2O is primarily enhanced by hydrolytic weakening of reaction rims, which reduces the elastic strain-energy barrier to growth. We present a new method for fitting nonlinear nominally anhydrous data, to demonstrate that reduction of growth rates by elastic strain energy is an additional requirement for metastable olivine. In conclusion, based on previous thermokinetic modeling, these enhanced growth rates are inconsistent with the persistence of metastable olivine wedges into the mantle transition zone. Metastable persistence of olivine into the mantle transition-zone would therefore require < 75 ppmw H2O.

  4. Low Temperature Plasticity of Olivine Determined by Nano-indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skemer, P. A.; Kranjc, K.; Rouse, Z.; Flores, K.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's upper mantle is thought to deform mainly by dislocation creep, during which strain-rate and stress are related by a simple power law equation. However at much higher stresses there is a break-down in the power law relationship and strain-rate depends exponentially on stress. This phenomenon, known as low temperature plasticity, may be important in the shallow ductile or semi-brittle regions of the lithosphere, at the tips of cracks, or during high-stress laboratory experiments. Several studies have attempted to constrain the low-temperature rheology of olivine using micro-indentation or high pressure experiments. In this study we provide the first measurements of olivine rheology at low temperature using instrumented nano-indention. Although nano-indentation has been widely used in the materials sciences, its application in the Earth sciences has been very limited. Nano-indentation methods provide rheological measurements that are significantly more precise than other mechanical tests at high pressure and temperature. Moreover, experiments are rapid and largely non-destructive, so many tests can be conducted in a short amount of time. In this study, olivine single crystal and polycrystalline samples were tested using a Hysitron TI950 TriboIndenter. Temperature was varied using a cooling/heating stage from 0-175°C. Experiments were conducted under quasi-static and constant strain-rate conditions. Indentation hardness measurements were converted to uniaxial rheological properties to facilitate direct comparison with previous studies. Yield strengths for olivine range from 4.19 GPa at 175°C to 4.60 GPa at 0°C. Using various models for obstacles to dislocation motion, data are extrapolated to 0 Kelvin to extract a Peierls stress for olivine (5.32-6.45 GPa), which is at the lower end of the range of values determined in previous studies. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the nano-indentation method for the study of mineral rheology, and opens a

  5. Viscous anisotropy of textured olivine aggregates: 2. Micromechanical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Lars N.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Boneh, Yuval; Skemer, Philip; Warren, Jessica M.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2016-10-01

    The significant viscous anisotropy that results from crystallographic alignment (texture) of olivine grains in deformed upper mantle rocks strongly influences a large variety of geodynamic processes. Our ability to explore the effects of anisotropic viscosity in simulations of these processes requires a mechanical model that can predict the magnitude of anisotropy and its evolution. Unfortunately, existing models of olivine textural evolution and viscous anisotropy are calibrated for relatively small deformations and simple strain paths, making them less general than desired for many large-scale geodynamic scenarios. Here we develop a new set of micromechanical models to describe the mechanical behavior and textural evolution of olivine through a large range of strains and complex strain histories. For the mechanical behavior, we explore two extreme scenarios, one in which each grain experiences the same stress tensor (Sachs model) and one in which each grain undergoes a strain rate as close as possible to the macroscopic strain rate (pseudo-Taylor model). For the textural evolution, we develop a new model in which the director method is used to control the rate of grain rotation and the available slip systems in olivine are used to control the axis of rotation. Only recently has enough laboratory data on the deformation of olivine become available to calibrate these models. We use these new data to conduct inversions for the best parameters to characterize both the mechanical and textural evolution models. These inversions demonstrate that the calibrated pseudo-Taylor model best reproduces the mechanical observations. Additionally, the pseudo-Taylor textural evolution model can reasonably reproduce the observed texture strength, shape, and orientation after large and complex deformations. A quantitative comparison between our calibrated models and previously published models reveals that our new models excel in predicting the magnitude of viscous anisotropy and

  6. LA-ICP-MS mapping of olivine from the Brahin and Brenham meteorites: Complex elemental distributions in the pallasite olivine precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibbin, Seann J.; O'Neill, Hugh St. C.; Mallmann, Guilherme; Halfpenny, Angela

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the early history of olivine from the Main-Group pallasites Brahin and Brenham, we have spatially mapped their trace-element distributions using laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Brahin olivine interiors contain ∼100-200 μm patches enriched in Cr, Al, Ti, V, Sc and Ga, separated by linear enrichments of P; these structures bear no relation to current crystal morphologies. Rather, cross-cutting relationships suggest they predate olivine-metal mixing. Brenham olivine also has internal variations for these elements. By contrast, Ni and Co concentrations in olivine from both meteorites decrease near crystal margins, as expected for freezing-in of profiles formed during diffusive re-equilibration with metal during cooling. Brenham olivine also has decreasing Al, Cr and Ti near the margin. Correlations between concentrations of Cr and Al exist for individual Brahin olivine grains, but do not hold over multiple grains, indicating a heterogeneous precursor. Al and Ti are correlated over multiple grains in Brahin, interpreted as Ti cations decorating pre-existing Al-defects. In Brenham olivine, similar geochemical trends exist, but the Cr-Al relationship probably represents both grain margin effects and pre-existing internal heterogeneity. The preservation of structure for elements which are normally fast diffusers in olivine hinges on coupled substitutions involving Al, which along with P diffuses much more slowly than most other elements under some conditions. Al concentrations in olivine are low and variable (3-33 ppm) which is inconsistent with crystallisation from a normal silicate melt; Al-in-olivine thermometers indicate that pallasite olivine was formed in a low-temperature environment. Following its delivery to the magma ocean/core-mantle boundary, Al-P systematics were not substantially modified. Assuming diffusivities for Al and P that are similar to Si (since they reside in the same crystallographic site

  7. Kimberlitic olivines derived from the Cr-poor and Cr-rich megacryst suites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Andy; Costin, Gelu

    2016-08-01

    Reversed-zoned olivines (Fe-richer cores compared to rims), appear to be ubiquitous in kimberlites with a wide distribution. These olivines generally comprise a subordinate population relative to the dominant normally zoned olivines. However, they are notably more abundant in the megacryst-rich mid-Cretaceous Monastery and early Proterozoic Colossus kimberlites, located on the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons, respectively. The reverse-zoned olivines at these two localities define compositional fields that are closely similar to those for two olivine megacryst populations of the Cr-poor association which have been documented in the Monastery kimberlite. This points to a genetic link between megacrysts and the reversed zoned olivines. The ubiquitous, occurrence of the Fe-rich (relative to the field for rims) olivines in kimberlites with a wide geographic distribution in turn argues for an intimate link between megacrysts and the host kimberlite. Some large olivines have inclusions of rounded Cr-rich clinopyroxenes, garnets and/or spinel, characterized by fine-scale, erratic internal compositional zoning. Olivines with such chemically heterogeneous Cr-rich inclusions are not derived from disaggregated mantle peridotites, but are rather linked to the Cr-rich megacryst suite. Consequently, they cannot be used as evidence that cores of a majority of kimberlitic olivines are derived from disaggregated mantle peridotites.

  8. Annealing of deformed olivine single-crystals under 'dry' conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, Stephan; Katsura, Tomoo

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of rheological properties of Earth's materials is essential to understand geological processes. Open questions are the water content and crystallographic orientation dependences of dislocation creep rate, because the dominant slip system changes with increasing water content, which suggest different dislocations have different water content dependence. This project focuses on olivine, which is the most abundant mineral of the upper mantle. It is also considered to be the weakest phase and hence should control the rheology of the upper mantle. Several slip systems were reported for olivine, which are [100](010), [001](010), [001](100) and [100](001), each of which appear under different water content and stress conditions [1]. For this purpose we started to obtain data for 'dry' conditions, providing basic knowledge to understand the effect of water. Variation in dislocation creep rate according to change in physical conditions can be estimated by dislocation recovery experiments [2]. In this technique, deformed crystals are annealed, in which the dislocation density is expected to decrease due to coalescence of two dislocations. Dislocation densities are measured before and after the annealing. Dislocation mobility, which should be directly proportional to the dislocation creep rate, is estimated based on the change in dislocation density and duration of annealing. This technique has significant advantages partly because informations of strain rate and deviatoric stress, which are difficult to measure, are unnecessary, and partly because dislocation annealing is conducted under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, which allows wide ranges of P and T conditions. The first step of the experiments is to deform a single crystal of olivine. For this purpose, we developed an assembly, which deforms a single crystal in simple-shear geometry and prevent breakage, sub-grain formation and recrystallization of the crystal. Olivine single-crystals were placed in the high

  9. From olivine to ringwoodite: a TEM study of a complex process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Ji, Gang; Yamaguchi, Akira; Schryvers, Dominique; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The study of shock metamorphism of olivine might help to constrain impact events in the history of meteorites. Although shock features in olivine are well known, so far, there are processes that are not yet completely understood. In shock veins, olivine clasts with a complex structure, with a ringwoodite rim and a dense network of lamellae of unidentified nature in the core, have been reported in the literature. A highly shocked (S5-6), L6 meteorite, Asuka 09584, which was recently collected in Antarctica by a Belgian-Japanese joint expedition, contains this type of shocked olivine clasts and has been, therefore, selected for detailed investigations of these features by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Petrographic, geochemical, and crystallographic studies showed that the rim of these shocked clasts consists of an aggregate of nanocrystals of ringwoodite, with lower Mg/Fe ratio than the unshocked olivine. The clast's core consists of an aggregate of iso-oriented grains of olivine and wadsleyite, with higher Mg/Fe ratio than the unshocked olivine. This aggregate is crosscut by veinlets of nanocrystals of olivine, with extremely low Mg/Fe ratio. The formation of the ringwoodite rim is likely due to solid-state, diffusion-controlled, transformation from olivine under high-temperature conditions. The aggregate of iso-oriented olivine and wadsleyite crystals is interpreted to have formed also by a solid-state process, likely by coherent intracrystalline nucleation. Following the compression, shock release is believed to have caused opening of cracks and fractures in olivine and formation of olivine melt, which has lately crystallized under postshock equilibrium pressure conditions as olivine.

  10. A New Spinel-Olivine Oxybarometer: Near-Liquidus Partitioning of V between Olivine-Melt, Spinel-Melt, and Spinel-Olivine in Martian Basalt Composition Y980459 as a Function of Oxygen Fugacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Le, L.; Burger, P. V.; Shearer, C. K.; Bell, A. S.; Jones, J.

    2013-01-01

    Our research on valence state partitioning began in 2005 with a review of Cr, Fe, Ti, and V partitioning among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel [1]. That paper was followed by several on QUE94201 melt composition and specifically on Cr, V, and Eu partitioning between pyroxene and melt [2-5]. This paper represents the continuation of our examination of the partitioning of multivalent V between olivine, spinel, and melt in martian olivine-phyric basalts of Y980459 composition [6, 7]. Here we introduce a new, potentially powerful oxybarometer, V partitioning between spinel and olivine, which can be used when no melt is preserved in the meteorite. The bulk composition of QUE94201 was ideal for our study of martian pyroxene-phyric basalts and specifically the partitioning between pyroxene-melt for Cr, V, and Eu. Likewise, bulk composition Y980459 is ideal for the study of martian olivine-phyric basalts and specifically for olivine-melt, spinel-melt, and spinel-olivine partitioning of V as a function of oxygen fugacity.

  11. Shock-wave heating model for chondrule formation: Hydrodynamic simulation of molten droplets exposed to gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2007-05-01

    Millimeter-sized, spherical silicate grains abundant in chondritic meteorites, which are called as chondrules, are considered to be a strong evidence of the melting event of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disk. One of the most plausible scenarios is that the chondrule precursor dust particles are heated and melt in the high-velocity gas flow (shock-wave heating model). We developed the non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code for analyzing the dynamics of molten droplets exposed to the gas flow. We confirmed that our simulation results showed a good agreement in a linear regime with the linear solution analytically derived by Sekyia et al. [Sekyia, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728]. We found that the non-linear terms in the hydrodynamical equations neglected by Sekiya et al. [Sekiya, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728] can cause the cavitation by producing negative pressure in the droplets. We discussed that the fragmentation through the cavitation is a new mechanism to determine the upper limit of chondrule sizes. We also succeeded to reproduce the fragmentation of droplets when the gas ram pressure is stronger than the effect of the surface tension. Finally, we compared the deformation of droplets in the shock-wave heating with the measured data of chondrules and suggested the importance of other effects to deform droplets, for example, the rotation of droplets. We believe that our new code is a very powerful tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of molten droplets in the framework of the shock-wave heating model and has many potentials to be applied to various problems.

  12. The Iodine-Xenon System in Outer and Inner Portions of Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic LL3 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A. P.; Pravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Amelin, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Alteration processes may affect I-Xe system in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. It was shown that at the edges, where a contribution is made by matrix material around the rim, *Xe-129/Xe-128 values are generally lower (later apparent ages) than in the main chondrule mass. In this work we attempted to investigate whether thermal metamorphism can affect the I-Xe system in LL3 chondrites which did not experienced aqueous alteration.

  13. Phosphorus zoning in olivine of Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrizio, Alessandro; Beckett, John R.; Baker, Michael B.; Stolper, Edward M.

    2010-05-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake was formed when the lavas of the 1959 summit eruption of Kilauea volcano ponded in Kilauea Iki pit crater, as described by [1]. The main chamber of this lake has been drilled repeatedly from 1960 to 1981 as the lake has cooled and crystallized and partial descriptions of core can be found in [2-7]. The bulk of the core consists of a gray, olivine-phyric basalt matrix [3]. Rapid diffusion of divalent cations through olivine at magmatic temperatures can delete information on early-formed zoning and thus information on early magmatic history, recorded in olivine during its growth, is often largely lost [8-11]. In the last years many studies [8-11] have shown that natural olivine, terrestrial and extraterrestrial, from several localities and rock types can preserve a complex zoning in P (sometimes associated with Cr and Al). Simple crystallization experiments conducted by [10] and [11] were able to replicate these features (i.e., sector and oscillatory zoning). Here, we describe P, Cr and Al zoning in olivine from the 1981 drilling of Kilauea Iki lava lake hole #1 (KI81-1) [6]. Kα X-ray intensity maps and major and minor element quantitative analyses were obtained using the Caltech JEOL JXA-8200 electron microprobe. We acquired P, Cr, Al, Fe and Ti X-ray maps simultaneously at 15 kV and 400 nA, a beam diameter of 1 μm, pixel spacing of 1-2 μm, and count times of 420-1500 msec/step were used depending on the dimension of the crystal. 15 kV and 40 nA with a beam diameter of 1 μm were used to collect quantitative analyses. P2O5 contents of the Iki olivines range from below detection limit to 0.30 wt%. Zoning in phosphorus, based on X-ray intensity maps, was observed in all olivines we examined. The P zoning patterns of the olivines display several styles. P shows oscillatory zoning comparable to that seen in terrestrial and extraterrestrial igneous olivines and in experimentally grown olivine [8-11]; high P regions, inside the crystals, outline

  14. GASEOUS STRUCTURES IN BARRED GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF THE BAR STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Yonghwi

    2012-10-10

    Using hydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the physical properties of gaseous substructures in barred galaxies and their relationships with the bar strength. The gaseous medium is assumed to be isothermal and unmagnetized. The bar potential is modeled as a Ferrers prolate with index n. To explore situations with differing bar strength, we vary the bar mass f{sub bar} relative to the spheroidal component as well as its aspect ratio R. We derive expressions as functions of f{sub bar} and R for the bar strength Q{sub b} and the radius r(Q{sub b} ) where the maximum bar torque occurs. When applied to observations, these expressions suggest that bars in real galaxies are most likely to have f{sub bar} {approx} 0.25-0.50 and n {approx}< 1. Dust lanes approximately follow one of the x{sub 1}-orbits and tend to be straighter under a stronger and more elongated bar, but are insensitive to the presence of self-gravity. A nuclear ring of a conventional x{sub 2} type forms only when the bar is not so massive or elongated. The radius of an x{sub 2}-type ring is generally smaller than the inner Lindblad resonance, decreases systematically with increasing Q{sub b} , and is slightly larger when self-gravity is included. This is evidence that the ring position is not determined by the resonance, but instead by the amount of angular momentum loss at dust-lane shocks. Nuclear spirals exist only when the ring is of the x{sub 2} type and is sufficiently large in size. Unlike the other features, nuclear spirals are transient in that they start out being tightly wound and weak, and then, due to the nonlinear effect, unwind and become stronger until they turn into shocks, with an unwinding rate that is higher for larger Q{sub b} . The mass inflow rate to the galaxy center is found to be less than 0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for models with Q{sub b} {approx}< 0.2, while becoming larger than 0.1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} when Q{sub b} {approx}> 0.2 and self-gravity is included.

  15. {sup 60}Fe AND {sup 26}Al IN CHONDRULES FROM UNEQUILIBRATED CHONDRITES: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.; Rudraswami, N. G.; Tachibana, S.; Huss, G. R.

    2010-05-10

    The presence of about a dozen short-lived nuclides in the early solar system, including {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al, has been established from isotopic studies of meteorite samples. An accurate estimation of solar system initial abundance of {sup 60}Fe, a distinct product of stellar nucleosynthesis, is important to infer the stellar source of this nuclide. Previous studies in this regard suffered from the lack of exact knowledge of the time of formation of the analyzed meteorite samples. We present here results obtained from the first combined study of {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al records in early solar system objects to remove this ambiguity. Chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites belonging to low petrologic grades were analyzed for their Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope systematics. The Al-Mg isotope data provide the time of formation of the analyzed chondrules relative to the first solar system solids, the Ca-Al-rich inclusions. The inferred initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe values of four chondrules, combined with their time of formation based on Al-Mg isotope data, yielded a weighted mean value of (6.3 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -7} for solar system initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe. This argues for a high-mass supernova as the source of {sup 60}Fe along with {sup 26}Al and several other short-lived nuclides present in the early solar system.

  16. The Planetesimal Bow Shock Model for Chondrule Formation: More Detailed Simulations in the Near Vicinity of the Planetesimal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Lon L.; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2005-01-01

    Gas dynamic shock waves in a low temperature nebula have been considered to be a leading candidate mechanism for providing the repetitive, short-duration heating events that are believed to have been responsible for the formation of chondrules in chondrites. It has been found, for example, that shocks with Mach numbers greater than 4 or 5 would be capable of rapidly melting 0.1-1 mm sized silicate particles as required by meteoritic data. Near the nebula midplane where chondrite parent bodies are believed to have formed, possible energy sources for generating multiple shocks include mass concentrations in a gravitationally unstable nebula, tidal interactions of proto-Jupiter with the nebula, and bow waves upstream of planetesimals scattered gravitationally into eccentric orbits by proto- Jupiter. In a recent study, we have found that chondrule precursors that are melted following passage through a planetesimal bow shock would likely cool at rates that are too rapid to be consistent with meteoritic evidence. However, that study was limited to the bowshock exterior to about 1.5 planetesimal radii (measured perpendicular to the symmetry axis) to avoid complications interior to this distance where large pressure gradients and lateral flow occur as the gas flows around the planetesimal. In this paper, we reconsider the planetesimal bow shock model and report more detailed numerical simulations of chondrule precursor heating, cooling, and dynamical histories in the near vicinity of a representative planetesimal.

  17. SXRF determination of trace elements in chondrule rims in the unequilibrated CO3 chondrite, ALH A77307

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Bajt, Sasa; Sutton, Steve R.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and Se in five chondrule rims in the CO3 chondrite ALH A77307 (3.0) using the synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at Brookhaven National Laboratory were determined. The data show that the trace element chemistry of rims on different chondrules is remarkably similar, consistent with data obtained for the major elements by electron microprobe. These results support the idea that rims are not genetically related to individual chondrules, but all sampled the same reservoir of homogeneously mixed dust. Of the trace elements analyzed Zn and Ga show depletions relative to CI chondrite values, but in comparison with bulk CO chondrites all the elements are enriched by approximately 1.5 to 3.5 x CO. The high concentrations of the highly volatile elements Se and Ga and moderately volatile Zn (1.5 to 2 x CO) in rims show that matrix is the major reservoir of volatile elements in ALH A77307.

  18. Mineralogical and Raman spectroscopy studies of natural olivines exposed to different planetary environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, I.; Böttger, U.; Pavlov, S. G.; Jessberger, E. K.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2014-12-01

    New lander missions to bodies of our solar system are coming up and thus new techniques are desirable for the in-situ investigation of planetary surface and near surface materials. During the last decade Raman spectroscopy has been developed to become an excellent laboratory tool for fast petrological and mineralogical investigation of terrestrial and extraterrestrial rocks. Consequently, Raman spectroscopy has successfully been proposed for operation on planetary surfaces. In the joint ESA and Roscosmos mission ExoMars a Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) will for the first time be applied in space to identify minerals and organic compounds in Martian surface rocks and soils. The present study aims to investigate the possible response of various environmental conditions to Raman spectra in preparation for the ExoMars mission, as well as other space missions in future. For our study we selected five natural olivines with different forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4) compositions. Olivine as an important rock forming mineral of the Earth upper mantle and an abundant mineral in Martian meteorites is one of the key planetary mineral. The spectra were taken in various environmental conditions that include vacuum down to 10-6 mbar, 8 mbar CO2 atmosphere, and temperatures ranging between room temperature and~8 K resembling those on Mars as well as on the Moon and on asteroids. We have found that forsterite shows only small temperature-related shifts in Raman spectra at very low temperatures indicating relatively weak changes in the lattice modes. Fayalite demonstrates, in addition to temperature dependent changes in the lattice modes found for forsterite, modification of Raman spectra at low Stokes frequencies. This is an effect in the SiO4 internal modes that most probably is caused by the high amount of iron in the mineral structure, which triggers antiferromagnetic transition at low temperatures. No influence of a CO2 atmosphere on Raman spectra for the

  19. Sound velocities of olivine at high pressures and temperatures and the composition of Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin S.; Bass, Jay D.

    2016-09-01

    We present the elastic properties of San Carlos olivine up to P = 12.8(8) GPa and T = 1300(200) K using Brillouin spectroscopy with CO2 laser heating. A comparison of our results with the global seismic model AK135 yields average olivine content near 410 km depth of about 37% and 43% in a dry and wet (1.9 wt % H2O) upper mantle, respectively. These olivine contents are far less than in the pyrolite model. However, comparisons of our results with regional seismic models lead to very different conclusions. High olivine contents of up to 87% are implied by seismic models of the western U.S. and eastern Pacific regions. In contrast, we infer less than 35% olivine under the central Pacific. Strong variations of olivine content and upper mantle lithologies near the 410 km discontinuity are suggested by regional seismic models.

  20. Dislocation substructure of mantle-derived olivine as revealed by selective chemical etching and transmission electron microscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Wegner, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    Cleaved and mechanically polished surfaces of olivine from peridotite xenoliths from San Carlos, Arizona, were chemically etched using the techniques of Wegner and Christie (1974). Dislocation etch pits are produced on all surface orientations and they tend to be preferentially aligned along the traces of subgrain boundaries, which are approximately parallel to (100), (010), and (001). Shallow channels were also produced on (010) surfaces and represent dislocations near the surface that are etched out along their lengths. The dislocation etch channel loops are often concentric, and emanate from (100) subgrain boundaries, which suggests that dislocation sources are in the boundaries. Data on subgrain misorientation and dislocation line orientation and arguments based on subgrain boundary energy minimization are used to characterize the dislocation structures of the subgrain boundaries. (010) subgrain boundaries are of the twist type, composed of networks of [100] and [001] screw dislocations. Both (100) and (001) subgrain boundaries are tilt walls composed of arrays of edge dislocation with Burgers vectors b=[100] and [001], respectively. The inferred slip systems are {001} ???100???, {100} ???001???, and {010} ???100??? in order of diminishing importance. Exploratory transmission electron microscopy is in accord with these identifications. The flow stresses associated with the development of the subgrain structure are estimated from the densities of free dislocations and from the subgrain dimensions. Inferred stresses range from 35 to 75 bars using the free dislocation densities and 20 to 100 bars using the subgrain sizes. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  1. [Study on the FTIR spectra of OH in olivines from mengyin kimberlite].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qun; Yang, Zhi-jun; Zeng, Xiang-qing; Zheng, Yun-long; Hu, Piao-ye

    2013-09-01

    The results of FTIR spectra study of OH in olivines from Mengyin kimberlite show that there are more than 60 OH absorption peaks in the range of 3800-3000 cm(-1). We identified four major spectral features in the OH absorption bands of kimberlitic olivines. One is with nuOH in the range of 3800-3700 cm(-1), which is caused by the vapour of the room circumstance, and can not be regarded as intrinsic or non-intrinsic nuOH of the olivines. Another one is with nuOH in the range of 3710-3620 cm(-1), which belongs to three "water"-bearing minerals including serpentine, talc and Mg-bearing amphiboles, which is the non-intrinsic nuOH of the olivines. There is the possibility that H in hydrous minerals mainly entered into olivines during post-emplacement processes of the kimberlite magma. The third one is with nuOH in the range of 3620-3425 cm(-1), which originated from H occupying the Si-defect in the olivine structure, forming humite-like defects, and/or the defects that H occupies (Mg,Fe)-depletion, which is certainly attributed to the intrinsic nuOH of the olivines. In this case, H possibly entered into olivines following its immersion in the high temperature and rich fluid kimberlite magma in the mantle circumstance. The last one is with nuOH in the range of 3425-3000 cm(-1). In this area, nuOH is assigned to fluid inclusions of the olivines, and is the non-intrinsic nuOH of olivines. Fluid inclusions can enter into the olivines either during post-emplacement processes of the kimberlite magma or during the periods that olivines were formed in the mantle.

  2. Olivine-Wadsleyite-Pyroxene Epitaxy: Element and Volatile Distributions at the 410km Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, J. R.; Miyajima, N.; Huss, G. R.; Hellebrand, E.; Rubie, D. C.; Frost, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have synthesized hydrous peridotite-composition samples at 13GPa and 1400C with co-existing coarse grains (~100 micrometer) of olivine, wadsleyite, clinoenstatite, and melt in a multi-anvil press. The olivine grains contain fine-scale lamellae of wadsleyite and clinoenstatite that likely resulted from small temperature fluctuations during the four-hour experiment. Major-element compositions were determined by electron microprobe and H contents by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The olivine is about Fo93 in composition and contains about 650 ppm by weight H2O. The wadsleyite is about Fo87 in composition and contains about 1650 weight percent H2O. The clinoenstatite is about En96 in composition and about 440 ppm H2O. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of the lamellae and host show that the olivine and wadsleyite share their close-packed oxygen planes so that the wadsleyite lamellae are nearly planar and perpendicular to the [1 0 0] of olivine. The wadsleyite lamellae thus have their [1 0 1] and [1 0 -1] directions parallel to the [1 0 0] of olivine. Additionally, a second orientation relation with the [001] of olivine parallel to [100] of wadsleyite is also found as are incoherent blebs of wadsleyite in olivine. The coexisting melt phase quenched to a feathery mass of mostly wadsleyite crystals. Neither a quenched glass phase nor a nominally hydrous phase was observed. The lamellae indicate that the olivine-wadsleyite transformation can proceed effectively by coherent mechanisms that could potentially preserve lattice preferred orientation. The observed rapid coherent inversion from olivine to wadsleyite means that a metastable preservation of olivine below 410 km is unlikely under slightly hydrous conditions. The distribution of H among the nominally anhydrous phases implies that dehydration of peridotites by partial melting is inefficient so that complete dehydration of subducting slabs is unlikely. SEM-BSE image of wadsleyite (W) blebs and

  3. LIME silicates in amoeboid olivine aggregates in carbonaceous chondrites: Indicator of nebular and asteroidal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Mutsumi; Fagan, Timothy J.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Petaev, Michail I.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2015-07-01

    MnO/FeO ratios in olivine from amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) reflect conditions of nebular condensation and can be used in concert with matrix textures to compare metamorphic conditions in carbonaceous chondrites. LIME (low-iron, Mn-enriched) olivine was identified in AOAs from Y-81020 (CO3.05), Kaba (CV~3.1), and in Y-86009 (CV3), Y-86751 (CV3), NWA 1152 (CR/CV3), but was not identified in AOAs from Efremovka (CV3.1-3.4) or Allende (CV>3.6). According to thermodynamic models of nebular condensation, LIME olivine is stable at lower temperatures than Mn-poor olivine and at low oxygen fugacities (dust enrichment <10× solar). Although this set of samples does not represent a single metamorphic sequence, the higher subtypes tend to have AOA olivine with lower Mn/Fe, suggesting that Mn/Fe decreases during parent body metamorphism. Y-81020 has the lowest subtype and most forsteritic AOA olivine (Fo>95) in our study, whereas Efremovka AOAs are slightly Fe-rich (Fo>92). AOA olivines from Kaba are mostly forsteritic, but rare Fe-rich olivine precipitated from an aqueous fluid. A combination of precipitation of Fe-rich olivine and diffusion of Fe into primary olivine grains resulted in iron-rich compositions (Fo97-59) in Allende AOAs. Variations from fine-grained, nonporous matrix toward higher porosity and coarser lath-like matrix olivine can be divided into six stages represented by (1) Y-81020, Efremovka, NWA 1152; (2) Y-86751 lithology B; (3) Y-86009; (4) Kaba; (5) Y-86751 lithology A; (6) Allende. These stages are inferred to represent general degree of metamorphism, although the specific roles of thermally driven grain growth and diffusion versus aqueous dissolution and precipitation remain uncertain.

  4. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Deformation of olivine single crystals under lithospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Tommasi, A.; Cordier, P.

    2012-12-01

    The rheology of mantle rocks at lithospheric temperatures (<1000°C) remains poorly constrained, in contrast to the extensive experimental data on creep of olivine single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates at high temperature (T > 1200°C). Consequently, we have performed tri-axial compression experiments on oriented single crystals and polycrystalline aggregates of San Carlos olivine at temperatures ranging from 800° to 1090°C. The experiments were carried out at a confining pressure of 300 MPa in a high-resolution gas-medium mechanical testing apparatus at constant strain rates ranging from 7 × 10-6 s-1 to 1 × 10-4 s-1 . Compression was applied along three different crystallographic directions: [101]c, [110]c and [011]c, to activate the several slip systems. Yield differential stresses range from 88 to 1076 MPa. To constrain hardening, stick-and-slip, or strain localization behaviors, all samples were deformed at constant displacement rate for finite strains between 4 to 23 %. Hardening was observed in all experiments and the maximum differential stress often overcame the confining pressure. EBSD mapping highlights macroscale bending of the crystalline network in three crystals. TEM observations on several samples show dislocations with [100] and [001] Burgers vectors in all samples, but dislocation arrangements vary. The results from the present study permit to refining the power-law expressing the strain rate dependence on stress and temperature for olivine, allowing its application to the lithospheric mantle. Our experiments confirm that previous published high-temperature power flow laws overestimate the strength of lithospheric mantle and that the transition to low-temperature creep occurs at higher temperatures than it has previously been established.

  6. Deformation of Olivine at Mantle Pressure using D-DIA

    SciTech Connect

    Li,L.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheological properties of mantle materials is critical in modeling the dynamics of the Earth. The high-temperature flow law of olivine defined at mantle conditions is especially important since the pressure dependence of rheology may affect our estimation of the strength of olivine in the Earth's interior. In this study, steady-state high-temperature (up to 1473 K) deformation experiments of polycrystalline olivine (average grain size ? 10 ?m) at pressure up to 9.6 GPa, were conducted using a Deformation-DIA (D-DIA) high-pressure apparatus and synchrotron X-ray radiation. The oxygen fugacity (fo2) during the runs was in-between the iron-wustite and the Ni/NiO buffers' fo2. The water content of the polycrystalline samples was generally about 150 to 200 wt. ppm but was as low as 35 wt ppm. Typically, 30 % strain was generated during the uniaxial compression. Sample lengths during the deformation process as well as the differential stresses were monitored in situ by X-ray radiography and diffraction, respectively. The strain rate was derived with an accuracy of 10?6 s?1. Differential stress was measured at constant strain rate (?10?5 s?1) using a multi-element solid-state detector combined with a conical slit. Recovered specimens were investigated by optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM shows that dislocation glide was the dominant deformation mechanism throughout the experiment. Evidence of dislocation climb and cross-slip as active mechanisms are also reported. Deformation data show little or no dependence of the dislocation creep flow with pressure, yielding to an activation volume V* of 0 {+-} 5 cm3/mol. These new data are consistent with the high-temperature rheological laws at lower pressures, as reported previously.

  7. Argon Diffusion in Shocked Pyroxene, Feldspar, and Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, J.; Isachsen, C. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Swindle, T.

    2010-12-01

    Background: The diffusion rate of argon (Ar) in unshocked feldspar has been well studied, but studies on pyroxene and olivine are limited or non-existent. Likewise, the effects of shock on these mineral groups is also limited or non-existent. Understanding how shock affects these mineral groups is important for determining the thermal history of shocked meteorites and collisional impact craters. We have analyzed the Ar diffusion rate of an albitite and a pyroxenite at various experimental shock pressures up to ~60GPa, unshocked high-Ca pyroxene, and an olivine mineral separate from the Springwater meteorite. A previous study of shocked feldspar has shown that Ar diffusion in plagioclase (An67) is unaffected by experimental shock [1]. Re-reduction of data from another study [2] suggests naturally shocked K-rich feldspar is affected, though experimentally shocked oligoclase feldspar (An10-30) is not affected. However, previous shock experiments on feldspar were performed with low temperature resolution and only a single extraction at each temperature. This makes determining the diffusion parameters difficult because the presence of multiple grain sizes can compromise the data. By performing our experiments with a higher temperature resolution and with two extractions at each temperature, we can attain higher quality and more reliable data. The effects of shock on pyroxene and olivine have never been studied. Results: We have found that experimental shock undoubtedly raises the diffusivity of albite (Ab97), and lowers the activation energy required for diffusion. Comparison with previous data indicates that the Ca content may be controlling the response to shock. Pyroxene seems to be somewhat variable regardless of shock pressure, even within the same sample. Shock may have an effect on the diffusion rate of pyroxene, but given the variability it is difficult to delineate. The range of pyroxene diffusion rates is similar to previous studies. Olivine is found to have a

  8. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  9. Relation of the spectroscopic reflectance of olivine to mineral chemistry and some remote sensing implications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.V.V.; Ridley, W.I.

    1987-01-01

    Using high-resolution visible and near-infrared diffuse spectral reflectance, systematically investigates apparent wavelength shifts as a function of mineral chemistry in the Fe/Mg olivine series from Fo11 to Fo91. The study also shows that trace amounts of nickel can be spectrally detected in the olivine structure. Significant spectral variation as a function of grain size is also demonstrated, adding a further complication to the interpretation of remotely sensed data from olivine-rich surfaces. Some permutations of Fe-Mg-Ni relations in olivines are discussed as they apply to the interpretation of asteroid surfaces and other extraterrestrial bodies. -from Authors

  10. Magmatic history and parental melt composition of olivine-phyric shergottite LAR 06319: Importance of magmatic degassing and olivine antecrysts in Martian magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. Brian; Sanborn, Matthew; McSween, Harry Y.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-08-01

    Several olivine-phyric shergottites contain enough olivine that they could conceivably represent the products of closed-system crystallization of primary melts derived from partial melting of the Martian mantle. Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 has been suggested to represent a close approach to a Martian primary liquid composition based on approximate equilibrium between its olivine and groundmass. To better understand the olivine-melt relationship and the evolution of this meteorite, we report the results of new petrographic and chemical analyses. We find that olivine megacryst cores are generally not in equilibrium with the groundmass, but rather have been homogenized by diffusion to Mg# 72. We have identified two unique grain types: an olivine glomerocryst and an olivine grain preserving a primary magmatic boundary that constrains the time scale of eruption to be on the order of hours. We also report the presence of trace oxide phases and phosphate compositions that suggest that the melt contained approximately 1.1% H2O and lost volatiles during cooling, also associated with an increase in oxygen fugacity upon degassing. We additionally report in situ rare earth element measurements of the various mineral phases in LAR 06319. Based on these reported trace element abundances, we estimate the oxygen fugacity in the LAR 06319 parent melt early in its crystallization sequence (i.e., at the time of crystallization of the low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes), the rare earth element composition of the parent melt, and those of melts in equilibrium with later formed phases. We suggest that LAR 06319 represents the product of closed-system crystallization within a shallow magma chamber, with additional olivine accumulated from a cumulate pile. We infer that the olivine megacrysts are antecrysts, derived from a single magma chamber, but not directly related to the host magma, and suggest that mixing of antecrysts within magma chambers may be a common process in Martian magmatic

  11. Bar shapes and orbital stochasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassoula, E. )

    1990-06-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the isophotes or isodensities of bars in barred galaxies are not really elliptical in shape but more rectangular. The effect this might have on the orbits in two different types of bar potentials is studied, and it is found that in both cases the percentage of stochastic orbits is much larger when the shapes are more rectangularlike or, equivalently, when the m = 4 components are more important. This can be understood with the help of the Chirikov criterion, which can predict the limit for the onset of global stochasticity. 9 refs.

  12. Dynamical Evolution: Spirals and Bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    Non-axisymmetric modes like spirals and bars are the main driver of the evolution of disks, in transferring angular momentum, and allowing mass accretion. This evolution proceeds through self-regulation and feedback mechanisms, such as bar destruction or weakening by a central mass concentration, decoupling of a nuclear bar taking over the gas radial flows and mass accretion, etc.. These internal mechanisms can also be triggered by interaction with the environment. Recent problems are discussed, like the influence of counter-rotation in the m=1 and m=2 patterns development and on mass accretion by a central AGN.

  13. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT INFRARED OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF OLIVINE AND ENSTATITE

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidler, S.; Mutschke, H.; Posch, Th. E-mail: harald.mutschke@uni-jena.de

    2015-01-10

    Since the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission, it has become clear that dust in circumstellar disks and outflows consists partly of crystalline silicates of pyroxene and olivine type. An exact mineralogical analysis of the dust infrared emission spectra relies on laboratory spectra, which, however, have been mostly measured at room temperature so far. Given that infrared spectral features depend on the thermal excitation of the crystal's vibrational modes, laboratory spectra measured at various (low and high) temperatures, corresponding to the thermal conditions at different distances from the star, can improve the accuracy of such analyses considerably. We have measured the complex refractive index in a temperature range of 10-973 K for one mineral of each of those types of silicate, i.e., for an olivine and an enstatite of typical (terrestrial) composition. Thus, our data extend the temperature range of previous data to higher values and the compositional range to higher iron contents. We analyze the temperature dependence of oscillator frequencies and damping parameters governing the spectral characteristics of the bands and calculate absorption cross-sectional spectra that can be compared with astronomical emission spectra. We demonstrate the usefulness of our new data by comparing spectra calculated for a 100 K dust temperature with the ISO SWS spectrum of IRAS 09425-6040.

  14. Nickeliferous sulfides in xenoliths, olivine megacrysts and basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, Michael E.; Stone, William E.

    1990-11-01

    The composition of olivine and nickeliferous sulfide inclusions from a selection of mafic and ultramafre rocks, xenoliths and megacrysts, including picritic basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, kimberlite from Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and megacrysts from Mount Shasta, California are compared with the mean experimental value of the distribution coefficient for Ni/Fe exchange (KD3=32). Only nine of the forty five olivipe/bulk-sulfide pairs investigated have compositions consistent with equilibration at high temperature, yielding calculated KD3 values in the range 22 to 41. The remaining pairs have calculated KD3 values which range from 0 to 19. Bulk-sulfides in disequilibrated assem-blages are consistently depleted in nickel and within both indivudual associations and individual petrographic sections they exhibit a wide variation in NiS content. The bulk copper contents of olivine-and groundmass-hosted sulfides from Kilauea Volcano range from 0.5 to 43 at%, and samples from the Kilauea Iki lava lake are more Fe-and Cu-rich and generally have lower KD3 values than those from the eruption itself. As with magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, most nickeliferous sulfide inclusions in mantle-related rocks and xenoliths and in volcanic rocks do not have pristine early-magmatic bulk compositions, and it would seem to be premature to attribute these sulfides solely to either a mantle or an early-magnatic origin.

  15. High-pressure deformation of serpentine + olivine aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilairet, N.; Ferrand, T. P.; Raterron, P.; Merkel, S.; Guignard, J.; Langrand, C.; Schubnel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Serpentinization is expected to occur when fluids are released from the dehydrating subducting slabs and migrate into shear zones and the mantle wedge peridotites. At shallow depths (15-30km) a few percent volume serpentine can lower the viscosity of peridotites by almost an order of magnitude [1]. However, the deformation mechanisms are not easily extrapolable to deeper contexts. The rheology of a rock with two phases of contrasted mechanical properties is highly non-linear with composition and cannot be modelled from its end-members. Here we investigate the rheology of serpentine + olivine « synthetic » peridotites with varying serpentine content (5 to 50%) at high pressure (2- 3 GPa, ca. 60-90 km depth), using the D-DIA large volume press and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and imaging. The results will provide insights on the conditions under which serpentinized peridotites evolve in a regime dominated by the rheology of the strongest phase (olivine) or the weakest phase (antigorite). [1] Escartin et al, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1997

  16. Phosphorus as indicator of magmatic olivine residence time, morphology and growth rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Alexander; Batanova, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is among of slowest elements by diffusion rate in silicate melts and crystals (e.g. Spandler et al, 2007). In the same time it is moderately incompatible to compatible with olivine (Brunet & Chazot, 2001; Grant & Kohn, 2013). This makes phosphorus valuable tracer of olivine crystallization in natural conditions. Indeed, it is shown that natural magmatic olivine crystals commonly posses strong and complicated zoning in phosphorus (Milman-Barris et al, 2008; Welsch et al, 2014). In this paper we intend to review phosphorus behavior in olivine in published experimental and natural olivine studies and present large set of new EPMA data on phosphorus zoning in olivine phenocrysts from MORBs, OIBs, komatiites and kimberlites. We will show that sharp olivine zones enriched in phosphorus by a factor of 10-20 over prediction by equilibrium partition may be due to formation of P-rich boundary layer on the interface of fast growing olivine. This is proved by finding of small-size (normally 10 mkm or less) exceptionally P-rich melt inclusions in olivine, which are otherwise similar in composition to typical melt. These observations could provide potential olivine growth speedometer. We will also demonstrate, that sharp zoning in phosphorus may provide valuable information on the residence time of olivine crystals in different environments: magma chambers and conduits as well as mantle sources. This study has been founded by Russian Science Foundation grant 14-17-00491. References: Spandler, et al, 2007, Nature, v. 447, p. 303-306; Brunet & Chazot, 2001, Chemical Geology, v. 176, p. 51-72; Grant & Kohn, 2013, American Mineralogist, v. 98, p. 1860-1869; Milman-Barris et al, 2008, Contr. Min. Petrol. v. 155, p.739-765; Welsch et al, 2014, Geology, v. 42, p.867-870.

  17. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  18. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    DOEpatents

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  19. Experimentally reproduced relict enstatite in porphyritic chondrules of enstatite chondrite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Dehart, John M.; Dickinson, Tammy L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments are presented that test a model for the origin of porphyritic pyroxene (PP) chondrules in enstatite chondrites that contain phenocrysts of enstatite with blue cathodoluminescence (CL) set in a matrix of radial, dendritic enstatite with red CL. Established one-atmosphere, gas-mixing techniques were used. Relict enstatite phenocrysts with blue CL in a matrix of coarsely radial to dendritic enstatite with red CL were successfully produced. The relict crystals are preserved in runs with a melt time of 36 minutes or less at 1537 C. The relicts remain angular with smooth crystal/melt interfaces, and thus melting has occurred uniformly. Partial melting does occur along fractures produced when the blue CL enstatite was initially grown and cooled through the proto/ortho enstatite transition with the attendent volume change. There is either reaction with the melt and diffusion of Mn and Cr into the blue CL En, or there is an overgrowth of red CL En along the fractures. The bulk of the relicts remain blue. The melt enclosing the relicts crystalized to a coarsely radial to dendritic to micro porphyritic texture comprised of enstatite that has a bright red CL with decreasing melt time. The blue CL En has Mn and Cr contents at or below detection limits of the electron probe as described in earlier studies and in natural blue CL En. In the red CL En in this study, the Mn, Al2O3, and Cr are at previously observed levels and the levels change rapidly.

  20. Mineralogy and composition of matrix and chondrule rims in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolensky, M.; Barrett, R.; Browning, L.

    1993-07-01

    The degree of compositional variation of fine-grained minerals displayed by the members within any carbonaceous chondrite group (i.e., CI, CM, CV, CR) is a direct reflection of the range of aqueous alteration assemblages present. Matrix and fine-grained chondrule rims within any particular carbonaceous chondrite are mineralogically nearly identical to one another, but not necessarily similar in bulk elemental composition, even though they have subsequently experienced postaccretional secondary processing (aqueous alteration) under identical conditions. We propose that CO chondrites experienced parent body conditions of low f(O2), low water/rock ratios, and temperatures below 50 C. CR chondrites experienced higher water/rock ratios, potentially higher temperatures (not above 150 C), and a wide range of f(O2). The alteration mineralogy of CV chondrites indicates water/rock ratios at the high end (at least) of the range for CR chondrites, Essebi, and MAC 87300. CM chondrites experienced temperatures below 50 C, low f(O2) and low water/rock ratios, except EET 83334, which probably experienced relatively higher f(O2), and B-7904 and Y-86720, which experienced postalteration temperatures in the range 500-700 C. Most CI chondrites experienced temperatures between 50 and 150 C, relatively high water/rock ratios, and variable f(O2). Y-82162 witnessed postalteration heating, possibly as high as 400 C.

  1. The formation of IIE iron meteorites investigated by the chondrule-bearing Mont Dieu meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Roosbroek, N.; Debaille, V.; Pittarello, L.; Goderis, S.; Humayun, M.; Hecht, L.; Jourdan, F.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Vanhaecke, F.; Claeys, Ph.

    2015-07-01

    A 435 kg piece of the Mont Dieu iron meteorite (MD) contains cm-sized silicate inclusions. Based on the concentration of Ni, Ga, Ge, and Ir (8.59 ± 0.32 wt%, 25.4 ± 0.9 ppm, 61 ± 2 ppm, 7.1 ± 0.4 ppm, respectively) in the metal host, this piece can be classified as a IIE nonmagmatic iron. The silicate inclusions possess a chondritic mineralogy and relict chondrules occur throughout the inclusions. Major element analysis, oxygen isotopic analysis (Δ17O = 0.71 ± 0.02‰), and mean Fa and Fs molar contents (Fa15.7 ± 0.4 and Fs14.4 ± 0.5) indicate that MD originated as an H chondrite. Because of strong similarities with Netschaëvo IIE, MD can be classified in the most primitive subgroup of the IIE sequence. 40Ar/39Ar ages of 4536 ± 59 Ma and 4494 ± 95 Ma obtained on pyroxene and plagioclase inclusions show that MD belongs to the old (~4.5 Ga) group of IIE iron meteorites and that it has not been perturbed by any subsequent heating event following its formation. The primitive character of MD sheds light on the nature of its formation process, its thermal history, and the evolution of its parent body.

  2. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-10

    is the torsional wave speed . Also, one can relate the torque with the yield stress of the material, as seen in equation 2; where r is the radius of...be equal to the mechanical impedance of the bars. In other words, the product of density, speed of wave and polar moment of inertia must remain...pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt-lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter

  3. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites. VII - Annealing studies of the Dhajala H3.8 chondrite and the thermal history of chondrules and chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keck, B. D.; Guimon, R. K.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of the Dhajala meteorite were annealed at 600-1000 C for 1, 2, 10, 20 and 100 h and their thermoluminescence (TL) properties were measured. After annealing at less than 900 deg, the TL sensitivity decreased by a factor of two; at higher temperatures, it fell by an order of magnitude. Data indicate that the annealing treatment caused the low-temperature feldspar in Dhajala to be converted to feldspar of a high-temperature (disordered) form. Low-temperature feldspar was found in the meteorite's TL-sensitive chondrules which comprised about 20 percent of those separated. It is suggested that these chondrules suffered greater crystallization of their mesostasis than the other chondrules, and equilibrated to lower temperatures. Based on TL data, there appears to be no relationship between post-metamorphic cooling rate and petrologic type for the 3.5-3.9 chondrites.

  4. An early I-Xe age for CB chondrite chondrule formation, and a re-evaluation of the closure age of Shallowater enstatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Busfield, A.; Holland, G.; Whitby, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    The iodine-xenon system has been analyzed in samples of 7 chondrules from the CB chondrites Gujba and Hammadah al Hamra (HaH) 237. One sample from Gujba defined a high temperature iodine-xenon isochron corresponding to closure 1.87 ± 0.4 Ma before closure of Shallowater enstatite. Motivated by this result, we employ outlier rejection to re-evaluate the Shallowater age, leading to a modified value of 4562.3 ± 0.4 Ma (1σ). In this process, the datum obtained by combining our I-Xe age for Gujba with the literature Pb-Pb age is rejected as an outlier, indicating that in this sample the I-Xe system closed earlier than the accepted Pb-Pb age of chondrules from CB chondrites. The need for a formation environment distinct from that of chondrules from other meteorites is thus reduced.

  5. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. PartialLy Shock-Transformed Olivine in Shocked Chondrites: Mechanisms of Solid-State Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.; Xie, Z.

    2007-12-01

    High-pressure minerals, produced by shock meta-morphism, are common in and around melt veins in highly shocked chondrites. These minerals either crys-tallized from silicate melt in the shock-vein or formed by solid- state transformation of host-rock fragments entrained in the melt or along shock-vein margins. Olivine- ringwoodite transformation kinetics can be used to constrain shock duration if one knows P-T conditions and transformation mechanisms. Here we examine the solid-state transformation of olivine to ringwoodite and the formation of ringwoodite lamellae in Tenham. Partially transformed olivines show a variety of ringwoodite textures. Some have granular textures whereas others have straight or curved ringwoodite lamellae, made up of distinct (1 to 2 ?m) crystals. Many of these polycrystalline ringwoodite lamellae occur in pairs. Where these paired lamellae cross the are offset, suggesting that the lamellae are associated with shearing. Electron diffraction reveals that the ringwoodites in the polycrystalline lamellae, occur in roughly the same crystallographic orientation, defining a lattice-preferred orientation. TEM also shows that the remnant olivine is highly deformed, with high densities of complex dislocations. This olivine has a poorly organized sub-grain structure that grades into polycrystalline olivine. The nearby untransformed olivine is also highly de-formed, but less than the partially transformed olivine. TEM images of complex dislocation and sub-grain microstructures suggests that the transformation of olivine to ringwoodite involves extensive deformation. High densities of dislocations provide potential sites for heterogeneous nucleation of ringwoodite and may enhance Fe-Mg inter-diffusion. The differential stress at the initial stage of the shock results in high strains and local heating. The paired ringwoodite lamellae in olivine appear to result from shearing and possibly shear heating, where nucleation occurs on both sides of a shear

  7. Additional Sr Isotopic Heterogeneity in Zagami Olivine-Rich Lithology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misawa, K.; Niihara, T.; Shih, C.-Y; Reese, Y. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Yoneda, S.; Yamashita, H.

    2012-01-01

    Prior isotopic analyses of Zagami have established differing initial Sr-87/Sr-86 (ISr) ratios of among Zagami lithologies, fine-grained (FG), coarse-grained (CG), and dark mottled lithologies (DML)]. The Zagami sample (KPM-NLH000057) newly allocated from the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History contained DML and the Ol-rich lithology which included more ferroan olivines (Ol-rich: Fa(sub 97- 99) vs late-stage melt pockets: Fa(sub 90-97)]). We have combined mineralogy-petrology and Rb-Sr isotopic studies on the Kanagawa Zagami sample, which will provide additional clues to the genesis of enriched shergottites and to the evolution of Martian crust and mantle

  8. Phyllosilicate and Olivine around a Fracture in Nili Fossae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    iron- and magnesium-rich mineral olivine. Olivine and pyroxene are minerals associated with igneous activity.

    Overlaying CRISM data with images from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera shows that the phyllosilicates are in small, eroded outcrops of rock. The olivine is most abundant in sand dunes on the surface. The use of these two instruments together reveals more about the history of the region: Olivine sands covered the area shown in the image after the interaction of water and rock formed the phyllosilicates and after the fracture formed.

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

  9. Infrared spectra of olivine polymorphs - Alpha, beta phase and spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeanloz, R.

    1980-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of several olivines (alpha phase) and their corresponding beta phase (modified spinel) and spinel (gamma) high-pressure polymorphs are determined. Spectra were measured for ground and pressed samples of alpha and gamma A2SiO4, where A = Fe, Ni, Co; alpha and gamma Mg2GeO4; alpha Mg2SiO4; and beta Co2SiO4. The spectra are interpreted in terms of internal, tetrahedral and octagonal, and lattice vibration modes, and the spinel results are used to predict the spectrum of gamma Mg2SiO4. Analysis of spectra obtained from samples of gamma Mg2GeO4 heated to 730 and 1000 C provides evidence that partial inversion could occur in silicate spinels at elevated temperatures and pressures.

  10. The x ray microprobe determination of chromium oxidation state in olivine from lunar basalt and kimberlitic diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, S. R.; Bajt, S.; Rivers, M. L.; Smith, J. V.

    1993-01-01

    The synchrotron x-ray microprobe is being used to obtain oxidation state information on planetary materials with high spatial resolution. Initial results on chromium in olivine from various sources including laboratory experiments, lunar basalt, and kimberlitic diamonds are reported. The lunar olivine was dominated by Cr(2+) whereas the diamond inclusions had Cr(2+/Cr(3+) ratios up to about 0.3. The simpliest interpretation is that the terrestrial olivine crystallized in a more oxidizing environment than the lunar olivine.

  11. Abiotic methane formation during experimental serpentinization of olivine.

    PubMed

    McCollom, Thomas M

    2016-12-06

    Fluids circulating through actively serpentinizing systems are often highly enriched in methane (CH4). In many cases, the CH4 in these fluids is thought to derive from abiotic reduction of inorganic carbon, but the conditions under which this process can occur in natural systems remain unclear. In recent years, several studies have reported abiotic formation of CH4 during experimental serpentinization of olivine at temperatures at or below 200 °C. However, these results seem to contradict studies conducted at higher temperatures (300 °C to 400 °C), where substantial kinetic barriers to CH4 synthesis have been observed. Here, the potential for abiotic formation of CH4 from dissolved inorganic carbon during olivine serpentinization is reevaluated in a series of laboratory experiments conducted at 200 °C to 320 °C. A (13)C-labeled inorganic carbon source was used to unambiguously determine the origin of CH4 generated in the experiments. Consistent with previous high-temperature studies, the results indicate that abiotic formation of CH4 from reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon during the experiments is extremely limited, with nearly all of the observed CH4 derived from background sources. The results indicate that the potential for abiotic synthesis of CH4 in low-temperature serpentinizing environments may be much more limited than some recent studies have suggested. However, more extensive production of CH4 was observed in one experiment performed under conditions that allowed an H2-rich vapor phase to form, suggesting that shallow serpentinization environments where a separate gas phase is present may be more favorable for abiotic synthesis of CH4.

  12. Predicted model for hydrous modified olivine (HyM-α)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Y.

    A possible structure for hydrous modified olivine (HyM-α) has been obtained by the subtraction of Mg3SiO5 from forsterite by crystallographic shear along a direction parallel to the [010] direction of olivine. The subtraction of Mg3SiO5 results in the subtraction of MgO from bulk chemistry (-Mg3SiO5=-Mg2SiO4-MgO). A possible structure for HyM-α thus obtained has the chemical formula Mg9Si5H2O20 (= 5 × Mg1.8SiH0.4O4) with monoclinic unit cell a=4.754 Å, b=10.19 Å, c=29.90 Å, ρ=3.126 g cm-3, and space group=Ac2m (no. 39). Since the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of HyM-α proposed in this study is very close to that of clinohumite, there is the possibility of this phase having been undiscovered. The humite group minerals and HyM-α proposed in this study make a homologous series as recombination structures: Mg(2m+n)SimH2nO2(2m+n) for the humite group and Mg(2m+n)Si(m+n)H2nO4(m+n) for HyM-α A characteristic feature is that Mg/Si > 2 for the humite group and Mg/Si < 2 for HyM-α. Forsterite specimens containing around 100 ppm H2O reported in mantle xenoliths might be the disordered case with n=1 and m=1200 of the humite group or HyM-α.

  13. Stereochemically constrained complex organic molecules extracted from olivine crystal matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimenko, I.; Freund, F. T.; Imanaka, H.; Rodgers, R.

    2011-12-01

    Paradoxically, the dense solid state of magmatic minerals is a medium, in which organic synthesis can take place. The reason is that gas-fluid components such as H2O, CO/CO2/N2 and H2S are omnipresent in terrestrial magmatic environments. Any silicate mineral that crystallizes from such magmas will incorporate small quantities of the fluid-phase components in the form of structurally incompatible low-z impurities. During cooling the solute species undergo a redox conversion, resulting in chemically reduced low-z elements. To the extent that these low-z impurities are diffusively mobile, they will exsolve to the surface and/or to major structural defects inside the crystal matrix such as dislocations. Dislocations provide a 3-D structured environment, where the low-z impurities will tend to form stereochemically constrained polyatomic Cn-H-O-N-S entities, which we call organic protomolecules. In Nature, during weathering, such protomolecules will be released into the environment in the form of complex organic molecules. In our study we crush samples under clean conditions as a way to expose Cn-H-O-N-S entities at the fracture surfaces. We conduct identical experiments with selected large olivine single crystals, mm-sized olivine from peridiotite nodules from the San Carlos Volcanic Field, Arizona, and the vesiculated basalt that had carried the nodules upward in the volcanic conduit. We Soxhlet-extract the crushed powders with water, THF and ethyl acetate. The extracts are analyzed at the FTICR-MS facility at Florida State University using ultrahigh resolution Mass Spectrometry techniques capable of determining the chemical composition of the organic molecules up to 600 amu and more. So far we have found several analog sequences of oxygen-rich aliphatic hydrocarbons, families with up to 34 carbon atoms, probably poly-carboxylic acids, and some families containing sulfur.

  14. Abiotic methane formation during experimental serpentinization of olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.

    2016-12-01

    Fluids circulating through actively serpentinizing systems are often highly enriched in methane (CH4). In many cases, the CH4 in these fluids is thought to derive from abiotic reduction of inorganic carbon, but the conditions under which this process can occur in natural systems remain unclear. In recent years, several studies have reported abiotic formation of CH4 during experimental serpentinization of olivine at temperatures at or below 200 °C. However, these results seem to contradict studies conducted at higher temperatures (300 °C to 400 °C), where substantial kinetic barriers to CH4 synthesis have been observed. Here, the potential for abiotic formation of CH4 from dissolved inorganic carbon during olivine serpentinization is reevaluated in a series of laboratory experiments conducted at 200 °C to 320 °C. A 13C-labeled inorganic carbon source was used to unambiguously determine the origin of CH4 generated in the experiments. Consistent with previous high-temperature studies, the results indicate that abiotic formation of CH4 from reduction of dissolved inorganic carbon during the experiments is extremely limited, with nearly all of the observed CH4 derived from background sources. The results indicate that the potential for abiotic synthesis of CH4 in low-temperature serpentinizing environments may be much more limited than some recent studies have suggested. However, more extensive production of CH4 was observed in one experiment performed under conditions that allowed an H2-rich vapor phase to form, suggesting that shallow serpentinization environments where a separate gas phase is present may be more favorable for abiotic synthesis of CH4.

  15. Olivine friction at the base of oceanic seismogenic zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boettcher, M.S.; Hirth, G.; Evans, B. M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the strength and frictional behavior of olivine aggregates at temperatures and effective confining pressures similar to those at the base of the seismogenic zone on a typical ridge transform fault. Triaxial compression tests were conducted on dry olivine powder (grain size ???60 ??m) at effective confining pressures between 50 and 300 MPa (using Argon as a pore fluid), temperatures between 600??C and 1000??C, and axial displacement rates from 0.06 to 60 ??m/s (axial strain rates from 3 ?? 10-6 to 3 ?? 10-3 s-1). Yielding shows a negative pressure dependence, consistent with predictions for shear enhanced compaction and with the observation that samples exhibit compaction during the initial stages of the experiments. A combination of mechanical data and microstructural observations demonstrate that deformation was accommodated by frictional processes. Sample strengths were pressure-dependent and nearly independent of temperature. Localized shear zones formed in initially homogeneous aggregates early in the experiments. The frictional response to changes in loading rate is well described by rate and state constitutive laws, with a transition from velocity-weakening to velocity-strengthening at 1000??C. Microstructural observations and physical models indicate that plastic yielding of asperities at high temperatures and low axial strain rates stabilizes frictional sliding. Extrapolation of our experimental data to geologic strain rates indicates that a transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening occurs at approximately 600??C, consistent with the focal depths of earthquakes in the oceanic lithosphere. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Abundance of 60Fe inferred from nanoSIMS study of QUE 97008 (L3.05) chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Marhas, Kuljeet Kaur; Sameer

    2016-02-01

    60Fe-60Ni relative chronometry (t1/2 = 2.62 Ma) studies within silicate phases of two chondrules (Ch1b, Ch5) from the Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 97008 (L3.05) meteorite yield 60Fe/56Fe abundances of (6.3 ± 4.0) ×10-7 and (6.6 ± 2.5) ×10-7 for QUE 97008 Ch1b and Ch 5, respectively at the time of their formation. The 26Al-26Mg isotopic studies carried out in these chondrules in a previous independent study allow to infer Solar system initial 60Fe/56Fe abundances of (8.3 ± 7.3) ×10-7 and (11.2 ± 7.1) ×10-7 consistent with the value of ∼ 7 ×10-7 inferred previously from in situ studies carried out using secondary ion mass spectrometry. The high abundance of 60Fe inferred from the present study carried out using NanoSIMS is not in agreement with some bulk and mineral separate studies carried out using MC-ICPMS. The paper discusses possible potential reasons for the observed difference in abundances. It is found that none of them can fully reconcile the results from the two analytics. However, the present study extends the limited data set of in situ, multi-isotope systematics within chondrules to another slightly more altered meteorite of another type (low iron ordinary chondrite L type) and suggests existence of discernable fossil records of 60Fe in meteorites other than Semarkona (LL3.00).

  17. Olivine-gabbros and olivine-rich troctolites genesis through melt-rock reactions in oceanic spreading lithosphere: an experimental study up to 0.7 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francomme, Justine E.; Fumagalli, Patrizia; Borghini, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    Extensive melt-rock reaction and melt impregnation significantly affect not only the physical and chemical properties at mantle-crust transition, but also control the evolution of migrating melts. We performed reactive dissolution and crystallization experiments at pressure ≤ 0.7 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus to provide experimental constraints on genesis of olivine-rich troctolites and olivine-gabbros at mantle-crust transition in oceanic spreading lithosphere by melt-rock reaction. Our experiments are carried out by using Salt-Pyrex-Graphite-Magnesium assemblies and graphite-lined platinum capsules. Experimental charges are prepared with three layers: (1) basalt powder, (2) fine powder (1-10μm) of San Carlos olivine (Fo90.1), and (3) carbon spheres used as a melt trap. Three synthetic MORB-type melts have been used, two tholeiitic basalts (Mg#: 0.62, SiO2: 47.70 wt%, Na2O: 2.28 wt% and Mg#: 0.58, SiO2: 49.25 wt%, Na2O: 2.49 wt%) and a primitive one (Mg#: 0.74, SiO2: 48.25 wt%, Na2O: 1.80 wt%), in order to investigate the effect of melt composition. A rock/melt ratio of 0.7 has been kept fixed. Experiments have been conducted at temperatures from 1200 to 1300°C, at both step cooling and isothermal conditions for different run durations (from 12 to 72 hrs). They resulted in layered samples in which all the initial San Carlos olivine powder, analog of a dunitic pluton infiltrated by basaltic melt, is replaced by different lithologies from olivine-rich troctolite to olivine gabbro. In isothermal experiments, reacted melts have been successfully trapped in the carbon spheres allowing their chemical analysis; as expected the reacted melt has a higher Mg# than the initial one (e.g. from Mg#=0.62 to 0.73). Across the different lithologies Mg# of olivine is decreasing from the olivine-rich troctolite to the gabbro. Replacive olivine-rich troctolite has a poikilitic texture with rounded euhedral olivine and interstitial poikilitic plagioclase and clinopyroxene

  18. Low energy {bar p} physics at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.Y.

    1992-12-01

    The charmonium formation experiment is the only low energy {bar p} experiment at FNAL. This paper describes the performance of the Fermilab {bar p} Accumulator during fixed target run for the experiment and the planned upgrades. We also discuss the proposal for the direct CP violation search in {bar p} + p {yields} {bar {Lambda}} + {Lambda} {yields} {bar p}{pi}{sup +} + p{pi}{sup {minus}}.

  19. The Fidelity of Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions as Recorders of Pre-Eruptive Water Content and Oxygen Fugacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Glenn; O'Leary, Julie; Shimizu, Nobumichi

    2010-05-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions represent an important source of information on both the pre-eruptive H2O contents and oxygen fugacities of basaltic magmas [1]. The principal uncertainty involved with deriving pre-eruptive H2O concentrations from melt inclusions is the potential for diffusive loss or gain of H+ (protons) through the host olivine. Further, it has been proposed that the proton flux associated with H2O loss/gain affects the oxidation state of the inclusion [2,3]. Results from hydration and dehydration experiments carried out on natural inclusion-bearing olivines analyzed by SIMS and XANES confirm that H2O re-equilibratrion occurs rapidly via proton diffusion through the host olivine, and demonstrate that re-equilibration of oxygen fugacity within the inclusion occurs on comparable timescales via diffusion of point defects. Therefore, an olivine-hosted melt inclusion provides a reliable record of both the H2O content and oxygen fugacity of the external melt with which it most recently equilibrated. However, efficient re-equilibration of both H2O and oxygen fugacity limits the utility of olivine-hosted melt inclusions as indicators of mantle processes. Hydration experiments were performed on olivines from Puu Wahi, a scoria cone on the NE rift zone of Mauna Loa volcano. Melt inclusions initially containing 0.36±0.05 wt% H2O were held at 1 GPa and 1250° C in water enriched in 18O (18O/ΣO = 0.977) and D (2H/ΣH = 0.998) to map the transport of protons and oxygen during equilibration of melt inclusions with an external fluid. Dehydration experiments were carried out for 1 to 18 hrs at 1 bar and 1250 ° C on inclusion-bearing olivines in scoria erupted from Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, in 1999. The initial concentration of H2O in these melt inclusions was uniformly high (3.6±0.6 wt%). All run products were analyzed for major elements by electron microprobe and for H2O by SIMS on the Cameca 1280 ion microprobe at WHOI. The oxidation state of Fe was

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Barred Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.-T.

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic fields are pervasive in barred galaxies, especially in gaseous substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. To explore the effects of magnetic fields on the formation of the substructures as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center, we run two-dimensional, ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We use a modified version of the Athena code whose numerical magnetic diffusivity is shown to be of third order in space. In the bar regions, magnetic fields are compressed and abruptly bent around the dust-lane shocks. The associated magnetic stress not only reduces the peak density of the dust-lane shocks but also removes angular momentum further from the gas that is moving radially in. Nuclear rings that form at the location of centrifugal barrier rather than resonance with the bar are smaller and more radially distributed, and the mass flow rate to the galaxy center is correspondingly larger in models with stronger magnetic fields. Outside the bar regions, the bar potential and strong shear conspire to amplify the field strength near the corotation resonance. The amplified fields transport angular momentum outward, producing trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms are found to be unstable to a tearing-mode instability of magnetic reconnection. This produces numerous magnetic islands that eventually make the outer regions highly chaotic.

  1. Hydrogen in the upper mantle: Diffusion and effects on olivine transformation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Frane, Wyatt Louis

    Olivine is the most abundant mineral in Earth's upper mantle and can host significant amounts of hydrogen within its crystal structure. The presence of hydrogen affects many of olivine's physical properties such as electrical conductivity, viscosity, sound speed, transformation kinetics, phase equilibrium, and generally speaking the physics governing the interior of the earth. Understanding how hydrogen affects olivine is integral to understanding the Earth's interior. In this work olivine was experimentally hydrated and reacted at high pressure and temperature, to simulate upper mantle conditions. The physical properties measured in this work are used to understand seismic and magnetotelluric observations of the Earth. In the first project the effects of hydrogen on olivine transformation kinetics were examined. Growth rates for olivine's high pressure polymorphs, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, to determine if olivine can persist metastably inside cold subducting slabs in the mantle transition zone. Hydrogen significantly enhances the growth rates of olivine into ringwoodite. For olivine containing ˜75 (or higher) ppmw H2O At 18 GPa and 900°C the growth rate for ringwoodite rims is 1.0x10-9 m/s with activation enthalpy of 235 +/- 30 kJ/mol, which is too high for persistence of metastable olivine into the transition zone. Confirmation of the existence of metastable olivine by seismologists would constrain H2O contents at such locations to be < 75 ppmw H2O. In the second project deuterium-hydrogen interdiffusion coefficients were measured to help understand electrical conductivity, point defect populations, chemical transport, and defect dominated properties in olivine. For the fastest H-diffusing [100] orientation DD-H, [100] = 10(-5.04 +/- 1.43)*e(-137 +/- 31 kJ/mol)/(RT) m²/s at 2 GPa and 750--900°C. Comparison of DD-H to chemical diffusion coefficients allows us to calculate diffusivity of intrinsic defects. Olivine electrical conductivity is calculated from DD

  2. Martian Dunite NWA 2737: Petrographic Constraints on Geological History, Shock Events, and Olivine Color

    SciTech Connect

    Treiman,A.; Dyar, M.; McCanta, M.; Noble, S.; Pieters, C.

    2007-01-01

    Meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 is the second known chassignite, an olivine-rich igneous rock with mineral compositions and isotopic ratios that suggest it formed on Mars. NWA 2737 consists of ?85% vol. olivine (Mg, molar Mg/(Mg + Fe), of 78.3 {+-} 0.4%), which is notable because it is black in hand sample and brown in thin section. Other minerals include chromite, pyroxenes (augite, pigeonite, orthopyroxene), and diaplectic glass of alkali-feldspar composition. Aqueous alteration is minimal and appears only as slight dissolution of glass. NWA 2737 formed by accumulation of olivine and chromite from a basaltic magma; the other minerals represent magma trapped among the cumulus grains. Minerals are compositionally homogeneous, consistent with chemical equilibration in late and postigneous cooling. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives equilibration temperatures 1150 C, implying a significant time spent at the basalt solidus. Olivine-spinel-pyroxene equilibria give ?825 C (possibly the T of mesostasis crystallization) at an oxidation state of QMF-1. This oxidation state is consistent with low Fe3+ in olivine (determined by EMP, Moessbauer spectra, and synchrotron micro-XANES spectroscopy) and with {approx}10% of the iron in pyroxene being Fe3+. NWA 2737 experienced two shock events. The first shock, to stage S5-S6, affected the olivine by producing in it planar deformation features, intense mosaicism and lattice strain, and abundant droplets of iron-nickel metal, 5-15 nm in diameter. At this stage the olivine became deeply colored, i.e., strongly absorbing at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. This shock event and its thermal pulse probably occurred at {approx}170 Ma, the Ar-Ar age of NWA 2737. The colored olivine is cut by ribbons of coarser, uncolored olivine with long axes along [100] and shorter axes on {l_brace}021{r_brace} planes: These are consistent with the easy slip law for olivine [100]{l_brace}021{r_brace}, which is activated at moderate strain

  3. Experimental evidence for melt partitioning between olivine and orthopyroxene in partially molten harzburgite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Zhu, Wen-lu; Montési, Laurent G. J.; Gaetani, Glenn A.; Le Roux, Véronique; Xiao, Xianghui

    2016-08-01

    Observations of dunite channels in ophiolites and uranium series disequilibria in mid-ocean ridge basalt suggest that melt transport in the upper mantle beneath mid-ocean ridges is strongly channelized. We present experimental evidence that spatial variations in mineralogy can also focus melt on the grain scale. This lithologic melt partitioning, which results from differences in the interfacial energies associated with olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt boundaries, may complement other melt focusing mechanisms in the upper mantle such as mechanical shear and pyroxene dissolution. We document here lithologic melt partitioning in olivine-/orthopyroxene-basaltic melt samples containing nominal olivine to orthopyroxene ratio of 3 to 2 and melt fractions of 0.02 to 0.20. Experimental samples were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray microcomputed tomography at a resolution of 700 nm per voxel. By analyzing the local melt fraction distributions associated with olivine and orthopyroxene grains in each sample, we found that the melt partitioning coefficient, i.e., the ratio of melt fraction around olivine to that around orthopyroxene grains, varies between 1.1 and 1.6. The permeability and electrical conductivity of our digital samples were estimated using numerical models and compared to those of samples containing only olivine and basaltic melt. Our results suggest that lithologic melt partitioning and preferential localization of melt around olivine grains might play a role in melt focusing, potentially enhancing average melt ascent velocities.

  4. Oxygen isotopic composition of individual olivine grains from the Allende meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbruch, S.; Zinner, E. K.; El Goresy, A.; Steele, I. M.; Palme, H.

    1993-06-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of a variety of individual olivine grains (including refractory forsterite grains, cores of isolated olivine grains, FeO-rich rims, and individual matrix olivine grains) from the Allende CV3 meteorite was investigated by ion microprobe mass spectrometry, in order to obtain information on the formation mechanism of these samples. It was found that the most primitive (i.e., refractory) olivine in Allende is far less enriched in O-16 than are spinel and pyroxene in Ca,Al-rich inclusions, suggesting that Allende olivine must have formed in an environment that is less enriched in O-16 compared to the gas from which Ca,Al-inclusions are formed. FeO-rich (26-30 wt pct) rims of isolated olivine grains are significantly higher in delta-O-17 and delta-O-18 than forsteritic cores, suggesting that these rims formed by condensation from an oxidized gas with higher delta-O-17 than delta-O-18. Matrix olivine was found to be highest in FeO and to have the lowest enrichment in O-16.

  5. Effect of Sulfur on Siderophile Element Partitioning Between Olivine and Martian Primary Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usui, T.; Shearer, C. K.; Righter, K.; Jones, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Since olivine is a common early crystallizing phase in basaltic magmas that have produced planetary and asteroidal crusts, a number of experimental studies have investigated elemental partitioning between olivine and silicate melt [e.g., 1, 2, 3]. In particular, olivine/melt partition coefficients of Ni and Co (DNi and DCo) have been intensively studied because these elements are preferentially partitioned into olivine and thus provide a uniquely useful insight into the basalt petrogenesis [e.g., 4, 5]. However, none of these experimental studies are consistent with incompatible signatures of Co [e.g., 6, 7, 8] and Ni [7] in olivines from Martian meteorites. Chemical analyses of undegassed MORB samples suggest that S dissolved in silicate melts can reduce DNi up to 50 % compared to S-free experimental systems [9]. High S solubility (up to 4000 ppm) for primitive shergottite melts [10] implies that S might have significantly influenced the Ni and Co partitioning into shergottite olivines. This study conducts melting experiments on Martian magmatic conditions to investigate the effect of S on the partitioning of siderophile elements between olivine and Martian primary melt.

  6. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Solvothermal Synthesis of Non-Olivine Cmcm Polymorphs of LiMPO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) at Low Temperature and Pressure.

    PubMed

    Assat, Gaurav; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-10-19

    Lithium transition-metal phosphates, LiMPO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni), have attracted significant research interest over the past two decades as an important class of lithium ion battery cathode materials. However, almost all of the investigations thus far have focused on the olivine polymorph that exists in the orthorhombic Pnma space group. In this study, a distinct orthorhombic but non-olivine polymorph of LiMPO4, described by a Cmcm space group symmetry, has been synthesized with M = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. Of these, LiMnPO4 in the Cmcm space group is reported for the first time. A rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal (MW-ST) heating process with tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as the solvent and transition-metal oxalates as precursors facilitates the synthesis of these materials. The peak reaction temperatures and pressures were below 300 °C and 30 bar, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude lower than those of the previously reported high-pressure (gigapascals) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the crystal structure with the Cmcm space group, and scanning electron micrographs indicate a submicrometer thin platelet-like morphology. The synthesis process conditions have been optimized to obtain impurity-free samples with the correct stoichiometry, as characterized by XRD and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Upon heat treatment to higher temperatures, an irreversible transformation of the metastable Cmcm polymorphs into olivine is observed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Although the electrochemical activity of these polymorphs as lithium ion cathodes turns out to be poor, the facile synthesis under mild conditions has permitted easy access to these materials in a nanomorphology, some of which were not even possible before.

  7. H Diffusion in Olivine and Pyroxene from Peridotite Xenoliths and a Hawaiian Magma Speedometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is present as a trace element in olivine and pyroxene and its content distribution in the mantle results from melting and metasomatic processes. Here we examine how these H contents can be disturbed during decompression. Hydrogen was analyzed by FTIR in olivine and pyroxene of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC) nephelinites which are part of the rejuvenated volcanism at Oahu (Hawaii) [1,2]. H mobility in pyroxene resulting from spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling Most pyroxenes in SLC peridotites exhibit exsolutions, characterized by spinel inclusions. Pyroxene edges where no exsolution are present have less H then their core near the spinel. Given that H does not enter spinel [3], subsolidus requilibration may have concentrated H in the pyroxene adjacent to the spinel exsolution during mantle upwelling. H diffusion in olivine during xenolith transport by its host magma and host magma ascent rates Olivines have lower water contents at the edge and near fractures compared to at their core, while the concentrations of all other chemical elements appear homogeneous. This suggests that some of the initial water has diffused out of the olivine. Water loss from the olivine is thought to occur during host-magma ascent and xenolith transport to the surface [4-6]. Diffusion modeling matches best the data when the initial water content used is that measured at the core of the olivines, implying that mantle water contents are preserved at the core of the olivines. The 3225 cm(sup -1) OH band at times varies independantly of other OH bands, suggesting uneven H distribution in olivine defects likely acquired during mantle metasomatism just prior to eruption and unequilibrated. Diffusion times (1-48 hrs) combined with depths of peridotite equilibration or of magma start of degassing allow to calculate ascent rates for the host nephelinite of 0.1 to 27 m/s.

  8. New insights into the formation of fayalitic olivine from Allende dark inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Maria E.; Zinner, Ernst; Kurat, Gero; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Hoppe, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in unraveling the origin(s) of fayalitic olivines in dark inclusions (DIs), many questions remain still unresolved and/or controversial. We combine a chemical and petrographic study of the Allende dark inclusion 4884-2B (AMNH, New York) and ATEM studies of a fragment of the dark inclusion Allende AF (NHM, Vienna) and discuss an alternative way in which fayalitic olivines could have formed. Allende dark inclusion 4884-2B contains a few aggregates with variable proportions of transparent and feathery olivine. Two such objects (aggregates A and B) are the focus of this study as they preserve glasses that can help in deciphering the nature of the processes involved during olivine growth and subsequent olivine transformation. The petrographic and chemical characteristics of aggregates A and B indicate that the forsteritic stack olivines may be pseudomorphs of clear olivine crystals. The ATEM studies in All-AF suggest that fayalitic olivines may be the result of secondary processes (e.g., metasomatic exchange reactions) operating in the solar nebula. Transformation may have occurred through the mediation of a dry gas phase involving nonvolatile major elements, such as Mg and Fe (e.g., Dohmen et al. 1998). This mechanism could reveal olivine growth patterns (e.g., stacked platelets due to a rapid growth regime) and may have contributed to the development of their fibrous aspect while preserving the shape (i.e., volume) of the crystals. This highly selective process did completely or partially transform ferromagnesian minerals, but affected the fine-grained mesostasis only slightly.

  9. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  10. Trace Elements in Olivine in Italian Potassic Volcanic Rocks Distinguish Between Mantle Metasomatism by Carbonatitic and Silicate Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S. F.; Ammannati, E.; Jacob, D. E.; Avanzinelli, R.; Conticelli, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Italian Peninsula is the site of intense subduction-related potassic magmatism with bimodal character in terms of silica activity: Ca-poor silica-saturated lamproitic rocks and Ca-enriched silica-undersaturated leucitites. Lamproitic magmas formed in the early phases of magmatic activity and were followed by leucititic magmas. The primary magmas are generated in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle at the destructive plate margin, and both series have olivine as the first crystallizing phenocrysts. Trace elements in olivine phenocrysts are important in recognizing metasomatic effects on the mineralogy of the mantle source. Since Ni is the most compatible trace element in olivine, particularly in alkaline melts, modal changes of olivine in the source strongly affect its bulk partition coefficient, and therefore its content in primary melts and in olivine that crystallizes from them.The concentration of other compatible trace elements (e.g. Mn, Co) in olivine phenocrysts also depends on the abundance of olivine in the magma source. Ni contents in olivine of the Italian rocks show a clear bimodal distribution. Olivine from lamproitic samples has systematically higher Fo and Ni contents, whereas olivine from leucititic rocks never exceeds Fo92 and has markedly lower Ni, reaching among the lowest levels ever observed in olivine phenocrysts in primitive melts. The Mn/Fe ratio of olivine is also sensitive to changes of the modal abundance of olivine in the source, 100*Mn/Fe of olivine from lamproitic rocks never exceeds 2, while it is always >1.8 in leucititic rocks, meaning that the leucitite source regions are much richer in olivine. Lithium is generally enriched in the crust and in sediments compared to the lithospheric mantle and to mantle-derived melts,so that Li in olivine above 10 ppm is suggested to indicate recycled sediments. Li contents are up to 35 ppm in leucititic olivines and up to >50 ppm in lamproitic olivines, confirming the recycling of crustal

  11. Cr, Mn, and Ca distributions for olivine in angritic systems: Constraints on the origins of Cr-rich and Ca-poor core olivine in angrite LEW87051

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Mckay, G.; Le, L.

    1994-01-01

    Angrite meteorites are a type of basaltic achondrites that are noted for their very old cyrstallization ages (4.55 b.y.) and unusual chemical and mineralogical properties. In spite of great interest, only four angrites have been found. LEW87051 is the smallest one which weighs 0.6 g. It is a porphyritic rock with coarse subhedral to euhedral olivines set in a fine-grained groundmass which clearly represents a crystallized melt. The largest uncertainty about the petrogenesis of LEW87051 is the relationship between the large olivine crystals and the groundmass. Prinz et al. suggests that olivines are xenocrysts, while McKay et al. proposed a fractional cyrstallization model based on experimental studies. However, the crystals have Cr-rich and Ca-poor cores which do not match experimental olivines. Although Jurewicz and McKay tried to explaine the zoning of the rim by diffusion, some features are not explained. There also exists a definite composition boundary of Fe(2+) and MnO between the core and the rim. To clarify the origin of these olivines, we have performed experiments using LEW87051 analogs to measure the effects of oxygen fugacity on distribution coefficients of various elements in an angritic system.

  12. Multi-stage kimberlite evolution tracked in zoned olivine from the Benfontein sill, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2016-10-01

    Olivine is the dominant mineral present in kimberlite magmas; however, due to the volatile-rich nature of most kimberlites, they rarely survive late-stage serpentinisation. Here we present major and trace element data for a rare example of ultra-fresh olivine in a macrocrystic calcite kimberlite from the Benfontein kimberlite sill complex. Olivines are characterised by xenocrystic cores surrounded by multiple growth zones representing melt crystallisation and late-stage equilibration. Two distinct core populations are distinguished: Type 1) low Fo (88-89), Ni-rich, Ca- and Na-rich cores, interpreted here to be the result of carbonate-silicate metasomatism potentially as part of the earliest stages of kimberlite magmatism, and Type 2) high Fo (91-93), Ni-rich, low-Ca cores derived from a typical garnet peridotite mantle source. In both cases, the cores have transitional margins (Fo89-90) representing equilibration with a proto-kimberlite melt. Trace element concentrations, in particular Cr, of these transition zones suggest formation of the proto-kimberlite melt through assimilation of orthopyroxene from the surrounding garnet peridotite lithology. Trace element trends in the surrounding melt-zone olivine (Fo87-90) suggest evolution of the kimberlite through progressive olivine crystallisation. The final stages of olivine growth are represented by Fe-rich (Fo85) and P-rich olivine indicating kimberlite evolution to mafic compositions. Fine (< 60 μm), Mg-rich olivine rims (Fo94-98) represent equilibration with the final stages of kimberlite evolution back to Fe-poor carbonatitic melts. We present a step-by-step model for kimberlite magma genesis and evolution from mantle to crust tracked by the chemistry of olivines in the Benfontein kimberlite. These steps include early stages of metasomatism and mantle assimilation followed by direct crystallisation of the kimberlite melt and late-stage equilibration with the evolved carbonatitic residual liquids. The Ca contents

  13. Oriented chromite-diopside symplectic inclusions in olivine from lunar regolith delivered by "Luna-24" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khisina, N. R.; Wirth, R.; Abart, R.; Rhede, D.; Heinrich, W.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium-chromium rich lamellae in olivine grain No. 1611 from the Luna-24 regolith were studied with FEG-EMPA and TEM. The lamellae consist of a worm-like intergrowth of FeCr2O4 chromite (Chr) and CaMgSi2O6 diopside (Di), with a Chr:Di modal proportion of 1:3. The linear extension of the lamellae and crystallographic orientation relationships among the symplectite phases and the olivine suggest that the lamellae nucleated at deformation defects in the olivine host. Calcium depletion haloes surrounding the lamellae amount to about 75 μm and indicate that the chromite + diopside lamellae were formed by segregation of calcium and chromium from the host olivine into the lamellae without addition of calcium and/or chromium from outside the olivine. The segregation of calcium and chromium and, consequently, the growth of the symplectic lamellae were diffusion-controlled. The segregation of a calcium-chromium component from the host olivine was associated with oxidation of divalent to trivalent chromium. Oxidation was facilitated by dehydrogenation, which was driven by decompression and/or a change in redox potential. Hydrogen point defects in the original olivine with H+ substituting for divalent cations on the M-sites provided the necessary electron acceptors for the oxidation of chromium and after electron transfer left olivine as molecular H2. The internal microstructure of the lamellae suggests that exsolution of the calcium-chromium rich lamellae from the host olivine and formation of the chromite-diopside symplectic intergrowth occurred simultaneously. The time scale derived from diffusion modeling of the calcium depletion haloes around the lamellae indicates a thermal event on the order of several months to several hundred years at most. Symplectic inclusions found in olivine from lunar, martian and terrestrial rocks are similar with respect to their shape, crystallographic orientation relationships, and internal microstructure of the spinel

  14. Cellular Precipitates Of Iron Oxide in Olivine in a Stratospheric Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The petrology of a massive olivine-sulphide interplanetary dust particle shows melting of Fe,Ni-sulphide plus complete loss of sulphur and subsequent quenching to a mixture of iron-oxides and Fe,Ni-metal. Oxidation of the fayalite component in olivine produced maghemite discs and cellular intergrowths with olivine and rare andradite-rich garnet. Cellular reactions require no long-range solid-state diffusion and are kinetically favourable during pyrometamorphic oxidation. Local melting of the cellular intergrowths resulted in three dimensional symplectic textures. Dynamic pyrometamorphism of this asteroidal particle occurred at approx. 1100 C during atmospheric entry flash (5-15 s) heating.

  15. 3D Quantitative Confocal Laser Microscopy of Ilmenite Volume Distribution in Alpe Arami Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhilov, K. N.

    2001-12-01

    The deep origin of the Alpe Arami garnet lherzolite massif in the Swiss Alps proposed by Dobrzhinetskaya et al. (Science, 1996) has been a focus of heated debate. One of the lines of evidence supporting an exhumation from more than 200 km depth includes the abundance, distribution, and orientation of magnesian ilmenite rods in the oldest generation of olivine. This argument has been disputed in terms of the abundance of ilmenite and consequently the maximum TiO2 content in the discussed olivine. In order to address this issue, we have directly measured the volume fraction of ilmenite of the oldest generation of olivine by applying confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM is a method which allows for three-dimensional imaging and quantitative volume determination by optical sectioning of the objects. The images for 3D reconstruction and measurements were acquired from petrographic thin sections in reflected laser light with 488 nm wavelength. Measurements of more than 80 olivine grains in six thin sections of our material yielded an average volume fraction of 0.31% ilmenite in the oldest generation of olivine from Alpe Arami. This translates into 0.23 wt.% TiO2 in olivine with error in determination of ±0.097 wt.%, a value significantly different from that of 0.02 to 0.03 wt.% TiO2 determined by Hacker et al. (Science, 1997) by a broad-beam microanalysis technique. During the complex geological history of the Alpe Arami massif, several events of metamorphism are recorded which all could have caused increased mobility of the mineral components. Evidence for loss of TiO2 from olivine is the tendency for high densities of ilmenite to be restricted to cores of old grains, the complete absence of ilmenite inclusions from the younger, recrystallized, generation of olivine, and reduction in ilmenite size and abundance in more serpentinized specimens. These observations suggest that only olivine grains with the highest concentrations of ilmenite are close to the

  16. First Row Transition Metals in Olivine - Petrogenetic Tracers for the Evolution of Mantle-Derived Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locmelis, M.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Puchtel, I. S.; Barnes, S. J.; Fiorentini, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Olivine is the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle and a major constituent of most mantle-derived rocks. However, despite its abundance, studies on the trace element chemistry of olivine are underrepresented in the literature. We present the results of a comprehensive study on the contents of first-row transition metals (FRTM: Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn), Ga and Ge in olivines from 2.7-3.5 Ga old Munro- and Barberton-type komatiites from the Kapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons in southern Africa, the Yilgarn Craton in Australia, and the Superior Craton in Canada. Komatiitic olivines are compared to olivines from a Devonian-Carboniferous mantle peridotite (Finero, Italy) and contemporary ocean Island basalts (OIB, from St. Helena, South Atlantic Ocean). The olivine major element chemistry was determined using a JEOL JXA-8900 Superprobe at the University of Maryland. Trace element contents were determined using a Photon Machines Analyte G2 193 nm Excimer laser ablation system coupled to a Nu Instruments AttoM single collector ICP-MS at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Medium resolution mass discrimination (m/Δm = 2500, at 5% peak intensity) was leveraged to separate isobaric interferences and support accurate quantitation of elemental abundances. The results show that olivines from komatiites are largely depleted in FRTM, Ga and Ge relative to the composition of the primitive mantle (FRTMPM-norm = ~0.01 - 1). All komatiitic olivines have similar mantle-normalized trace element patterns, regardless of age and/or locality. Olivines from the Finero mantle peridotite and the St. Helena OIB are similarly depleted. However, compared to komatiites, grains from Finero are enriched in Ge and distinctly depleted in Ti, V, Cr, and Ga, whereas olivines from St. Helena have overall flatter normalized trace element patterns. The distinct patterns show that olivine chemistry can be used to identify and understand the source and evolution of mantle-derived rocks

  17. Olivines in the Kaba carbonaceous chondrite and constraints on their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, X.; Buseck, P. R.

    1993-03-01

    Kaba is unique in containing almost pure fayalitic olivine (Fo(sub 0.1)). Its coexistence with pure forsterite up to Fo(sub 99.6) and normal (Fo(sub 92) to Fo(sub 59)) and reversely (Fo(sub 0.4) to Fo(sub 4.7)) zoned olivines suggest that the Kaba olivines are in thermodynamic disequilibrium and experienced a complicated history. The fayalite is sufficiently pure that it is unlikely that it could have been produced by fractional crystallization. A gas-solid reaction under oxidizing conditions (H2O/H2 ratio approximately 10) is probably responsible for its formation.

  18. Constraints on Mantle Plume Melting Conditions in the Martian Mantle Based on Improved Melting Phase Relationships of Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Yamato 980459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Rapp, Jennifer F.; Usui, Tomohiro; Draper, David S.; Filiberto, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Martian meteorite Yamato 980459 (hereafter Y98) is an olivine-phyric shergottite that has been interpreted as closely approximating a martian mantle melt [1-4], making it an important constraint on adiabatic decompression melting models. It has long been recognized that low pressure melting of the Y98 composition occurs at extremely high temperatures relative to martian basalts (1430 degC at 1 bar), which caused great difficulties in a previous attempt to explain Y98 magma generation via a mantle plume model [2]. However, previous studies of the phase diagram were limited to pressures of 2 GPa and less [2, 5], whereas decompression melting in the present-day martian mantle occurs at pressures of 3-7 GPa, with the shallow boundary of the melt production zone occurring just below the base of the thermal lithosphere [6]. Recent experimental work has now extended our knowledge of the Y98 melting phase relationships to 8 GPa. In light of this improved petrological knowledge, we are therefore reassessing the constraints that Y98 imposes on melting conditions in martian mantle plumes. Two recently discovered olivine- phyric shergottites, Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789 and NWA 6234, may also be primary melts from the martian mantle [7, 8]. However, these latter meteorites have not been the subject of detailed experimental petrology studies, so we focus here on Y98.

  19. Olivine-metal mixtures: Spectral reflectance properties and application to asteroid reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Gaffey, Michael J.; Binzel, Richard P.; Burbine, Thomas H.; Hardersen, Paul S.; Hiroi, Takahiro; Lucey, Paul G.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Tait, Kimberly T.

    2015-05-01

    Olivine-rich asteroids appear to be common in the main asteroid belt as well as present in the near-Earth asteroid population. There are a number of meteorite classes that are dominated by olivine ± metal. To determine whether relationships exist between these asteroids and meteorites, we spectrally characterized a number of olivine + meteoritic metal powder intimate and areal mixtures, pallasite slabs, and olivine powders on a metal slab. Our goal is to understand the spectral characteristics of olivine + metal assemblages and develop spectral metrics that can be used to analyze reflectance spectra of olivine-dominated asteroids. We found that the major olivine absorption band in the 1 μm region is resolvable in intimate mixtures for metal abundances as high as ∼90 wt.%. The wavelength position of the 1 μm region olivine absorption band center is sensitive to Fa content but insensitive to other variables. However, the band minimum position moves to shorter wavelengths with increasing metal abundance due to changes in spectral slope. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of this band and reflectance at 1.8 μm are both most sensitive to olivine Fa content, metal abundance, and grain size, and much less to the presence of nanophase iron that reddens spectra. Reflectance at 0.56 μm and the 1.8/0.56 μm reflectance ratio are sensitive to these same parameters as well as to nanophase iron-associated spectral reddening. The wavelength position of the local reflectance maximum in the 0.7 μm region moves to longer wavelengths with increasing metal abundance and is most useful for constraining metal abundance in high metal-content mixtures. Pallasite slab spectra differ in a number of respects from powdered assemblages and multiple spectral parameters can be used to discriminate them. The spectra of increasingly fine-grained olivine + metal assemblages and those involving low-Fa olivine show increasing spectral dominance by metal. Systematic application of multiple

  20. Chemical and physical studies of chondrites: 10. Cathodoluminescence and phase composition studies of metamorphism and nebular processes in chondrules of type 3 ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, J.M.; Lu Jie; Benoit, P.H.; Sears, D.W.G. ); Lofgren, G.E. )

    1992-10-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of eight type 3 ordinary chondrites and one L5 chondrite have been determined, and phenocryst and mesostasis compositions have been analyzed in the chondrules of four of them (Semarkona, type 3.0; Krymka, 3.1; Allan Hills A77214, 3.5; and Dhajala, 3.8) in order to investigate their origins and metamorphic history. In the present study, the authors discuss the CL properties of nine ordinary chondrites of a variety of petrologic types with particular emphasis on detailed studies of the compositions of the relevant phases in four of these: Semarkona (3.0), Krymka (3.1), Allan Hills A77214 (3.5), and Dhajala (3.8). They describe a means of classifying chondrules that is based on the composition of their two major components, the mesostasis and phenocrysts. The system is applicable to > 90-95% off the chondrules in a given meteorite and it describes the range of material produced by nebular material and of the effect of metamorphism on the chondrules. They also discuss the relevance of the results for the origin of the nine chondrite classes.

  1. Co-Aggregation of Chondrules and Nanometer-Sized Matrix Grains in the Solar Nebula: A New Scenario for Rocky Planetesimal Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, S.; Nakamoto, T.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a scenario in which rocky planetesimals are formed via co-aggregation of chondrules and nm-sized matrix grains. The critical velocity for collisional growth exceeds the maximum collision velocity when matrix grains are smaller than 10 nm.

  2. Evidence for Oxygen-Isotope Exchange in Chondrules and Refractory Inclusions During Fluid-Rock Interaction on the CV Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2016-08-01

    Plagioclase in chondrules, CAIs and AOAs from the carbonaceous chondrite Kaba (CV3.1) experienced oxygen-isotope exchange with a metasomatic fluid responsible for the formation of magnetite, fayalite and Ca,Fe-rich silicates on the CV parent body.

  3. Water in Olivine and its High-Pressure Polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Jacobsen, S. D.; Bina, C. R.; Reichart, P.; Moser, M.; Dollinger, G.; Hauri, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    Theory and high-pressure experiments imply a significant water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs), such as olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, composing the Earth's upper mantle and transition zone to a depth of 660 km. The presence of water, dissolved as OH into such nominally anhydrous high-pressure silicates, notably influences phase relations, melting behavior, conductivity, elasticity, viscosity and rheology. The first direct evidence for hydration of the transition zone has recently been reported by Pearson et al. (2014) and Schmandt et al. (2014). Knowledge of absolute water contents in NAMs is essential for modeling the Earth's interior water cycle. To take advantage of IR spectroscopy as highly sensitive water quantification tool, mineral-specific absorption coefficients are required. Such calibration constants can be derived from hydrogen concentrations determined by independent techniques, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), Raman spectroscopy or proton-proton(pp)-scattering. Broad beam pp-scattering has been performed on double-polished mm-sized mineral platelets (Thomas et al. 2008), but until recently analysis was not feasible for smaller samples synthetized in high-pressure apparati. Here we present first results from pp-scattering microscopy studies on μm-sized single crystals of hydrous olivine, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, which were synthesized at various pressure-temperature conditions in a multi-anvil press. The method allows us to quantify 3D distributions of atomic hydrogen in μm dimensions. These self-calibrating measurements were carried out at the nuclear microprobe SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator lab using a 25 MeV proton microbeam. We provide hydrogen depth-profiles, hydrogen maps and H2O concentrations. Pp-scattering data and results from independent Raman and SIMS analyses are in good agreement. Water contents for a set of high-pressure polymorphs with varying Fe-concentrations range from 0

  4. Trace element composition of olivine - implications for the evolution of the olivine gabbro-troctolite-hosted Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulle, F.; Layne, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Voisey's Bay intrusion is part of the Nain Plutonic Suite, which transects the 1.85 Ga collisional boundary between the Proterozoic Churchill Province and the Archean Nain Province in Eastern Labrador. The intrusion comprises a group of troctolitic to olivine gabbroic bodies linked by olivine gabbro dikes; together these rocks host the world-class Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposit. Zones of massive and disseminated sulfide mineralization (Reid Brook, Discovery Hill, Mini-Ovoid and Ovoid) occur within a dike and at the entry line of this dike into a larger intrusion termed the Eastern Deeps [1, 2, 3]. At least two pulses of magma have generated the intrusion and the associated sulfide mineralization; an initial surge that achieved sulfide saturation by interacting with upper crustal rocks, and a later pulse of fresh, undepleted magma that forced the initial magma upwards and both remobilized the immiscible sulfide liquid and upgraded it in metal content [1, 2, 3]. Previous research [1, 2] has shown that the Ni content of olivine from the distinct sulfide-bearing host rocks is highly variable, and also indicative of both magma mixing and interaction of silicate magmas with sulfide. To further validate the significance of the olivine chemistry as a tracer for ore-forming petrological processes, we have determined the abundances of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn in olivines from the various mafic lithologies of the Eastern Deeps intrusion using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. We present systematic variations in Mn, Co, Ni and Zn with Fo-content in olivines for both sulfide-free and sulfide-bearing zones. Olivines from mineralized and brecciated troctolitic/gabbroic zones display significantly higher Mn (up to 11,000 ppm) and Zn (up to 550 ppm) concentrations than those from nominally barren counterparts. The barren troctolite, broadly termed normal troctolite (NT), is a petrographically homogenous plagioclase and olivine cumulate. However, olivine

  5. Olivine dissolution from Indian dunite in saline water.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Amit Kumar; Mehra, Anurag

    2016-11-01

    The rate and mechanism of olivine dissolution was studied using naturally weathered dunite FO98.21(Mg1.884Fe0.391SiO4) from an Indian source, that also contains serpentine mineral lizardite. A series of batch dissolution experiments were carried out to check the influence of temperature (30-75 (∘)C), initial dunite concentration (0.5 and 20 g/L), and salinity (0-35 g/L NaCl) under fixed head space CO2 pressure (P[Formula: see text] = 1 barg) on dunite dissolution. Dissolved Mg, Si, and Fe concentrations were determined by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. End-product solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Initially, rates of dissolution of Si and Mg were observed to be in stoichiometric proportion. After 8 h, the dissolution rate was observed to decline. At the end of the experiment (504 h), an amorphous silica-rich layer was observed over the dunite surface. This results in decay of the dissolution rate. The operating conditions (i.e., salinity, temperature, and mineral loading) affect the dissolution kinetics in a very complex manner because of which the observed experimental trends do not exhibit a direct trend.

  6. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  7. Laser-Experiments on Oriented Olivine Crystals: Evidence of Space Weathering

    N