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Sample records for barrio adentro combatir

  1. Venezuela's Barrio Adentro: an alternative to neoliberalism in health care.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Benach, Joan; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented health care sector reforms based on a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care less as a social right and more as a market commodity. These reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states as prescribed by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program, Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighborhood). In this article, the authors review the main features of the Venezuelan health care reform, analyzing, within their broader sociopolitical and economic contexts, previous neoliberal health care reforms that mainly benefited transnational capital and domestic Latin American elites. They explain the emergence of the new health care program, Misión Barrio Adentro, examining its historical, social, and political underpinnings and the central role played by popular resistance to neoliberalism. This program not only provides a compelling model of health care reform for other low- to middle-income countries but also offers policy lessons to wealthy countries.

  2. Barrio Boy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galarza, Ernesto

    An autobiography, "Barrio Boy" is the story of Little Ernie, a boy born in the tiny mountain village of Jalcocotan in the State of Nayarit, Mexico. Divided into 5 parts, the book offers vivid descriptions of the author's early life--his family, his friends, his surroundings, as well as events in the journey from Jalcocotan that eventually ended in…

  3. La Pedagogia en el Barrio. (The Pedagogy in the Barrio)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Roberto Perez

    1977-01-01

    The article, written in Spanish, gives examples of the Barrio Education Project's work in San Antonio and poses some serious questions about the importance of Spanish for the Hispanic community. Illiteracy, or "functional illiteracy" is a growing problem in the U.S. among all sectors of the population--English- and Spanish-speaking.…

  4. La Pedagogia en el Barrio. (The Pedagogy in the Barrio)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Roberto Perez

    1977-01-01

    The article, written in Spanish, gives examples of the Barrio Education Project's work in San Antonio and poses some serious questions about the importance of Spanish for the Hispanic community. Illiteracy, or "functional illiteracy" is a growing problem in the U.S. among all sectors of the population--English- and Spanish-speaking.…

  5. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  6. Tradition in the Barrio. Level Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Elvira

    The stories in this book tell about the life of more traditional Mexican Americans in "barrios" (neighborhoods). Their customs are a mixture of Spanish, Indian, and Catholic influences. Part I, "Tradition in the Barrio", deals primarily with cultural and family relationships. It covers the large Mexican family, the male roles of father, eldest…

  7. The Self Inside and Out: Authenticity and Disability in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Cordero, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spanish filmmakers Alejandro Amenabar, Antonio Naharro, and Alvaro Pastor have recently focused on disability and personal identity by presenting the disabled subject in the foreground and by posing an array of ethical questions. This essay explores representations of disability as they appear in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"…

  8. The Self Inside and Out: Authenticity and Disability in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Cordero, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spanish filmmakers Alejandro Amenabar, Antonio Naharro, and Alvaro Pastor have recently focused on disability and personal identity by presenting the disabled subject in the foreground and by posing an array of ethical questions. This essay explores representations of disability as they appear in "Mar adentro" and "Yo, tambien"…

  9. Action Research: In Defense of the Barrio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrera, Mario, Comp.; Vialpando, Geralda, Comp.

    A set of processes, occurring throughout the urban Southwest, is fragmenting and dislocating the barrios that exist in and around metropolitan areas, displacing the Chicano population and acting as a source of disruption and instability in the community. This pamphlet presents three interviews describing projects undertaken by Chicanos in three…

  10. The Barrio Endowment to American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lint, Robert G.

    The emergence in Chicano poetry of the language experiments and folk wisdom of the oral traditions of barrio cuentos, corridos, dichos, and actos reveals that this literature is neither fleeting nor novel. Jose Montoya's "Resonant Valley" exemplifies the Chicano's preservation of ancient wisdom and practice in new formal experiments and…

  11. Hispanics of a San Diego Barrio.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    individuals though some are native born. Young men who adopt this lifestyle dress in distinct and uniform ways, speak a dialect that isa blend of...future generations of Spanish- speaking people" (Camarillo 1979, p. 78). Camarillo’s work deals primarily with the city of Santa Barbara, but he also...There, according to a former Mexicano resident of the area, they were confined to a segregated barrio in "the midst of the cruelest kind of poverty

  12. Life and love in the barrios.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1991-01-01

    Although migrant pressure on metropolitan areas has begun easing in Colombia, migrants from the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca continue to stream into the capital city of Bogota, where they face severe hardships. In Colombia, the social conditions for rural inhabitants have been improving. Per capita income has increased, family size has decreased, and women have begun to find greater opportunities. The rate of vaccination and contraceptive prevalence are now almost the same for urban and rural populations. These changes have lessened the incentive to migrate to the city. But in Boyaca and Cundinamarca, where over-intensive farming has aggravated poverty, people continue to leave Bogota. Many of the new arrivals already have relatives or friends who help them get established. But for those who don't, life is difficult. The article tells the story of Hermencia, who left Boyaca at age 12. Now 59, Hermencia has worked as a maid most of her life, changing from job to job. She has had 6 children from 3 different fathers. Luckily for Hermencia, her patrons helped her find a permanent home, and her family has maintained a network. And none of her children ended up in the street, as did Frankie, an 18 year-old from Cundinamarca. Frankie arrived in Bogota with his father, who became the bodyguard of a drug trafficker and was subsequently killed. Frankie has lived 6 years in the streets. Frankie is known to the police for mugging and drug abuse. He has a 16 year-old girlfriend who is pregnant. This is not uncommon. Women living in immigrant barrios average 4-5 children, compared to 2-3 in other low-income areas in Bogota.

  13. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  14. Education for Rural Development: The Case of the UPCA/BNE Barrio Development School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contado, Tito E.

    The Barrio Development School, a 4-year action-research project which has been in operation for 2 years, is located at Masaya, Bay, Laguna, Philippines. Begun by the University of the Philippines, College of Agriculture, and the Board of National Education, it is a secondary school program for barrio youths who have decided to stay, live, and work…

  15. Ethno-Racial Profiling and State Violence in a Southwest Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio; Romero, Mary; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Escobedo, Manuel; Khoury, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study, carried out in a barrio neighborhood near the U.S.-Mexican border, uses a structural violence perspective to understand the extent of and individual determinants of mistreatment of residents by immigration authorities. Results indicate that barrio residents are more likely than the U.S. population in general to experience mistreatment…

  16. Toward Economic Development of the Chicano Barrio: Alternative Strategies and Their Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Benjamin N., Jr.

    Most Chicanos live in relatively well-defined areas called "barrios" within urban areas. These barrios are growing in population density due to such long-term forces as the: (1) declining opportunities in rural areas due to the gradual labor displacement and/or the bleak economic prospects faced by the smaller farm in this country; (2)…

  17. Ethno-Racial Profiling and State Violence in a Southwest Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio; Romero, Mary; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Escobedo, Manuel; Khoury, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study, carried out in a barrio neighborhood near the U.S.-Mexican border, uses a structural violence perspective to understand the extent of and individual determinants of mistreatment of residents by immigration authorities. Results indicate that barrio residents are more likely than the U.S. population in general to experience mistreatment…

  18. Tilamsik: bringing the hospital operating room to the barrio.

    PubMed

    Navarro, R C

    1983-01-01

    Tilamsik, organized by the Mary Johnston Hospital's Fertility Care Center, answers numerous requests for vasectomy and laparoscopic sterilization in the remote areas of the Philippines. Literally, Tilamsik means "spark" or "splatter." As the name suggests, the project reaches out to patients who want to be sterilized but cannont come to the center in Tondo. Once the center receives a request, the Tilamsik Outreach Team (composed of 2 doctors, 1 nurse, 1 interviewer, and 1 orderly) immediately scedules the visit. It takes about 2-3 days to pack the sensitive equipment and supplies needed for the trip. The team works closely with the requesting or coordinating agency to make sure that patients are initially screened and properly motivated. Upon reaching its destination, the team can turn any setting into instant operation rooms where the surgical procedure can be performed safely and efficiently. Turover of patients is fast, thanks to the wonders of laparoscpy, a type of endoscopic procedure for tubal ligation. After the operation, the patient rests in a recovery room and waits for the preoperative sedation to wear off, In babout 2 hours she can go home. In the towns and barrios where Tilamsik operates, patients are brought to an improvised recovery room where they lie down on the floor with their own beddings. Traveling in the remote areas is 1 of the major difficulties of Tilamsik. Financial constrants have forced the center to limit the team's trips to places within driving distance form the Tondo center. Tilamsik's services are now made available only up to as far as Lucena and adjacent towns and barrios. With the growing popularity of laparoscopy as a female sterilization technique, the more recent requests for Tilamsik's services are for groups of acceptors numbering from 100-150. To avid duplication of family planning activities, the Tilasik project director has identified areas in the country with laaroscopic sterilization expertise. Project Tilamsik was

  19. Behavior Modification in the Treatment and Prevention of Inter-Barrio Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan

    A nomothetic assessment of the drive-by shooting in inter-barrio gang violence was conducted. Available data on drive-by shootings were organized using the model of behavioral assessment suggested by Kanfer and Saslow (1969). The model included seven areas of analysis: initial assessment, clarification of the problem, motivation, development,…

  20. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  1. Comprehensive Education Bolivarian-Style: The Alternative School in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author traces revolutionary developments in an alternative school in Barrio Pueblo Nuevo, Mérida, in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, a school that caters for students between 4 and 14. He begins by recounting some fieldwork done at the school on his behalf by Edward Ellis in 2010. He goes on to discuss a video made at…

  2. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  3. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  4. Behavior Modification in the Treatment and Prevention of Inter-Barrio Gang Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Alan

    A nomothetic assessment of the drive-by shooting in inter-barrio gang violence was conducted. Available data on drive-by shootings were organized using the model of behavioral assessment suggested by Kanfer and Saslow (1969). The model included seven areas of analysis: initial assessment, clarification of the problem, motivation, development,…

  5. Care and Survival of Mexican American Women with Node Negative Breast Cancer: Historical Cohort Evidence of Health Insurance and Barrio Advantages

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Nancy L.; Haji-Jama, Sundus; Luginaah, Isaac N.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized 3-way ethnicity by barrio by health insurance interactions such that the advantages of having adequate health insurance were greatest among Mexican American (MA) women who lived in barrios. Barrios were neighborhoods with relatively high concentrations of MAs (60 % or more). Data were analyzed for 194 MA and 2,846 non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with, very treatable, node negative breast cancer in California between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2011. Significant interactions were observed such that the protective effects of Medicare or private health insurance on radiation therapy access and long term survival were largest for MA women who resided in MA barrios, neighborhoods that also tended to be extremely poor. These paradoxical findings are consistent with the theory that more facilitative social and economic capital available to MA women in barrios enables them to better absorb the indirect and direct, but uncovered, costs of breast cancer care. PMID:24155037

  6. El barrio de la Chueca of Madrid, Spain: an emerging epicenter of the global LGBT civil rights movement.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine and deconstruct the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) barrio (community) of Chueca in Madrid, Spain, from political and sociological perspectives. First, we develop a critical framework for understanding the historical, political, social, cultural, and economic changes that took place in Spain after Franco's death in relation to LGBT issues. Ethnographic research was conducted from May to July 2007 in the Spanish cities of Madrid, Barcelona, and Ibiza, and focused primarily on the community of Chueca. A social constructionist perspective was used to examine sociocultural issues in this ethnosexual community through an in-depth study of the dynamics of this barrio. The theoretical framework of intersectionality and the constitutive relations among social identities is exemplified in Chueca. Hence, individuals in Chueca and their intersectionality perspective reveal that their identities influence and shape their beliefs about gender and symbols. We describe how Chueca reflects recent progressive changes in LGBT-related laws and statutes drafted by the federal government and how these have influenced the high level of societal acceptance toward intimate same-sex relationships in Spain. Additionally, we exemplify and present Chueca as an enclave that has been affected by the globalization of the private market, "gay" identity, and enterprise, having a direct effect on cultural norms and social behaviors. Last, we examine the current state of the Chueca community relative to other developing LGBT Latino/a communities in the United States.

  7. Potential Visual Impacts of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development within Solar Energy Zones on Selected Viewpoints in Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robert G.; Abplanalp, Jennifer M.; Cantwell, Brian L.; Beckman, Kevin J.

    2013-06-01

    In connection with the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Solar Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Solar PEIS), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has conducted an extended visual impact analysis for selected key observation points (KOPs) within three National Park Service (NPS) units located within the 25-mi (40-km) viewshed of four solar energy zones (SEZs) identified in the Solar PEIS. The analysis includes only those NPS units that the Solar PEIS identified as potentially subject to moderate or strong visual contrasts associated with solar development within the SEZs. The NPS units included in the analysis are Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and El Camino Real De Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail. The analysis showed that certain KOPs in each of these NPS units could potentially be subject to major visual contrast and impacts from solar development within the SEZs, but many of the KOPs would likely be subject to moderate, minor, or negligible contrasts and impacts, generally because they were relatively distant from the relevant SEZ, had views of the SEZ partially blocked by intervening terrain, and/or had very low vertical angles of view toward the SEZ. For all three NPS units, power tower facilities were found to be major contributors to potential visual contrasts, primarily because of the long-distance visibility of intensely bright reflection of light from the receivers on the central towers, but also because of the height and strong vertical line of the tower structures and the potential for night-sky impacts from FAA-mandated hazard navigation lighting.

  8. Manual para combatir el absentismo escolar (Manual To Combat Truancy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Truancy is the first sign that a youngster is in trouble and that he or she may need the help of parents, teachers, and community members to get back on track. Research shows that students who become truant and eventually drop out of school put themselves at a long-term disadvantage in becoming productive citizens. Dropouts are more likely to be…

  9. Challenging the neoliberal trend: the Venezuelan health care reform alternative.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Salazar, René M Guerra; Rueda, Sergio; Armada, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, all Latin American countries but Cuba implemented to varying degrees health care sector reforms underpinned by a neoliberal paradigm that redefined health care as less of a social right and more of a market commodity. These health care sector reforms were couched in the broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states prescribed consistently by international financial institutions since the mid-1980s. However, since 2003, Venezuela has been developing an alternative to this neoliberal trend through its health care reform program called Misión Barrio Adentro (Inside the Neighbourhood). In this article, we introduce Misión Barrio Adentro in its historical, political, and economic contexts. We begin by analyzing Latin American neoliberal health sector reforms in their political economic context, with a focus on Venezuela. The analysis reveals that the major beneficiaries of both broader structural adjustment of Latin American welfare states and neoliberal health reforms have been transnational capital interests and domestic Latin American elites. We then provide a detailed description of Misión Barrio Adentro as a challenge to neoliberalism in health care in its political economic context, noting the role played in its development by popular resistance to neoliberalism and the unique international cooperation model upon which it is based. Finally, we suggest that the Venezuelan experience may offer valuable lessons not only to other low- to middle-income countries, but also to countries such as Canada.

  10. Reclaiming streets for outdoor play: A process and impact evaluation of "Juega en tu Barrio" (Play in your Neighborhood), an intervention to increase physical activity and opportunities for play.

    PubMed

    Cortinez-O'Ryan, Andrea; Albagli, Andrea; Sadarangani, Kabir P; Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    New strategies are required to create supportive physical and social environments for children and promote active free-play. Juega en tu Barrio (JETB; Play in your Neighborhood) was designed and implemented to explore the effectiveness of closing a street in a low-to-middle income neighborhood in order to increase children's outside play and physical activity. A pretest-posttest design with control group was employed to investigate the intervention effects in a subsample of 100 children, 51 from the intervention neighborhood and 49 from the control neighborhood. The children wore pedometers for one week, and their parents completed questionnaires at two time points: before the intervention began and during the last two weeks of the intervention. JETB was conducted in the intervention neighborhood from 17:30 to 20:30, twice a week, from September to December 2014. Stewards ensured that the children were safe. Children and adults were assessed using systematic observation. The intervention and control neighborhoods included 177 and 116 children respectively. The average attendance per event was 60 children (SD = 22, reach 34%). In the intervention neighborhood, a significant increase between baseline and final assessment was observed in after-school outdoor playtime (p = 0.02), steps during the 3-hour intervention (p = 0.004), and daily steps Monday to Sunday (p = 0.006). Meanwhile, no changes were observed in the control neighborhood for the same variables. The proportion of children who met recommended daily step counts increased from 27.5% to 53.0% in the intervention neighborhood (p = 0.007), while for control neighborhood no difference was observed (49.0% to 53.0% p = 0.804). JETB showed high community engagement while offering opportunities for increased outdoor play in children. The intervention showed a significant effect on the number of children meeting the daily pedometer-derived physical activity recommendations.

  11. National training program for comprehensive community physicians, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Borroto, Eugenio Radamés; Salas, Ramón Syr

    2008-10-01

    Introduction Through the 1990s, wide disparities in health status were recorded in Venezuela, a mirror of poor social conditions, decreasing investment in the public health sector and a health workforce distribution unable to meet population health needs or to staff effective, accessible public health services. Venezuelans' health status deteriorated as a result. In 2003-2004, the Venezuelan government launched Barrio Adentro, a new national public health model aimed at assuring primary health care coverage for the entire population of an estimated 26 million. Cuban physicians staff Barrio Adentro clinics, mainly in poor neighborhoods, until enough Venezuelan physicians can be trained to fill the posts. Intervention Cuban experience with community-oriented medical education and global health cooperation was drawn upon to develop curriculum and provide faculty for the new National Training Program for Comprehensive Community Physicians, begun in 2005 in cooperation with six Venezuelan universities. The program differs from previous Venezuelan medical education models by adopting a stated goal of training physicians for public service, recruiting students who had no previous opportunity for university-level education, and concentrating the weight of their training on a service- and community-based model of education, relying on practicing physician-tutors. Results Over 20,000 students have been enrolled in three years. The six-year program has been extended to all 24 Venezuelan states, relying mainly on Cuban faculty who are practicing Barrio Adentro doctors and who receive postgraduate training in medical education. This "university without walls" has accredited 5,131 Barrio Adentro clinics as teaching institutions; its infrastructure includes other health care delivery facilities plus 855 multipurpose classrooms throughout the country. For the 2006-2007 academic year, the pass rate was 82% for first-year students and 94% for second-year students. Some difficulties

  12. "Guardarse las cosas adentro" (keeping things inside): Latina violence survivors' perceptions of depression.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Perez, Marlen; Mejia, Angie; Alvarado, Anabertha; Celaya-Alston, Rosemary; Galian, Hilary; Hilde, Anandam

    2011-10-01

    Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic whites to be adequately treated for depression. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is strongly associated with depression. Less is known about how Latina IPV survivors understand depression. To understand Latina women's beliefs, attitudes, and recommendations regarding depression and depression care, with a special focus on the impact of gender, ethnicity, violence, and social stressors. Focus group study. Spanish-speaking Latina women with a lifetime history of IPV and moderate to severe depressive symptoms. We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to conduct a thematic analysis using an inductive approach. Thirty-one women participated in five focus groups. Women felt depression is caused by "keeping things inside". They also felt that keeping things inside could lead to physical illness or an inability to function. Their inability to talk was fueled by issues such as stigma, fear, isolation, cultural norms, or simply "not having the words". They felt that the key to treating depression was finding a way to talk about the things that they had kept inside. They greatly valued information about depression and appreciated learning from providers that their physical symptoms were caused by depression. They wanted confidential depression care programs that not only helped them deal with their depression, but also addressed the violence in their lives, gave them practical skills, and attended to practical issues such as childcare. They had negative attitudes toward antidepressants, primarily due to experiences with side effects. Negative experiences with the health care system were primarily attributed to lack of good healthcare insurance. The concept of "keeping things inside" was key to participants' understanding of the cause of depression and other health problems. Clinicians and depression care programs can potentially use such information to provide culturally-appropriate depression care to Latina women.

  13. Confronting Health Disparities: Latin American Social Medicine in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, “Inside the Neighborhood Mission,” a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. Methods. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Results. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician–patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians’ lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Conclusions. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than “horizontal” collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas. PMID:19150916

  14. Confronting health disparities: Latin American social medicine in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L; Mantini-Briggs, Clara

    2009-03-01

    We explored the emergence and effectiveness of Venezuela's Misión Barrio Adentro, "Inside the Neighborhood Mission," a program designed to improve access to health care among underserved residents of the country, hoping to draw lessons to apply to future attempts to address acute health disparities. We conducted our study in 3 capital-region neighborhoods, 2 small cities, and 2 rural areas, combining systematic observations with interviews of 221 residents, 41 health professionals, and 28 government officials. We surveyed 177 female and 91 male heads of household. Interviews suggested that Misión Barrio Adentro emerged from creative interactions between policymakers, clinicians, community workers, and residents, adopting flexible, problem-solving strategies. In addition, data indicated that egalitarian physician-patient relationships and the direct involvement of local health committees overcame distrust and generated popular support for the program. Media and opposition antagonism complicated physicians' lives and clinical practices but heightened the program's visibility. Top-down and bottom-up efforts are less effective than "horizontal" collaborations between professionals and residents in underserved communities. Direct, local involvement can generate creative and dynamic efforts to address acute health disparities in these areas.

  15. In the Barrios: Latinos and the Underclass Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan, Ed.; Pinderhughes, Raquel, Ed.

    This book includes nine articles that broaden current debates on the American urban "underclass" by assessing the circumstances of inner-city Latino communities. An introduction provides background information on the U.S. Latino population and addresses factors related to urban poverty and to the "underclass" debate, including…

  16. In the Barrios: Latinos and the Underclass Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan, Ed.; Pinderhughes, Raquel, Ed.

    This book includes nine articles that broaden current debates on the American urban "underclass" by assessing the circumstances of inner-city Latino communities. An introduction provides background information on the U.S. Latino population and addresses factors related to urban poverty and to the "underclass" debate, including…

  17. Designing a behavioral program for a barrio in Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Harold L.

    1994-01-01

    Health in Housing initiated a behavioral program of education and skills training for children and adults in a community of 30,000 persons living in substandard conditions in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. To measure achievement in the long-range project, 21 families of Flor del Campo participated in a preliminary three-part survey of their (a) health, (b) housing and the environment, and (c) family history. Doctors, designers, and educators worked with Honduran personnel in the first survey. Following functional analyses of the home and surrounding environment and the physical status of the individuals living there, procedures provide the family with treatment and training for home and environment improvement. Graphic, verbal, and numerical data, incorporated into a master computerized system, record events of each family member: training programs experienced, health care delivery courses taken, medical treatments, growth of children, literacy changes, educational courses completed, kinds and amounts of foods eaten, household and building materials purchased. Ongoing functional analysis and a long-range evaluation are made of the progress of each participating individual in a family. Teams revisit each house to observe and record any changes in the physical and environmental facility and the health and life-styles, and to report any indications of new health problems or recurrences. PMID:16812727

  18. Barrio School: White School in a Brown Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Zaher

    As an agent of the sociocultural system, the school is a formal means of cultural transmission, conveying values, skills, attitudes, cognitive skills, and behavior patterns necessary for membership in society and survival of the sociocultural system. For Mexican Americans and other immigrants, the school also has the responsibility of…

  19. Going Down to the Barrio: Homeboys and Homegirls in Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan W.

    This book traces the histories of two Chicano gangs in East Los Angeles since the early 1940s, when common gang stereotypes were created by the media and law enforcement agencies. In an unusual collaborative effort, researchers worked with former gang members to make contact with and interview members of various "cliques" (cohorts) of…

  20. [The health system of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Carriedo-Lutzenkirchen, Angela; Landaeta-Jiménez, Maritza

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Venezuelan health system, including its structure and coverage, financial sources, human and material resources and its stewardship functions. This system comprises a public and a private sector. The public sector includes the Ministry of Popular Power for Health (MS) and several social security institutions, salient among them the Venezuelan Institute for Social Security (IVSS). The MH is financed with federal, state and county contributions. The IVSS is financed with employer, employee and government contributions. These two agencies provide services in their own facilities. The private sector includes providers offering services on an out-of-pocket basis and private insurance companies. The Venezuelan health system is undergoing a process of reform since the adoption of the 1999 Constitution which calls for the establishment of a national public health system. The reform process is now headed by the Barrio Adentro program.

  1. "Un trago dulce pero adentro con sabor amargo" (A Bittersweet Swallow): Constructing Counterspaces to Explore Undocumented Status across Academic, Family, and Community Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Obed; Flores, Sofia; Gallo, Sarah; Lara, María; Link, Holly; Arreguín, Diana; Peregrina, Itzel

    2016-01-01

    In this article a group of seven Latina/o immigrants, parents, advocates, and ethnographers draw on critical race theory to explore what it means to co-present on, and engage in, difficult conversations about immigration and documentation status. We theorize how, through critical collaboration motivated by our joint presentation, we co-constructed…

  2. "Un trago dulce pero adentro con sabor amargo" (A Bittersweet Swallow): Constructing Counterspaces to Explore Undocumented Status across Academic, Family, and Community Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Obed; Flores, Sofia; Gallo, Sarah; Lara, María; Link, Holly; Arreguín, Diana; Peregrina, Itzel

    2016-01-01

    In this article a group of seven Latina/o immigrants, parents, advocates, and ethnographers draw on critical race theory to explore what it means to co-present on, and engage in, difficult conversations about immigration and documentation status. We theorize how, through critical collaboration motivated by our joint presentation, we co-constructed…

  3. Workplace violence and drug use in women workers in a Peruvian Barrio.

    PubMed

    Musayón Oblitas, F Y; Caufield, C

    2007-12-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study explored the relationship between workplace violence and drug use in women. It also explored the perception of women workers on the relationship between workplace violence and drug use. The World Health Organization and the United Nations recognize violence against women and have adopted a definition of it. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention reports that violence in the workplace has increased 300% over the last decade. Alcohol misuse, occupation and gender are associated with aggression in the workplace. Estimations of the incidence of non-fatal injuries sustained because of workplace violence and evaluations of the associated risk factors have rarely been documented. 125 women workers between the ages of 18 and 60 years were surveyed in four suburbs of Zapallal, Lima. Of the 125 women, 28.8% experienced violence in the workplace. Of the 36 women who had experienced violence in the workplace, 16 agreed to participate in interviews to explore their perceptions. The data were saturated with the 16 interviews. Of the 125 workers surveyed 17.6% experienced verbal violence, 9.6%% experienced physical violence, and 1.6% were sexually harassed in their workplace. Women who were verbally abused demonstrated eight times greater risk of drug use than those who did not experience this type of violence in their workplace. This paper contributes to an understanding of the relationships among drug abuse, gender and the incidence of violence in the workplace; it documents the perception women have of these relationships; and it supports the development of programmes and strategies related to the prevention of workplace violence and drug consumption by women workers.

  4. 78 FR 57406 - Approval of Barrios Measurement Services LLC, as a Commercial Gauger

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ..., petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes for the next three years as of..., LA 70345, has been approved to gauge petroleum, petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.13. Anyone wishing to...

  5. From the Barrio to the Bucolic: The Student Transfer Experience from Hsis to Smith College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf-Wendel, Lisa; Twombly, Susan; Morphew, Christopher; Sopcich, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The study reported in this article examined two Hispanic-serving institutions, Miami-Dade Community College and Santa Monica College, and the innovative transfer agreements they have with Smith College, a highly selective private women's college. Factors that influence the successful transfer of women students to Smith from these HSIs are…

  6. El Barrio's "We Are Watching You" Campaign: On the Politics of Inclusion in a Latinized Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    The way in which economic and cultural trends have led cultural institutions to go away from grassroots constituencies toward better ones and multiple debates within the world of U.S. Latino/a culture and the arts is described. The debate over the El Museo, which in the larger context affected the categorization, promotion and exhibition of Latin…

  7. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  8. El Barrio's "We Are Watching You" Campaign: On the Politics of Inclusion in a Latinized Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    The way in which economic and cultural trends have led cultural institutions to go away from grassroots constituencies toward better ones and multiple debates within the world of U.S. Latino/a culture and the arts is described. The debate over the El Museo, which in the larger context affected the categorization, promotion and exhibition of Latin…

  9. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  10. Drawing toward Transformation and Action in a Forgotten Barrio: Cultivating a Learning and Planning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Peter; Malvicini, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study supported the emergence of a transformative learning and planning community among marginalized informal settlers in Manila, Philippines. The research was rooted in transformative learning theory while drawing from systems theory, planning, and development participation. We adapted the Search Conference (SC) to examine the process of…

  11. Drawing toward Transformation and Action in a Forgotten Barrio: Cultivating a Learning and Planning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Peter; Malvicini, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study supported the emergence of a transformative learning and planning community among marginalized informal settlers in Manila, Philippines. The research was rooted in transformative learning theory while drawing from systems theory, planning, and development participation. We adapted the Search Conference (SC) to examine the process of…

  12. The Chola life course: Chicana heroin users and the barrio Gang.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    1994-07-01

    The theoretical argument of the paper is as follows: Traditional values may deter many Latinas from drug use, but they operate to ostracize adolescent girls from cholo (street) families. Those girls may be propelled into drug-using youth gangs or similar peer groups, where they are further channeled to the more deviant subcliques. This pivotal experience initiates a drug-oriented adult lifestyle. Gender norms mean that the typical male career path to and from the gang is different. Data bearing on this argument are presented, and research and intervention implications are explored.

  13. [Ascertaining a Venezuelan oil town's health conditions].

    PubMed

    Mijares-Seminario, Rodrigo; Hernández, Leicy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysing health conditions in the town of Carirubana in Falcón State, Venezuela, as a prior study to the construction of a gas conditioning plant there. Methods This study formed part of a field research project which involved consulting primary and secondary sources. The former consisted of evaluating public and private health-centres and those in the Barrio Adentro system; the aforementioned health centres' medical staff were interviewed to determine current health-disease status and the factors determining health for the town being studied. Likewise, both situations (health-disease and factors determining health) were evaluated and analysed in the secondary sources at national, state and municipal level. Results Deficits were observed at national level regarding public health infrastructure; there were 1.3 beds per thousand inhabitants, this being less than half that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (i.e. three to four beds per thousand inhabitants). State and municipal cancer mortality rates were relatively stable over a four-year period (2001-2004). Conclusions The mortality rate in Carirubana was characteristic of a low-income area. The poverty and pollution directly produced by the oil refining plants were the key determinants for this town's morbidity and mortality rates.

  14. Prevenir y Combatir El Acoso en La Escuela: Guia de Recursoso para Educadores de los Grados "K" al Grado "12" (Preventing and Countering School-Based Harassment: A Resource Guide for K-12 Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steineger, Melissa

    This guide focuses on the issue of school-based harassment. It is intended to help educators prevent or curtail all forms of harassment by highlighting school-based harassment issues, by describing remedies and prevention strategies, and by providing additional resources. It details some of the problems school-based harassment engenders, and it…

  15. Teachers' Memories of Schooling: The Sociocultural Injuries and the Mis-Education of Mexican Teachers in the Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Lilliana P.

    2013-01-01

    Relying on life history and memory as methodology, this essay unearths the memories of schooling of five Mexican American teachers at a dual-language school in San Antonio, locating their memories of trauma within the history of language oppression and cultural exclusion in U.S. public schools. In re(membering) their schooling experiences as…

  16. Depression in the barrio: An analysis of the risk and protective nature of cultural values among Mexican American substance users.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Yolanda R; Torres, Luis R; Stotts, Angela L; Ren, Yi; Sampson, Mcclain; Klawans, Michelle R; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2017-06-07

    Understanding the effect of cultural values on depression and how social networks influence these relationships may be important in the treatment of substance-using, Mexican American populations. Latino cultural values, familismo, personalismo, fatalismo, and machismo, may be associated with depression among Latinos. The current study identified the association of traditional Latino values on depressive symptomatology among a sample of Mexican American heroin injectors. A cross-sectional research design and field-intensive outreach methodology were utilized to recruit 227 Mexican American men. Participants were categorized into depressed and nondepressed groups. Relations among cultural values and depression were examined using logistic regression. Findings indicate that drug-using men with higher familismo and fatalismo scores are protected against depressive symptomatology. Relations between familismo and depression seem to be moderated by having a drug use network. In addition, findings reveal that age is inversely related to depressive symptomatology. Young Mexican American heroin users who do not ascribe to traditional Latino values may be highly associated with depression and therefore more vulnerable to riskier drug use behaviors. Moreover, drug-using social networks may affect the protective nature of certain cultural values. Further research is needed to identify whether culturally tailored treatments can cultivate these values while simultaneously undermining the effect of substance-using social networks in order to reduce depression symptoms among this group of high-risk substance users.

  17. A comparison of the migration process to an urban barrio and to a rural community: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Flinn, W L; Cartano, D G

    1970-01-01

    The results of 2 case studies on migration in Colombia are outlined and compared. The 1st study examines inmigration to a shantytown, El Carmen, in Bogota. The 2nd study involves inmigration to a community in the eastern interior of Colombia, Granada. Migrants' motives, paths of migration, and personal characteristics are examined, suggesting hypotheses for future studies. Economic reasons were most often listed as motives for moving by both the residents of Granada and El Carmen. The type of economic motives varied greatly between the 2 communities. Reasons such as "looking for land," "establishing a business," or "to find a better life" ranked high in importance among Granada residents. These motives, along with the flight from violence, indicate that the independence provided by land and small business affords the inmigrants to Granada a certain security. Inmigrants to El Carmen were seeking employment. Only 34% of the migrants to El Carmen made 1 or more moves before settling in Bogota. 90% of the rural to rural migrants made 1 or more stops before moving to Granada. 68% of the migrants to El Carmen were born within 100 miles of Bogota while only 18% of the migrants to Granada were born within a 100 mile radius of the community. The usual pattern of the migrant to Granada was to move to a neighboring village, town, or city regardless of whether it was closer to Granada or not. The majority of inmigrants to Granada moved from distances greater than 100 miles. Over 70% of the inmigrants were born in towns and villages of more than 2000 population. If a nucleus of 10,000 inhabitants or more are considered urban, then 46% of the rural to rural migrants resided in urban areas prior to moving to Granada. This suggests that a sizable proportion of the migration to Granada is really urban to rural frontier. Studies done in Colombia and Brazil indicate that migrants to rural areas have a lower educational level than migrants to urban areas. Data from El Carmen and Granada gives similar results. 20% of the migrant residents of El Carmen have a primary school education (5 years) compared with only 7% of the inmigrants to Granada. 81% of the migrant residents of El Carmen were in their teens, 20s, and 30s at the time of migration, while only 52% of the inmigrants to Granada were in the same category. Approximately 56% of the inmigrants to Granada were in the occupational categories of farm owner operator and farm renter or laborer as compared to only approximately 40% of the inmigrants to El Carmen. The data indicate that a majority of the shantytown inmigrants come directly from small communities and travel short distances to Bogota. This is consistent with other findings of rural to urban migration. It is hypothesized that the socioeconomic level of migrants in a certain migratory stream is related to the perceived opportunity in the receiving area.

  18. Teachers' Memories of Schooling: The Sociocultural Injuries and the Mis-Education of Mexican Teachers in the Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, Lilliana P.

    2013-01-01

    Relying on life history and memory as methodology, this essay unearths the memories of schooling of five Mexican American teachers at a dual-language school in San Antonio, locating their memories of trauma within the history of language oppression and cultural exclusion in U.S. public schools. In re(membering) their schooling experiences as…

  19. Improving health equity through theory-informed evaluations: a look at housing first strategies, cross-sectoral health programs, and prostitution policy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, James R; van der Meulen, Emily; O'Campo, Patricia; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-02-01

    The emergent realist perspective on evaluation is instructive in the quest to use theory-informed evaluations to reduce health inequities. This perspective suggests that in addition to knowing whether a program works, it is imperative to know 'what works for whom in what circumstances and in what respects, and how?' (Pawson & Tilley, 1997). This addresses the important issue of heterogeneity of effect, in other words, that programs have different effects for different people, potentially even exacerbating inequities and worsening the situation of marginalized groups. But in addition, the realist perspective implies that a program may not only have a greater or lesser effect, but even for the same effect, it may work by way of a different mechanism, about which we must theorize, for different groups. For this reason, theory, and theory-based evaluations are critical to health equity. We present here three examples of evaluations with a focus on program theories and their links to inequalities. All three examples illustrate the importance of theory-based evaluations in reducing health inequities. We offer these examples from a wide variety of settings to illustrate that the problem of which we write is not an exception to usual practice. The 'Housing First' model of supportive housing for people with severe mental illness is based on a theory of the role of housing in living with mental illness that has a number of elements that directly contradict the theory underlying the dominant model. Multisectoral action theories form the basis for the second example on Venezuela's revolutionary national Barrio Adentro health improvement program. Finally, decriminalization of prostitution and related health and safety policies in New Zealand illustrate how evaluations can play an important role in both refining the theory and contributing to improved policy interventions to address inequalities. The theoretically driven and transformative nature of these interventions create

  20. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Cambrian base (La Herrería Formation) in the area of Los Barrios de Luna (N of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez Rodriguez, Adriana Georgina; Aramburu, Carlos; Toyos, Jose Maria

    2017-04-01

    La Herrería Formation comprises the base of the Cambrian in the Cantabrian Zone (ZC), the external part of the Variscan Orogen in the NW Iberian Peninsula (Spain). In other zones of the Iberian Massif, comparable stratigraphic formations are found overlying the Precambrian basement: La Herrería Formation lays with angular unconformity over the Narcea-Mora Formation. Previous studies have proposed a variety of interpretations for the Herrería Formation. Based on the identified facies and facies associations, in this study it is interpreted in terms of progradation and abandonment of a braidplain delta system, in agreement with some of the previous investigations. Due to its particular location within a foreland fold-and-thrust belt, the formation appears dismembered so that relatively distal sections are currently found displaced towards the NE. Through the analysis of previously investigated and newly identified outcrops, the present study aims to provide a better insight into the features of the sedimentary environment, as well as a detailed characterization of the entire formation, something that would facilitate its mapping in the complexly deformed study area. The study supports a previously proposed subdivision of the Herrería Formation in three informal members, and has identified a 5 m-thick level of fine-grained reddish and mica-rich sandstones proposed as the boundary between the lower and middle members, which has also been utilized as a marker bed for correlations among the different sections. The lower member is formed by shaly to sandy facies associations of pro-delta and delta front, and can include shallow-water carbonates deposited during delta lobe temporal abandonment. Within the middle member, the lower part is composed by coarse- to moderately-sorted feldspathic reddish sandstones of the delta plain, defining the top of a large-scale progradational sequence which starts at the lower member. Towards the upper part of this member, the sandstones turn into quartzarenites with glauconite, reflecting costal reworking by sea waves and then, the beginning of retrogradation. Finally, in the upper member, fine-grained-quarzarenites and shales are found, indicating a stronger marine influence interpreted as a consequence of a retrogradational trend that would culminate with the onset of carbonate deposition as shown by the limestones of the overlying Láncara Formation. Paleocurrent distribution analysis, based on cross-laminated sandstones, indicates that sedimentary supply was directed towards the SSW and that sediment redistribution occurred along a WNW-ESE trending paleoshore. Sedimentation would be linked to one of the graben basins created during the rifting that the northern margin of Gondwana was experiencing at that time.

  1. Teaching Chicano Youth the Sociology of Barrio Social Problems with the Aid of Small Airplane Flights. (An Experiment to Help Reduce Chicano Youth Violence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorquez, Jaime S.

    Chicano youth violence (CYV) is a serious problem, progressively more generalized and vicious and increasingly involving girls and children as assailants and also attacks on old people, whites and Mexican nationals. Becoming romanticized and institutionalized into a subculture, CYV is an important factor in the destruction of authentic Chicano…

  2. Assessment in situ of genotoxicity in tadpoles and adults of frog Hypsiboas cordobae (Barrio 1965) inhabiting aquatic ecosystems associated to fluorite mine.

    PubMed

    Pollo, Favio E; Grenat, Pablo R; Otero, Manuel A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2016-11-01

    Non-lethal biological techniques such as blood biomarkers have gained attention due to their value as early signals of anthropic effects of contamination representing significant tools to evaluate ecosystems health. We evaluate and characterize in situ genotoxicity of water samples collected from aquatic ecosystems around a fluorite mine using amphibian frogs Hypsiboas cordobae as bioindicator species complemented with 16 physicochemical parameters. Four stations associated with fluorite mine sampling were sampled: a stream running on granitic rock with natural high fluorite content; two streams both running on metamorphic rock with low fluorite content; and an artificial decantation pond containing sediments produced by fluorite flotation process with high variation in physicochemical parameters. We analyses the blood of tadpoles and adults of H. Cordobae, calculated frequencies of micronuclei, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, mitosis, immature and enucleated erythrocytes. Individuals were measured and weighed and body condition was calculated. The results of this study indicate that individuals of decantation pond are exposed to compounds or mixtures which are causing cell damage when compared to those that were collected of stream. Larval stage was more vulnerable than the adult phase and it could be related mainly to the higher exposure time to xenobiotics, which can penetrate easily by skin, mouth and gills; additionally this site offers a reduced availability of food than other sites. Therefore, chronic exposure to pollutants could derive in degenerative and neoplastic diseases in target organs. Moreover these individuals may experience reproductive and behavioral disturbances which could lead to population decline in the long term.

  3. A Model to Predict Retention and Attrition of Hispanic-Americans in the Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Eds.), Bilingualism in the barrio . Bloomington; Indiana University, 1971. Fishman, J. A., Cooper, R. L., & Ma, R., et al. Bilingualism in the Barrio ...ethnographic summary. In J. A. Fishman, R. L. Cooper, & R. Ma. Bilingualism in the Barrio . Bloomington: Indiana University, 1971. Hoffman, G. Life in the...neighborhood: A factor analytic study of Puerto Rican males. In J. A. Fishman, R. L. Cooper, & R. Ma. Bilingualism in the Barrio . Bloomington: Indiana

  4. Developing a Community through Its Marketplace. Partnership Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Manuel Alcazar

    1999-01-01

    A partnership of nongovernmental organizations developed a model of integrated community development centers (CDICs) to address the lack of services and affordable basic necessities in poor barrios surrounding many Latin American cities. A CDIC in a Guayaquil (Ecuador) barrio provides wholesale goods and credit to barrio shopkeepers and…

  5. Developing a Community through Its Marketplace. Partnership Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Manuel Alcazar

    1999-01-01

    A partnership of nongovernmental organizations developed a model of integrated community development centers (CDICs) to address the lack of services and affordable basic necessities in poor barrios surrounding many Latin American cities. A CDIC in a Guayaquil (Ecuador) barrio provides wholesale goods and credit to barrio shopkeepers and…

  6. "Discovering the Cell": An Educational Game about Cell and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Carolina N.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Cardona, Tania da S.; Melim, Leandra M. C.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The role of games within education becomes clearer as students become more active and are able to take decisions, solve problems and react to the results of those decisions. The educational board game "Discovering the Cell" ("Celula Adentro"), is based on problem-solving learning. This investigative game attempts to stimulate…

  7. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  8. "Discovering the Cell": An Educational Game about Cell and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Carolina N.; Alves, Gutemberg G.; Cardona, Tania da S.; Melim, Leandra M. C.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.; Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The role of games within education becomes clearer as students become more active and are able to take decisions, solve problems and react to the results of those decisions. The educational board game "Discovering the Cell" ("Celula Adentro"), is based on problem-solving learning. This investigative game attempts to stimulate…

  9. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  10. The San Pablo experiment: educational strategies in family planning for rural workers.

    PubMed

    Gatchalian, J; Aganon, M

    1978-01-01

    16 couples from each of 3 barrios in the Philippines - Barrio Santiago 1, Barrio Santiago 2, and Barrio Dolores - were randomly selected to make up homogeneous groups of young potential family planning acceptors. The objectives were 3-fold: 1) to increase the rural workers' knowledge and awareness of population issues and family planning in order to motivate them to adopt practices; 2) to assist a trade union in integrating population education into its workers' educational program; and 3) to test the effectiveness of 2 different population education strategies. Couples from Barrio Santiago 1 underwent the integrated approach, those from Barrio Dolores the conventional approach, and those from Barrio Santiago 2 served as the control group. Both strategies made use of the same teaching methods. The relative effectiveness of the 2 strategies was gauged through an evaluation of the respondents' knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning 3 months after the training course. The following were among the results: 1) both the conventional and integrated educational strategies worked toward a higher level of knowledge and a more favorable attitude toward family planning; 2) there was no statistical significant difference between the 2 educational strategies in terms of attitude change and increase in knowledge; and 3) the study demonstrates the benefits of integrating family planning into the overall effort of trade unions to educate and inform their members.

  11. A Community "Fully Alive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferre, Isolina

    1998-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the Missionary Servants of the Most Blessed Trinity's barrio residents to protect, represent, and help its troubled youth in Puerto Rico. Discusses various projects and activities created to involve youngsters in the community parish. (YKH)

  12. The "Silver Writes" Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspectives: The Civil Rights Quarterly, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The meaning of "civil rights" is discussed by various American authors and poets, including Alice Walker, Arthur Miller, Nocholasa Mohr, Felipe de Ortega y Gasco, Laura Z. Hobson, Simon J. Ortiz, Raymond Barrio, John Rechy, and Vine Deloria, Jr. (MJL)

  13. [Migration and urban poverty in the Northeast].

    PubMed

    Duarte, R

    1983-01-01

    Migration and poverty in Northeast Brazil are studied using data from a survey conducted in 1974-1975 in the barrios of three cities. Information on employment and living conditions of migrants is compared with data for the native population.

  14. California: Environmental Health Coalition Clean Ports, Healthy Communities in San Diego (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) is a recipient of a CARE Level II cooperative agreement grant. The Clean Ports, Healthy Communities in San Diego targets the Barrio Logan and Old Town National City areas located along San Diego Bay.

  15. A Community "Fully Alive."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferre, Isolina

    1998-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the Missionary Servants of the Most Blessed Trinity's barrio residents to protect, represent, and help its troubled youth in Puerto Rico. Discusses various projects and activities created to involve youngsters in the community parish. (YKH)

  16. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-14

    hospital was granted in 1985. would have been followed by a five-year transition period. Thus the central unit and tents were set up in Barrio The changes...is not section of the capital. Originally planned as a barrio unrealistic. What is going to happen then? It currently hospital, today it serves...100,000 Recipient Purpose Forints expanded] Szolnok County Boys ’ Choirs Pal Gerber, Gabor Gerhes, Exhibition catalog 150,000 Organization Balazs Kicsiny

  17. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  18. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Acculturation Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the acculturation unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. It is presented in nine chapters. Chapter I provides background information on immigration and points out ways acculturation takes place. Chapter II, "Barrio Boy," tells of life in…

  19. The Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Focus on the Mexican American Family. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (2nd, San Antonio, Texas, September 8-10, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The 26 papers focus on child abuse issues affecting the Mexican American family. The keynote address notes various issues in child abuse and neglect among Mexican Americans. Three papers discuss Mexican American families in transition, adjustment of the family into the Mexican American barrio and vice versa, and the effects of sexual assault on…

  20. Acculturation of Prosocial and Competitive Behaviors Among Second-and Third-Generation Mexican-American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Kagan, Spencer

    1977-01-01

    Found that increasing generation level was associated with decreasing frequency of altruism/group-enhancenment and equality choices and increasing frequency of rivalry/superiority choices, supporting an acculturation to the majority rather than acculturation to the barrio model. (Author/AM)

  1. The Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Focus on the Mexican American Family. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (2nd, San Antonio, Texas, September 8-10, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The 26 papers focus on child abuse issues affecting the Mexican American family. The keynote address notes various issues in child abuse and neglect among Mexican Americans. Three papers discuss Mexican American families in transition, adjustment of the family into the Mexican American barrio and vice versa, and the effects of sexual assault on…

  2. Cause or Consequence?: Suburbanization and Crime in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; Park, Yoonhwan

    2009-01-01

    Inner-city crime is a motivating factor for middle-class flight. Therefore, crime is a cause of suburbanization. Movement of the middle and upper classes to the suburbs, in turn, isolates the poor in central-city ghettos and barrios. Sociologists and criminologists have argued that the concentration of poverty creates an environment within which…

  3. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  4. CBOs Helping Inhalant Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Gloria

    1980-01-01

    Noting the high barrio use of inhalants, the environment often surrounding inhaling, and various treatment approaches, the article describes the programs of several Hispanic community-based organizations in Mexico, Arizona, and California which have been developed to assist inhalant abusers and their families in overcoming the habit. (SB)

  5. Address Systems in "The Plum Plum Pickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geuder, Patricia A.

    1975-01-01

    The address systems in Raymond Barrio's "The Plum Plum Pickers" imply sociolinguistic differences between the Chicano and the Anglo characters. The kinds of sociolinguistic situations, the number of dyadic patterns, and the quantity of the dyadic patterns strongly suggest the differences. (Author)

  6. Child Abuse & Neglect in the Mexican American Community. Course Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Rosie Lee

    Consisting of three units, the course model aims to prepare students to address the problem of abuse and/or neglect in the Mexican American community. Unit one focuses on the two major parts of the informal helping system in the Mexican American community, the barrio and the family. Unit two concentrates on the traditional child welfare system and…

  7. Role Perceptions of Hispanic and Mainstream Navy Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    eye-views of life in an urban barrio. In J. Helm (Ed.), Spanish speaking people in the United States. Seattle: Uni- versity of Washington Press, 1968...la mujer Mexicana? Mexico City: Instituto Mexicano de Estudios Sociales, 1969. Linton, R. The study of man. New York: Appleton-Century, 1936

  8. Theoretical versus Grass-Roots Development of a Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escandon, Socorro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine Bracht, Kingbury, and Rissel's five-stage community development model as applied to a grass-roots community action group. The sample consisted of low-income, predominantly Hispanic women in a community action group in a Southwestern barrio, some of whom were experiencing domestic violence. The…

  9. Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgois, Philippe

    This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of…

  10. Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement. Quality/Calidad/Qualite Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogow, Debbie

    The Manuela Ramos Movement began in the 1970s when seven women in Lima, Peru, started meeting each Tuesday to reconsider their assumptions about everyday life. By 1980, the group formed a nongovernmental organization whose strategy was to train women community leaders in Lima's barrios through workshops focusing on the following themes: identity…

  11. Dolor y Iluminacion: Working with Teenage Hitmen in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Consuelo

    1996-01-01

    A 4-day adventure ropes course with 20 Colombian adolescents who belonged to gangs that worked for drug traffickers produced noticeable changes in their attitudes and behavior. As a result, two of them left their barrio in search of a better life, and two began work as gardeners in a public park. (TD)

  12. The Social Significance and Value Dimension of Current Mexican American Dialectal Spanish. A Glossary for the Human Service Professions. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Ernesto; Cerda, Gilberto

    Results of a study documenting the Mexican American's unique Spanish dialectal expressions used in the barrios of San Antonio, Texas, and its surrounding areas are presented. The expressions included are those which were not recorded in the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola" (19th Edition) or which were recorded therein but with…

  13. Dolor y Iluminacion: Working with Teenage Hitmen in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Consuelo

    1996-01-01

    A 4-day adventure ropes course with 20 Colombian adolescents who belonged to gangs that worked for drug traffickers produced noticeable changes in their attitudes and behavior. As a result, two of them left their barrio in search of a better life, and two began work as gardeners in a public park. (TD)

  14. Language Attitudes toward Spanish and English Varieties: A Chicano Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, D. Letticia

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 30 Chicano adolescents in 2 Austin barrios examined the varieties of English and Spanish used by respondents and their Anglo and African American peers, functions of the language varieties, maintenance of Spanish, language shift toward English, Spanish-accented English, and ethnic and social identity. Contains 43 references.…

  15. Old Heads Tell Their Stories: From Street Gangs to Street Organizations in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, David C.

    It has been the contention of researchers that the "old heads" (identified by Anderson in 1990 and Wilson in 1987) of the ghettos and barrios of America have voluntarily or involuntarily left the community, leaving behind new generations of youth without adult role models and legitimate social controllers. This absence of an adult strata…

  16. Naval Postgraduate School Scheduling Support System (NPS4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    University, Palo Alto , California, December 1990. 27. Postgraduate School Instruction 5010.3F, Class Scheduling Procedures, 26 April 1976. 28. Postgraduate...ABDEL-HAMID, T. RA RAMESH. BALA AL ALLION, DENNIS G., CDR RC ROBERTS. NANCY C. BC BARRIOS -CHOPLIN, ROBERT RO ROBERTS. BENJAMIN J. BD BUI. TUNG X. SA

  17. Placas and Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romotsky, Jerry; Romotsky, Sally

    1974-01-01

    Presented examples of graffiti as seen in the barrios of East Los Angeles that told of the past and demonstrated how graffiti could be used in a positive fashion reflecting the positive aspirations, interests, and identities of the residents. (Author/RK)

  18. Schools, Communities, and Democracy: The Nicaragua BASE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The 1990 election of Dona Violeta Barrios de Chamorro as President of Nicaragua marked the end of the Sandinista era and the return of U.S. foreign assistance the following year. Education was prominent in the U.S. assistance package. Since early 1994, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission to Nicaragua has funded a…

  19. Cause or Consequence?: Suburbanization and Crime in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; Park, Yoonhwan

    2009-01-01

    Inner-city crime is a motivating factor for middle-class flight. Therefore, crime is a cause of suburbanization. Movement of the middle and upper classes to the suburbs, in turn, isolates the poor in central-city ghettos and barrios. Sociologists and criminologists have argued that the concentration of poverty creates an environment within which…

  20. The Social Significance and Value Dimension of Current Mexican American Dialectal Spanish. A Glossary for the Human Service Professions. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Ernesto; Cerda, Gilberto

    Results of a study documenting the Mexican American's unique Spanish dialectal expressions used in the barrios of San Antonio, Texas, and its surrounding areas are presented. The expressions included are those which were not recorded in the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Espanola" (19th Edition) or which were recorded therein but with…

  1. They were "Happy to Rock Along in This Trend," The San Felipe Independent School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven W.

    The history of San Felipe School District (Texas), 1894-1971, depicts a situation in which Mexican Americans had control of local schools. Established in the Mexican "barrio" of the racially divided border town of Del Rio, San Felipe resisted annexation to the Anglo school district and became an independent school district in 1929.…

  2. Country Reports on Terrorism 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Qa‘ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) issued a ―Statement of Consolation , Advice, and Condolences to our Brothers and Family in Nigeria...Coordinator. Page | 190 On December 4, President Chavez promoted Hugo Carvajal Barrios and Henry de Jesus Rangel Silva to the rank of

  3. Chicana Adolescents: Bitches, 'Ho's, and Schoolgirls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Lisa C.

    "Westhills" is a multiethnic coastal community in San Diego County, California, in which Mexican Americans comprise approximately 22 percent of the population. This book reports ethnographic research on a group of working-class Chicana adolescents in one Westhills barrio and their problems, school experiences, immersion in two…

  4. Operation Hope: An Experimental Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, A. Paul

    1973-01-01

    In efforts to place more effective social workers in the barrios and ghettoes, this program recruited potential college students from those areas, and provided them with support in academic skill development on-site classes; field placement; and supportive services. The most serious kinds of problem faced by these young people lie in the area of…

  5. Tlaltelolco: The Grammatical-Rhetorical Indios of Colonial Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The force of the grammar-rhetoric-composition program at the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, a sixteenth-century institution of higher education for sons of the indigenous elite located in one of two large barrios in the valley of Mexico, is measured. Tlaltelolco is a composition-rhetoric site designed for those perceived as needing…

  6. Tlaltelolco: The Grammatical-Rhetorical Indios of Colonial Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The force of the grammar-rhetoric-composition program at the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, a sixteenth-century institution of higher education for sons of the indigenous elite located in one of two large barrios in the valley of Mexico, is measured. Tlaltelolco is a composition-rhetoric site designed for those perceived as needing…

  7. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    over time. , A little girl is crying . .. "They’re burning my dress. They’re burning my dress." Nine villagers, one a fifteen year old boy , are...34The high command, afraid that units might crack under the pressure, relied on the air force to strafe and rocket the barrios of San Salvador-a tactic

  8. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Acculturation Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the acculturation unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. It is presented in nine chapters. Chapter I provides background information on immigration and points out ways acculturation takes place. Chapter II, "Barrio Boy," tells of life in…

  9. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  10. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, VIEW OF SOUTH ABUTMENT. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  11. Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original 35 millimeter negative in possession of Luis Pumarada, San German, Puerto Rico). Luis Pumarada, Photographer, September 4, 1989. PUENTE RIO HONDO, DOMED PLATE DECK FROM BELOW. - Puente Rio Hondo, Spanning Hondo River on PR Road 156, Barrio Rio Hondo, Comerio, Comerio Municipio, PR

  12. Meaning Construction in School Reading Tasks: A Study of Mexican-American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Judith A.; And Others

    To investigate how Mexican-American students constructed meaning from English texts when engaged in reading and writing activities, a study examined 12 fifth grade Mexican-American students who lived in a "barrio" with literacy in both Spanish and English. The aim was to tap the envisionments (text interpretations or understandings, and…

  13. [Milonguitas in Buenos Aires (1910-40): tango, social ascent, and tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Armus, Diego

    2002-01-01

    During the first three decades of the 20th century, in the fervor of urban change that transformed Buenos Aires into a metropolis, poetry, cinema, theater, and the lyrics of the tango repeatedly portrayed the path of muchachas de barrio who, by taking to nightlife and the downtown cabarets, placed their stakes on a society where social ascent--limited yet real--was part of the urban experience. For the most part written by men, the lyrics speak of these journeys in a tone of censure and tuberculosis is cast as a form of punishment for these young women who dared to question ther place in the domestic world and the world of the barrio. The tango thus offers its audience not only a highly moralizing account but also paints an image of an illness that seems unique to women although it in fact affected male and female alike.

  14. Structure and dynamics of noble gas-halogen and noble gas ionic clusters: When theory meets experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beswick, J. A.; Halberstadt, N.; Janda, K. C.

    2012-05-01

    As part of this special issue in honor of Gerardo Delgado Barrio, we have reviewed the interplay between experimental and theoretical work on halogen and interhalogen diatomic molecule bonded to one or more noble gas atoms and also ionic clusters consisting of noble gas atoms. Although the Madrid group has worked on many theoretical issues, they have made particularly important contributions to these two topics. Delgado Barrio has often chosen topics for study for which close interactions between theorists and experimentalists are especially useful. During the historical span of the group, we have progressed from approximate models whose goal was to capture the essence of a process even if the details were impossible to reproduce, to an era in which theory is an equal partner with experiment, and, in fact, often provides a detailed understanding beyond that obtained from a careful analysis of state-of-the-art data.

  15. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-22

    to a religion that consoled the afflicted but that did not speak out against injustice, lies and deception. That is why those who feel adversely...individual matter. "They understand a faith that consoles the afflicted but not that speaks out against injustice, lies and deception. This is why...Reynal, Juan Ochoa, Ruben Barrio, Jaime Galvan, Luis Roberto Licon, Eugenio Baeza, Jesus Yanez, Miguel Anchondo, Dereck Dumn, Ronald Taylor

  16. Proceedings of the International Congress/Actes du 6eme Congres International (6th) Held in Nice, France on 5-9 July 1993: Noise as a Public Health Problem. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-09

    Ear Hear.11, 93-105. Leonard G., Smurzynski J., Jung M.D., Kim D.O. (1990) Evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a basis for the...de Fisica, Casilla 307, Santiago, Chile ""Hospital Mutual de Seguridad, Medicina del Trabajo ABSTRACT The aim of this investigation is to achieve a...ENVIRONMENT IN CHOOSING A PLACE OF RESIDENCE.’ LOPEZ BARRIO, Isabel; CARLES , Josi Luis Instituto de Acdstica (CSIC) Cl Serrano, 144. 28006 MADRID Abstract

  17. Counternetwork: Countering the Expansion of Transnational Criminal Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    the Aryan Brotherhood, the New Mexico Syndicate, Nuestra Familia , the Northern Structure, the Black Guerrilla Family, Mexikanemi, Barrio Azteca, the...BLO), Los Zetas Sinaloa Federation La Familia Michoacaná Michoacaná State Cabelleros Templarios (aka Knights Templar) Cabelleros Templarios (aka...Knights Templar) Michoacaná State La Familia Micoacaná Jalisco Cartel New Generation (CJNG) Southern stretches of Mexico’s Pacific coats; parts

  18. The Flawed Strategy in Columbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    kidney to his son. The FARC refused and the boy died without ever seeing his father. 1 9 Because of the FARC’s terror tactics, unlawful taxes, and links...made and enormous mistake handing it over without any rules". 45 Major Wilson Barrios , the police commander in El Doncello, Colombia, said when...Scholarly Resources 2001) 236. 19 Associated Press, "Colombian boy dies without seeing his dad". Carlisle (PA) The Sentinel, 19 December 2001, sec A, p 3

  19. Southeast Asia Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-19

    34 Last Friday, newspaper reports say, 70 heavily armed NPA guerrillas attacked and burned ah army detachment in Luna , Kalinga-Apayao, killing five...military probe has been called to find out what really happened in the Nueva Ecija town of Lupao where 17 civilians were killed. The deaths were 41...NE scene summed up the tra- gedy of Barrio Namulandayan, Lupao, Nueva Ecija, where 17 men, women and children were killed allegedly by government

  20. Studies of Prostate Tumor Development via Cre/LoxP Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    in our facility and used routinely in our transgenic experiments (Robles et al., 1996; Rodriguez Puebla et al., 2000). Crosses with Rosa 26 mice have...In the case of K5-Cre we used the strategy used routinely in our laboratory with primers for the Globin intron (Rodriguez Puebla et al. 2000). In the... Barrios RJ, Morton RA, Boyce BF, DeMayo FJ, Finegold MJ, Angelopoulou R, Rosen JM, Greenberg NM. Metastatic prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse. Cancer

  1. Aspects of Cognitive Complexity Theory and Research as Applied to a Managerial Decision Making Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Asch , S. E. Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 1946 , 41, 258-290. Attneave...8217" . "’" . .: " = . .- , " " " ’ ’ ". , ’" ൓ . suggested and/or obtained by researchers associated with Asch ( 1946 ; Anderson and Barrios, 1961; and Luchins, 1957, 1953...work of Zajonc (1960), but combined that approach with some-of the earlier formulations of Lewin (1936) and Heider ( 1946 ). Earlier distinctions

  2. Ecologic observations of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in vertebrates and isolations of Nepuyo and Patois viruses from sentinel hamsters at Pacific and Atlantic habitats in Guatemala, 1968-1980.

    PubMed

    Scherer, W F; Dickerman, R W; Cupp, E W; Ordonez, J V

    1985-07-01

    La Avellana and Puerto Barrios, two enzootic foci of Venezuelan encephalitis (VE) virus on the Pacific and Caribbean lowlands (respectively) of Guatemala have been studied over a 13-year period. Data from sentinel hamsters and guinea pigs and wild and domestic vertebrates are reported. VE virus strains were isolated from hamsters each period they were exposed during the rainy seasons 1968-1980 and at the end of the dry season 1974. Rates of isolation of VE virus ranged from 0.2%-5.7% hamster/days/exposure. All strains tested were free of epizootic virions. Although virus was isolated from sentinel guinea pigs, their deaths were not attributable to infection with VE virus. Antibody titers in 26 of 28 terrestrial mammals bled at La Avellana in 1971 were higher to enzootic than to epizootic VE strains. Thirty-seven percent of 109 residents of Puerto Barrios had antibody to VE virus. In 13 of 20 tested, antibodies were engendered by the enzootic strain. Nepuyo and Patois viruses were isolated from sentinel hamsters at both La Avellana and Puerto Barrios.

  3. Prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans. Relationship to percent of gene pool derived from native American sources.

    PubMed

    Gardner, L I; Stern, M P; Haffner, S M; Gaskill, S P; Hazuda, H P; Relethford, J H; Eifler, C W

    1984-01-01

    We have estimated the prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Mexican Americans and Anglos in three San Antonio neighborhoods. The age-adjusted NIDDM rates (both sexes pooled) for Mexican Americans were 14.5%, 10%, and 5% for residents of a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb, respectively. In Mexican American women, though not in men, obesity also declined from barrio to suburbs. We have previously shown, however, that, although obesity is an important cause of NIDDM in Mexican Americans, there is a two- to fourfold excess in the rate of NIDDM in this ethnic group over and above that which can be attributed to obesity. We therefore speculated that genetic factors might also contribute to excess NIDDM in this ethnic group. The percent native American admixture of Mexican Americans as estimated from skin color measurements was 46% in the barrio, 27% in the transitional neighborhood, and 18% in the suburbs. The NIDDM rates in Mexican Americans thus paralleled the proportion of native American genes. Furthermore, the San Antonio Mexican American rates were intermediate between the NIDDM rates of "full-blooded" Pima Indians (49.9%), who presumably have close to 100% native American genes, and the San Antonio Anglo population (3.0%) and the predominantly Anglo HANES II population (3.1%), both of which presumably have few if any native American genes. The association of genetic admixture with NIDDM rates suggests that much of the epidemic of NIDDM in Mexican Americans is confined to that part of the population with a substantial native American heritage.

  4. Introducing DNA concepts to Swiss high school students based on a Brazilian educational game.

    PubMed

    da S Cardona, Tânia; Spiegel, Carolina N; Alves, Gutemberg G; Ducommun, Jacques; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C

    2007-11-01

    Subjects such as techniques for genetic diagnosis, cloning, sequencing, and gene therapy are now part of our lives and raise important questions about ethics, future medical diagnosis, and such. Students from different countries observe this explosion of biotechnological applications regardless of their social, academic, or cultural backgrounds, although they are not usually familiar with their theoretical genetic bases. To introduce some molecular biology concepts for high school students, we developed a new problem for the Brazilian board game "Discovering the cell" ("Célula Adentro©" in Portuguese), a pedagogic tool based on inquiry-, cooperative-, and problem-based learning. This problem (Case) is based on the forensic DNA, which represents an interesting theme for students, as it recurrently appears on newspapers and television series. In this work, we tested this game with secondary students and teachers from Switzerland. Our results indicate that the game "Discovering the cell" is well accepted by both students and teachers and may represent a good pedagogical approach to help teaching complex themes in molecular biology, even with students from different socioeconomical, cultural, and academic backgrounds. Copyright © 2007 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Film Piracy, Organized Crime, and Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Worldstream, March 12, 2008. See also Emiliano de Pablos and John Hopewell, “Spain cracks down on pirates,” Variety, March 13, 2008. 69 de Pablos and...resistance to law enforcement makes it terrain for fenc- ing and piracy and provides a haven for the more dangerous crimi- 60 Arturo Paramo , “Absorbe PRD...DF a los ambulantes,” Reforma, May 22, 2005; Arturo Paramo , “Va Alejandra Barrios de vuleta a las calles,” Reforma, December 16, 2005. 61 Claudia

  6. Role of Tumor Microenvironment and the FGF Signaling Axis on Differentiation and Emergence of the Neuroendocrine Phenotype in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Fen Wang CaFGFR I carrier plasmid NMG1025 pGL2-PE-178 Dr. Amparo Cano2 E-cadherin promoter Luciferase construct NMG 1027 pS2 Dr. Aguilar-Cordova 3...51 1, 2003. Cano A, Perez-Moreno MA, Rodrigo I, Locascio A, Blanco MJ, del Barrio MG, Portillo F , and Nieto MA. The transcription factor Snail...phenotype. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 91(4):671-683, 2004. Foster BA, Evangelou AI, Gingrich JR, Kaplan PJ, DeMayo F , and Greenberg NM. Enforced

  7. [Influence of socio-cultural context on risk perception and negotiation of protection among poor homosexual males on the Peruvian coast].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ximena; Cáceres, Carlos; Maiorana, André; Rosasco, Ana M; Kegeles, Susan; Coates, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on risk, conceived not as an individual action, but considering its social dimension, analyzing the various forms in the socio-cultural context related to internalized homophobia and hegemonic gender norms that allow barriers to be constructed in risk perception. Such barriers hinder negotiation and protection among homosexual men that have adopted a female gender identity, living in low-income barrios of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. Risk perception is analyzed on the socio-cultural plane, allowing one to explain the limited negotiating capacity of this population, even though they have extensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its consequences.

  8. Rural origin as a risk factor for maternal and child health in periurban Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Rivera, T; Madonna, D

    1993-12-01

    Rapid migration in Latin America is settling rural women and their families next to those of urban origin in sprawling urban settings. Those born and reared in rural areas bring with them knowledge and skills learned and adapted to rural areas; those same skills may be maladaptive in urban areas. Hypothesized is that urban women of rural origin are more likely to have poorer health outcomes for themselves and their children than lifelong urban counterparts. Identification of specific risk factors affecting child and/or maternal health status in peri-urban barrios can assist health workers to target limited resources to those least likely to access available services.

  9. Honduran-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-23

    Honduras suspende derechos constitucionales durante toque queda,” Reuters, July 1, 2009; Amnesty International, “Honduras: human rights crisis threatens...El 28 de junio y la Constitución,” La Tribuna (Honduras), August 1, 2009; Ramón Enrique Barrios, “No hubo sucesión constitucional ,” El Tiempo...August 21, 2009. 35 “Gobierno ordena suspender garantías constitucionales ,” El Tiempo (Honduras), September 28, 2009; Elisabeth Malkin & Ginger Thompson

  10. Honduran Political Crisis, June 2009-January 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    de expresión,” El Tiempo (Honduras), June 30, 2009. 34 “Honduras suspende derechos constitucionales durante toque queda,” Reuters, July 1, 2009...Constitución,” La Tribuna (Honduras), August 1, 2009; Ramón Enrique Barrios, “No hubo sucesión constitucional ,” El Tiempo (Honduras), August 28...more than a few feet across the Nicaraguan border on July 24 and July 25, 2009. 36 “Gobierno ordena suspender garantías constitucionales ,” El Tiempo

  11. Detection of Metastatic Potential in Breast Cancer by RhoC-GTPase and WISP3 Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    WISP3 polyclonal antibody (gift from Dr Matthew Warman), p27kip1, p21waf1, PCNA (Zymed, San Francisco , CA, USA) cyclin E (SC-247, Santa Cruz, CA, USA...Zamora P, Arias JI, Salazar R, et al. (2004). The variant E233G of the RAD51D gene could be a low-penetrance allele in high-risk breast cancer...gene expression in epithelial tumour cells. Nat Cell Biol 2000, 2:84-89. 37. Cano A, Perez -Moreno MA, Rodrigo I, Locascio A, Blanco MJ, del Barrio MG

  12. Identification of Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Metastasis Using Tissue Specific Virus Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    tumor metastasis. Cell 117:927-939. 8. Cano, A., Perez -Moreno, M.A., Rodrigo, I., Locascio, A., Blanco, M.J., del Barrio, M.G., Portillo, F., and... Nieto , M.A. 2000. The transcription factor Snail controls epithelial-mesenchymal transitions by repressing E-cadherin expression. Nat Cell Biol 2:76...23. Moody, S.E., Perez , D., Pan, T.C., Sarkisian, C.J., Portocarrero, C.P., Sterner, C.J., Notorfrancesco, K.L., Cardiff, R.D., and Chodosh, L.A

  13. Rolling Wave Number 4 and IBR/EAC Kickoff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Schaub(I1)/Wallace(I2) 3120 Seg Engineering Kile (303) 581-4385 Schaub(I1)/Wallace(I2) 3130 ILS Spec Engineering Kile (303) 581-4385 King 3140 Seg I&T...IPT Lead CAM CAM Phone # SPO Counterpart 6100 Tech Pubs Kile (303) 581-4385 King 8000 CSI Marques (303) 581-4424 King 9100 MCS/MCSB Spares Kile (303...581-4385 King 9200 RGS Spares Fred Burgess (303) 581-4240 King A100 SW DP Depot Kile (303) 581-4385 King B100 Training Equipment Barrios (303) 581-4566

  14. Residential movement among the poor: the constraints on housing choice in Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, A G; Ward, P M

    1982-01-01

    "The paper examines the validity of current theories of intra-city migration, subjecting those theories to the test of explaining new data collected in a total of 13 low-income settlements in three Latin American cities: Bogota, Mexico City, and Valencia, Venezuela. The study focuses attention upon the principal reception points for migrants; the location of previous place of residence for contemporary barrio dwellers; [and] the tenure and dwelling characteristics of previous places of residence. The authors conclude that residential patterns in Latin American cities are less the outcome of migrant choice, as some theories argue, and more the product of constraints imposed upon the land and housing markets."

  15. Risk factors perceived predictive of ISA spread in Chile: applications to decision support.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Antognoli, M; Lara Fica, M; Ibarra, R; Mancilla, J; Sandoval Del Valle, O; Enriquez Sais, R; Perez, A; Aguilar, D; Madrid, E; Bustos, P; Clement, A; Godoy, M G; Johnson, C; Remmenga, M

    2014-11-01

    Aquaculture is anticipated to be a critical element in future solutions to global food shortage. However, diseases can impede industry efficiency and sustainability. Consequently, diseases can and have led to dramatic re-structuring in industry or regulatory practices. The emergence of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Chile is one such example. As in other countries, many mitigations were instituted universally, and many incurred considerable costs as they introduced a new layer of coordination of farming activities of marine sites within common geographic areas (termed 'neighborhoods' or 'barrios'). The aggregate response led to a strong reduction in ISA incidence and impact. However, the relative value of individual mitigations is less clear, especially where response policies were universally applied and retrospective analyses are missing 'controls' (i.e., areas where a mitigation was not applied). Further, re-focusing policies around disease prevention following resolution of an outbreak is important to renew sustainable production; though, again, field data to guide this shift in purpose are often lacking. Expert panels can offer timely decision support in the absence of empirical data. We convened a panel of fish health experts to weight risk factors predictive of ISA virus (ISAV) introduction or spread between Atlantic salmon barrios in Chile. Barrios, rather than sites, were the unit of interest because many of the new mitigations operate at this level and few available studies examine their efficacy. Panelists identified barrio processing plant biosecurity, fallowing strategies, adult live fish transfers, fish and site density, smolt quality, hydrographic connection with other neighborhoods, presence of sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi), and harvest vessel biosecurity as factors with the greatest predictive strength for ISAV virulent genotype ('HPR-deleted') occurrence. Fewer factors were considered predictive of ISAV HPR0 genotype ('HPR0') occurrence

  16. [Variations in the individual consumption of table salt with or without chili in food, in a community of México].

    PubMed

    Martínez Salgado, H; Molina Rivera, E; Chávez Villasona, A; Mata Estrada, A

    1990-03-01

    The present study was carried out in a rural community in the central plateau of Mexico, with the objective of estimating the mean daily consumption of table salt at the family and individual level, and to determine if the individual taste to salt added to the food at the table, varied with the presence or absence of a hot species, "chile", to the food. Our results showed variability in three "barrios" of the community, which go from the central, more urban-type (Temascalcingo) to an intermediate-type (Boquí), and to a more rural-type (Bonshó), showing the highest mean consumption of salt at the family level in the most urban barrio (47.2 g/day), while the mean family consumption in the other two barrios (28.2 and 33.9 g/day, respectively) was lower. At the individual level, there were differences in salt consumption associated to sex and age. The highest consumptions were found in the more urban-type barrio, in which men in the 15-22 year-old group consumed a mean of 9 g/day, and women in the 7-14 year-old group consumed a mean of 6.37 g/day. When the individual taste for salt added to foods commonly prepared in the community were studied, we found a statisticaly significant difference in individual taste associated with the presence or absence of chile in the food. In two of the study meals (breakfast and lunch) the total grams of salt added to the food which did not contain chile was significantly higher than the salt added to the food which contained chile, suggesting that the presence of the specie may account for a great part of the need to enhance food flavor. This in turn could explain the smaller consumption of table salt in the more rural-type section of the population noted in the first part of the study, in which families tend to add more chile to their food than in the urban-type settings.

  17. Wonderwomen and superman take on AIDS.

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    Superbarrio is the name given to the folk hero and spokesperson of the Asamblea de Barrios--a democratic assembly of Mexico City's poorer neighborhoods. Dressed like Batman, he is often the central figure in mass demonstrations for better living conditions. Now he is appearing with Superwoman in the Assembly's campaign against AIDS. In February 1990, Superbarrio spoke at the opening of a community AIDS information center, set up and run by women members of the Assembly. A brigade of volunteer educators handed out leaflets and condoms in the surrounding streets and underground stations. full text

  18. Studies of Prostate Tumor Development via Cre/LoxP Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-01

    used routinely in our transgenic experiments (Robles et al., 1996; Rodriguez Puebla et al., 2000). Crosses with Rosa 26 mice have already been...enzyme substrate for beta-galactosidase. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler, 373(12):1187-91, Dec. 1992. Gingrich JR, Barrios RJ, Morton RA, Boyce BF, DeMayo FJ...Sci, 93:7634-7638, 1996. Rodriguez- Puebla , M.L., LaCava, M., Miliani de Marval, P.L., Jorcano, J.L., Richie, E.R. and Conti, C.J. Cyclin D2

  19. Ungoverned Territories. Understanding and Reducing Terrorism Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Central Asia, London: I. B. Tauris, 2000. ———, “Islamists Impose Taliban-Type Moral Monitors,” Daily Telegraph (UK), June 3, 2003a. ———, “The Wild...sociales trasnacionales, respuestas represivas nacionales,” Foreign Affairs En Español, Abril–Junio 2004. As of January 5, 2007: http...www.foreignaffairs-esp.org/20040401faenespessay040205/wim-savenije/la-Mara-salvatrucha- y-el-barrio-18-st-fenomenos-sociales-trasnacionales- respuestas -represivas

  20. [Validation of a new questionnaire to evaluate the quality of life in patients after myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Velasco, J A; del Barrio, V; Mestre, M V; Penas, C; Ridocci, F

    1993-09-01

    Quality of life is an important measurement in chronic diseases and especially in patients after myocardial infarction. We designed and structured a new Questionnaire of Quality of Life for Spanish speaking patients from the existing English questionnaires. The new Questionnaire of Velasco-Del Barrio has a total of 44 items, grouped in 9 subscales: health, sleep and rest, emotional behaviour, concerns to the future, mobility, social relations alertness behaviour, communication, and work and leisure time. The questionnaire has been validated taking as a gold standard, the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Myocardial Infarction (QLMI-Q) of Oldridge. The reliability and the reproducibility have also been studied. The validity of the Velasco-Del Barrio Questionnaire was high (r = 0.81), as its reproducibility (0.75) and reliability (0.90). We assume that the usefulness of the new Questionnaire is at least, similar to that of the Oldridge's one, and that it can be recommended in postinfarction patients, even though it can be more advantageous in patients of Spanish speaking cultures.

  1. Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Dominican Republic; prevalence and intensity in various urban and rural communities, 1982-1987.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M; Malek, E A; Perez, J G

    1990-12-01

    Surveys to detect foci of schistosomiasis mansoni endemicity in the Dominican Republic were carried out from 1982 to 1987 and showed that the disease is far more widely distributed in the country than previously thought. New foci (San Rafael del Yuma, Batey Palo Bonito, Maicillo, Nisibon and additional barrios in the city of Higuey) were found in the eastern provinces, and other completely new foci (Bayaguana, Sabana Rey (Cotui) and Jarabacoa) in the center of the country and in the National District (Guerra) were also detected. Prevalence rates in the various barrios (sections) of the city of Higuey varied between 7.4% and 24.6%, whereas they were 10.2% in Maicillo, 7.8% in El Valle and 9.9% in El Seibo. The intensity of infection was very low as judged by eggs per gram of feces. Serodiagnosis using the circumoval precipitin test raised the infection rate from that indicated by stool examination, as in Maicillo, or both results were equal, as in Las Palmillas.

  2. Sex difference in the effects of sociocultural status on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Stern, M P; Rosenthal, M; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P; Franco, L J

    1984-12-01

    The authors postulated that as Mexican Americans became more affluent and/or acculturated to "mainstream" United States life-style they would progressively lose their "obesity-related" pattern of cardiovascular risk factors which were defined as: obesity, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. This hypothesis was tested in 1979-1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study on 1,288 Mexican Americans and 929 Anglos living in three San Antonio neighborhoods: a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb. The study population comprised 25-65-year-old men and nonpregnant women. In Mexican American women, all of the "obesity-related" risk factors fell sharply with rising socioeconomic status. In Mexican American men, by contrast, diabetes was the only "obesity-related" risk factor which fell with rising socioeconomic status. Moreover, it fell less steeply, there being an approximately twofold difference in diabetes prevalence between the barrio and the suburbs in men compared to a fourfold difference in women. Also, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol rose with rising socioeconomic status in Mexican American men, but not in Mexican American women. "Obesity-related" risk factors were generally higher in Mexican Americans of both sexes than in their Anglo neighbors who were of similar socioeconomic status. These results suggest that cultural factors exert a stronger influence on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican Americans than do purely socioeconomic factors.

  3. Subtle genetic connectivity between Mexican Caribbean and south-western Gulf of Mexico reefs: the case of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas Sánchez, C. A.; Pérez España, H.; Rivera Madrid, R.; Salas Monreal, D.; Arias González, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Efficient reef management strategies rely on detailed knowledge of biological exchange dynamics. At present, available connectivity information on Mexican Atlantic reefs is scarce, particularly concerning the Veracruz Reef System (VRS), which is located in the south-western Gulf of Mexico. This study used a hierarchically nested sampling design to evaluate the levels of genetic connectivity both within and between the Mexican Caribbean (MC) and VRS reef regions; all of the studied reefs are marine protected areas. Microsatellites were used as genetic markers, and bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits were used as a biological model. The paired genetic differentiation index between regions ( Fst (ENA) = 0.008) was lower than the global index ( Fst (ENA) = 0.027), suggesting that the stronger restrictions to gene flow may be located inside the regions rather than between them. The AMOVA results supported this explanation, as the differences were only non-significant between regions. In the VRS, Santiaguillo reef was associated with low genetic connectivity levels, whilst within the MC region the group formed by Chinchorro Bank and Cozumel exhibited a restriction to gene flow with Puerto Morelos, their northernmost reef. Despite their spatial separation, reefs from different regions (Puerto Morelos and Anegada de Adentro) showed the lowest, albeit significant, genetic difference, meaning that a subtle genetic connectivity exists at the regional scale. The detected composite flow pattern is likely related to self-recruitment and cohesive dispersal processes interacting with current patterns, which may favour genetic connections under specific conditions. The results presented here suggest that coral reef management in the Mexican Atlantic Ocean should consider large scale measures in addition to appropriate local actions to protect reef fish populations.

  4. Sobrevivendo a un tsunami: lecciones de Chile, Hawai y Japon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compilado por Atwater, Brian F.; Cisternas V., Marco; Bourgeois, Joanne; Dudley, Walter C.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1999-01-01

    Este folleto contiene historias veridicas que ilustran como sobrevivir, y como no sobrevivir, a un tsunami. Esta publicacion esta dirigida a las personas que viven, trabajan o, simplemente, se divierten a lo largo de las costas que pueden ser afectadas por un tsunami. Tales costas rodean la mayor parte del Oceano Pacifico pero tambien incluyen algunas areas costeras de los Oceanos Atlantico e Indico. Aunque mucha gente llama a los tsunamis 'olas de marea', estos no estan relacionados a las mareas, sino son una serie de olas, o 'tren de olas', generalmente causadas por cambios en el nivel del fondo marino durante los terremotos. Los tsunamis tambien pueden ser generados por la erupcion de volcanes costeros, islas volconicas, deslizamientos submarinos e impactos de grandes meteoritos en el mar. Como sucedio en Sumatra en el 2004, los tsunamis pueden alcanzar alturas de 15 metros, no tan solo en la costa sino tambien kilometros tierra adentro. Los relatos presentados en este folleto fueron seleccionados de entrevistas realizadas a personas que sobrevivieron al tsunami del Oceano Pacifico de 1960. Muchas de estas personas, incluyendo a la enfermera de la foto, se enfrento a las olas generadas a poca distancia, en la costa chilena. En cambio, otros debieron hacer frente al tsunami muchas horas despues, en Hawai y Japon. La mayoria de las entrevistas fueron realizadas a fines de los anos ochenta y en los noventa. Las historias ofrecen una mezcla de lecciones de supervivencia a un tsunami. En algunos casos se presentan las acciones que confiablemente salvaron vidas: poner atencion a los avisos de la naturaleza, abandonar los bienes, dirigirse rapidamente a un sector alto y permanecer alli hasta que el tsunami realmente haya terminado. Otras historias describen como se encontro refugio al subir a construcciones y arboles o flotar sobre desechos, tacticas que tuvieron diferentes resultados y que pueden ser recomendadas solo como actos desesperados de personas atrapadas en

  5. [Microorganisms responsible of nosocomial infections in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    PubMed

    Arias-Flores, Rafael; Rosado-Quiab, Ulises; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la prevención y el control de las infecciones nosocomiales requiere el conocimiento del tipo de microorganismo que es más frecuentemente aislado. En México se carece de una estadística nacional que identifique el principal microorganismo causante de infecciones nosocomiales. Métodos: se estudiaron todos los resultados positivos de los cultivos de las infecciones nosocomiales reportadas por el sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica Hospitalaria del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social durante el año 2013. Se reportaron los microorganismos más frecuentes y los de mayor relevancia epidemiológica. Resultados: se estudiaron 48 377 resultados de cultivos de infecciones nosocomiales; de estos, 13 207 (27.3 %) correspondieron a las 25 unidades médicas de alta especialidad y 35 170 (72.6 %) a las 197 unidades médicas de segundo nivel. El microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue la Escherichia coli con 8192 (16.9 %), seguido del grupo de los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos con 6771 (14 %) y la Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5275 (19.9 %). Se observaron diferencias ligeras entre los niveles de atención y entre los hospitales monotemáticos. Conclusiones: el presente estudio identifica a la Escherichia coli, a los Staphylococcus coagulasa-negativos y a la Pseudomonas aeruginosa como los principales microorganismos que se deben combatir.

  6. Incipient colonisation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the city of Resistencia, province of Chaco, Argentina (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Parras, Matías Ariel; Fabiani, Mariela; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Argentina in 2004, in the province of Formosa. In the following years, the vector spread to the south and west in the country and was recorded in the province of Chaco in 2010. From November 2010-May 2012, captures of Phlebotominae were made in the city of Resistencia and its surroundings, to monitor the spread and possible colonisation of Lu. longipalpis in the province of Chaco. In this monitoring, Lu. longipalpis was absent in urban sampling sites and its presence was restricted to Barrio de los Pescadores. This suggests that the incipient colonisation observed in 2010 was not followed by continuous installation of vector populations and expansion of their spatial distribution as in other urban centres of Argentina.

  7. VLT-style observing with the Wide Field Imager at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, C.; Paz, T.; Robledo, E.; Gutierrez, F.; Baade, D.; Selman, F.; Sanchez, F.; Brewer, J.; Scodeggio, M.

    2001-06-01

    The Wide Field Imager instrument of the MPG/ESO 2.2-m Telescope has been operating with the VLT-style Observing Software (OS) since the beginning of the year. Users can now prepare Observation Blocks in the same manner as for the VLT and other La Silla instruments. This uniformity of the user interface will make the system even more easy to use than before. This work is the result of the efforts of a large number of people: the sequencer scripts were written with extensive help from Paul Lesaux of the NTT team, and Emilio Barrios of the 3.6 team at La Silla. Figure 1 shows the control room with the new system in place.

  8. [Health education trough the development of scientific skills in Chilean schools].

    PubMed

    Burgos, Soledad; Yohannessen, Karla; Álvarez, Andrea; Rebolledo, Alejandro; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2017-01-01

    To describe the interests, preferred topics and learning in public health issues emerging from Chilean students with their participation in a science education experience. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in 29 school research groups through the project Salud Con-Ciencia en tu Barrio, based on a content analysis of texts and narratives of students. Students prioritize the situation of abandoned animals, waste management, security and urban infrastructure, mainly. They view the role of social actors, the positive/negative impacts on the community, valuing the knowledge gained through observation neighborhoods and interaction with neighbors. Scientific inquiry school in the neighborhood context provides teaching strategies for the promotion of local health, develops basic notions of community health and motivation in students linked to the socio-environmental reality of their neighborhoods.

  9. West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.

  10. Why nation-states and journalists can't teach people to be healthy: power and pragmatic miscalculation in public discourses on health.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L

    2003-09-01

    This article analyzes how Venezuelan public health officials collaborated with journalists in producing information about cholera in January-December 1991. It uses Michael Warner's (2002) observation that such public discourse involves a contradiction: it must project the image of reaching an actually existing public at the same time that it creates multiple publics as it circulates. The analysis explores the language ideologies that hide complex sets of practices, networks, and material conditions that shape how public discourses circulate. At the same time that epidemiologists targeted poor barrio residents, street vendors of food and drink, and indigenous people as being "at high risk," health education messages pictured women in well-equipped kitchens demonstrating cholera prevention measures. The gap between these ideal audiences and the discrepant publics created by their circulation limited the effectiveness of prevention efforts and created a substantial chasm between public health institutions and the publics they sought to reach.

  11. A Surface Pressure Altitude Prediction Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    VERACRUZ/GEN JARA, MX 19.15 96.18 29 768056 ACAPULCO/G. ALVAREZ , MX 16.75 99.77 5 786370 PUERTO BARRIOS, GU 15.72 88.60 1 786410 GUATEMALA/LA AURORA, GU...3.75 73.20 117 844520 CHICLAYO, PR -6.78 79.83 31 845010 TRUJILLO/CAPT CARLO , PR -8.08 79.12 26 845150 PUCALLPA, PR -8.37 74.58 148 846280 LIMA/JORGE...225 26 Station Lat Lon Elev Number Station Name (deg) (deg) (m) 856820 CONCEPCION/CARRIEL, CH -36.77 73.07 9 859340 PUNTA ARENAS/ CARLOS , CH -53.03

  12. Incipient colonisation of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the city of Resistencia, province of Chaco, Argentina (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Parras, Matías Ariel; Fabiani, Mariela; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis was recorded for the first time in Argentina in 2004, in the province of Formosa. In the following years, the vector spread to the south and west in the country and was recorded in the province of Chaco in 2010. From November 2010-May 2012, captures of Phlebotominae were made in the city of Resistencia and its surroundings, to monitor the spread and possible colonisation of Lu. longipalpis in the province of Chaco. In this monitoring, Lu. longipalpis was absent in urban sampling sites and its presence was restricted to Barrio de los Pescadores. This suggests that the incipient colonisation observed in 2010 was not followed by continuous installation of vector populations and expansion of their spatial distribution as in other urban centres of Argentina. PMID:25075787

  13. [Collective action around drinking water in two mid-sized cities in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Trevino Carrillo, A H

    1998-01-01

    The efforts by residents of marginal neighborhoods of two medium-sized Mexican cities to obtain potable water and sewer services were compared in order to determine the forms of organization and social relations involved. The two cities, Queretaro and Celaya, are located in different states but share the same river basin. The organizational structures of the municipal water services and their relationships to the state government, the local political structures and practices, and the patterns of conflict resolution differed greatly in the two cities. The study describes the public water services, the social demand for water, the characteristics of the barrio organizations and mobilizations, and the relevant city officials in both study sites. The focus then shifts to theoretical discussion regarding collective actions and social movements and the new area of research constituted by citizen mobilizations to demand services.

  14. Relationship between helminthic infection and IgE response in atopic and nonatopic children in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Lynch, N R; Hagel, I A; Palenque, M E; Di Prisco, M C; Escudero, J E; Corao, L A; Sandia, J A; Ferreira, L J; Botto, C; Perez, M; Le Souef, P N

    1998-02-01

    Although IgE antibody is clearly involved in allergic reactions to environmental allergens, this immunoglobulin is an important component of host-protective immune responses against the helminthic parasites that are endemic in the majority of the world population. However, these infections not only stimulate the production of antiparasite IgE antibody but can nonspecifically induce polyclonal IgE synthesis that results in highly elevated total serum IgE levels. Such polyclonal stimulation can diminish specific IgE antibody responses and cause saturation of mast cell Fc epsilon receptors, thus inhibiting allergic reactivity. This may represent a mechanism of immune evasion by the parasite. Because an atopic disposition is generally recognized to be associated with elevated IgE synthesis against environmental allergens, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of atopy on the antiparasite response. To this end, we examined two groups of Venezuelan children in whom the intestinal helminth Ascaris lumbricoides is endemic but that differ greatly in their level of atopy. One group was from an island population (Coche Island) that has a very strong atopic background and in which the prevalence of allergic disease is extremely high. The other was a group of nonatopic children belonging to a mainland population (Barrio Los Erasos) that is of comparable socioeconomic level and has an exposure to helminthic infection similar to that of the island group but a relatively low expression of allergic diseases. Although the living conditions and the prevalence of Ascaris infection of the two groups were comparable, the intensity of the parasitic infection was considerably higher in the nonatopic mainland children (geometric mean values of eggs per gram of feces: Barrio Los Erasos, 7621; Coche Island, 1435; p < 0.001). In addition, their total serum IgE levels were significantly more elevated than in the atopic island group (geometric mean: Barrio Los Erasos, 2172; Coche

  15. [Coproantigens detection for the diagnosis of canine Echinococcosis in the border area of La Quiaca-Villazón].

    PubMed

    Casas, Natalia; Costas Otero, Sergio; Céspedes, Graciela; Sosa, Sonia; Santillán, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a major public health issue. Immunodiagnostic techniques based on the identification of parasite antigens in dog dry faeces have been developed as alternatives for the surveillance of canine Echinococcosis. The environmental conditions favouring the parasite cycle were met in the border of La Quiaca-Villazón, given the presence of definitive (dog) and intermediate hosts (sheep and goats). The most important activity in La Puna is sheep and goat rearing; slaughtering is carried out almost exclusively in the field by sheep's owners, and preventive health measures do not apply. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of dogs parasitized by Echinococcus granulosus in this border region. A hundred and sixty eight (168) stool specimens were collected during 2006. La Quiaca samples were taken from the following selected areas: the semi-rural area of Barrios, the rural areas of Santa Catalina, Yavi Chico, El Portillo, Pumahuasi and Cara Cara and the urban area of La Quiaca; selected urban areas in Villazón and the semi-rural area of Ojo de Agua, Lampaya and Matancillas. The samples were analyzed by copro-ELISA -Western blot test. The cities of San Francisco and Barrios had a prevalence of 14.3% and 6.7%, respectively. A prevalence of 3.4% was observed in the urban area of Villazón, which indicates that dogs become infected in the rural areas and bring the risk into the city. Lampaya showed a prevalence of 30%. These findings suggest the need to implement strategies for the control of hydatidosis, both in urban and rural areas to avoid the increase and spread of Echinococcosis in the region.

  16. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    PubMed

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: El ambiente alimentar puede tener una influencia importante en la disponibilidad y el acceso a ellos, éste desempeña un papel importante en la salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el consumo de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas (FLV) de adultos y la disponibilidad de las tiendas de alimentos en el contexto del espacio socioeconómico y geográfico en el territorio de las unidades básicas de salud en una capital brasileña. Métodos: El estudio se desarrolló a partir de la información obtenida a través de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades no Transmisibles Prevención de Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL), utilizando muestras de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte en los años de 2008 a 2010. Un total de 5.611 registros fueron geo-codificados usando el código postal. Una puntuación fue creada en base a la frecuencia semanal y diario del consumo de FLV . El área de las unidades básicas de salud se utilizó como unidad vecinal. Se utilizaron los datos geo-referenciados de los comercios de venta de comida en la ciudad y el barrio. Resultados: A medida que aumentaba la renta del barrio, hubo un aumento en la distribución de los establecimientos de comida e bebidas para todas las categorías estudiadas. Se observaron las puntuaciones más altas de consumo FLV en zonas con niveles de ingresos más altos. Conclusión: La mayor concentración de tiendas de alimentos e bebidas e mayor puntuación de consumo, independientemente da calidad de los productos ofrecidos, fue observado en las áreas geográficas con mayor poder adquisitivo.

  17. Flowers that threaten Funza.

    PubMed

    Kendall, S

    1993-01-01

    Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies.

  18. [TRENDS TO INCREASED BODY FAT AND BLOOD PRESSURE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN TWO COHORTS (2009-2014)].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Mellado, Victor; Vilchez-Avaca, Catalina; Gomez-Campos, Rossana; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio Bolaños, Marco A

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: a) describir los cambios de la adiposidad corporal, b) cuantificar el incremento de la presión arterial y c) verificar si la presión arterial aumenta en función de las categorías de la adiposidad corporal en dos cohortes (2009-2014) en jóvenes universitarios. Métodos: se comparó dos mediciones transversales efectuadas en el año 2009 y 2014. La muestra del 2009 estuvo constituida por 309 universitarios (138 varones y 171 mujeres) y la del 2014 por 319 jóvenes (136 varones y 183 mujeres). Se evaluó peso, estatura, índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC) y presión arterial diastólica (PAD) y sistólica (PAS). Resultados: los varones aumentaron significativamente en la adiposidad corporal (IMC = 1,9 kg/m2 y CC = 6,4 cm), (p < 0,001), mientras que las mujeres incrementaron la presión arterial (PAD = 5,7 mmHg y PAS = 6,6 mmHg) en función de la adiposidad corporal en un intervalo de 5 años (p < 0,001). Conclusión: los varones incrementaron su adiposidad corporal, mientras que las mujeres aumentaron la presión arterial. Los resultados sugieren la adopción de estilos de vida saludables para combatir el exceso de peso y la presencia de hipertensión arterial en los jóvenes universitarios.

  19. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years in Wannan area, China.

    PubMed

    He, Lianping; Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; Jin, Yuelong; Pan, Rui; Wei, Ningkai; Qiu, Shenwei; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-10-01

    Antecedentes: El sobrepeso y la obesidad son epidemia en todo el mundo. El propósito de esta investigacion es estimar si la prevalencia de la obesidad entre los niños de la escuela primaria es alto, y a identificar sus posibles factores determinantes para optimizar los métodos de prevención para combatir nuevas subidas en sobrepeso infantil. Métodos: Un estudio transversal fue diseñado para recoger los exámenes de salud de rutina datos para la escuela primaria los niños de 5 a 14 años en Wannan Area, China, el sobrepeso y la obesidad se determinaron utilizando la International Obesity Task Force Standard (IOTF) IMC puntos de corte. Resultados: Un total de 67956 sujetos (36664 macho y 31239 hembra) de 5 a 14 años fueron reclutados en este estudio. Dependiendo de las referencias utilizadas (IOTF), la prevalencia de sobrepeso, incluyendo la obesidad de los sujetos fue 17,85%, la prevalencia de sobrepeso, incluyendo la obesidad fue del 22,9% en sujetos masculinos y el 11,9% en mujeres, respectivamente. La prevalencia global de la obesidad was 3,7%, la prevalencia de obesidad fue de 5,2% en sujetos masculinos y 1,8% de mujeres, respectivamente. Una observación interesante es que la prevalencia de sobrepeso fue alta en sujetos masculinos. Conclusiones: El sobrepeso es la prevalencia entre los niños de la escuela primaria, especialmente en los niños varones. escuela y Departamento de Gobierno debería tomar algo de placer para reducir la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad.

  20. [Are antioxidant supplements effective in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness? A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Candia-Luján, Ramón; De Paz Fernández, José Antonio; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo

    2014-10-05

    Introducción: En los últimos años los suplementos antioxidantes han cobrado popularidad para contrarrestar los efectos de los radicales libres y los síntomas del daño muscular, entre los que se encuentra el dolor muscular tardío (DMT). Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática en diferentes bases de datos para conocer los efectos de los suplementos antioxidantes sobre el DMT. Método: Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos; Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Scopus y SportDiscus y la Web Of Science (WOS). Las palabras y acrónimos usados fueron; Delayed onset muscle soreness, exercise induced muscle damage, DOMS, EIMD, antioxidant y oxidative stress. Resultados: Se identificaron 54 artículos de los cuales se recuperaron 48, todos ellos en inglés, 17 relacionados con la vitamina C y E, catorce corresponden a suplementos polifenòlicos, once a otros suplementos antioxidantes y seis a suplementos comerciales todos ellos usados para combatir, entre otras variables, el DMT. Conclusiones: Tanto las vitaminas como los suplementos comerciales presentan baja efectividad en la disminución del DMT, mientras que los polifenoles y otros suplementos antioxidantes muestran entre moderada y buena efectividad en el combate al DMT. Sin embargo, gran parte de los estudios presentan efectividad en la disminución de otros síntomas del daño muscular además de ayudar en la recuperación postejercicio.

  1. Relating plume spread to meteorology in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatram, Akula; Isakov, Vlad; Pankratz, David; Yuan, Jing

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines relationships between dispersion and meteorology measured in a field study conducted in Barrio Logan, a suburb of San Diego, during 5 days of the period 21 August 2001-31 August 2001. The mean building height in Barrio Logan is about 4 m. The tracer, SF6, was released at a height of 5 m from a shipyard on the shoreline, and the concentrations of the tracer were sampled on 4 arcs at 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 m from the source during ten hours of the day starting at 10 am. The meteorological conditions that governed dispersion were measured using sonic anemometers and a SODAR with a range of 200 m in the vertical. It turned out that ground-level concentrations at the receptors used in this study were governed by the meteorological variables in the urban boundary layer above the urban roughness sublayer (RSL). In this region between 15 and 150 m above ground-level, the horizontal and vertical turbulent intensities were relatively uniform. This uniformity in turbulent intensities allowed the formulation of simple expressions for horizontal and vertical plume spreads that could be used in a Gaussian dispersion model. These expressions are similar to those proposed by Briggs (ERL, ARL USAEC Report ATDL-106, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1975) and Hanna et al. (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 5069) to model dispersion in St. Louis and Salt Lake City, respectively. However, the application of these dispersion curves requires information on the meteorology of the boundary layer. It might be possible to use measurements above the average building height (4 m in our case) to infer these boundary layer properties. The dispersion model based on boundary layer meteorological information explained about 63% of the variance of the maximum observed concentrations on each sampling arc, and 60% of these concentrations was within a factor of two of the corresponding model estimates. It was necessary to account for initial plume spread caused by

  2. Near Absolute Equation of State Measurements of CH using Velocimetry and Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratanduono, Dayne; Celliers, Peter; Lazicki, Amy; Hawreliak, Jim; Collins, Gilbert

    2014-03-01

    The OMEGA EP laser was used to conduct absolute near equation of state measurement along the principal Hugoniot of CH to 6 Mbar. A 6 ns long, 3700 J laser pulse in direct drive was used to launch a cylindrical shock in a multi-layered aluminum/CH target which was imaged using a Fe backlighter. The technique presented here incorporated VISAR shock velocity measurements with shock compression measured using side-on radiography to determine the Hugoniot. Experimental uncertainties of less than 10% in density were obtained in these experiments. The measured Hugoniot values of this study are consistent with previous measurements that were impedance matched to quartz (Barrios et al. PoP 2010). These experiments were conducted, as proof of principle, for future absolute EOS measurements on the NIF. Future experimental work will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Philippines: rural electrification. Project impact evaluation report No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, D.H.; Allgeier, P.F.; Wasserman, G.; Hickey, G.; Salazar, R.

    1980-12-01

    AID's overall evaluation of its Philippine Rural Electrification (RE) program, consisting of eight successive projects, had limited effect on the rural poor and the economic development process. This program began in 1965 and has since energized 844 (59% of the national total) Philippine municipalities, 9088 (27%) barrios, 1,159,434 (20%) households, and 101 new cooperatives; resulting in a change of schedule for total national energization from 1980 to 1987. To improve the productive capacity of the poor, cooperatives were organized and lent funds to extend electrical power into their areas. Many of the poor, however, could not afford its installation, continued use, or more than one or two light bulbs a month. Community lighting, such as street-lighting, indirectly helped the poor in various ways, such as by providing greater personal security. Those with sufficient financial resources or skills were able to use the electricity for entrepreneurial activities. RE impact upon development occurred in areas with a concentrated population, available technical skills and capital, and access to large and diverse markets. Active promotion of electricity-dependent investments and projects also increased program impact.

  4. Investigating fluvial features with electrical resistivity imaging and ground-penetrating radar: The Guadalquivir River terrace (Jaen, Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, J.; Martínez, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2013-09-01

    A geophysical survey has been conducted on the lowest terrace levels and the present day floodplain of the current course of the Guadalquivir River, passing through the province of Jaen (Spain), using two techniques: electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Three areas have been selected. In one of these sectors (Los Barrios) there is an old quarry where there are excellent outcrops that allow for the calibration of the survey techniques. Facies associations on these outcrops are typical of meandering rivers with sequences of channel fills, lateral accretion of point-bars and floodplain facies. The usefulness of the two methods is analysed and compared as a support for stratigraphic and sedimentological studies. The geometry and lithofacies of subsurface deposits were characterised using ERI and compared with field observations. A total of 5 electrical resistivity imaging profiles were obtained. The changes in electric resistivity highlight granulometric differences in terrace sediments. This technique can thus be used to identify the morphology of these bodies, the lithofacies (silt, sand or gravel) and buried channel pattern. In addition, 16 GPR profiles using 100 and 250 MHz antennas were acquired, indicating terrace morphology and the filling of the sedimentary bodies in a more detailed manner than in ERI. The study thus allows for inferring the existence of channel migration, the lateral accretion of point bars and the presence of vertical accretion deposits attributable to the floodplains.

  5. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  6. Permian (Leonardian) brachiopods from Paso Hondo Formation, Chiapas, southern Mexico. Paleobiogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Martínez, Miguel A.; Sour-Tovar, Francisco; Barragán, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    One of the most important marine sequences of calcareous rocks from the Paleozoic of Mexico outcrops in southern Chiapas. It is composed by different units from Early Permian, being the Paso Hondo Formation the youngest with a Leonardian age. Different groups of marine invertebrates as corals, bivalves, gastropods, bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids have been previously reported of this unit. Five brachiopod species of the orders Productida, Athyridida, Spiriferida and Spiriferinida from the Barrio Allende section of this unit are herein described. The new species Dyoros (Lissosia) maya and Hustedia shumardi are proposed. Sedimentology and paleoecology of the Paso Hondo Formation, suggest a well-lighted shallow lagoon environment with continuous terrigenous input. The subgenus Dyoros (Lissosia), the genus Paucispinifera and the species Hustedia shumardi, Spiriferella propria and Spiriferellina tricosa are typical taxa from Permian localities of Texas, New Mexico and Coahuila. Their presence in the studied area suggests that during Early Permian there was a geographic connection between the different localities of the biotic Grandian Province (southern USA, northern Mexico and Venezuela) and southeastern Chiapas.

  7. West Nile Virus Ecology in a Tropical Ecosystem in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E.; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A.; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R.; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M.; Müller, María L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.; Powers, Ann M.; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States. PMID:23149586

  8. Post-Mass Drug Administration Transmission Assessment Survey for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in La Ciénaga, Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Gregory S.; Blount, Stephen; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Dominican Republic is one of four remaining countries in the Americas with lymphatic filariasis (LF). Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine was conducted in La Ciénaga, an impoverished urban barrio in Santo Domingo, from 2004 to 2006. Eight years after the last MDA, a transmission assessment survey (TAS) was conducted in November–December 2014 to determine if LF transmission remains absent. Of 815 first and second grade primary school students (mean age: 6.51 years; range 5–9) tested by immunochromatographic test (ICT), zero (0.0%) were positive. This is below the TAS critical cutoff of nine, indicating that the area “passed” TAS and that transmission remains interrupted in La Ciénaga. Importantly, this also provides evidence that three rounds of effective (> 65% coverage) MDA, likely aided by environmental improvements and periodic school-based albendazole monotherapy MDA, achieved interruption of LF transmission from a relatively low-transmission setting. PMID:26503279

  9. HIV and Drug Use in Puerto Rico: Findings from the ARIBBA Study.

    PubMed

    Mino, Milton; Deren, Sherry; Colón, Hector M

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the Alliance for Research in El Barrio and Bayamón (ARIBBA) research study, which compared HIV-related risk behaviors, HIV infection rates, and mortality rates of 800 Puerto Rican injection drug users and crack smokers in East Harlem, New York, with 399 of their counterparts in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. The study was conducted from 1996 to 2004 and is among the most comprehensive ever undertaken on HIV risk behaviors of drug users in Puerto Rico. This paper presents the main findings, many of which have been published in scientific journals. The study found that drug users in Puerto Rico became infected with HIV at a rate almost 4 times higher than Puerto Rican drug users in New York, and they died at a rate that was more than 3 times as high. The findings indicate that drug users in Puerto Rico are more likely than Puerto Rican drug users in New York to engage in injection drug use and sexual behaviors that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV. In addition, they have fewer prevention resources available to them. HIV prevention programs are scarce in Puerto Rico and the availability of drug treatment programs in Puerto Rico declined by over one third during the period examined. Additionally, significantly fewer HIV-positive drug users in Puerto Rico were taking HIV-related medications than in New York. The paper concludes with recommendations and lessons learned from the study.

  10. Prevention of diarrhoea in a poor District of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: practices, knowledge, and barriers.

    PubMed

    McLennan, J D

    2000-06-01

    The study, conducted in a poor periurban community of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, assessed the practices, knowledge, and barriers relating to prevention of diarrhoea. A total of 582 caregivers of children, aged less than 5 years, were systematically sampled from four barrios. Results of the study showed that 55% of the caregivers did not boil drinking water for children; 38% did not always wash hands of the children prior to meals; 87% of the children did not always wear shoes outside their house; and 54% were breastfed for less than one year. Biomedical knowledge about these practices was high among the caregivers, and was not related to the reported behaviours. However, several barriers were significantly related to practices, including lapse in caregiving, limited resources, erroneous beliefs, and non-compliance by children. Health education, based on a biomedical knowledge-deficit model, may have little impact on improving the diarrhoea-prevention practices in these communities. Greater attention should, therefore, be directed toward the barriers experienced by caregivers of children.

  11. A model-based analysis of SO2 and NO2 dynamics from coal-fired power plants under representative synoptic circulation types over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-01-15

    Emissions of SO2 and NO2 from coal-fired power plants are a significant source of air pollution. In order to typify the power plants' plumes dynamics and quantify their contribution to air quality, a comprehensive characterisation of seven coal-fired power plant plumes has been performed under six representative circulation types (CTs) identified by means of a synoptic classification over the Iberian Peninsula. The emission and the transport of SO2 and NO2 have been simulated with the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system that couples the HERMES emission model for Spain and WRF and CMAQ models. For the facilities located in continental and Atlantic areas (As Pontes, Aboño, and Compostilla) the synoptic advection controls pollutant transport, however for power plants located along the Mediterranean or over complex-terrains (Guardo, Andorra, Carboneras, and Los Barrios), plume dynamics are driven by a combination of synoptic and mesoscale mountain-valley and sea-land breezes. The contribution of power plants to surface concentration occurs mainly close to the source (<20 km) related to a fumigation process when the emission injection takes place within the planetary boundary layer reaching up to 55 μg SO2 m(-3) and 32 μg NO2 m(-3). However, the SO2 and NO2 plumes can reach long distances (>250 km from the sources) especially for CTs characterised by Atlantic advection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Upper Ovetian trilobites from Spain and their implications for the palaeobiogeography and correlation of the Cambrian Stage 3 in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liñán, Eladio; Gámez Vintaned, José Antonio; Pillola, Gian Luigi; Gozalo, Rodolfo

    2016-06-01

    The upper part of the La Herrería Formation in Los Barrios de Luna (León Province, N Spain) has been revised from a palaeontological and biostratigraphical point of view. Two stratigraphic sections have been studied including their trilobite and ichnofossils contents. The ichnofossil assemblages have a high diversity of species characterising the Cruziana ichnofacies, suggesting a shallow sublittoral environment for the upper part of the La Herrería Formation. The trilobites species recognised are Lunagraulos antiquus, Dolerolenus formosus, Dolerolenus longioculatus, Lunolenus lunae, Metadoxides richterorum, Metadoxides armatus and Sardaspis? sp. from the upper Ovetian (lower Cambrian Stage 3 under discussion by the ISCS). The new trilobite assemblages make possible a good correlation between the lower Cambrian formations of North Spain, Sardinia, South China and Siberia. Analysis of the palaeobiogeographical meaning of all trilobite genera that have been identified in the upper Ovetian of Spain shows a strong connection between the northern peri-Gondwana margin and west Gondwana, with a low latitude distribution for the Spanish trilobites at this time.

  13. Corrigendum.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    Sayler KA, Bigelow T, Koster LG, Swenson S, Bounds C, Hernández F, Wisely SM. Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds. J Vet Diagn Invest 2017;29:522-528. (Original doi:10.1177/1040638717706593). In the article titled "Development of a rapid, simple, and specific real-time PCR assay for detection of pseudorabies viral DNA in domestic swine herds" by Katherine A. Sayler et al., the Acknowledgements section, should read as follows: We thank all of the researchers who provided isolates or DNA samples of PRV, including C Romero at the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine (U.S.); A Moreno at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna (Italy); S Verpoest at the CODA-CERVA Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Center (Belgium); A Steinrigl at the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety GmbH, Institute for Veterinary Disease Control (Austria); Z Dirbakova at the State Veterinary and Food Institute, Veterinary Institute in Zvolen (Slovakia); T Müller at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health (Germany); and F Ruiz-Fons and D González-Barrio at the Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC) (Spain).

  14. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  15. Advances In very high resolution satellite imagery analysis for Monitoring human settlements

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The high rate of urbanization, political conflicts and ensuing internal displacement of population, and increased poverty in the 20th century has resulted in rapid increase of informal settlements. These unplanned, unauthorized, and/or unstructured homes, known as informal settlements, shantytowns, barrios, or slums, pose several challenges to the nations, as these settlements are often located in most hazardous regions and lack basic services. Though several World Bank and United Nations sponsored studies stress the importance of poverty maps in designing better policies and interventions, mapping slums of the world is a daunting and challenging task. In this paper, we summarize our ongoing research on settlement mapping through the utilization of Very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery. Most existing approaches used to classify VHR images are single instance (or pixel-based) learning algorithms, which are inadequate for analyzing VHR imagery, as single pixels do not contain sufficient contextual information (see Figure 1). However, much needed spatial contextual information can be captured via feature extraction and/or through newer machine learning algorithms in order to extract complex spatial patterns that distinguish informal settlements from formal ones. In recent years, we made significant progress in advancing the state of art in both directions. This paper summarizes these results.

  16. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Juliana; Patel, Kruti R; Aven, Linh; Achey, Rebecca; Minns, Martin S; Lee, Yoonjoo; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery E; Ai, Xingbin

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are the only innervated airway epithelial cells. To what extent neural innervation regulates PNEC secretion and function is unknown. Here, we discover that neurotrophin 4 (NT4) plays an essential role in mucus overproduction after early life allergen exposure by orchestrating PNEC innervation and secretion of GABA. We found that PNECs were the only cellular source of GABA in airways. In addition, PNECs expressed NT4 as a target-derived mechanism underlying PNEC innervation during development. Early life allergen exposure elevated the level of NT4 and caused PNEC hyperinnervation and nodose neuron hyperactivity. Associated with aberrant PNEC innervation, the authors discovered that GABA hypersecretion was required for the induction of mucin Muc5ac expression. In contrast, NT4(-/-) mice were protected from allergen-induced mucus overproduction and changes along the nerve-PNEC axis without any defects in inflammation. Last, GABA installation restored mucus overproduction in NT4(-/-) mice after early life allergen exposure. Together, our findings provide the first evidence for NT4-dependent neural regulation of PNEC secretion of GABA in a neonatal disease model. Targeting the nerve-PNEC axis may be a valid treatment strategy for mucus overproduction in airway diseases, such as childhood asthma.-Barrios, J., Patel, K. R., Aven, L., Achey, R., Minns, M. S., Lee, Y., Trinkaus-Randall, V. E., Ai, X. Early life allergen-induced mucus overproduction requires augmented neural stimulation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell secretion. © FASEB.

  17. "Siempre me critican": barriers to reproductive health in Ocotal, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Luffy, Samantha M; Evans, Dabney P; Rochat, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to accessing reproductive health care according to the women of Ocotal, Nicaragua; describe their understanding of their reproductive rights; and document their opinions about Nicaragua's total ban on abortion. From May to June 2014, three focus group discussions were held in Spanish with 17 women from two different neighborhoods (barrios) in the city of Ocotal, Nicaragua. A semi-structured discussion guide with open-ended questions was employed to elucidate local perspectives regarding the focus group discussions themes. Serious obstacles including 1) violence against women, 2) machismo, 3) criticism from others, and 4) lack of communication and education limit women's ability to make their own reproductive health decisions. Women had a pervasive lack of knowledge about reproductive rights and the international human rights documents that define them. In addition, due to religious and cultural ideologies, most women supported the country's total ban on abortion in most circumstances, with the possible exception of rape. Both men and women in Ocotal should be encouraged to participate in community-level programs designed to reduce the impact of the following obstacles to receiving reproductive health care: 1) violence against women and machismo; 2) insufficient, non-standardized sexual education and information about reproductive rights; and 3) poor communication within families and the community at large. Any future public health campaigns to address women's reproductive health needs in Ocotal should implement these types of programs, at the neighborhood level, to reduce stigma surrounding sexual health and activity.

  18. Exact stochastic simulation of coupled chemical reactions with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaodong

    2007-03-01

    Gillespie's exact stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) [J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2350 (1977)] has been widely used to simulate the stochastic dynamics of chemically reacting systems. In this algorithm, it is assumed that all reactions occur instantly. While this is true in many cases, it is also possible that some chemical reactions, such as gene transcription and translation in living cells, take certain time to finish after they are initiated. Thus, the product of such reactions will emerge after certain delays. Apparently, Gillespie's SSA is not an exact algorithm for chemical reaction systems with delays. In this paper, the author develops an exact SSA for chemical reaction systems with delays, based upon the same fundamental premise of stochastic kinetics used by Gillespie in the development of his SSA. He then shows that an algorithm modified from Gillespie's SSA by Barrio et al. [PLOS Comput. Biol. 2, 1017 (2006)] is also an exact SSA for chemical reaction systems with delays, but it needs to generate more random variables than the author's algorithm.

  19. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  20. Post-Mass Drug Administration Transmission Assessment Survey for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in La Ciénaga, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Blount, Stephen; Gonzalez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The Dominican Republic is one of four remaining countries in the Americas with lymphatic filariasis (LF). Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and diethylcarbamazine was conducted in La Ciénaga, an impoverished urban barrio in Santo Domingo, from 2004 to 2006. Eight years after the last MDA, a transmission assessment survey (TAS) was conducted in November-December 2014 to determine if LF transmission remains absent. Of 815 first and second grade primary school students (mean age: 6.51 years; range 5-9) tested by immunochromatographic test (ICT), zero (0.0%) were positive. This is below the TAS critical cutoff of nine, indicating that the area "passed" TAS and that transmission remains interrupted in La Ciénaga. Importantly, this also provides evidence that three rounds of effective (> 65% coverage) MDA, likely aided by environmental improvements and periodic school-based albendazole monotherapy MDA, achieved interruption of LF transmission from a relatively low-transmission setting. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Better utilization of traditional birth attendants (hilots) in the delivery of maternal-child health services in Philippine rural communities: a pilot project (1971-72).

    PubMed

    Del Mundo, F; Echevarra, R; Leuterio, L; Sarcia, S

    1972-12-01

    In the Philippines, where rapid population growth strains the health facilities, there were 8866 traditional birth attendants, hilots, in 1971. In 1970 a study of 142 hilots was conducted to train them in a 5-day course in pregnancy care and evaluate their effectiveness in Marinduque province, a rural, lower socioeconomic area. The age of the hilots ranged from 25-76; 78.2% women, 21.8% men. In the attendance of parturients hilots ranked first above midwives and nurses; 69.30% of deliveries were attended by hilots. 97.4% births occur in homes. 65.5% of the hilots were aware of the use of rural health physicians as backup help available to them. 3-4 children was the desired family size among hilots. The hilots were amenable and receptive to updating their training. The course in maternal child care with family planning was well received. The hilots were convinced of the need for early prenatal care. Since their training, the hilots have organized barrio meetings on family planning and offered to distribute pamphlets and handouts. The trained hilots send mothers they have favorably motivated to Family Planning Clinics. No tangible statistics regarding the effects on the community were available but traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in the delivery of health care services.

  2. Tão perto de casa, tão longe de nós: etnografia das novas margens no centro da urbe

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Por Luís

    2011-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois é, desde 2007, “Richard Perry University professor” no Departamento de Antropologia e de Medicina Familiar e de Práticas Comunitárias na Universidade da Pensilvânia. Esteve durante largos anos ligado ao Departamento de Antropologia, História e Medicina Social da Universidade da Califórnia, São Francisco. A publicação, em 1995, de In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio1 projectaria o seu nome muito para além dos Estados Unidos: uma etnografia no coração porto-riquenho do Harlem, em torno dos actores e dos ambientes da venda de crack. Seguir-se-ia um longo trabalho de terreno em acampamentos de dependentes de heroína em São Francisco, orientando o seu trabalho para as formas mais radicais da pobreza e da marginalidade nos EUA. É deste trabalho de terreno que sai o seu último livro, Righteous Dopefiend2. Em Junho de 2007 esteve em Lisboa para participar na 3.a edição do “Ethnografeast”. Foi então que aproveitámos a oportunidade para ouvir um percurso invulgar contado pelo próprio: uma longa conversa no Hotel Zurique, cujo nome só vem ao caso por evocar o país onde passou uma parte da infância. PMID:22013286

  3. Aggressive crime, alcohol and drug use, and concentrated poverty in 24 U.S. urban areas.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D; Curtis, Russell L

    2007-01-01

    The nexus between substance use and aggressive crime involves a complex interrelationship among mediating individual and community-level variables. Using multilevel logistic regression models, we investigate how community-level concentration of poverty variables mediate the predictive relationships among individual level social attachment variables and substance use on aggressive crime in a large national sample of male arrestees (N = 20,602) drawn from 24 U.S. urban areas. The findings support our hypothesis that individual social attachments to marriage and the labor force (education and employment) are the principal individual-level pathway mediating the substance abuse/aggression nexus. In the random intercept model, 3.17% of the variation not explained by the individual-level predictor variables is attributable to community-level variation in urban area female-headed households and households receiving welfare. This confirms our hypothesis that social structural conditions of an urban environment differentially expose persons to conditions that predict being arrested for an aggressive crime. Our findings tend to counter the cultural theorists who argue for an indigenous culture of violence in inner-city ghettos and barrios.

  4. Glycemic and lipid metabolic disorders in diabetic and non-diabetic patients bmi < 35 or > 35 before gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Caballero, Manuel; Reyes-Ortiz, Alexander; Martínez-Moreno, José Manuel; Toval-Mata, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Introducción: La obesidad y la diabetes son enfermedades de alta prevalencia a nivel mundial. Actualmente no existe un tratamiento médico eficaz para combatir el aumento de peso. La obesidad es precursora de enfermedades tales como la diabetes o el síndrome metabólico. Es necesario saber si el aumento de peso tiene efectos acumulativos sobre el metabolismo de la glucemia y los lípidos como precursores de complicaciones o comorbilidades. Pacientes y métodos: Se estudiaron 131 pacientes (78 no diabéticos y 53 diabéticos), 37 IMC ≤35 (3 IMC < 25, 18 IMC 25-29,9, 16 IMC 30-34,9) y 94 IMC ≥35 (81 IMC 35- 49,9 y 13 de IMC ≥50). Se analizó el IMC, el género, la diabetes y su tiempo de evolución. El perfil lipídico, glucosa, HbA1c y el péptido C fueron evaluados después de un ayuno de 12 horas. Resultados: Los pacientes diabéticos y diabesos mostraron niveles altos de triglicéridos. Los pacientes no diabéticos tienen alteración de la glucosa (58% IMC 35). El 20% de los no diabéticos IMC 35 tenían niveles altos. El 5% de los diabéticos IMC < 35 tenía bajos niveles de péptido C y 36% de IMC > 35 tenían niveles altos. HbA1c fue mayor en 40% de pacientes no diabéticos IMC < 35 frente al 13% de IMC > 35. Conclusiones: La glucosa y los triglicéridos aumentan con la edad y los años de evolución de la DMT2. La edad de ≥51 años y los hombres son los más afectados. El aumento de peso tiene efecto acumulativo alterando el metabolismo favoreciendo la aparición de la diabetes y sus comorbilidades. A pesar de tener un tratamiento de control intensivo de la diabetes, esta continúa con sus efectos nocivos sobre los pacientes a través de los años.

  5. Cómo aumentar la actividad física de los niños durante el período del recreo en las escuelas

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, David

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos. Analizamos si la participación de las escuelas en el Programa de Mejoramiento del Recreo (PMR) en la primavera del año 2011 estuvo asociada a tasas más altas de actividad física intensa en los niños. Métodos. En el PMR, un coordinador dirige a los niños para que practiquen juegos adecuados para la edad a fin de aumentar su nivel de actividad física. Durante el recreo en 25 escuelas primarias públicas de la ciudad de Nueva York (15 participantes en el PMR, 10 no participantes en el PMR) los investigadores observaron algunas áreas predeterminadas (n = 1 339 observaciones) y registraron el número de niños que estaban sedentarios, caminando o muy activos. Resultados. Tras el análisis estadístico con múltiples variables se encontró que la participación en el PMR era una variable predictiva significativa (P = 0,027) de la tasa de actividad física intensa (porcentaje de niños muy activos en las áreas de observación) cuyas medias de los mínimos cuadrados fueron de 41% en las escuelas participantes en el PMR y de 27% en escuelas no participantes en el PMR. En las escuelas participantes en el PMR se siguió registrando una tasa significativamente superior incluso cuando el coordinador de juegos no estaba en el área de observación, lo que sugiere un cambio en la cultura del recreo en las escuelas que participan en este programa. Conclusiones. La tasa de actividad física intensa en las escuelas participantes en el PMR fue 14 puntos porcentuales (o 52%) superior a la tasa registrada en las escuelas no participantes en el PMR. Esta intervención de bajo costo podría ser un agregado valioso a las herramientas para combatir la obesidad infantil y podría valer la pena reproducirla en otros sitios. PMID:24899455

  6. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    menace potentielle pour la ville de Venise, à 25 km au nord-ouest du centre de Chioggia Mare. Afin d'évaluer le risque de subsidence du sol provoquée par les prélèvements de gaz, un modèle numérique a été développé pour prévoir la compaction des formations réservoirs de gaz en même temps que celle de l'aquifère latéral et sous-jacent, par effet de drainance, sur une période de 13 ans de production, suivie de 12 ans, et pour prévoir le transfert de la compaction profonde jusqu'à la surface du sol. Afin de prendre en compte l'incertitude sur un petit nombre de paramètres hydromécaniques importants, plusieurs scénarios ont été simulés et les prévisions les plus pessimistes ont été obtenues. Les résultats de la modélisation montrent qu'on doit s'attendre, au cours des 25 ans, au plus à une subsidence du sol de 1 cm à Chioggia, tandis que Venise ne subira aucun effet. Si la baisse de l'aquifère est compensée par une injection d'eau, la subsidence du sol s'arrêtera à 5 km au large et la zone côtière de Chioggia subira un effet de 0,6 à 0,7 cm. Resumen. Recientemente, la compañía nacional italiana del petróleo, ENI-Agip, ha enviado al Ministerio de Medio Ambiente de Italia (Comité VIA) un gran programa de desarrollo de 15 campos de gas en el norte del Mar Adriático para la evaluación de su impacto medioambiental. Una de las reservas principales de gas se halla en el mar de Chioggia, a unos 10 km mar adentro de la costa veneciana, a una profundidad de entre 1.000 y 1.400 m. Se espera que la producción en este campo produzca un impacto en la estabilidad de la línea de costa, y que suponga una amenaza potencial para la ciudad de Venecia, situada a 25 km al noroeste de la explotación. Se desarrolló un modelo numérico para evaluar el riesgo de subsidencia debido a la extracción de gas a lo largo de los 13 años de producción y del período post-productivo de 12 años. Sus predicciones indican que se causará la compactación tanto

  7. Monthly variations in ovine seminal plasma proteins analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, J A; Fernández-Juan, M; Forcada, F; Abecia, A; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2006-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate monthly changes in the ram seminal plasma protein profile using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with a polyacrylamide linear gradient gel. Likewise, comparative analyses of the protein composition of ovine seminal plasma (SP) from ejaculates obtained along the year, and its relationship with sperm motility, viability and concentration of ejaculate were carried out. Western-blot analysis was performed to specifically detect P14, a ram SP protein postulated to be involved in sperm capacitation and gamete interaction [Barrios B, Fernández-Juan M, Muiño-Blanco T, Cebrián-Pérez JA. Immunocytochemical localization and biochemical characterization of two seminal plasma proteins which protect ram spermatozoa against cold-shock. J Androl 2005;26:539-49], and its variations along the year have also been established. The experiment was carried out from May 2003 to April 2004, with nine Rasa Aragonesa rams. Ejaculates obtained every 2 days were pooled and used for each assay, to avoid individual differences, and three two-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels were run for each month. The high resolution of the gradient gel allowed the image analysis software to detect around 252 protein spots, with pIs ranging from 4.2 to 7.6, and molecular weight (M(r)) from 12.5 to 83.9 kDa. Four protein spots (1, 2, 3 and 4) of low M(r) (15.1, 15.7, 15.9 and 21.0 kDa) and acidic pI (5.9, 5.3, 5.7 and 6.6), respectively, had the highest relative intensity in the SP map (11.2, 9.3, 4.7 and 7.7%, respectively). Spot 3 was more abundant (P<0.05) from May to December, and negatively correlated (P<0.05, r=-0.34) with sperm viability and concentration (P<0.05, r=0.36). Another 12 protein spots also had significant quantitative differences (P<0.05) along the year, and 17 protein spots, which correlated with some seminal quality parameter, did not show quantitative monthly changes. Western-blot analysis indicated that spots 1 and 2 reacted

  8. CALPHAD Modeling of Phase Diagram Boundaries for Binary 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1,3-Propanediol [AMPL] and Tris(hydroxymethyl) Aminomethane [TRIS] system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekala, Prathyusha

    The phase diagram assessment of binary AMPL-TRIS system was calculated using the CALPHAD approach. Thermo-Calc, TCC software was used to fit the experimental phase diagram data by simultaneous optimization of thermodynamic properties of pure components and phase equilibria data available in the literature, and also calculated in the present work. The measured interaction parameters for low temperature alpha and beta solid solution phases are relatively small and are assumed to be ideal. Preliminary calculation of AMPL-TRIS phase diagram showed complete solid solubility of the high temperature gamma and gamma-prime phases, as reported by Barrio et al. (1994). In the next iteration, we calculated AMPL-TRIS phase diagram using heat capacity data and found that it was in good agreement with the current experimental phase diagram developed by V. Kamisetty (2010). In final calculations, the Parrot module of Thermo-Calc program was used to obtain an optimized phase diagram. The calculated phase corroborates well with V. Kamisetty data. Two eutectoids, one at ~21 mol.% TRIS at 85oC, the other at ~60 mol. % TRIS at 104oC, and one peritectic at 55 mol.% TRIS at 127oC were calculated. The maximum solubility of TRIS in AMPL is 10 mol.%, and that of AMPL in TRIS is 18 mol.% at 85oC. An important feature of this phase diagram is the presence of gamma and gamma-prime phases above 110oC. Details of the methodology and calculations are shown in this thesis.

  9. [Prostitution and poverty in Santafe de Bogota].

    PubMed

    Cabrera Fadul, O

    1998-06-01

    The Chamber of Commerce of Bogota conducted a study of prostitution in the city with the participation of prostitutes themselves. In 1990, around 14,000 women were found to be working as prostitutes in the city's center, with 44% concentrated in the barrios of La Alameda, Las Nieves, and San Bernardo. Over 70% of the women were born outside of Bogota. 82% were aged 15-40 years; the age range was 9-60 years. 1200 minors were counted. A 1992 study in the sector of Chapinero revealed 3480 women working as prostitutes. 81% had migrated to the city and 96% were aged 15-40 years. Visible street prostitution was infrequent. A 1993 study of child prostitution in a smaller area than the 1990 center-city study revealed 2959 minors, suggesting that the number had nearly tripled. 60% were natives of the city. A 1994 study of 200 male prostitutes in the center-city found that 24% were natives of Bogota. 32% had left home before the age of 10. 89% had become prostitutes before their 16th birthday. 17% were HIV-seropositive; most of their clients were married men. In all cases, the factors leading to prostitution originated within the family and included physical mistreatment, sexual abuse by parents or stepparents, rejection and abandonment, as well as lack of income, unemployment, and lack of skills. Information on HIV infection was incomplete and ineffective. The number of indigent and homeless persons and that of drug addicts living on the streets of Bogota is not known. A large number of governmental and nongovernmental organizations attempt to provide help, but their efforts are not guided by any coherent plan of action.

  10. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  11. [The biolaw and bioethics encyclopedia].

    PubMed

    del Barrio Seoane, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    On 4 April 2011, as part of the XVIII Conference in Law and the Human Genome, the official presentation took place of the first Spanish language Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics, in an event organised by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome held, on this occasion, in the new Auditorium of the University of the Basque Country. The Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics is a project which was conceived and driven forward by the Inter-University Chair in Law and the Human Genome. It was an ambitious project which was supported by the Roche Institute Foundation. It was therefore a magnum opus which began more than three years ago and which has required the work of more than 200 professionals from various disciplines in Spain, Latin America and Portugal. The encyclopaedia tries to make up for the lack of a suitable publication in the Spanish language that could be used as a reference and be consulted by different experts who have to tackle controversies and doubts posed in the field of biolaw and bioethics as part of their everyday work. The work makes it possible to ascertain the situation in this field regarding the most controversial issues and emerging conflicts, find out which values, assets or rights are involved or confronted, what solutions have been proposed by bioethics and the social positions that have been established through legal regulations. All in all, the encyclopaedia was the culmination of an ambitious undertaking, a pioneering work in the Spanish speaking countries due to its characteristics and scope. It is essential to have such a resource in today's cultural environment. The presentation of the Encyclopedia of Biolaw and Bioethics given by Mr. Del Barrio Seoane as Director General of the Roche Institute Foundation during the Conference deservers a special mention. The project has been consolidated through the support of this institution.

  12. Land use, population dynamics, and land-cover change in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter B in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, William A.; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Pares-Ramos, Isabel K.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed current and historic land use and land cover in the Luquillo Mountains and surrounding area in eastern Puerto Rico, including four small subwatersheds that are study watersheds of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. This region occupies an area of 1,616 square kilometers, about 18 percent of the total land in Puerto Rico. Closed forests occupy about 37 percent of the area, woodlands and shrublands 7 percent, nonforest vegetation 43 percent, urban development 10 percent, and water and natural barrens total less than 2 percent. The area has been classified into three main land-use categories by integrating recent census information (population density per barrio in the year 2000) with satellite image analyses (degree of developed area versus natural land cover). Urban land use (in this analysis, land with more than 20 percent developed cover within a 1-square-kilometer area and population density greater than 500 people per square kilometer) covered 16 percent of eastern Puerto Rico. Suburban land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, more than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily residential) covers 50 percent of the area. Rural land use (more than 80 percent natural land cover, less than 500 people per square kilometer, and primarily active or abandoned agricultural, wetland, steep slope, or protected conservation areas) covered 34 percent of the area. Our analysis of land-cover change indicates that in the 1990s, forest cover increased at the expense of woodlands and grasslands. Urban development increased by 16 percent during that time. The most pronounced change in the last seven decades has been the shift from a nonforested to a forested landscape and the intensification of the ring of urbanization that surrounds the long-protected Luquillo Experimental Forest.

  13. Scale-Up, Retention and HIV/STI Prevalence Trends among Female Sex Workers Attending VICITS Clinics in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O.; Loya-Montiel, Itzel; Mendizabal-Burastero, Ricardo; Galindo-Arandi, César; Flores, Carlos; Chen, Sanny Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW) attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. Methods Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. Results During 2007–2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361%) during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. Conclusions Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Barrios, Yasmin V.; Redline, Susan; Drake, Christopher L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test questionnaire (FIRST-S) when used in early pregnancy. Methods: A cohort of 647 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation to collect information regarding lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. The factorial structure of the FIRST-S was tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed by evaluating the association between the FIRST-S with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted to complement classical test theory (CTT) analytic approaches. Results: The mean score of the FIRST-S was 13.8 (range: 9–33). The results of the EFA showed that the FIRST-S contained a one-factor solution that accounted for 69.8% of the variance. The FIRST-S items showed good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.81). CFA results corroborated the one-factor structure finding from the EFA; and yielded measures indicating goodness of fit (comparative fit index of 0.902) and accuracy (root mean square error of approximation of 0.057). The FIRST-S had good construct validity as demonstrated by statistically significant associations of FIRST-S scores with sleep quality, antepartum depression and anxiety symptoms. Finally, results from IRT analyses suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. Conclusions: The FIRST-S was found to have good construct validity and internal consistency for assessing vulnerability to insomnia during early pregnancy. Citation: Gelaye B, Zhong QY, Barrios YV, Redline S, Drake CL, Williams MA. Psychometric evaluation of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) in early pregnancy. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(4):579–587. PMID:26857055

  15. Ligand-induced conformational transitions and secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    McGurk, Karen S.; Spivey, H. Olin

    1979-01-01

    Apparent conformational transitions induced in chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase by substrates, KHCO3 and MgATP, and the allosteric effector, acetyl-CoA, were studied by using the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid and c.d. Fluorescence measurements were made with both conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometers. Additions of acetyl-CoA and/or ATP to the enzyme-probe solutions quenched fluorescence of the probe by the following cumulative amounts regardless of the sequence of additions: acetyl-CoA, 10–13%; ATP, 21–24%; acetyl-CoA plus ATP, about 35%. Additions of KHCO3 had no effect on the fluorescence. The rates of quenching by acetyl-CoA and MgATP (in the presence of acetyl-CoA) were too rapid to measure by stopped-flow kinetic methods, but kinetics of the MgATP effect (in the absence of acetyl-CoA) indicate three unimolecular transitions after the association step. The negligible effect of the probe on enzyme catalytic activity, a preservation of the near-u.v. c.d. effect of MgATP and acetyl-CoA in the presence of the probe and no observable unimolecular transitions after binding of the probe to the enzyme indicate that the probe had no deleterious effect on the enzyme. In contrast with results with 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid, fluorescence of the ε-derivative of acetyl-CoA or ATP [fluorescent analogues; Secrist, Barrio, Leonard & Weber (1972) Biochemistry 11, 3499–3506] was not changed when either one was added to the enzyme. Secondary-structure composition of chicken liver pyruvate carboxylase estimated from the far-u.v. c.d. spectrum of the enzyme is 27% helix, 7% β-pleated sheet and 66% other structural types. PMID:435260

  16. Generalized binomial τ-leap method for biochemical kinetics incorporating both delay and intrinsic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leier, André; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.; Burrage, Kevin

    2008-05-01

    The delay stochastic simulation algorithm (DSSA) by Barrio et al. [Plos Comput. Biol. 2, 117(E) (2006)] was developed to simulate delayed processes in cell biology in the presence of intrinsic noise, that is, when there are small-to-moderate numbers of certain key molecules present in a chemical reaction system. These delayed processes can faithfully represent complex interactions and mechanisms that imply a number of spatiotemporal processes often not explicitly modeled such as transcription and translation, basic in the modeling of cell signaling pathways. However, for systems with widely varying reaction rate constants or large numbers of molecules, the simulation time steps of both the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the DSSA can become very small causing considerable computational overheads. In order to overcome the limit of small step sizes, various τ-leap strategies have been suggested for improving computational performance of the SSA. In this paper, we present a binomial τ-DSSA method that extends the τ-leap idea to the delay setting and avoids drawing insufficient numbers of reactions, a common shortcoming of existing binomial τ-leap methods that becomes evident when dealing with complex chemical interactions. The resulting inaccuracies are most evident in the delayed case, even when considering reaction products as potential reactants within the same time step in which they are produced. Moreover, we extend the framework to account for multicellular systems with different degrees of intercellular communication. We apply these ideas to two important genetic regulatory models, namely, the hes1 gene, implicated as a molecular clock, and a Her1/Her 7 model for coupled oscillating cells.

  17. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Pablo; Reynolds, Jillian; García-Altés, Anna; Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included. Methodology, cost components as well as costs were assessed from individual studies. To compare across studies, final costs were transformed to 2014 Euros. Forty-five studies reported in 43 papers met the inclusion criteria (11 for illegal drugs, 26 for alcohol and 8 for tobacco). While there was a constant inclusion of direct costs related to treatment of substance use and comorbidities, there was a high variability for the rest of cost components. Total costs showed also a great variability. Price per capita for the year 2014 ranged from €0.38 to €78 for illegal drugs, from €26 to €1500 for alcohol and from €10.55 to €391 for tobacco. Drug use imposes a heavy economic burden to Europe. However, given the high existing heterogeneity in methodologies, and in order to better assess the burden and thus to develop adequate policies, standardised methodological guidance is needed. [Barrio P, Reynolds J, García-Altés A, Gual A, Anderson P. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Assessment of factors influencing retention in the Philippine National Rural Physician Deployment Program.

    PubMed

    Leonardia, Juan Alfonso; Prytherch, Helen; Ronquillo, Kenneth; Nodora, Rodel G; Ruppel, Andreas

    2012-11-20

    The 'Doctors to the Barrios' (DTTB) Program was launched in 1993 in response to the shortage of doctors in remote communities in the Philippines. While the Program has attracted physicians to work in such areas for the prescribed 2-year period, ongoing monitoring shows that very few chose to remain there for longer and be absorbed by their Local Government Unit (LGU). This assessment was carried out to explore the reasons for the low retention rates and to propose possible strategies to reverse the trend. A mixed methods approach was used comprising a self-administered questionnaire for members of the current cohort of DTTBs, and oral interviews with former DTTBs. Among former DTTBs, the wish to serve rural populations was the most widely cited motivation. By comparison, among the current cohort of DTTBs, more than half joined the Program due to return of service obligations; a quarter to help rural populations, and some out of an interest in public health. Those who joined the Program to return service experienced significantly less satisfaction, whilst those who joined out of an interest in public health were significantly more satisfied with their rural work. Those who graduated from medical schools in the National Capital Region were significantly more critical about their compensation and perceived there to be fewer options for leisure in rural areas. With regard to the factors impeding retention, lack of support from the LGU was most frequently mentioned, followed by concerns about changes in compensation upon absorption by the LGU, family issues and career advancement. Through improved collaboration with the Department of Health, LGUs need to strengthen the support provided to DTTBs. Priority could be given to those acting out of a desire to help rural populations or having an interest in public health, and those who have trained outside of the National Capital Region. Whether physicians should be able to use the Program to fulfil return service obligations

  19. The HO2 + (H2O)n + O3 reaction: an overview and recent developments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, Luís P.; Varandas, António J. C.

    2016-03-01

    The present work is concerned with the reaction of the hydroperoxyl radical with ozone, which is key in the atmosphere. We first give a brief overview which emphasizes theoretical work developed at the authors' Group, considering not only the naked reaction (n = 0) but also the reaction with one water molecule added to the reactants (n = 1). Aiming at a broad and contextual understanding of the role of water, we have also very recently published the results of the investigation considering the addition of water dimers (n = 2) and trimers (n = 3) to the reactants. Such results are also succinctly addressed before we present our latest and unpublished research endeavors. These consist of two items: the first one addresses a new mechanistic pathway for hydrogen-abstraction in n = 2-4 cases, in which we observe a Grotthuss-like hydrogen shuttling mechanism that interconverts covalent and hydrogen bonds (water molecules are no longer spectators); the second addresses our exploratory calculations of the HO2 + O3 reaction inside a (H2O)20 water cage, where we strive to give a detailed insight of the molecular processes behind the uptake of gas-phase molecules by a water droplet. Supplementary material in the form of one zip file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-60733-5Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  20. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  1. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons.

  2. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging.

    PubMed

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be "slower than normal", as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time.

  3. Stochastic undersampling steepens auditory threshold/duration functions: implications for understanding auditory deafferentation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Marmel, Frédéric; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Medardo A.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that some listeners experience hearing difficulties out of proportion with their audiometric losses. Notably, some older adults as well as auditory neuropathy patients have temporal-processing and speech-in-noise intelligibility deficits not accountable for by elevated audiometric thresholds. The study of these hearing deficits has been revitalized by recent studies that show that auditory deafferentation comes with aging and can occur even in the absence of an audiometric loss. The present study builds on the stochastic undersampling principle proposed by Lopez-Poveda and Barrios (2013) to account for the perceptual effects of auditory deafferentation. Auditory threshold/duration functions were measured for broadband noises that were stochastically undersampled to various different degrees. Stimuli with and without undersampling were equated for overall energy in order to focus on the changes that undersampling elicited on the stimulus waveforms, and not on its effects on the overall stimulus energy. Stochastic undersampling impaired the detection of short sounds (<20 ms). The detection of long sounds (>50 ms) did not change or improved, depending on the degree of undersampling. The results for short sounds show that stochastic undersampling, and hence presumably deafferentation, can account for the steeper threshold/duration functions observed in auditory neuropathy patients and older adults with (near) normal audiometry. This suggests that deafferentation might be diagnosed using pure-tone audiometry with short tones. It further suggests that the auditory system of audiometrically normal older listeners might not be “slower than normal”, as is commonly thought, but simply less well afferented. Finally, the results for both short and long sounds support the probabilistic theories of detectability that challenge the idea that auditory threshold occurs by integration of sound energy over time. PMID:26029098

  4. Reclaiming streets for outdoor play: A process and impact evaluation of “Juega en tu Barrio” (Play in your Neighborhood), an intervention to increase physical activity and opportunities for play

    PubMed Central

    Albagli, Andrea; Sadarangani, Kabir P.; Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Background New strategies are required to create supportive physical and social environments for children and promote active free-play. Juega en tu Barrio (JETB; Play in your Neighborhood) was designed and implemented to explore the effectiveness of closing a street in a low-to-middle income neighborhood in order to increase children’s outside play and physical activity. Methods A pretest-posttest design with control group was employed to investigate the intervention effects in a subsample of 100 children, 51 from the intervention neighborhood and 49 from the control neighborhood. The children wore pedometers for one week, and their parents completed questionnaires at two time points: before the intervention began and during the last two weeks of the intervention. JETB was conducted in the intervention neighborhood from 17:30 to 20:30, twice a week, from September to December 2014. Stewards ensured that the children were safe. Children and adults were assessed using systematic observation. Results The intervention and control neighborhoods included 177 and 116 children respectively. The average attendance per event was 60 children (SD = 22, reach 34%). In the intervention neighborhood, a significant increase between baseline and final assessment was observed in after-school outdoor playtime (p = 0.02), steps during the 3-hour intervention (p = 0.004), and daily steps Monday to Sunday (p = 0.006). Meanwhile, no changes were observed in the control neighborhood for the same variables. The proportion of children who met recommended daily step counts increased from 27.5% to 53.0% in the intervention neighborhood (p = 0.007), while for control neighborhood no difference was observed (49.0% to 53.0% p = 0.804). Conclusions JETB showed high community engagement while offering opportunities for increased outdoor play in children. The intervention showed a significant effect on the number of children meeting the daily pedometer-derived physical activity recommendations

  5. Effects of acculturation and socioeconomic status on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans. The San Antonio Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Hazuda, H P; Haffner, S M; Stern, M P; Eifler, C W

    1988-12-01

    The authors hypothesized that increased socioeconomic status and acculturation of Mexican Americans to mainstream US society would be accompanied by a progressive lessening of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This hypothesis was tested in 1979-1982 in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of 1,288 Mexican Americans and 929 non-Hispanic whites, aged 25-64 years, randomly selected from three San Antonio neighborhoods: a low-income barrio, a middle-income transitional neighborhood, and a high-income suburb. Socioeconomic status was assessed by the Duncan Socioeconomic Index, a global measure of socioeconomic status based on occupational prestige. Acculturation was assessed by three scales which measure functional integration with mainstream society, value placed on preserving Mexican cultural origin, and attitude toward traditional family structure and sex-role organization. In Mexican-American men, increased acculturation was accompanied by a statistically significant, linear decline in both obesity and diabetes, while socioeconomic status had no significant effect on either outcome. In Mexican-American women, on the other hand, increased acculturation and increased socioeconomic status were accompanied by statistically significant, linear declines in both outcomes. However, the effects of acculturation on obesity and diabetes prevalence in women were stronger than the effects of socioeconomic status. In women, obesity also appeared to be a more important mediator of the relation between socioeconomic status and diabetes than of the relation between acculturation and diabetes. The results of this study suggest that culturally mediated factors exert a more pervasive influence on obesity and diabetes in Mexican Americans than do socioeconomically mediated factors. The influence of socioeconomic status in women, however, cannot be ignored, particularly with regard to obesity.

  6. [Quality of life after an episode of myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Borrello, G; Curcio, F; Mazza, M L

    1995-01-01

    We studied the quality of life of two groups of myocardial infarction patients (AMI) and a control group of normal subjects: 1) 100 post-AMI patients following a cardiac rehabilitation programme of 12 weeks (CRG); 2) 33 post-AMI patients following a conventional care by cardiologists (CCG); 3) 40 healthy subjects as control (CG). To determine the loss of quality of life we administered the questionnaire of De Velasco-Del Barrio. The use of the questionnaire was possible by authors permission. MI patients had significantly poorer quality of life than the healthy subjects (p < 0.0001). Cardiac rehabilitation improved quality of life (p < 0.001) more than the conventional care. Women reported poorer quality of life that men. Before and after rehabilitation programme the quality of life of the subjects age 50 years or more was worse than their younger counterparts. Invasive therapies such percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass grafting are associated with an improvement of post-operative quality of life. In order to study the influence of social class on quality of life we divided our subjects into three groupings: high, medium and low according to code representing jobs and professional: a significant difference was found between high and low social class (p < 0.03). These findings suggest that cardiac rehabilitation may have positive effects on the quality of life in the MI patients. Aged patients, women, and with low social position reported poorer quality of life that younger, men and high social position patients. It seems that these patients should be assessed with psycho-social and treated with psychological and social support for improvement their quality of life.

  7. Genetic and environmental determinants of type II diabetes in Mexico City and San Antonio.

    PubMed

    Stern, M P; Gonzalez, C; Mitchell, B D; Villalpando, E; Haffner, S M; Hazuda, H P

    1992-04-01

    To study genetic and environmental determinants of non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, we compared a random sample of 35- to 64-yr-old Mexican-American men and women living in several low-income barrio neighborhoods of San Antonio to similarly aged Mexicans living in a low-income colonia of Mexico City (Colonia Liberales). A total of 1138 Mexican Americans, representing 64.3% of the original sample, and 646 Mexicans, representing 69.2% of the original sample, participated in the survey. Diabetes was diagnosed using World Health Organization criteria. Genetic susceptibility to type II diabetes was inferred from the percentage of Native American genetic admixture as estimated from skin reflectance measurements. The prevalence of diabetes was 36% higher among San Antonio Mexican Americans than among Mexicans in Mexico City; this difference was highly statistically significant (age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratio 1.36, P = 0.006). This excess was observed despite the fact that genetic susceptibility, as inferred from the admixture estimates, was similar in the two cities. On the other hand, Mexicans were somewhat leaner as measured by body mass index and skin folds. Mexican women consumed fewer total calories than Mexican-American women, but there was no difference in the caloric intake of men. Mexico City residents ate less fat (18-19% of total calories vs. 31-32% in San Antonio, P less than 0.001), more carbohydrate (64-65 vs. 49%, P less than 0.001), and performed more physical activity than San Antonio Mexican Americans. Mexicans appeared to consume more refined sugar than Mexican Americans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Influence of Cognitive Interferences and Self-Talk Functions on Performance During Competition in Elite Female Field Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Fernández-Campos, Francisco J; Rodas, Gil; Barrios, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Pérez-Encinas, C, Fernández-Campos, FJ, Rodas, G, and Barrios, C. Influence of cognitive interferences and self-talk functions on performance during competition in elite female field hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3339-3346, 2016-Cognitive interferences in the form of distracting thoughts and self-talk functions may play an important role in athletes' performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the types of interfering thoughts and the concomitant use of self-talk functions occurring in a sample of elite female field hockey players. The variation in these interferences in relation to athletes' performance level in competition was also investigated. Thirty-two female players of the first and the Under-21 National Team completed the Thought Occurrence Questionnaire for Sport and the Self-Talk Questionnaire after an international competition. The trainer rated the players' performance during competition in 3 different categories according to his expectancies based on the athletes' conditioning: Low (n = 6), Normal (n = 15), and High Performance (n = 11). Those players classified as low performing had increased the occurrence of irrelevant thoughts as compared with other groups. These athletes also showed the highest scores on the thoughts of escape subscale. Athletes with high performance during tournaments exhibited the lowest scores on all subscales, especially in thoughts of escape. The S-TQ subscales showed no differences among the 3 performance groups. Under-21 players had higher scores on the occurrence of performance worries and thoughts of escape subscales than first national team players. Interfering thoughts are common in female field hockey players during world-class competitions. The occurrence of irrelevant thoughts and thoughts of escape was related to players exhibiting low performance. The use of self-talk functions was relatively low in these athletes and could explain the enhanced occurrence of interfering thoughts.

  9. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    by Barandiarán et al. In the following paper, Crespo et al review the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles, showing that the coating can tune the magnetic properties of metallic and oxide nano-sized particles. Barja et al report on ordered magnetic ion structures formed by evaporation of Mn and Fe on self-assembled layers of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on Cu(111). Finally, Rodríguez de la Fuente et al investigate the role of surface defects on the physico-chemical properties of metals and oxides in a variety of scenarios, showing how the surface controls the mechanical properties probed at the nanoscale or the chemical reactivity. Acknowledgments The editors are grateful to all the invited contributors to this special section of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter . We also thank the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative matters and the refereeing process, and for their patience and helpful disposition. From surfaces to magnetic properties contents From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan RojoA Mascaraque, O Rodríguez de la Fuente and Miguel A González-Barrio Juan Rojo: the surface science and science politics maker in SpainA Mascaraque, O Rodríguez de la Fuente, Miguel A González-Barrio, Javier Solana, Luis Oro and Ana Crespo Initial stages of FeO growth on Ru(0001)I Palacio, M Monti, J F Marco, K F McCarty and J de la Figuera Surprising resistivity decrease in manganites with constant electronic densityR Cortés-Gil, M L Ruiz-González, J M Alonso, J L Martínez, A Hernando, M Vallet-Regí, and J M González-Calbet Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticlesA Baeza, D Arcos and M Vallet-Regí Revisited magnetic phase diagram for CeNi1-xCux system: spin-glass in the weak interaction limitN Marcano, J I Espeso and J C Gómez Sal Magnetic field and atomic order effect on the martensitic transformation of a metamagnetic alloyJ M

  10. PubMed

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Oliva García, José Gregorio; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Leyva González, Francisco Gustavo; Palacio Abizanda, José Enrique

    2016-11-29

    Introducción: la alimentación constituye el pilar fundamental del soporte nutricional de los pacientes hospitalizados. Evaluar el grado de aceptación de la dieta es imprescindible en aras de combatir la desnutrición hospitalaria.Objetivos: a) determinar el grado de satisfacción de los pacientes en relación con las dietas; y b) analizar posibles variables asociadas a un grado de satisfacción mayor (apetito y tipo de dieta).Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Se emplea una encuesta de 17 preguntas con datos sociodemográficos, datos cualitativos, así como la valoración general del paciente. Se comparó el grado de satisfacción global en función del apetito y el tipo de dieta (terapéutica vs.basal; con sal vs.sosa) (Test no paramétric o Krustal-Wallis y T-Student para muestras independientes, respectivamente).Resultados: mil cuatrocientos trece pacientes. Edad: 53,9 ± 19 años; 51,3% mujeres. Dieta terapéutica (34,9%). Solo el 39,4% tomó dieta con sal. El 66,8% refirió ingresos previos. La alimentación del hospital para un 43% de pacientes fue ''como esperaba'', mientras que para un 44,1% fue ''mejor de lo que esperaba''. El horario de comidas era adecuado (89,1%) y el tiempo para comer, suficiente (96,4%). En cuanto a las características de la comida servida, consideraron como buenas o muy buenas la misma el porcentaje reflejado: sabor/gusto (56.3%), olor (65,5%), cocinado (69,2%), presentación (80,4%), tamaño de ración (75,9%), calidad (73%), cantidad (77,9%), variedad (67,6%), temperatura (70,4%). La valoración global de la alimentación en una escala de 1 a 10 fue de 6,8 ± 2,3. El apetito se asoció a un aumento significativo de la satisfacción global alimentaria del paciente (p < 0,01). El tipo de dieta o la presencia de sal en la misma no se asociaron a un aumento significativo de la satisfacción con la dieta de los pacientes (p = 0,99 y 0,35, respectivamente).Conclusiones: aunque el grado de satisfacción de

  11. Evaluation of onchocerciasis seroprevalence in Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) after years of disease control programmes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Ana; Moya, Laura; Perteguer, María J; Herrador, Zaida; Nguema, Rufino; Nguema, Justino; Aparicio, Pilar; Benito, Agustín; Gárate, Teresa

    2016-09-20

    Onchocerciasis or "river blindness" is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus, transmitted through infected blackflies (Simulium spp.). Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) used to show a high endemicity for onchocerciasis. During the last years, the disease control programmes using different larvicides and ivermectin administration have considerably reduced the prevalence and intensity of infection. Based on this new epidemiological scenario, in the present work we aimed to assess the impact of the strategies applied against onchocerciasis in Bioko Island by an evaluation of IgG4 antibodies specific for recombinant Ov-16 in ELISA. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bioko Island from mid-January to mid-February, 2014. Twenty communities were randomly selected from rural and urban settings. A total of 140 households were chosen. In every selected household, all individuals aged 5 years and above were recruited; 544 study participants agreed to be part of this work. No previous data on onchocerciasis seroprevalence in the selected communities were available. Blood samples were collected and used in an "ELISA in-house" prepared with recombinant Ov-16, expressed and further purified. IgG4 antibodies specific for recombinant Ov-16 were evaluated by ELISA in all of the participants. Based on the Ov-16 ELISA, the onchocerciasis seroprevalence was 7.9 %, mainly concentrated in rural settings; samples from community Catedral Ela Nguema (# 16) were missed during the field work. Among the rural setups, communities Inasa Maule (# 7), Ruiché (# 20) and Barrios Adyacentes Riaba (# 14), had the highest seropositivity percentages (29.2, 26.9 and 23.8 %, respectively). With respect to the urban settings, we did not find any positive case in communities Manzana Casa Bola (# 3), Colas Sesgas (# 6), Getesa (# 8), Moka Bioko (# 9), Impecsa (# 10), Baney Zona Baja (# 12) and Santo Tomás de Aquino (# 1). No onchocerciasis seropositive samples

  12. Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch.

    PubMed Central

    Balluz, L.; Moll, D.; Diaz Martinez, M. G.; Merida Colindres, J. E.; Malilay, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults). Dieldrin levels > 0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are < 0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 micrograms/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover

  13. Stabilization and rovibronic spectra of the T-shaped and linear ground-state conformers of a weakly bound rare-gas-homonuclear dihalogen complex: He ⋯Br2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, David S.; Strasfeld, David B.; Loomis, Richard A.; Herbert, John M.; Ray, Sara E.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2005-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Br2 entrained in a He supersonic expansion have been recorded in the Br2B-X, 8-0, 12-0, and 21-0 spectral regions at varying downstream distances, and thus different temperature regimes. Features associated with transitions of the T-shaped and linear He ⋯Br2(X,ν″=0) complexes are identified. The changes in the relative intensities of the T-shaped and linear features with cooling in the expansion indicate that the linear conformer is energetically more stable than the T-shaped conformer. A He +Br2(X,ν″=0) ab initio potential-energy surface, computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with a large, flexible basis set, is used to calculate the binding energies of the two conformers, 15.8 and 16.5 cm-1 for the T-shaped and linear complexes, respectively. This potential and an excited-state potential [M. P. de Lara-Castells, A. A. Buchachenko, G. Delgado-Barrio, and P. Villareal, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2182 (2004)] are used to calculate the excitation spectra of He ⋯Br279(X,ν″=0) in the Br2B-X, 12-0 region. The calculated spectra are used to make spectral assignments and to determine the energies of the excited-state intermolecular vibrational levels accessed in the observed transitions. Temperature-dependent laser-induced fluorescence spectra and a simple thermodynamic model [D. S. Boucher, J. P. Darr, M. D. Bradke, R. A. Loomis, and A. B. McCoy, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5275 (2004)] are used to estimate that the linear conformer is 0.4(2)cm-1 more strongly bound than the T-shaped conformer. Two-laser action spectroscopy experiments reveal that the binding energy of the linear He ⋯Br279(X,ν″=0) conformer is 17.0(8)cm-1, and that of the T-shaped He ⋯Br279(X,ν″=0) conformer is then 16.6(8)cm-1, in good agreement with the calculated values.

  14. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    , Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  15. Infant feeding practices in a poor district of Santo Domingo.

    PubMed

    Mclennan, J D; Spady, D W

    1994-01-01

    During August-December 1989, in the Dominican Republic, local health promoters interviewed 103 primary caretakers and took anthropometric measurements from 103 children aged 3 years and under during home visits in three poor neighborhoods of Los Alcarrizos (Alto de Chavon, Barrio Landia, and Pueblo Nuevo) to examine infant feeding practices. 95% of the mothers had started breast feeding. The median duration of breast feeding was 7.5 months. Almost 33% had quit breast feeding by 3 months. Perception of insufficient milk was the leading reason for early discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. The local pharmacies in all three communities offered powdered milk. About 25% of mothers began using breast milk substitutes within the first week. A non-infant formula milk powder was the most commonly used breast milk substitute. 30% of mothers stored prepared milk for later feeds, as long as half a day. Only 13% of households had a refrigerator. The most frequently used first weaning foods were orange juice, lime juice, and beans. 76% of mothers had used or were currently using baby bottles. 95% of them reported washing the bottle in boiling water. The median age of introducing the baby bottle was 3 days. Only 44% of mother covered prepared food during storage. The most commonly eaten foods among children aged at least 1 year were milk, beans, rice, and citrus fruits. Yet the children did not eat all these foods daily. 18% of 1-2 year olds and 13% of 2-3 year olds did not eat meats and alternatives regularly. 7% of 1-2 year olds and 10% of 2-3 year olds did not eat fruits and vegetables regularly. 4% of 1-2 year olds and 3% of 2-3 year olds did not eat breads and cereals regularly. About 14% of all children were not consuming any milk at the time of the survey. These findings will be used to refine nutrition education programs in the district to make them more effective.

  16. Remotely sensed forest phenology and its relation with Nephropathia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    J.M. Barrios1, W.W. Verstraeten1, P. Maes2, J. Clement2, J-M. Aerts1, S. Amirpour1, J. Wambacq2, K. Lagrou3, M. Van Ranst2, D. Berckmans1, P. Coppin1 1. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Biosystems Departement, M3-BIORES, Willem de Croylaan 34, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium 2. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratory of Clinical Virology, Hantavirus Reference Center, Rega Institute, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Experimental Laboratory Medicine, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium Nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is a zoonotic disease caused by a Hanta virus called Puumala virus in Europe. Concern about this disease has increased in recent years due to the increase in the amount of reported cases. In 2005, 2007 and 2008 the number of infected cases surpassed 300 cases per 100000 inhabitants in Belgium, which was never observed before. NE incidence is closely related to environmental conditions. The main role in the virus transmission mechanism is played by the red bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a rodent species that is native in West European broad-leaved forests (BLF) and acts as the virus reservoir. Although the link between vegetation and NE in Belgium has been underlined repeatedly in recent research works, so far little has been done towards the exploration of remote sensing techniques for analyzing vegetation systems as an input in early warning systems. This study aims at determining whether observed NE occurrence pattern in Belgium can be connected to specific trends in BLF phenology parameters. Hence, phenology information was derived from time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) for the period 2000-2008 in 10 major BLF in southern Belgium. EVI values were calculated from the MOD09A1 dataset which provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance for bands 1-7 at 500 m resolution every 8 days. Based on our preliminary

  17. Risk of stroke in prescription and other amphetamine-type stimulants use: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Indave, Blanca Iciar; Sordo, Luis; Bravo, María José; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; De la Fuente, Luis; Sonego, Michela; Barrio, Gregorio

    2017-05-08

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are a putative cause of stroke with high abuse potential. We aim to systematically review the association between use of ATS and stroke. To assure a sensitive search strategy, a broad definition of ATS was used. Cochrane Plus, EMBASE, IBECS/Lilacs, ISI WOK, Medline and Scopus were searched through 2016. Three researchers independently reviewed studies (Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses). Validity and bias were appraised. Of 3998 articles, four cohort studies and eight case-control studies (CCS) were selected; 11 focused on prescribed or over-the-counter ATS. Current ATS users showed a higher ischaemic stroke risk than non-users in two cohort studies {adjusted rate ratio = 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1, 2.4] and 3.4 [95% CI = 1.1, 10.6]}. One study observed increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke in former users versus non-users [adjusted rate ratio = 2.3 (95% CI = 1.3, 4.1)]. Higher haemorrhagic stroke risk was seen in two CCS among women using ATS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 16.6 (95% CI = 1.5, 182.2) and 3.9 (95% CI = 1.1, 13.1)]. All-stroke was negatively associated with ATS in another CCS [aOR = 0.4 (95% CI = 0.2, 0.8)] and positively associated in the only study on non-medical ATS [aOR = 3.8 (95% CI = 1.2, 12.6)]. Selection bias and uncontrolled confounding were common. This is the first systematic review on ATS and stroke. Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that ATS use increases stroke risk. Possible disparities in ATS effect across stroke type and higher effect in women deserve further clarification. Studies on non-medical ATS use should be a priority. [Indave BI, Sordo L, Bravo MJ, Sarasa-Renedo A, Fernández-Balbuena S, De la Fuente L, Sonego M, Barrio G. Risk of stroke in prescription and other amphetamine-type stimulants use: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017

  18. The iron-coating role on the oxidation kinetics of a pyritic sludge doped with fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Cama, Jordi; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carles

    2007-04-01

    The present study examines the processes that control the oxidation attenuation of a pyrite-rich sludge (72 wt% pyrite) from the Iberian Pyrite Belt by the buffer capacity of a fly ash from Los Barrios power station (S Spain), using saturated column experiments. In addition, in order to understand the behaviour of both materials inside these experiments, a fly-ash leaching test and flow-through experiments with pyritic sludge were carried out. The fly-ash leaching test showed that after leaching this material with a slightly acid solution (Millipore MQ water; pH 5.6) the pH raised up to 10.2 and that the metals released by the fly-ash dissolution did not increase significantly the metal concentrations in the output solutions. The flow-through experiments with the pyritic sludge were performed at pH 9, 22 °C and O 2 partial pressure of 0.21 atm, to calculate the dissolution rate of this residue simulating the fly-ash addition. In the experiments Fe bearing oxyhydroxides precipitated as the sludge dissolved. In two non-stirred experiments the iron precipitates formed Fe-coatings on the pyrite surfaces preventing the interaction between the oxidizing agents and the pyrite grains, halting pyrite oxidation (this process is known as pyrite microencapsulation), whereas in two stirred experiments, stirring hindered the iron precipitates to coat the pyrite grains. Thus, based on the release of S (aqueous sulphate) the steady-state pyritic sludge dissolution rate obtained was 9.0 ± 0.2 × -11 mol m -2 s -1. In the saturated column experiments, the sludge dissolution was examined at acidic and basic pH at 22 °C and oxygen-saturated atmosphere. In a saturated column experiment filled with the pyritic sludge, pyrite oxidation occurred favourably at pH approx. 3.7. As the leachates of the fly ash yielded high basic pH, in another saturated column, consisting of an initial thick layer of fly-ash material and a layer of pyritic sludge, the pyrite dissolution took place at p

  19. Groundwater-flow modeling in the Yucatan karstic aquifer, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Herrera, Roger; Sánchez-y-Pinto, Ismael; Gamboa-Vargas, José

    2002-09-01

    aquifère. La zone karstifiée a été modélisée en posant l'hypothèse qu'il fonctionne hydrauliquement comme un milieu poreux granulaire. Au cours de la calibration, les hypothèses suivantes ont été testées: (1) les phénomènes karstiques jouent un rôle important dans le système aquifère, (2) un anneau ou une ceinture de dépressions dans la région est la manifestation d'une zone à forte transmissivité qui permet l'écoulement en conduits de l'eau souterraine en direction du Golfe du Mexique, et (3) la situation géologique dans la partie sud du Yucatan détermine les écoulements souterrains. Le modèle montre que la faille de la Sierrita de Ticul, dans la partie sud-ouest de la région étudiée, joue le rôle de barrière et que les valeurs de la piézométrie décroissent en direction du nord-est. La modélisation montre également que la dynamique du système aquifère à l'échelle régionale n'a pas été modifiée malgré le grand nombre de puits de pompage, parce que le volume pompé est faible en comparaison du volume de recharge; en outre, le réseau karstique très bien développé dans cette région possède une très forte conductivité hydraulique. Resumen. El modelo conceptual actual del acuífero cárstico no confinado de la Península de Yucatán (México) es el de un lentejón de agua dulce flotando sobre agua salada, más densa, la cual penetra más de 40 kilómetros tierra adentro. Debido a la alta conductividad hidráulica del acuífero, existe un gradiente hidráulico muy bajo cuyo rango está entre 7 y 10 milímetros por kilómetro en la porción norte de la península. Se utilizó el código AQUIFER para investigar el sistema de flujo de las aguas subterráneas a escala regional en el acuífero. La zona carstificada se modeló suponiendo que actúa hidráulicamente como un medio poroso granular. Como parte de la calibración, se probaron las siguientes hipótesis: (1) las características cársticas desempeñan un papel importante

  20. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: Mitigation strategies and policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaerts, Guy J.; Khouri, Nadim

    affectées dans les pays en développement. Un cadre d'ensemble pour lutter contre la dégradation naturelle des ressources est associé à des études de cas au Chili, au Mexique, au Bangladesh et ailleurs afin d'établir un ensemble de recommandations stratégiques pour les dimensions globale, nationale et locale de la «crise» de l'arsenic. Les principales recommandations sont les suivantes: le besoin d'une flexibilité pour élaborer une stratégie de diminution de l'arsenic, l'amélioration et l'utilisation à grande échelle de techniques peu coûteuses et associant les populations pour tester la qualité de l'eau souterraine, le besoin de maintenir un usage logique des leçons clés acquises de par le monde pour l'alimentation en eau et la santé publique, celui d'intégrer l'arsenic simplement comme un autre facteur pour assurer une alimentation durable en eau, et pour suivre des pistes distinctes mais communicables entre les développements liés à l'arsenic et les alimentations durables en eau mises en valeurs à long terme. La contaminación de las aguas subterráneas con arsénico procedente de fuentes geoquímicas naturales es actualmente uno de los retos principales de la planificación a gran escala de las aguas subterráneas para uso de boca y otros fines. Las recientes mejoras en los límites de detección del instrumental analítico permiten correlacionar impactos en la salud tales como el cáncer con concentraciones elevadas de arsénico en las aguas subterráneas. Sin embargo, a fecha de hoy no existen soluciones tecnológicas de gran escala para millones de personas-población principalmente rural-que están potencialmente afectadas en los países en vías de desarrollo. Se combina un enfoque general para combatir la degradación de los recursos naturales con estudios concretos de Chile, México, Bangladesh y cualquier otro lugar que permita obtener un conjunto de recomendaciones estratégicas para las dimensiones global, nacional y local de la

  1. Walking through volcanic mud: the 2,100 year-old Acahualinca footprints (Nicaragua) II: the Acahualinca people, environmental conditions and motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Rausch, Juanita; Kutterolf, Steffen; Freundt, Armin

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed bare human footprints in Holocene tuff preserved in two pits in the Acahualinca barrio in the northern outskirts of Managua (Nicaragua). Lithology, volcanology, and age of the deposits are discussed in a companion paper (Schmincke et al. Bull Volcanol doi: 10.1007/s00445-008-0235-9 , 2008). The footprint layer occurs within a series of rapidly accumulated basaltic-andesitic tephra that is regionally correlated to the Masaya Triple Layer Tephra. The people were probably trying to escape from a powerful volcanic eruption at Masaya Caldera 20 km farther south that occurred at 2.1 ka BP. We subdivided the swath of footprints, up to 5.6 m wide, in the northern pit (Pit I) into (1) a central group of footprints made by about six individuals, the total number being difficult to determine because people walked in each other’s footsteps one behind the other and (2) two marginal groups on either side of the central group with more widely spaced tracks. The western band comprises tracks of three adjacent individuals and an isolated single footprint farther out. The eastern marginal area comprises an inner band of deep footprints made by three individuals and, farther out, three clearly separated individuals. We estimate the total number of people as 15-16. In the southern narrow and smaller pit (Pit II), we recognize tracks of ca. 12 individuals, no doubt made by the same group. The group represented in both pits probably comprised male and female adults, teenagers and children based on differences in length of footprints and of strides and depth of footprints made in the soft wet ash. The smallest footprints (probably made by children) occur in the central group, where protection was most effective. The footprint layer is composed of a lower 5-15-cm thick, coarse-grained vesicle tuff capped by a medium to fine-grained tuff up to 3 cm thick. The

  2. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF A PROGRAMME PROMOTING ADEQUATE AND HEALTHY EATING ON ADOLESCENT HEALTH MARKERS: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Brito Beck da Silva, Karine; Leovigildo Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Couto, Ricardo David; Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las repercusiones de un protocolo de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable en los parámetros de salud de adolescentes. Métodos: se trata de un estudio de intervención, controlado, con una duración de nueve meses, en el cual participaron estudiantes, con una edad entre 10 y 17 años, matriculados en dos escuelas (intervención/ control) situadas en un barrio pobre del municipio de Salvador (Bahia), Brasil. Fueron previstas para la escuela bajo intervención acciones de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable, con base en el Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Guía Alimentaria para la Población Brasileña). Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de tales acciones, todos los alumnos fueron sometidos a los exámenes bioquímicos, de maduración y antropométricos al principio y al final de los nueve meses. Además, contestaron a un cuestionario sobre consumo alimentario, actividad física y comportamiento sedentario. También se consiguió información sobre las condiciones socioeconómicas de la familia. La opción fue el análisis de Ecuaciones de Estimaciones Generalizadas (GEE) para evaluar las asociaciones de interés. Resultados: se verificó que los estudiantes bajo intervención presentaron una disminución de 7,64 mg/dL en la media del colesterol total (p = 0,009), de 7,77 mg/dL en la media del LDLc (p = 0,003), un incremento del 18% en el consumo de legumbres (OR = 1,18; 95%IC 1,03-1,37) y del 17% en el consumo de verduras (OR = 1,17; 95%IC 1,01-1,35), comparados con aquellos que no fueron sometidos a la intervención. No hubo diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos estudiados. Conclusión: los resultados apuntaron un efecto positivo de las acciones de promoción de la alimentación adecuada y saludable en la reducción del colesterol total, LDL-c, en el aumento del consumo de vegetales y legumbres, evidenciando una vez más que el modelo de intervención fue capaz de prever y/o tratar

  3. Liquefaction during the 1977 San Juan Province, Argentina earthquake (Ms = 7.4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youd, T.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Liquefaction effects generated by the 1977 San Juan Province, Argentina, earthquake (Ms = 7.4) are described. The larger and more abundant effects were concentrated in the 60-km long band of the lowlands in the Valle del Bermejo and in an equally long band along the Rio San Juan in the Valle de Tulum. Fissures in the Valle del Bermejo were up to several hundred meters long and up to several meters wide. Sand deposits, from boils that erupted through the fissures, covered areas up to tens of square meters. Fissures generally parallelled nearby stream channels. Because the Valle del Bermejo is undeveloped, these large features caused no damage. Liquefaction in the Valle del Tulum caused important or unusual damage at several localities, including the following five sites: (1) At the Barrio Justo P. Castro, a subdivision of Caucete, liquefaction of subsurface sediments decoupled overlying, unliquefied stiff sediments, producing a form of ground failure called "ground oscillation". The associated differential ground movements pulled apart houses and pavements in extension, while shearing curbs and buckling canal linings in compression at the same locality. (2) At the Escuela Normal, in Caucete, the roof of a 30-m long single-story classroom building shifted westward relative to the foundation. That displacement fractured and tilted columns supporting the roof. The foundation was fractured at several places, leaving open cracks, as wide as 15 mm. The cumulative width of the open cracks was 48 mm, an amount roughly equivalent to the 63 mm of offset between the roof and foundation at the east end of the building. The ground and foundation beneath the building extended (or spread) laterally opening cracks and lengthening the foundation while the roof remained in place. (3) The most spectacular damage to structures at the community of San Martin was the tilting of a 6-m high water tower and the toppling of a nearby pump house into a 1-m deep crater. Similarly, a small

  4. PREFACE: Special issue: Proceedings of the Joint 19th AIRAPT and 41st EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (Bordeaux, 7--11 July 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demazeau, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    This volume is the outcome of a three-day meeting held 7-10 August, 2004 in St Adèle, Québec honouring Michael F Thorpe, Foundation Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Biophysics at Arizona State University. Michael Thorpe has made many important contributions to condensed matter physics, broadly defined. From the famous Weaire and Thorpe Hamiltonian in 1971 [1] to rigidity percolation theory [2] and flexibility in proteins [3], he has always provided highly original solutions to difficult problems. He has also demonstrated an uncommon gift for selecting and solving problems of remarkably broad significance (for example, rigidity theory is now a powerful tool in glasses, microelectronics and proteins). Throughout his career, Mike has also made a point of establishing contact with scientists from all disciplines and origins, organizing tens of conferences and maintaining a very active visitor's program both at Michigan State University, where he spent 25 years, and, now, at Arizona State University, where he moved a year ago. It is therefore not surprising that the participants, all with scientific or personal links with Mike, usually both, came from Europe, Asia and North America to celebrate the 60th birthday of an eminent physicist and friend. Reflecting the impact of Mike's work across the traditional scientific boundaries, the meeting included contributions ranging from studies of concrete by Ed Garboczi (NIST), a hybrid VCA/CPA treatment of the Hubbard model presented by Sir Roger Elliott (Oxford) to the assembly process of viral capsids by Brandon Hespenheide (ASU). Especially memorable talks were given by Rafael Barrio (with his photogenic striped imperial fish), Alex Kolobov (presenting impressive scientific results using equally impressive computer graphics), and Dick Zallen, for a remarkably good `roast' of the honoree and work with his daughter (a molecular biologist) on biophysics. The meeting had an unusual warmth befitting the birthday celebration

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Molina Recio, Guillermo; Moreno Rojas, Rafael; García Rodríguez, María; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: un gran número de encuestas nutricionales en Perú han identificado la magnitud y la ubicación de los diferentes tipos de desnutrición, siendo la forma crónica la más prevalente. Sin embargo, aunque las tasas pueden considerarse alarmantes (aún más en las zonas rurales), sólo un trabajo contiene información sobre las características de la ingesta, usando recordatorios de 24 horas (R24). Es decir, se carece de otros sistemas de estudio centrados en conocer las características gastronómicas de sus regiones y la biodisponibilidad de los alimentos, con el fin de localizar el origen de esta situación en cada área y proponer soluciones verdaderamente eficaces y eficientes.Objetivo: determinar el valor nutricional de los platos principales consumidos por los residentes de un barrio pobre de la Amazonía Peruana, para identificar las causas de la pérdida de un estado nutricional saludable.Métodos: noventa y ocho participantes completaron tres R24. Basándonos en estos datos, se seleccionaron los 25 platos más comúnmente consumidos y evaluamos su composición nutricional. Tomamos nota de las recetas, pesos y medidas caseras. Además, se observó la preparación y cocción. La composición nutricional media de cada plato se calculó por 100 g utilizando el software Nutriplato 4.6. También se calcularon lasganancias o pérdidas derivadas de los tratamientos culinarios.Resultados: dentro de los platos basados en la leche, el de más alta densidad de energía es el mingado de arroz. En el grupo de los pescados, la mayor cantidad de energía es aportada por el pescado frito, mientras que en las recetas a base de carne, las más energéticas son el tallarín con pollo, la res asada y el cerdo frito. Como platos preparados, el juane tiene la más alta densidad de energía de todas las recetas. Dentro de las guarniciones, aquellas que utilizan los plátanos como el ingrediente principal, el plátano frito y el madurito, son las más energ

  6. Precise U-Pb dating of Cenozoic tropical reef carbonates: Linking the evolution of Cenozoic Caribbean reef carbonates to climatic and environmental changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Tamayo, J. C.; Ducea, M.; Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Rincon, D.; Machado, A.; Flores, A.; Sial, A.; Pardo, A.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Jaramillo, C.; Zapata, P.; Barrios, L.; Rosero, S.; Bayona, G.; Zapata, V.

    2012-04-01

    .Klauss et al.., Gelogy 39 (2011) 11.Barrios, MSc Thesys, Invemar (2006)

  7. Association between domestic violence and women's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Kerle Dayana Tavares de; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Campos, Hemílio Fernandes Coelho; Oliveira, Elaine Cristina Tôrres

    2017-06-05

    s mulheres (p=0,019) e segurança (p=0,006). o estudo comprovou a evidência de associação entre a violência doméstica contra a mulher e qualidade de vida, situação que reafirma a importância de construir políticas públicas com enfoque na emancipação de gênero. analizar la asociación entre la violencia doméstica contra la mujer y su calidad de vida. encuesta domiciliar de base poblacional, de tipo transversal, realizada con mujeres con más de 18 años, considerando un plan de muestreo estratificado por barrios. En el análisis fue verificada la prevalencia de la violencia doméstica e índice de calidad de vida; se utilizó la regresión logística para determinación de asociaciones; el nivel de significancia fue de 5%. participaron de esta investigación 424 mujeres que presentaron prevalencia de violencia doméstica de 54,4% e índice de calidad de vida de 61,59. Se verificó, por medio de regresión logística, que la violencia doméstica posee asociación con la calidad de vida de las mujeres (p=0,017). Las variables observadas que influencian la ocurrencia de violencia doméstica fueron: dominio de las relaciones sociales (p=0,000), oferta de tratamiento médico destinado a las mujeres (p=0,019) y seguridad (p=0,006). el estudio comprobó la evidencia de asociación entre la violencia doméstica contra la mujer y su calidad de vida, situación que reafirma la importancia de construir políticas públicas con enfoque en la emancipación de género.

  8. Ground-Water Resource Assessment in the Rio Grande de Manati Alluvial Plain, Rio Arriba Saliente Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Sigfredo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando; Warne, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer within a 160-acre area of the Rio Grande de Manati alluvial plain was investigated to evaluate its potential as a water-supply source for the Barrios Rio Arriba Saliente and Pugnado Afuera, municipio of Manati, Puerto Rico. Analysis of well boring samples and the results of electric resistivity surveys indicate that the average thickness of the unconsolidated alluvial deposits in the study area is about 100 to 110 feet. The alluvium is a mixture of sand and gravel, which generally has a porosity of 0.2 to 0.35. Short-duration pump tests in small-diameter piezometers indicate that the alluvial aquifer has a hydraulic conductivity of about 200 feet per day and a transmissivity of about 7,900 feet squared per day. Analyses of water levels in piezometers, combined with stage measurements at a series of surveyed reference points along the Rio Grande de Manati channel, indicate that the water-table gradient in the alluvial aquifer is about 0.001, and that ground-water flow is generally from south to north, in the general direction of river flow. The water-table data indicate that the Rio Grande de Manati is the principal source of ground-water recharge to the alluvial aquifer in the study area. Because base flow for the Rio Grande de Manati is usually greater than 44 cubic feet per second, a continuous withdrawal rate of 0.5 to 1.0 cubic foot per second (225 to 450 gallons per minute) from a production well is possible. Chemical analysis of a ground-water sample indicates that the alluvial aquifer water meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standards for selected constituents. Bacteriological analysis of ground-water samples indicates that the ground water contains little or no fecal coliform or fecal streptococcus bacteria. Although long-term data from upstream of the study area indicate high levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus prior to 1996, bacteriological analyses of Rio Grande de Manati water samples obtained during

  9. PREFACE: 4th National Meeting in Chaos, Complex System and Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raúl Hernández Montoya, Alejandro; Hernández Lemus, Enrique; Rubén Luévano Enríquez, José; Rodríguez Achach, Manuel Enrique; Vargas Madrazo, Carlos Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    solutions of a discrete-time Hamilton--Jacobi equation). The present volume contains a rigorous selection of the lectures presented at the NMCCSTS4. All papers were peer reviewed and we consider the high quality and the wide range of topics covered here displays the high level that the community of complexity sciences is reaching in our country. We would like to thank all of the speakers, participants and the members of the Organizing Committee, also we would like to express our gratitude to all students and support personal involved with the logistic and technical aspects of the organization of our event. This IV edition of the National Meeting on Caos, Complex System and Time Series was sponsored by the following organizations and institutions, we warmly thank all of them: Universidad Veracruzana, IF-BUAP, UAM Azcapotzalco, INMEGEN, Conacyt (155492), all them from México and the Ministero degli Affari Esteri (MAE) from Italy. A R Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz M E Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz E Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine J R Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco C E Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz Organizing Committee José Luis Carrillo Estrada Instituto de Física, Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, carrillo@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx José Rubén Luévano Enríquez Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, jrle@correo.azc.uam.mx Enrique Hernández Lemus National Institute of Genomic Medicine, ehernandez@inmegen.gob.mx Alejandro Raúl Hernández Montoya University of Veracruz, alhernandez@uv.mx Norma Bagatella Flores University of Veracruz, nbagatella@uv.mx Adrian Arturo Huerta Hernández University of Veracruz, adhuerta@uv.mx Manuel Enrique Rodríguez Achach University of Veracruz, manurodriguez@uv.mx Carlos Ernesto Vargas Madrazo University of Veracruz, cavargas@uv.mx Sol Haret Baez Barrios University of Veracruz, arbaez@uv.mx Héctor Francisco Coronel Brizio University

  10. Source apportionment to PM10 and PM2.5 at multiple sites in the Bay of Gibraltar (S Spain) by PMF: estimate of shipping emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.; de La Rosa, J. D.

    2009-04-01

    The recognized adverse health effect of the PM10 and PM2.5 particles leads to an increasing demand of a more efficient control of pollutant emissions especially in industrial and/or urban sites. The degree with which the control of the emissions can be accomplished depends on the identification of the pollutant sources and the estimation of their contribution. The chemical speciation of ambient PM coupled with receptor modelling can be considered as a powerful tool to estimate origin of the sources and their contribution to the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions. This work aims to evaluate the effect on air quality of the anthropogenic activities performed in one of the most important industrial estates of Southern Spain located in the Bay of Gibraltar. The area under study is characterized by the presence of metallurgy industries and oil refineries around which four urban agglomerates are located, namely: Los Barrios (36°11'7.39"N, 5°29'33.89"O), La Linea (36° 9'40.24"N, 5°20'53.72"O), Algeciras (36°7'47.21"N, 5°26'51.71"O) y Puente Mayorga (36°10'54.60"N, 5°23'8.32"O). Traffic is consequently another important source of pollutants in the considered area together with an intense shipping activity. The estimation of the pollutant sources and their contribution was obtained by applying the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model to the PM10 and PM2.5 levels and chemical speciation data simultaneously obtained in the four urban agglomerates during a period of 4 years (March 2003 - December 2007). Given the small size of the area under study, the PM data collected in all the four stations was simultaneously introduced within the PMF model. This procedure allowed the PMF to use a higher number of data rather than using the 4 database separately, thus improving the performances of the model. Following this procedure a total of 567 and 341 samples for the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions respectively were introduced within the PMF. Moreover, before running the model, a detailed

  11. EDITORIAL: Special Issue: CAMOP MOLEC XV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    upon genetic algorithms and its performance is demonstrated on the example of dense spectra of (complexed) aromatic species. Interaction potential surface calculations of rare gasses with halogens in van der Waals complexes are described by Delgado-Barrio and co-workers, and Tennyson discusses new theoretical techniques based on the use of the variational principle to guide the spectral assignment of complicated water spectra, e.g. at very high temperatures. Finally, Okumura and co-workers present NIR spectra of NO3 and in combination with new calculations these shed light on how to interpret vibronic couplings in this interesting system. The last section of this issue comprises fragmentation and photo-dissociation studies. Rubio-Lago et al discuss methods to produce high-density spin polarized hydrogen following photodissociation experiments. The photodissociation of HCl and Cl2 is taken as an example by Balint-Kurti et al to demonstrate how amplitudes and phases of the photofragmentation matrix elements are derived from experimental measurements. Directional dynamics in photodissociation processes and the derivation of molecular frame properties are discussed in detail by Van den Brom et al using laboratory oriented molecules. And the issue closes with a contribution by Chambreau et al on different reaction mechanisms in the photodissociation of formaldehyde into H2 and CO. Coming to the end of this editorial, we wish to thank all the authors who participated with their contributions in this issue. It shows what is possible nowadays in the field of molecular dynamics and where things are heading in the near future. We thank Physica Scripta for providing us with the platform for this Special Issue, and we wish you, dear reader, many new insights! Steven Solte, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Harold Linnartz, Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands

  12. PREFACE: Dynamics of low-dimensional systems Dynamics of low-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, M.; Miret-Artés, S.; Toennies, J. P.

    2012-03-01

    Chulkov Surface phonons on Pb(111) I Yu Sklyadneva, R Heid, K-P Bohnen, P M Echenique and E V Chulkov Using evidence from nanocavities to assess the vibrational properties of external surfaces G F Cerofolini, F Corni, S Frabboni, G Ottaviani, E Romano, R Tonini and D Narducci Magnetic properties and relaxation dynamics of a frustrated Ni7 molecular nanomagnet E Garlatti, S Carretta, M Affronte, E C Sañudo, G Amoretti and P Santini A theoretical study of rotational and translational diffusion dynamics of molecules with a six-fold point symmetry adsorbed on a hexagonal lattice by neutron scattering I Calvo-Almazán, S Miret-Artés and P Fouquet Vibrational dynamics and surface structure of Bi(111) from helium atom scattering measurements M Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, A Tamtögl, P Kraus, K H Rieder and W E Ernst Double and triple ionization of silver clusters by electron impactAvik Halder, Anthony Liang, Chunrong Yin and Vitaly V Kresin Scattering of O2 from a graphite surface W W Hayes, Junepyo Oh, Takahiro Kondo, Keitaro Arakawa, Yoshihiko Saito, Junji Nakamura and J R Manson Zero-phonon lines of systems with different dimensions and unconventional vibronic interactions V Hizhnyakov A kinetic Monte Carlo approach to investigate antibiotic translocation through bacterial porins Matteo Ceccarelli, Attilio V Vargiu and Paolo Ruggerone Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in surface diffusion of interacting adsorbates H C Peñate-Rodrìguez, R Martìnez-Casado, G Rojas-Lorenzo, A S Sanz and S Miret-Artés Weakly bound finite systems: (4He)N-Rb2(3Σu), clustering structures from a quantum Monte Carlo approach D López-Durán, R Rodrìguez-Cantano, T González-Lezana, G Delgado-Barrio, P Villarreal, E Yurtsever and F A Gianturco Multiphonon atom-surface scattering from corrugated surfaces: derivation of the inelastic scattering spectrum for diffraction statesBranko Gumhalter Probing the non-pairwise interactions between CO molecules moving on a Cu(111) surfacePepijn R Kole, Holly

  13. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    -coincidence technique / T. Kaneyasu, T. Azuma and K. Okuno. Recent developments in proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry / A. Wisthaler ... [et al.]. Interferences in electron emission from H[symbol] induced by fast ions / N. Stolterfoht. Atomic realization of the young single electron interference process in individual autoionization collisions / R. O. Barrachina and M. Šitnik. Multiple ionization processes related to irradiation of biological tissue / M. E. Galassi ... [et al.]. Atom-diatom collisions at cold and ultra-cold temperatures / F. D. Colavecchia, G. A. Parker and R. T. Pack. Interactions of ions with hydrogen atoms / A. Luca, G. Borodi and D. Gerlich. Analysis of all structures in the elastic and charge transfer cross sections for proton-hydrogen collisions in the range of 10[symbol]-10øeV / P. S. Krstić ... [et al.]. Ab-initio ion-atom collision calculations for many-electron systems / J. Anton and B. Fricke. Fully differential studies on single ionization of helium by slow proton impact / A. Hasan ... [et al.]. Dipole polarization effects on highly-charged-ion-atom electron capture / C. C. Havener ... [et al.]. Proton-, antiproton-, and photon-he collisions in the context of ultra fast processes / T. Morishita ... [et al.]. Impact parameter dependent charge exchange studies with channeled heavy ions / D. Dauvergne ... [et al.]. Crystal assisted atomic physics experiments using heavy ions / K. Komaki -- Collisions involving clusters and surfaces. Structure and dynamics of Van der Waal complexes: from triatomic to medium size clusters / G. Delgado Barrio ... [et al.]. Evaporation, fission and multifragmentation processes of multicharged C[symbol] ions versus excitation energies / S. Martin ... [et al.]. Fragmentation of collisionally excited fullerenes / M. Alcami, S. Diaz-Tendero and F. Martín. Lifetimes of C[symbol] and C[symbol] dianions in a storage ring / S. Tomita ... [et al.]. Clusters and clusters of clusters in collisions / B. Manil ... [et al

  14. GRASSLAND BIRD DISTRIBUTION AND RAPTOR FLIGHT PATTERNS IN THE COMPETITIVE RENEWABLE ENERGY ZONES OF THE TEXAS PANHANDLE

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Erik

    2013-08-10

    affect the bird population when wind turbines are constructed in areas with high bird densities (de Lucas et al. 2007). Habitat fragmentation, noise from turbines, physical movement of turbine blades, and increased vehicle traffic have been suggested as causes of decreased density of nesting grassland birds in Minnesota (Leddy et al. 1999), Oklahoma (O’Connell and Piorkowski 2006), and South Dakota (Shaffer and Johnson 2008). Similarly, constructing turbines in areas where bird flight patterns place them at similar heights of turbine blades increases the potential for bird collisions (Johnson et al. 2000, Hoover 2002). Raptor fatalities have been associated with topographic features such as ridges, saddles and rims where birds use updrafts from prevailing winds (Erickson et al. 2000, Johnson et al. 2000, Barrios and Rodriquez 2004, Hoover and Morrison 2005). Thus, wind energy development can result in indirect (e.g., habitat avoidance, decreased nest success) and direct (e.g., collision fatalities) impacts to bird populations (Anderson et al. 1999). Directly quantifying the level of potential impacts (e.g., estimated fatalities/mega-watthour) from wind energy development is beyond the scope of this study. Instead, I aim to quantify density, occupancy and flight behavior for the two bird groups mentioned earlier: obligate grassland songbirds and raptors, respectively, predict where impacts may occur, and provide management recommendations to minimize potential impacts. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Allocation, contracted Texas Tech University to investigate grassland bird patterns of occurrence in the anticipated CREZ in support of DOE’s 20% Wind Energy by 2030 initiative. In cooperation with Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., studies initiated by Wulff (2010) at Texas Tech University were continued at an area proposed for wind energy development and a separate reference site unassociated with wind

  15. Preface: Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007) Proceedings of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Glassy Liquids under Pressure: Fundamentals and Applications (Ustroń, Poland, 10-12 October 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Tamarit, Josep Ll

    2008-06-01

    Supercooled dynamics of glass-forming liquids and polymers under hydrostatic pressure Rep. Prog. Phys. 68 1405 [18] Rzoska S J and Mazur V (ed) 2007 Soft Matter Under Exogenic Impacts(NATO Science Series II vol 242) (Berlin: Springer) [19] Sastry S, Debenedetti P G and Stillinger F H 1998 Signatures of distinct dynamical regimes in the energy landscape of a glass-forming liquid Nature 393 54 [20] Niss K, Alba-Simionesco Ch 2006 Effect of density and temperature on correlations between fragility and glassy properties Phys. Rev. B 74 54 024205 [21] Charpeć J, Rzoska S J and Zioło J 1985 The influence of pressure and temperature on the critical properties of a nitrobenzene - hexane solution by the NDE method Phase Transit.5 49 [22] Drozd-Rzoska A, Rzoska S J and Zioło J 1997 High pressure studies of the low-frequency nonlinear dielectric effect in the isotropic phase of octyl- and dodecyl-cyanobiphenyl Phys. Rev. E 55 2888 [23] DRzoska S J, Zioło J, Drozd-Rzoska A 1997 Stretched-relaxation after switching-off a strong electric field in a critical solution under high pressure Phys. Rev. E 56 2578 [24] Rzoska S J, Urbanowicz P, Drozd-Rzoska A, Paluch M and Habdas P 1999 Pressure behaviour of dielectric permittivity on approaching the critical consolute point Europhys. Lett. 45 334 [25] Paluch M, Zioło J and Rzoska S J 1997 Dielectric relaxation of glass-forming epoxy-resin under high pressure Phys. Rev. E 56 5764 [26] Paluch M, Rzoska S J and Zioło J 1998 On the pressure behaviour of dielectric relaxation times in supercooled, glassforming liquids J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 4131 [27] Drozd-Rzoska A, Rzoska S J, Paluch M, Imre A R and Roland C M 2007 On the glass temperature under extreme pressures J. Chem. Phys. 126 164504 [28] Reuter J, Büsing D, Tamarit J Ll and Wüflinger A 1996 J. Mater. Chem. 7 41 [29] Rute M A, Salud J, Negrier Ph, López D O, Tamarit J Ll, Puertas R, Barrio M and Mondieig D 2003 The two-component system cycloheptanol (C7) + cyclooctanol (C8): an