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Sample records for barro por fluorescencia

  1. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  2. Software development for the economic model of R.Barro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalimoldayev, Maksat N.; Amirkhanova, Gulshat A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we describe the process of creating software for R.Barro economic model. The goal of the paper is the analysis of existing languages and platforms and selections of them as means for developing advanced software for modeling economic processes, and also the construction of algorithms and programs using traditional and modern methods of software development. Prototyping was selected as an approach for the development, it allows us to obtain in a short time the product, which is available for testing and further improvement in order to meet the requirements. The paper describes the version of the program that meets the recommended requirements, shows the schematic diagram of this program and describes its main functions.

  3. Liana Abundance, Diversity, and Distribution on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Mangan, Scott A.; Dalling, James W.; Baldeck, Claire A.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Ledo, Alicia; Muller-Landau, Helene; Tobin, Michael F.; Aguilar, Salomon; Brassfield, David; Hernandez, Andres; Lao, Suzanne; Perez, Rolando; Valdes, Oldemar; Yorke, Suzanne Rutishauser

    2012-01-01

    Lianas are a key component of tropical forests; however, most surveys are too small to accurately quantify liana community composition, diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution – critical components for measuring the contribution of lianas to forest processes. In 2007, we tagged, mapped, measured the diameter, and identified all lianas ≥1 cm rooted in a 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI). We calculated liana density, basal area, and species richness for both independently rooted lianas and all rooted liana stems (genets plus clones). We compared spatial aggregation patterns of liana and tree species, and among liana species that varied in the amount of clonal reproduction. We also tested whether liana and tree densities have increased on BCI compared to surveys conducted 30-years earlier. This study represents the most comprehensive spatially contiguous sampling of lianas ever conducted and, over the 50 ha area, we found 67,447 rooted liana stems comprising 162 species. Rooted lianas composed nearly 25% of the woody stems (trees and lianas), 35% of woody species richness, and 3% of woody basal area. Lianas were spatially aggregated within the 50-ha plot and the liana species with the highest proportion of clonal stems more spatially aggregated than the least clonal species, possibly indicating clonal stem recruitment following canopy disturbance. Over the past 30 years, liana density increased by 75% for stems ≥1 cm diameter and nearly 140% for stems ≥5 cm diameter, while tree density on BCI decreased 11.5%; a finding consistent with other neotropical forests. Our data confirm that lianas contribute substantially to tropical forest stem density and diversity, they have highly clumped distributions that appear to be driven by clonal stem recruitment into treefall gaps, and they are increasing relative to trees, thus indicating that lianas will play a greater role in the future dynamics of BCI and other neotropical forests. PMID:23284889

  4. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  5. Influence of household cooking methods on amino acids and minerals of Barrosã-PDO veal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Anabela F; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Partidário, Ana M C P C; Lemos, José P C; Prates, José A M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of commonly household cooking methods (boiling, microwaving and grilling) on amino acid and mineral (Fe, Mg, K and Zn) contents was investigated in the longissimus lumborum muscle of Barrosã-PDO veal. Fifteen Barrosã purebred calves at 7-8 months of age and an average weight of 177±37 kg were slaughtered. Cooking had a strong effect (P<0.05) on yield, being higher (67.5%) in boiling compared to microwave and grilling (64.0% and 64.5%, respectively). Grilling increased most of the percentage retention of individual amino acids (>100%), in particular for leucine. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed for iron and zinc retentions among the cooking methods, while the retention of magnesium and potassium was strongly affected, mainly after boiling. Our findings indicate that the different cooking methods clearly affect the chemical composition and nutritional value of meat, which may have a strong impact on the intake of essential nutrients.

  6. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-11-04

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community.

  7. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community.

  8. Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Raby, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, may be the most studied tropical forest in the world. A 1,560-hectare island created by the flooding of the Panama Canal, BCI became a nature reserve and biological research station in 1923. Contemporaries saw the island as an "ark" preserving a sample of primeval tropical nature for scientific study. BCI was not simply "set aside," however. The project of making it a place for science significantly reshaped the island through the twentieth century. This essay demonstrates that BCI was constructed specifically to allow long-term observation of tropical organisms--their complex behaviors, life histories, population dynamics, and changing species composition. An evolving system of monitoring and information technology transformed the island into a living scientific "archive," in which the landscape became both an object and a repository of scientific knowledge. As a research site, BCI enabled a long-term, place-based form of collective empiricism, focused on the study of the ecology of a single tropical island. This essay articulates tropical ecology as a "science of the archive" in order to examine the origins of practices of environmental surveillance that have become central to debates about global change and conservation.

  9. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1991-01-01

    Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and

  10. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    PubMed

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint.

  11. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  12. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Mares, Rafael; Moreno, Ricardo S; Kays, Roland W; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot's parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult's increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory.

  13. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population.

  14. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  15. A New Basal Sauropodomorph (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from Quebrada del Barro Formation (Marayes-El Carrizal Basin), Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Apaldetti, Cecilia; Martinez, Ricardo N.; Alcober, Oscar A.; Pol, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Background Argentinean basal sauropodomorphs are known by several specimens from different basins; Ischigualasto, El Tranquilo, and Mogna. The Argentinean record is diverse and includes some of the most primitive known sauropodomorphs such as Panphagia and Chromogisaurus, as well as more derived forms, including several massospondylids. Until now, the Massospondylidae were the group of basal sauropodomorphs most widely spread around Pangea with a record in almost all continents, mostly from the southern hemisphere, including the only record from Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe here a new basal sauropodomorph, Leyesaurus marayensis gen. et sp. nov., from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, an Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic unit that crops out in northwestern Argentina. The new taxon is represented by a partial articulated skeleton that includes the skull, vertebral column, scapular and pelvic girdles, and hindlimb. Leyesaurus is diagnosed by a set of unique features, such as a sharply acute angle (50 degrees) formed by the ascending process of the maxilla and the alveolar margin, a straight ascending process of the maxilla with a longitudinal ridge on its lateral surface, noticeably bulging labial side of the maxillary teeth, greatly elongated cervical vertebrae, and proximal articular surface of metatarsal III that is shelf-like and medially deflected. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Leyesaurus as a basal sauropodomorph, sister taxon of Adeopapposaurus within the Massospondylidae. Moreover, the results suggest that massospondylids achieved a higher diversity than previously thought. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogenetic results differ with respect to previous analyses by rejecting the massospondylid affinities of some taxa from the northern hemisphere (e.g., Seitaad, Sarahsaurus). As a result, the new taxon Leyesaurus, coupled with other recent discoveries, suggests that the diversity of massospondylids in the southern hemisphere was higher

  16. Carcass fat partitioning and meat quality of Alentejana and Barrosã young bulls fed high or low maize silage diets.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana S H; Costa, Paulo; Bessa, Rui J B; Lemos, José P C; Simões, Jorge A; Santos-Silva, José; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Prates, José A M

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effect of breed and diet on carcass composition, particularly fat partitioning, and meat quality in young bulls. An experiment with forty young bulls from two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, fed two diets with different maize silage to concentrate ratios, but isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, was carried out until the animals reached 18 months of age. In the longissimus lumborum muscle, Barrosã bulls fed the low silage diet had the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Bulls fed the low silage diet also had the highest IMF content in the semitendinosus muscle. Diet determined the proportions of total visceral fat and individual fat depots. Under these experimental conditions, it was shown that the genetic background is a major determinant of carcass composition and meat quality, and that the dietary differences studied had limited effect on carcass composition.

  17. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A; Ellis, Kelsey; Lozier, Jeffrey; Sandel, Brody; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-04-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata)--a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate--from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Analyses of microsatellite variation revealed that relatedness was greater among adult males in this group (mean pairwise relatedness = 0.32 for males versus 0.09 for females). Relatedness among individuals, however, was not associated with either spatial proximity or frequency of social interactions. Instead, sex was a better predictor of both of these aspects of social behavior. While relatedness among adults had no discernible effect on the intra-group social interactions documented in this study, we postulate that kinship may facilitate affiliative and cooperative behaviors among male group-mates when interacting competitively with neighboring howler groups over access to food or potential mates.

  18. Viability of small seeds found in feces of the Central American tapir on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Capece, Paula I; Aliaga-Rossel, Enzo; Jansen, Patrick A

    2013-03-01

    Tapirs are known as effective dispersers of large-seeded tree species, but their role in dispersing small-seeded plant species has yet to be established. Tapir feces have been reported to contain large numbers of small seeds, but whether these are viable has rarely been evaluated. We determined the abundance and viability of small seeds in feces of Central American tapir (Tapirus bairdii) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. A total of 72 fecal samples were collected opportunistically from 4 tapir latrine sites. Seeds were manually extracted from feces and classified by size. Seed viability was estimated by opening each seed and examining for the presence of at least 1 intact firm white endosperm. In total, we obtained 8166 seeds of at least 16 plant species. Small-seeded species dominated, with 96% of all seeds found measuring <5 mm. The canopy tree Laetia procera was the most abundant species in the samples. Of all small seeds found, 69% contained an intact endosperm and appeared viable. This suggests that small seeds, like large seeds, often pass through the digestive tract of T. bairdii intact. Thus, tapirs potentially serve as effective dispersers of a wide range of small-seeded plant species.

  19. Archosauriform remains from the Late Triassic of San Luis province, Argentina, Quebrada del Barro Formation, Marayes-El Carrizal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianechini, Federico A.; Codorniú, Laura; Arcucci, Andrea B.; Castillo Elías, Gabriela; Rivarola, David

    2016-03-01

    Here we present archosauriform remains from 'Abra de los Colorados', a fossiliferous locality at Sierra de Guayaguas, NW San Luis Province. Two fossiliferous levels were identified in outcrops of the Quebrada del Barro Formation (Norian), which represent the southernmost outcrops of the Marayes-El Carrizal Basin. These levels are composed by massive muddy lithofacies, interpreted as floodplain deposits. The specimens consist of one incomplete maxilla (MIC-V718), one caudal vertebra (MIC-V719), one metatarsal (MIC-V720) and one indeterminate appendicular bone (MIC-V721). The materials can be assigned to Archosauriformes but the fragmentary nature and lack of unambiguous synapomorphies preclude a more precise taxomic assignment. The maxilla is remarkably large and robust and represents the posterior process. It preserved one partially erupted tooth with ziphodont morphology. This bone shows some anatomical traits and size match with 'rauisuchians' and theropods. MIC-V719 corresponds to a proximal caudal vertebra. It has a high centrum, a ventral longitudinal furrow, expanded articular processes for the chevrons, a posteriorly displaced diapophysis located below the level of the prezygapophyses, and short prezygapophyses. This vertebra would be from an indeterminate archosauriform. MIC-V720 presents a cylindrical diaphysis, with a well-developed distal trochlea, which present resemblances with metatarsals of theropods, pseudosuchians, and silesaurids, although the size matches better with theropods. MIC-V721 has a slender diaphysis and a convex triangular articular surface, and corresponds to an indeterminate archosauriform. Despite being fragmentary, these materials indicate the presence of a diverse archosauriforms association from Late Triassic beds of San Luis. Thus, they add to the faunal assemblage recently reported from this basin at San Juan Province, which is much rich and diverse than the coeval paleofauna well known from Los Colorados Formation in the

  20. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Tv2a.2, a microsymbiont of Tachigali versicolor discovered in Barro Colorado Island of Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Rui; Parker, Matthew; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, TBK; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Baeshen, Mohammed N.; Baeshen, Nabih A.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-05-17

    Bradyrhizobiumsp. Tv2a.2 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen-fixing root nodule of Tachigali versicolor collected in Barro Colorado Island of Panama. Here we describe the features of Bradyrhizobiumsp. Tv2a.2, together with high-quality permanent draft genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,496,279 bp high-quality draft genome is arranged in 87 scaffolds of 87 contigs, contains 8,109 protein-coding genes and 72 RNA-only encoding genes. In conclusion, this rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  1. Contrasting Cellularity and Fatty Acid Composition in Fat Depots from Alentejana and Barrosã Bovine Breeds Fed High and Low Forage Diets

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana S.H.; Lopes, Paula A.; Estevão, Marta; Martins, Susana V.; Alves, Susana P.; Pinto, Rui M.A.; Pissarra, Hugo; Correia, Jorge J.; Pinho, Mário; Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.; Prates, José A.M.

    2012-01-01

    During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis. PMID:22253565

  2. Differential effects of unusual climatic stress on capuchin (Cebus capucinus) and howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) populations on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Milton, Katharine; Giacalone, Jacalyn

    2014-03-01

    Though the harmful effects anthropogenic disturbances pose to wild primates are well appreciated, comparatively little is known about the effects of natural disturbances. From December 2010 to January 2011, different mortality patterns were observed for two primate species, capuchins and howler monkeys, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Unusually high rainfall in 2010 was associated with census and cadaver data indicating the rapid loss of >70% of the capuchin population in late 2010 to early 2011. In contrast, over this same period, no decline was documented for howler monkeys and cadaver data for howlers was unexceptional. The high mortality experienced by the capuchin population was unexpected and its extent was not fully appreciated until the event was largely over. Explanations proposed for it included effects of hypothermia, disease or a shortage of some essential nutrient(s). Of these, the dietary explanation seems most probable. BCI capuchins depend most heavily on arthropod foods in December, when few higher quality ripe fruits are available. The unprecedented high rainfall in December 2010 is hypothesized to have largely eliminated the arthropod peak expected on BCI each December. A lack of protein-rich arthropods, when coupled with the climatic and nutritional stress capuchins generally experience at this time of year, appears to have precipitated the rapid die-off of most of the island's capuchin population. As howler monkeys obtain dietary protein primarily from leaves, a shortage of edible arthropods would not affect howler numbers. Comparison of our 2010 data with similar data on earlier primate/mammalian mortality events reported for BCI and for Corcovado, Costa Rica indicates that our understanding of the effects of natural disturbances on wild primate populations is not profound. We suggest that more research be devoted to this increasingly timely topic, so important to conservation policy.

  3. Impacts of animal traffic on the Brazilian Amazon parrots (Amazona species) collection of the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Brazil, 1986-2007.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Camargo, Luis Carlos; Nunes, Adauto Luis Veloso; Matushima, Eliana Reiko

    2010-01-01

    Eleven species of Amazon parrots (genus Amazona) are known to occur in Brazil, and nest poaching and illegal traffic pose serious conservation threats to these species. When the illegal owners realize these animals are incompatible with their expectations and lifestyle, or when the police arrests traders and owners, these trafficked animals are often considered unfit for release and sent to local zoos and captive breeders. A retrospective survey of animal and necropsy records from 1986 to 2007 was used to evaluate the impacts of animal traffic on the population composition and mortality patterns of Amazon parrots at the Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoological Park, Sorocaba, Brazil. Data were obtained for 374 Amazon parrots of ten Brazilian species, and there was evidence that the studied population could be split into two major groups: a majority belonging to the Amazona aestiva species and a minority belonging to the remaining species. In comparison, the animals of the first group were more frequently admitted from traffic-related origins (98 vs. 75%), had a shorter lifespan (median 301 days vs. 848 days) and a higher mortality within the first year postadmission (54 vs. 37%), were less likely to receive expensive treatments, and were more frequently housed off-exhibit. On an average, parrots were found to have a short postadmission lifespan (median 356 days), with 92.5% of the birds dying within their first five years in captivity. The paper discusses the difficult dilemmas these incoming traffic-related animals pose to zoo management and official anti-traffic policies.

  4. Seasonal and Inter-annual Variation in Wood Production in Tropical Trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, is Related to Local Climate and Species Functional Traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, K.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Kellner, J. R.; Wright, S. J.; Condit, R.; Detto, M.; Tribble, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest carbon budgets play a major role in global carbon dynamics, but the responses of tropical forests to current and future inter-annual climatic variation remains highly uncertain. Better predictions of future tropical forest carbon fluxes require an improved understanding of how different species of tropical trees respond to changes in climate at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. We installed dendrometer bands on a size-stratified sample of 2000 trees in old growth forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a moist lowland forest that experiences an annual dry season of approximately four months. Tree diameters were measured at the beginning and end of the rainy season since 2008. Additionally, we recorded the canopy illumination level, canopy intactness, and liana coverage of all trees during each census. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate how tree growth was related to seasonal and interannual variation in local climate, tree condition, and species identity, and how species identity effects related to tree functional traits. Climatic variables considered included precipitation, solar radiation, soil moisture, and climatological water deficit, and were all calculated from high-quality on-site measurements. Functional traits considered included wood density, maximum adult stature, deciduousness, and drought tolerance. We found that annual wood production was positively related to water availability, with higher growth in wetter years. Species varied in their response to seasonal water availability, with some species showing more pronounced reduction of growth during the dry season when water availability is limited. Interspecific variation in seasonal and interannual growth patterns was related to life-history strategies and species functional traits. The finding of higher growth in wetter years is consistent with previous tree ring studies conducted on a small subset of species with reliable annual rings. Together with previous

  5. Long-Term Exposure of Tropical Soils to Pressure Treated Lumber, Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Impacts on Soil Metal Mobility and Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marietta, M. L.; Fowle, D. A.; Roberts, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Pressure treated lumber (CCA) has been used in a variety of structures for over seven decades, but recent concerns have been raised about leaching of metals such as chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) into proximal soils and water supplies. Pressure treated lumber abundance and its continued use necessitate a thorough understanding of metal release and sequestration in the subsurface. To date, no long-term, in situ study on the migration of CCA compounds from lumber has been performed. Barro Colorado Island, Panama is the site of several previous CCA studies and provides an opportunity to investigate the long-term (>70 years) effects of pressure treated lumber in oxisols, where high rainfall and warm temperatures may represent an end-member condition for the leaching and mobility of these metals. Soil samples from CCA and control sites were measured for Cr, As, Cu, Zn, and Fe abundances, microbial biomass and community structure via phospholipid fatty acid analysis, along with basic soil properties. CCA lumber samples were also characterized for their metal abundance. Lumber treated with zinc meta-arsenite displayed advanced decay with elevated As, Cu, and Zn concentrations observed in the adjacent soil. Increased soil organic matter and microbial biomass correlate to decreases in Fe and Fe-associated metals compared to the control. High As concentrations persist to <1 m of the source. Lumber treated with potassium dichromate contained high chromium concentrations and displayed little decay, however, soil concentrations of Cr, Fe, and Cu were generally less than control soils. Over these same intervals, soil organic matter and microbial biomass increased, particularly the fraction of metal reducing bacteria (MRB). We hypothesize that organic carbon loading from lumber stimulates MRB, leading to mobilization of Fe and Fe-associated metals from these oxide-rich soils. Principal component analysis of PLFA data confirms a distinction between controls and samples with

  6. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  7. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  8. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  9. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  10. An Analysis of Air Photo and Radar Imagery of Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    strata. textures. pally basaltic and Principally conglomerate graywacke sandstone. of boulders, cobbles, and pebbles of basalt, fos- siliferous... graywacke . E Sedimentary sequences, No such unit. Are No such units. soft sandstones, parts of Tcv and Tcm. calcareous. Note: USGS symbols and definitions

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 new planetary and EB candidates (Barros+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O.; Deleuil, M.

    2016-08-01

    The tables contain list of planetary candidates and eclipsing binary candidates found in the campaigns 1-6 of the K2 data. In these tables, we present the period, epoch, depth, full duration of the transit/eclipse, and ingress/egress duration. We also give a few indicators that the reader can use to choose their favourite targets depending on their science objectives: existence of secondary and V-shaped (grazing) at a 3*sigma detection threshold. We consider that a transit is V-shaped if the time between the 2nd and 3rd contacts is 0+/-3*sigma. In some cases with low S/N, our automatic trapezoidal fit gives excessively high error bars for some parameters, these were substituted by '---'. (2 data files).

  12. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  13. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  14. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  15. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  16. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  17. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  18. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  19. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  20. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  1. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  2. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  3. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  4. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  5. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  6. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  7. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  8. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  9. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  10. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  11. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  12. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  13. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  14. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  15. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  16. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  17. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  18. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  19. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  20. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  1. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  2. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  3. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  4. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  6. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  7. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  8. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  9. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  10. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  11. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  12. [Treatment of interdigital foot Erythrasma with ozonated olive oil].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hobak, Lourdes; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Gorzelewski, Alicia; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el eritrasma es causado por Corinebacterium minutissimum que produce una porfirina que con la luz de Wood emite una fluorescencia rojo coral es la infección bacteriana más frecuente en los pies. El aceite de oliva ozononificado disminuye el citoplasma y daña las proteínas y los lípidos bacterianos. El tratamiento es mediante eritromicina oral y no hay consenso respecto a la terapia tópica de elección. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia terapéutica del aceite de oliva ozonificado en el eritrasma en una prueba piloto. Métodos: estudio clínico experimental, abierto, observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal, llevado a cabo en la sección de Micología del Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”. Se incluyeron 10 pacientes con eritrasma interdigital de pies, a quines se les administró aceite de oliva ozonificado cada 12 horas por 10 días. Resultados: en todos los pacientes hubo desaparición de la fluorescencia rojo coral, eritema, fisuras, prurito y maceración; en dos de ellos persistió la descamación. Se obtuvo una cura clínica en el 100 % de los pacientes, respuesta similar a la eritromicina oral. Conclusiones: el aceite de oliva ozonificado es una buena opción terapéutica tópica para el eritrasma interdigital, que permite evitar la prescripción de medicamentos por vía oral. Se requieren estudios más extensos.

  13. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  15. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  16. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  17. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  18. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  19. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  20. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  1. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  2. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  3. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  4. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  5. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  6. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  7. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  8. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  9. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  10. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  11. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  12. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  13. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  14. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  15. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  16. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  17. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  18. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  19. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  20. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  2. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  3. Venezuelan geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae) in the collection of the Universidad de Concepción in Chile, with description of the type series of Gonatodes ligiae and Gonatodes petersi (Sphaerodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Barrio-Amorós, Cesar L; Ortíz, Juan C

    2016-07-07

    Herein we catalogue all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) collected by Roberto Donoso-Barros in Venezuela between 1963 and 1964, deposited in the Universidad de Concepción in Chile. Donoso-Barros did not provide detailed descriptions of two species of Gonatodes named by him, despite both being valid species. We take the opportunity to do so and the type series of Gonatodes ligiae and G. petersi are described for the first time. We also present images in life of all species collected by Donoso-Barros in Venezuela.

  4. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  5. "Yugoslavia" Branch of the International Astronomical Institute "Isaac Newton"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Popović, Luka Č.; Simić, Zoran; Jovanović, Predrag; Milovanović, Nenad; Bon, Edi

    2005-10-01

    Isaac Newton Institute of Chile in Eastern Europe and Eurasia and its president and founder Gonzalo Alcaino Barros have been presented as well as the foundation and activities of its "Yugoslavia" branch.

  6. [ANTIOXIDANT DYSFUNCTIONALITY OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL) IN DECOMPENSATED DIABETIC PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Awad, Fernanda; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Molina, Patricia; Quiñones, Verónica; Serrano, Valentina; Abbott, Eduardo; Maiz, Alberto; Busso, Dolores; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) tienen un importante efecto protector cardiovascular mediado por su función durante el transporte reverso del colesterol, así como por otras actividades, incluyendo una significativa acción antiinflamatoria y antioxidante. La funcionalidad antiinflamatoria y antioxidante de las HDL está alterada en los pacientes diabéticos crónicos estables, aunque no existe mayor información en caso de una crisis hiperglicémica. Objetivo: determinar si durante un estado de descompensación diabética aguda las partículas de HDL exhiben un deterioro de su función antioxidante y si esta logra recuperarse una vez resuelto el cuadro agudo. Métodos: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL se midió mediante un ensayo de fluorescencia in vitro en muestras plasmáticas de pacientes diabéticos con descompensación aguda obtenidas tanto al ingreso, alcanzada la resolución intrahospitalaria del evento agudo, así como en un control ambulatorio post-hospitalización. Como comparación, se analizaron partículas de HDL de algunos sujetos sanos como condición control. Resultados: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL en pacientes con descompensación diabética aguda fue significativamente menor a la observada en el grupo control sano, y esta se fue recuperando progresivamente hasta normalizarse en el momento del control ambulatorio. La crisis hiperglicémica también demostró una baja actividad plasmática de la enzima antioxidante paraoxonasa- 1, la cual aumentó significativamente en el control ambulatorio. Conclusión: las partículas de HDL presentes en pacientes con una descompensación diabética aguda presentan una reducción significativa y reversible de su capacidad antioxidante, probablemente como consecuencia de una alteración en la actividad de la paraoxonasa-1.

  7. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  8. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  9. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  10. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  11. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  12. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  13. Studies of Beaked Whale Diving Behavior and Odontocete Stock Structure in Hawai’i in March/April 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Ingells, Allan Ligon, Laura Morse, Kim New, Alexia Pihier, Susan Rickards, Keiko Sekiguchi, Susan Shane, Alison Stimpert, Keith Swindle, Jason Turner...W.A. McLellan , D.S. Houser, T.W. Cranford, A.L. VanHelden, D.M. Allen, and N.B. Barros. 2006. Elements of beaked whale anatomy and diving physiology

  14. El Niño and Dry Season Rainfall Influence Hostplant Phenology and an Annual Butterfly Migration from Neotropical Wet to Dry Forests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island for 16 years and butterfly hostplants for eight years to address the question: What environmental factors influence the timing and magnitude of migrating Aphrissa statira butterflies? The peak migration date was earlier...

  15. Teaching Real Business Cycles to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevik, Frode; Gartner, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    The authors review the graphical approach to teaching the real business cycle model introduced in Barro. They then look at where this approach cuts corners and suggest refinements. Finally, they compare graphical and exact models by means of impulse-response functions. The graphical models yield reliable qualitative results. Sizable quantitative…

  16. Comments on Controversial Tick (Acari: Ixodida) Species Names and Species Described or Resurrected from 2003 to 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-24

    Kornblumenstrasse 13, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany e-mail: Trevor.petney @t-online.de A. Estrada-Pefia Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177...55:249-270 Venzal JM, Castro O, Cabrera P, de Souza C, Fregueiro G, Barros-Battesti DM, Keirans JE (2001) ixodes (Haemixodes) longiscutatum Boero

  17. El Niño and other determinants of butterfly migrations in a Neotropical wet forest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What factors regulate insect populations and their movement in the tropics? We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island (BCI) for 16 years to address two questions. What environmental factors determine the date on which the number of migrating butterflies peaked...

  18. U.S. National Security Strategy: Is There an Empirical Relationship Between Economic Freedom and Political Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    1998) suggests that increases in prosperity create conditions for freer markets. Other literature (Barro, 1996) determines that the opposite causal ...relationship between economic and political freedom as well as identify other, outside, causal factors for the two phenomena. Having surveyed the...Specifically, past economic growth appears to Granger -cause an increase in economic freedom. Additional tests determine that economic growth has a strong

  19. Patient Telmonitoring at Home

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fraga , M. Lama and J. Vila. “Intelligent telemonitoring of critical care patients,” IEEE Eng. Med. & Biol. Mag., vol. 18, pp. 80-88, July/August...1999. [6] J. Presedo, D. Castro, J. Vila, M. Fernández-Delgado, S. Fraga , M. Lama and S. Barro. “Wireless interface for monitored patients in Coronary

  20. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  1. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  2. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  3. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  4. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  5. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  6. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  7. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  8. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  9. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  10. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  11. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  12. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  13. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  15. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  16. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  17. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  18. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  19. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  20. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  1. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  2. Nanoscale Liquid Jets Shape New Line of Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Just as a pistol shrimp stuns its prey by quickly closing its oversized claw to shoot out a shock-inducing, high-velocity jet of water, NanoMatrix, Inc., is sending shockwaves throughout the nanotechnology world with a revolutionary, small-scale fabrication process that uses powerful liquid jets to cut and shape objects. Emanuel Barros, a former project engineer at NASA s Ames Research Center, set out to form the Santa Cruz, California-based NanoMatrix firm and materialize the micro/nano cutting process partially inspired by the water-spewing crustacean. Early on in his 6-year NASA career, Barros led the development of re-flown flight hardware for an award-winning Spacelab project called NeuroLab. This project, the sixteenth and final Spacelab mission, focused on a series of experiments to determine the effects of microgravity on the development of the mammalian nervous system.

  3. Predictors of loneliness among students and nuns in Angola and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix; Barros, José

    2003-07-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies to examine the relationship between loneliness and psychosocial variables among people from Angola and Portugal. In the 1st study, the participants were 129 college students from Angola and 122 from Portugal, and in the 2nd study participants were 105 nuns from Angola and 74 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all participants in both studies: the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). Ethnic differences were found in loneliness. The Angolan participants recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the Portuguese participants. For both samples the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life.

  4. The RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Architecture and Computer Performance Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    ISPONSORING O b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER *ORGANIZATION (it applicable) Sc aDDRE SS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE...began by making an identification and char- acterization of a new and controversial type of computer architecture called RISC for Reduced Instruction...1000 Lisboa Portugal 6. Manuel Pedrosa de Barros 4 Celula 5 Bloco 5 Lote D, 3 Direito 2795 Linda-a-Velha Portugal t~m " 96" ..... ...... |f

  5. Predicting the Ability of Marine Mammal Populations to Compensate for Behavioral Disturbances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    living in environments with different noise colors6. Influence of behavioral strategies Recent studies show that northern elephant seals from Año...these different foraging strategies will be derived from an 8 year data set that is composed of measurements of over 300 adult female elephant seals ...a range of both measures and will estimate both measures for the northern elephant seals study. This work is now a manuscript (Barros & Lusseau 2013

  6. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    approved the dissertation consisted of Charles Wolf, Jr. (Chair), Robert Klitgaard, and Jacob Klerman. Yi Feng of Claremont Graduate University was the...into the neoclassical growth ( Solow ) model, Mankiw et al (1992) provides excellent explanation of international differences in income per capita...Capital, and Growth in Developing Countries: Implications for Achieving the MDGs,” IMF Working Paper 04/217, 2004 8. Barro, Robert J. “Determinants

  7. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  8. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  9. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  10. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  11. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  12. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  13. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  14. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  15. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  16. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  17. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  18. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  19. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  20. Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 11 and Index for 1970-1983.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Rosalinda P. Barron Margaret F. Fox March 1983 L ) 1A U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS 9GAH C:) ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHIC LABORATORIES FORT BELVOIR, VIRGINIA...AD-A 113 006 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IN-HOUSE AND Barron, Rosalinda P. CONTRACT REPORTS, SUPPLEMENT 10 Fox, Margaret F. February 1982 This is Supplement 10 to...Jeffrey A. 9 Barro’n, Rosalinda P. 7 Baumgartner, Stephen L. 11 Noma, Arthur A. 20 Baussus von Leutzow, Hans 19 . Bose, S.C. 3 Park, William T. 13

  1. A state-level analysis of life expectancy in Mexico (1990-2006).

    PubMed

    Peláez, Oscar; Guijarro, Marta; Arias, Mercedes

    2010-11-01

    Using a methodology similar to that proposed by Barro & Sala-i-Martin (1995), it is found that, in the period 1990-2006, there was strong convergence among state-level life expectancy series, but a distancing in life expectancy in the Mexican Republic compared with more developed countries, especially during the new millennium. The interior convergence had taken place at the expense of the exterior; that is, not so much as a result of an improvement in living conditions in the poorer states, but more due to the low performance of the richer states. The causes of this situation are explained using the concept of 'epidemiological transition'.

  2. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  3. Compositional Effects in Italian Primary Schools: An Exploratory Analysis of INVALSI SNV Data and Suggestions for Further Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco-Giudici, Marco; Vidoni, Daniele; Rosati, Rossana

    The EU2020 strategy, which aims at turning "the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion", heavily relies on the human capital of its citizens. As a solid strand of literature posits, formal education is crucial for the development of individual human capital (among others: Barro & Lee 2001; Hanushek & Kimko 2000; Hanushek & Woessmann 2007; 2010). Indeed, one of the 5 headline targets of the strategy attains to reducing the share of early school leavers to less than 10% and ensuring that at least 40% of the younger generation reaches a tertiary degree.

  4. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  5. Effective Block-Scale Dispersion and Its Self-Averaging Behavior in Heterogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, Felipe; Dentz, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Upscaled (effective) dispersion coefficients in spatially heterogeneous flow fields must (1) account for the sub-scale variability that is filtered out by homogenization and (2) be modeled as a random function to incorporate the uncertainty associated with non-ergodic solute bodies. In this study, we use the framework developed in de Barros and Rubin (2011) [de Barros F.P.J. and Rubin Y., Modelling of block-scale macrodispersion as a random function. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 676 (2011): 514-545] to develop novel semi-analytical expressions for the first two statistical moments of the block-effective dispersion coefficients in three-dimensional spatially random flow fields as a function of the key characteristic length scales defining the transport problem. The derived expressions are based on perturbation theory and limited to weak-to-mild heterogeneity and uniform-in-the-mean steady state flow fields. The semi-analytical solutions provide physical insights of the main controlling factors influencing the temporal scaling of the dispersion coefficient of the solute body and its self-averaging dispersion behavior. Our results illustrate the relevance of the joint influence of the block-scale and local-scale dispersion in diminishing the macrodispersion variance under non-ergodic conditions. The impact of the statistical anisotropy ratio in the block-effective macrodispersion self-averaging behavior is also investigated. The analysis performed in this work has implications in numerical modeling and grid design.

  6. Psychosocial concomitants of loneliness among students of Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Neto, F; Barros, J

    2000-09-01

    This research is an examination of the relationship between loneliness and a number of psychosocial variables (e.g., affective state, cultural issues, gender, age) among adolescents and young adults from Cape Verde and Portugal. Two studies are presented. The participants in the first study were 285 adolescents from Cape Verde and 202 from Portugal, and in the second study there were 134 college students from Cape Verde and 112 from Portugal. The following instruments were administered to all the participants in both studies: The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. Russell, L. Peplau, & C. Cutrona, 1980), the Neuroticism Scale (J. Barros, 1999), the Optimism Scale (J. Barros, 1998), the Social Anxiety subscale (A. Fenigstein, M. Scheier, & A. Buss, 1975), and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985). No ethnic or gender differences were found for loneliness between the two groups. For both groups, the most prominent predictors of loneliness were neuroticism and dissatisfaction with life. However, as expected, the adolescent group recorded higher scores for loneliness than did the college students.

  7. Investigating the eco-hydrological impacts of the 2004 and 2005 hurricane seasons in the Southeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, J.; Barros, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Hurricanes and tropical storms (collectively known as tropical cyclones TCs) are regular events of varying magnitude and moderate frequency. These powerful and hazardous meteorological phenomena cause damages to natural and built areas all around the world. However, on the flip side, TCs provide a significant influx of freshwater resources to surface and subsurface reservoirs during the warm season and participate to the relief of drought conditions in several part of the world. Previously, a framework using remote-sensing data (MODIS EVI) was developed to characterize the spatial organization of vegetation disturbances and monitor vegetation recovery in the aftermath of land-falling hurricanes. Here, a distributed eco-hydrological model (Garcia-Quijano and Barros, 2005; Yildiz and Barros, 2007) is used to investigate the link between vegetation disturbance persistence and hydrological processes in pristine watersheds along the terrestrial tracks of hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. Model simulated gross primary production (GPP) over the Southeastern US before and after these two highly active hurricane seasons will be used to map EVI based vegetation disturbances to primary productivity changes.

  8. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  9. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  10. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  11. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  12. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  13. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  14. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  15. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  16. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  17. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  18. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  19. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  20. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  1. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  2. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  3. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  4. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  5. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  6. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  7. Long-Lead Quantitative Flood Forecasts in Ungauged Basins Using Bayesian Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Yoo, J.

    2004-05-01

    Previously, Kim and Barros (2001) demonstrated the use of a hierarchy of neural network models to forecast flood peaks in four small and medium size ungauged basins (750 to about 9,000 km-sq) in the Northern Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania. Using regional rainfall, radiosonde and mesoscale infrared (IR) satellite imagery, their approach consisted of identifying the presence and type of convective activity from the IR imagery, information which was subsequently used to characterize the dominant synoptic scale weather patters and predict storm path and evolution using rainfall and radiosonde data far away from the forecast location. In this regard, the organizational skeleton of the inputs is built to mimic our understanding of physical processes associated with rainstorms. The approach was very successful with skill scores on the order of 80-90 per cent for 18-hour lead-time forecasts of winter and spring floods in response to heavy rainfall (i.e. not associated with snowmelt alone). One weakness of this work was however the lack of a measure of forecast uncertainty, or alternatively a measure of forecast reliability that could be used in hydrometeorological operations. To address this question, we have modified and adapted the existing neural network models according to the principles of Bayesian statistics. In this context, forecasts are issued along with an error bar and are associated with a known probability distribution. One additional advantage of this methodology is that it provides an objective basis for selecting the best model during learning based on the posterior distribution of the parameters. In this context, forecasts are issued along with an error bar and are associated with a known probability distribution. An intercomparison study against Kim and Barros (2001) shows that the 18- and 24-hour lead time BNN forecasts are statistically more robust than those generated by the standard backward-learning NNs. We submit that given the consistently

  8. Large tree species richness is associated with topography, forest structure and spectral heterogeneity in a neotropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J. A.; Gillespie, T.; Meyer, V.; Hubbell, S. P.; Santo, F. E.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large tropical canopy trees contain the majority of forest biomass in addition to being the primary producers in the forest ecosystem in terms of both food and structural habitat. The spatial distributions of large tropical trees are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water and nutrients. These environmental gradients are a result of the biophysical processes related to topography and three-dimensional forest structure. In this study we examine large (>10 cm) diameter tree species richness across Barro Colorado Nature Monument in a tropical moist forest in Panama using active and passive remote sensing. Airborne light detection and ranging and high-resolution satellite imagery were used to quantify spectral heterogeneity, sub-canopy topography and vertical canopy structure across existing vegetation plots to model the extent to which remote sensing variables can be used to explain variation in large tree species richness. Plant species richness data was calculated from the stem mapped 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island in addition to 8 large tree plots across the Barro Colorado Nature Monument at 1.0 ha and 0.25 ha spatial scales. We investigated four statistical models to predict large tree species richness including spectral, topographic, vertical canopy structure and a combined ';global' model which includes all remote sensing derived variables. The models demonstrate that remote sensing derived variables can capture a significant fraction (R2= 0.54 and 0.36) of observed variation in tree species richness across the 1.0 and 0.25 ha spatial scales respectively. A selection of remote sensing derived predictor variables. A) World View-2 satellite imagery in RGB/true color. B) False color image of the principal component analysis. C) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). D) Simple Ratio Index. E) Quickbird satellite imagery in RGB/true color. F) False color image of the principal component analysis. G) NDVI. H

  9. Amblyomma tapirellum  (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from tropical forest canopy

    PubMed Central

    Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J

    2014-01-01

    Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide–octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits. PMID:25075277

  10. Amblyomma tapirellum  (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from tropical forest canopy.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide-octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits.

  11. Constraining axionlike particles using the distance-duality relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental results used in observational cosmology is the distance duality relation (DDR), which relates the luminosity distance, DL , with angular diameter distance, DA , at a given redshift z . We employ the observed limits of this relation to constrain the coupling of axionlike particles (ALPs) with photons. With our detailed 3 D ALP-photon mixing simulation in standard Λ CDM universe and latest DDR limits observed in Holanda and Barros [Phys. Rev. D 94, 023524 (2016)]., 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.023524 we limit the coupling constant gϕ≤6 ×10-13 GeV-1(n/G ⟨B ⟩Mpc ) for ALPs of mass ≤10-15 eV . The DDR observations can provide very stringent constraint on ALPs mixing in the future. Also any deviation in DDR can be conventionally explained as photons decaying to axions or vice-versa.

  12. A new sphenodontian (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from the Late Triassic of Argentina and the early origin of the herbivore opisthodontians.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ricardo N; Apaldetti, Cecilia; Colombi, Carina E; Praderio, Angel; Fernandez, Eliana; Santi Malnis, Paula; Correa, Gustavo A; Abelin, Diego; Alcober, Oscar

    2013-12-07

    Sphenodontians were a successful group of rhynchocephalian reptiles that dominated the fossil record of Lepidosauria during the Triassic and Jurassic. Although evidence of extinction is seen at the end of the Laurasian Early Cretaceous, they appeared to remain numerically abundant in South America until the end of the period. Most of the known Late Cretaceous record in South America is composed of opisthodontians, the herbivorous branch of Sphenodontia, whose oldest members were until recently reported to be from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian (Late Jurassic). Here, we report a new sphenodontian, Sphenotitan leyesi gen. et sp. nov., collected from the Upper Triassic Quebrada del Barro Formation of northwestern Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis identifies Sphenotitan as a basal member of Opisthodontia, extending the known record of opisthodontians and the origin of herbivory in this group by 50 Myr.

  13. The glocal forest.

    PubMed

    Seri, Efrat; Shtilerman, Elad; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial ecological patterns reflect the underlying processes that shape the structure of species and communities. Mechanisms like intra- and inter-specific competition, dispersal and host-pathogen interactions can act over a wide range of scales. Yet, the inference of such processes from patterns is a challenging task. Here we call attention to a quite unexpected phenomenon in the extensively studied tropical forest at the Barro-Colorado Island (BCI): the spatial deployment of (almost) all tree species is statistically equivalent, once distances are normalized by ℓ0, the typical distance between neighboring conspecific trees. Correlation function, cluster statistics and nearest-neighbor distance distribution become species-independent after this rescaling. Global observables (species frequencies) and local spatial structure appear to be interrelated. This "glocality" suggests a radical interpretation of recent experiments that show a correlation between species' abundance and the negative feedback among conspecifics. For the forest to be glocal, the negative feedback must govern spatial patterns over all scales.

  14. Dispersal and population structure of a New World predator, the army ant Eciton burchellii.

    PubMed

    Berghoff, S M; Kronauer, D J C; Edwards, K J; Franks, N R

    2008-07-01

    The army ant Eciton burchellii is probably the most important arthropod predator in the Neotropics, and many animal species depend upon it. Sex-biased dispersal with winged males and permanently wingless queens may render this species especially sensitive to habitat fragmentation and natural barriers, which might have severe impacts on population structure and lead to population decline. Using nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial sequences, we investigated genetic differentiation in a fragmented population in the Panama Canal area. While nuclear markers showed little differentiation between subpopulations (F(ST) = 0.017), mitochondrial differentiation was maximal in some cases (Phi(ST) = 1). This suggests that, while females are not capable of crossing barriers such as large rivers, flying males are able to promote nuclear gene flow between the studied forest patches. Consistent with this interpretation, we did not find any evidence for inbreeding or genetic deterioration on Barro Colorado Island over the last 90 years since its formation.

  15. On the energy density of helical proteins.

    PubMed

    Barros, Manuel; Ferrández, Angel

    2014-12-01

    We solve the problem of determining the energy actions whose moduli space of extremals contains the class of Lancret helices with a prescribed slope. We first see that the energy density should be linear both in the total bending and in the total twisting, such that the ratio between the weights of them is the prescribed slope. This will give an affirmative answer to the conjecture stated in Barros and Ferrández (J Math Phys 50:103529, 2009). Then, we normalize to get the best choice for the helical energy. It allows us to show that the energy, for instance of a protein chain, does not depend on the slope and is invariant under homotopic changes of the cross section which determines the cylinder where the helix is lying. In particular, the energy of a helix is not arbitrary, but it is given as natural multiples of some basic quantity of energy.

  16. A new sphenodontian (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from the Late Triassic of Argentina and the early origin of the herbivore opisthodontians

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ricardo N.; Apaldetti, Cecilia; Colombi, Carina E.; Praderio, Angel; Fernandez, Eliana; Malnis, Paula Santi; Correa, Gustavo A.; Abelin, Diego; Alcober, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Sphenodontians were a successful group of rhynchocephalian reptiles that dominated the fossil record of Lepidosauria during the Triassic and Jurassic. Although evidence of extinction is seen at the end of the Laurasian Early Cretaceous, they appeared to remain numerically abundant in South America until the end of the period. Most of the known Late Cretaceous record in South America is composed of opisthodontians, the herbivorous branch of Sphenodontia, whose oldest members were until recently reported to be from the Kimmeridgian–Tithonian (Late Jurassic). Here, we report a new sphenodontian, Sphenotitan leyesi gen. et sp. nov., collected from the Upper Triassic Quebrada del Barro Formation of northwestern Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis identifies Sphenotitan as a basal member of Opisthodontia, extending the known record of opisthodontians and the origin of herbivory in this group by 50 Myr. PMID:24132307

  17. A novel nonsense mutation of the KAL1 gene (p.Trp204*) in Kallmann syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Husny, Antonette Souto; Raiol-Moraes, Milene; Fernandes-Caldato, Milena Coelho; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel KAL1 mutation in patients affected by Kallmann syndrome. Setting Endocrinology Clinic of the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital – Federal University of Pará, Brazil. Methods Clinical examination, hormone assays and sequencing of exons 5, 6 and 9 of the KAL1 gene in four Brazilian brothers with Kallmann syndrome. Results Detected a novel KAL1 mutation, c.612G.A/p.Trp204*, in four hemizygous brothers with Kallmann syndrome, and five heterozygous female family members. Conclusion The novel p.Trp204* mutation of the KAL1 gene results in the production of a truncated anosmin-1 enzyme in patients with Kallmann syndrome. This finding broadens the spectrum of pathogenic mutations for this disease. PMID:25328414

  18. Negative density dependence of seed dispersal and seedling recruitment in a neotropical palm.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Patrick A; Visser, Marco D; Joseph Wright, S; Rutten, Gemma; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2014-09-01

    Negative density dependence (NDD) of recruitment is pervasive in tropical tree species. We tested the hypotheses that seed dispersal is NDD, due to intraspecific competition for dispersers, and that this contributes to NDD of recruitment. We compared dispersal in the palm Attalea butyracea across a wide range of population density on Barro Colorado Island in Panama and assessed its consequences for seed distributions. We found that frugivore visitation, seed removal and dispersal distance all declined with population density of A. butyracea, demonstrating NDD of seed dispersal due to competition for dispersers. Furthermore, as population density increased, the distances of seeds from the nearest adult decreased, conspecific seed crowding increased and seedling recruitment success decreased, all patterns expected under poorer dispersal. Unexpectedly, however, our analyses showed that NDD of dispersal did not contribute substantially to these changes in the quality of the seed distribution; patterns with population density were dominated by effects due solely to increasing adult and seed density.

  19. Indirect interactions among tropical tree species through shared rodent seed predators: a novel mechanism of tree species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Ordoñez, Alejandro; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Olff, Han; Jansen, Patrick A

    2015-08-01

    The coexistence of numerous tree species in tropical forests is commonly explained by negative dependence of recruitment on the conspecific seed and tree density due to specialist natural enemies that attack seeds and seedlings ('Janzen-Connell' effects). Less known is whether guilds of shared seed predators can induce a negative dependence of recruitment on the density of different species of the same plant functional group. We studied 54 plots in tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with contrasting mature tree densities of three coexisting large seeded tree species with shared seed predators. Levels of seed predation were far better explained by incorporating seed densities of all three focal species than by conspecific seed density alone. Both positive and negative density dependencies were observed for different species combinations. Thus, indirect interactions via shared seed predators can either promote or reduce the coexistence of different plant functional groups in tropical forest.

  20. A neutral theory with environmental stochasticity explains static and dynamic properties of ecological communities.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhny, Michael; Kadmon, Ronen; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the forces shaping ecological communities is crucial to basic science and conservation. Neutral theory has made considerable progress in explaining static properties of communities, like species abundance distributions (SADs), with a simple and generic model, but was criticised for making unrealistic predictions of fundamental dynamic patterns and for being sensitive to interspecific differences in fitness. Here, we show that a generalised neutral theory incorporating environmental stochasticity may resolve these limitations. We apply the theory to real data (the tropical forest of Barro Colorado Island) and demonstrate that it much better explains the properties of short-term population fluctuations and the decay of compositional similarity with time, while retaining the ability to explain SADs. Furthermore, the predictions are considerably more robust to interspecific fitness differences. Our results suggest that this integration of niches and stochasticity may serve as a minimalistic framework explaining fundamental static and dynamic characteristics of ecological communities.

  1. A new species of Ornithodoros (Acari: Argasidae), parasite of Microlophus spp. (Reptilia: Tropiduridae) from northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, Atilio J; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Lado, Paula; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2013-02-01

    A new species, Ornithodoros microlophi (Acari: Argasidae), belonging to the subgenus Alectorobius is described from larvae collected on the lizards Microlophus atacamensis (Donoso-Barros, 1966) and Microlophus quadrivittatus (Tschudi, 1845) (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in continental and insular localities from northern Chile. Larvae of O. microlophi can be distinguished from other Neotropical species of the genus Ornithodoros by a combination of the following characters, namely 10 pairs of ventral setae, venter with 6 pairs of sternal setae, dorsal plate pyriform, 19-21 pairs of dorsal setae (typically 20), 13 pairs are dorsolateral and 7 pairs are central, and hypostome with dental formula 4/4 in medial portion and apex pointed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences suggests that O. microlophi represents an independent lineage within Neotropical species of the Argasidae.

  2. Caribbean Sea Region Pyrrhocoroidea (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae, Largidae).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C W; Stehlík, J L

    2013-08-01

    A synopsis of the Pyrrhocoridae and Largidae (Pyrrhocoroidea) of the Caribbean Sea Region is given. Three new taxa are described: Dysdercus jamaicensis jindrai Stehlík n. subsp. (Dominican Republic); Largus fumosus fumosus Stehlík n. sp. (Panama-Barro Colorado Island); and Largus fumosus nigromembranaceus Stehlík n. subsp. (Panama). Largus pallidus Halstead is downgraded to a subspecies of Largus davisi Barber, i.e., L. davisi pallidus Halstead n. stat. The following new records are provided: Dysdercus (Dysdercus) andreae (Linnaeus) from Cayman Islands; Acinocoris elegans van Doesburg from Trinidad; Fibrenus pehlkei Schmidt and Largus maculatus Schmidt from Panama; and Largus obovatus (Barber) from Haiti. Altogether, we report 20 species and 3 subspecies of Pyrrhocoridae and 13 species and 2 subspecies of Largidae from the Caribbean Sea Region.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2-30 b and K2-34 b K2 light curves (Lillo-Box+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Demangeon, O.; Santerne, A.; Barros, S. C. C.; Barrado, D.; Hebrard, G.; Osborn, H. P.; Armstrong, D. J.; Almenara, J.-M.; Boisse, I.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Delgado Mena, E.; Diaz, R. F.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; McCormac, J.; Pollacco, D.; Rajpurohit, A.; Rey, J.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Tsantaki, M.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    The star K2-30 (EPIC210957318, 03:29:22.07 +22:17:57.9) was observed by K2 during its campaign 4, between February 7th and April 23rd, 2015. K2-34 (EPIC212110888, 08:30:18.91 +22:14:09.3) belongs to field-of-view 5, photometrically monitored by K2 between April 27th and July 10th, 2015. The data was reduced using both the Warwick (Armstrong et al. 2015A&A...579A..19A, Cat. J/A+A/579/A19) and the LAM- K2 (Barros et al., 2015MNRAS.454.4267B) pipelines. The detrended data (see Tables 1 and 2) show 1.9% and 0.8% dimmings every 4.099 and 2.996 days for K2-30 and K2-34, respectively (see Figs. 1 and 2). (2 data files).

  4. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    PubMed

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  5. Changes in a tropical forest support metabolic zero-sum dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ernest, S. K. Morgan; White, Ethan P.; Brown, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Major shifts in many ecosystem-level properties of tropical forests have been observed, but the processes driving these changes are poorly understood. The forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) exhibited a 20% decrease in the number of trees and a 10% increase in average diameter. Using a metabolism-based zero-sum framework, we show that increases in per capita resource use at BCI, caused by increased tree size and increased temperature, compensated for the observed declines in abundance. This trade-off between abundance and average resource use resulted in no net change in the rate resources are fluxed by the forest. Observed changes in the forest are not consistent with other hypotheses, including changes in overall resource availability and existing self-thinning models. The framework successfully predicts interrelated changes in size, abundance and temperature, indicating its utility for understanding changes in the structure and dynamics of ecosystems. PMID:19392717

  6. Directed seed dispersal towards areas with low conspecific tree density by a scatter-hoarding rodent.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ben T; Kays, Roland; Pereira, Verónica E; Jansen, Patrick A; Rejmanek, Marcel

    2012-12-01

    Scatter-hoarding animals spread out cached seeds to reduce density-dependent theft of their food reserves. This behaviour could lead to directed dispersal into areas with lower densities of conspecific trees, where seed and seedling survival are higher, and could profoundly affect the spatial structure of plant communities. We tested this hypothesis with Central American agoutis and Astrocaryum standleyanum palm seeds on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We radio-tracked seeds as they were cached and re-cached by agoutis, calculated the density of adult Astrocaryum trees surrounding each cache, and tested whether the observed number of trees around seed caches declined more than expected under random dispersal. Seedling establishment success was negatively dependent on seed density, and agoutis carried seeds towards locations with lower conspecific tree densities, thus facilitating the escape of seeds from natural enemies. This behaviour may be a widespread mechanism leading to highly effective seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding animals.

  7. Demographic consequences of chromatic leaf defence in tropical tree communities: do red young leaves increase growth and survival?

    PubMed Central

    Queenborough, Simon A.; Metz, Margaret R.; Valencia, Renato; Wright, S. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background Many tropical forest tree species delay greening their leaves until full expansion. This strategy is thought to provide newly flushing leaves with protection against damage by herbivores by keeping young leaves devoid of nutritive value. Because young leaves suffer the greatest predation from invertebrate herbivores, delayed greening could prevent costly tissue loss. Many species that delay greening also produce anthocyanin pigments in their new leaves, giving them a reddish tint. These anthocyanins may be fungicidal, protect leaves against UV damage or make leaves cryptic to herbivores blind to the red part of the spectrum. Methods A comprehensive survey was undertaken of seedlings, saplings and mature trees in two diverse tropical forests: a rain forest in western Amazonia (Yasuní National Park, Ecuador) and a deciduous forest in Central America (Barro Colorado Island, Panamá). A test was made of whether individuals and species with delayed greening or red-coloured young leaves showed lower mortality or higher relative growth rates than species that did not. Key results At both Yasuní and Barro Colorado Island, species with delayed greening or red young leaves comprised significant proportions of the seedling and tree communities. At both sites, significantly lower mortality was found in seedlings and trees with delayed greening and red-coloured young leaves. While there was little effect of leaf colour on the production of new leaves of seedlings, diameter relative growth rates of small trees were lower in species with delayed greening and red-coloured young leaves than in species with regular green leaves, and this effect remained when the trade-off between mortality and growth was accounted for. Conclusions Herbivores exert strong selection pressure on seedlings for the expression of defence traits. A delayed greening or red-coloured young leaf strategy in seedlings appears to be associated with higher survival for a given growth rate, and may

  8. Using a semi-automated filtering process to improve large footprint lidar sub-canopy elevation models and forest structure metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricker, G. A.; Saatchi, S.; Meyer, V.; Gillespie, T.; Sheng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of sub-canopy topography and forest structure is important for developing a better understanding of how forest ecosystems function. This study focuses on a three-step method to adapt discrete return lidar (DRL) filtering techniques to Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) large-footprint lidar (LFL) waveforms to improve the accuracy of both sub-canopy digital elevation models (DEMs), as well as forest structure measurements. The results of the experiment demonstrate that LFL ground surfaces can be effectively filtered using methods adapted from DRL point filtering methods, and the resulting data will produce more accurate digital elevation models, as well as improved estimates of forest structure. The first step quantifies the slope present at the center of each LFL pulse, and the average error expected at each particular degree of slope is modeled. Areas of high terrain slope show consistently more error in LFL ground detection, and empirical relationships between terrain angle and expected LVIS ground detection error are established. These relationships are then used to create an algorithm for LFL ground elevation correction. The second step uses an iterative, expanding window filter to identify outlier points which are not part of the ground surface, as well as manual editing to identify laser pulses which are not at ground level. The semi-automated methods improved the LVIS DEM accuracy significantly by identifying significant outliers in the LVIS point cloud. The final step develops an approach which utilizes both the filtered LFL DEMs, and the modeled error introduced by terrain slope to improve both sub-canopy elevation models, and above ground LFL waveform metrics. DRL and LVIS data from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and La Selva, Costa Rica were used to develop and test the algorithm. Acknowledgements: Special thanks to Dr. Jim Dilling for providing the DRL lidar data for Barro Colorado Island.

  9. A quantification of predation rates, indirect positive effects on plants, and foraging variation of the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Lee A.

    2002-01-01

    While a clear consensus is emerging that predators can play a major role in shaping terrestrial communities, basic natural history observations and simple quantifications of predation rates in complex terrestrial systems are lacking. The potential indirect effect of a large predatory ant, Paraponera clavata Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae), on herbivores was determined on rainforest trees at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Prey and other food brought back to nests by 75 colonies of P. clavata were quantified, taking into account temporal, seasonal, and microhabitat variation for both foraging activity and composition of foraging booty. The dispersion and density of ant colonies and combined density with the mean amounts of prey retrieval were used to calculate rates of predation per hectare in the two forests. In addition, herbivory was measured on trees containing P. clavata and on trees where the ants were not foraging. Colonies at La Selva brought back significantly more nectar plus prey than those at Barro Colorado Island, but foraging patterns were similar in the two forests. At both forests, the ants were more active at night, and there was no significant seasonal or colonial variation in consumption of nectar, composition of foraging booty, and overall activity of the colonies. At La Selva, trees containing P. clavata colonies had the same levels of folivory as nearest neighbor trees without P. clavata but had significantly lower folivory than randomly selected trees. Predation by this ant was high in both forests, despite its omnivorous diet. This insect predator is part of potentially important top-down controls in these wet and moist forests. PMID:15455052

  10. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  11. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  12. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  13. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  14. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  15. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  16. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  17. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  18. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  19. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  20. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  1. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  2. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  3. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the…

  4. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  5. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  6. [Expression of TREM-1 in patients with invasive cervical cancer and precursor lesions].

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Norzgaray-Ibarra, Fabiola Geovanna; Bravo-Cuéllar, Alejandro; Pérez-Avila, Carlos Eduardo; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel; Anaya-Fernández, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: se ha demostrado que la glicoproteína TREM-1 pertenece a la superfamilia de las inmunoglobulinas que induce la secreción de varias citocinas proinflamatorias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la expresión de TREM-1 en pacientes con cáncer cervical. Métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico incluimos 4 grupos de pacientes: GI: mujeres con lesión intraepitelial (LI) escamosa de bajo grado (n = 15 p/g); GII: pacientes con LI escamosa de alto grado (n = 9 p/g); GIII: pacientes con cáncer cervical invasor (n = 9 p/g), y GIV: pacientes sanas (n = 15 p/g). En todas las pacientes se midió la expresión de TREM-1 y el Índice Medio de Fluorescencia (IMF) en neutrófilos y monocitos, así como los niveles de leucocitos, neutrófilos y monocitos. Usamos t de Student para muestras independientes. Para estas mismas variables, aplicamos prueba de suma de rangos de Mann-Whitney, ANOVA y Turkey. Para las variables cualitativas se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrada. Resultados: los porcentaje de expresión de TREM-1 en neutrófilos y monocitos, además del IMF en neutrófilos en los 4 grupos, no fue significativamente diferente. El IMF de TREM-1 en monocitos fue significativamente diferente al comparar el grupo II y grupo III frente al grupo IV (p < 0.02). Tampoco hubo diferencia significativa al comparar los valores promedio de leucocitos, neutrófilos y monocitos en los diferentes grupos. Conclusión: este estudio documenta una mayor expresión de TREM-1 en monocitos de pacientes con cáncer avanzado.

  7. Transient Scaling Behavior and Predictability of Atmospheric Moisture, Clouds and Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Ana; Nogueira, Miguel; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    The stochastic scaling behavior of clouds and rainfall observations exhibits transient behavior consistent with the temporal and spatial evolution of atmospheric dynamics at all scales. In mountainous regions, and regions of well-defined, spatially stationary modes of land-atmosphere interactions, analysis of remote-sensing and ground-based observations shows ubiquitous co-organization of landform, clouds and precipitation with seasonal and inter-annual variability consistent with regional climate. Recent work using both idealized and realistic model simulations of atmospheric dynamics (Nogueira and Barros, 2014; Nogueira et al., 2013) shows that transient scaling behavior at regional scales can be strictly interpreted in the light of moist processes, and in particular atmospheric stability regimes as defined by CAPE, Richardson number and normalized Brunt-Vaisala frequency among others. Furthermore, a sharp transition scaling parameters between non-convective and convective conditions is found that explains different scaling regimes reported in the literature for atmospheric wind, temperature and moisture observations. Spectral slopes around 2-2.3 arise under non-convective or very weak convective conditions, tightly related to the scaling behavior of the underlying topography. In convective situations the transient scaling exponents remain under 5/3 in agreement with the Kolmogorov turbulent regime accounting for the intermittency correction. The non-convective/convective transition is also unambiguously captured by the temporal evolution of the multifractal intermittency parameter. These findings indicate that the transient stochastic scaling of clouds and precipitation is an emergent property of complex moist processes with important implications for predictability: predictability in space conditional on landform and land-atmosphere interactions at local to regional scales, and predictability in time conditional on atmospheric dynamics, and convective activity

  8. The relationship between canopy structure, light dynamics and deciduousness in a seasonal tropical forest in Panama: A multiple scale study using remote sensing and allometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlman, Stephanie Ann

    This dissertation uses two tools, remote sensing and allometry, to quantify canopy structure, phenology and light interception on stand to landscape levels in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama. The remote sensing studies used a multiple scale approach. First relationships between spectral and physiological data were developed on a fine spatial scale. Then the interpretations were verified at a series of plots across the landscape. Finally, interpretation was applied to satellite images of the whole Panama Canal Zone. Using this approach, the applicability of the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) was tested for the first time in a tropical forest. NDVI was more strongly related to changes in the FPAR of the upper canopy than FPAR of the whole canopy profile. Both NDVI and FPAR were driven by the contrast of deciduous and non-deciduous tree crowns in the dry season. On a landscape scale, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) of remotely-sensed images quantified the percent of deciduous tree crowns in the overstory very accurately. Using the map of deciduousness developed from a Landsat image, I found high fine scale variability in deciduousness, highly deciduous patches throughout the canal zone of 4--250 ha in size, and landscape trends related to rainfall and geologic formation. Allometric relationships between stem diameter, tree height and crown size were developed for 65 species on Barro Colorado Island. Tree height was asymptotic with stem diameter, but crown radius was not, continuing to grow at large diameters. Allometric relationships through ontongeny varied among different functional groups. Gap species are taller than shade species when both functional groups were below 10 cm dbh, but have smaller crowns than shade species above 10 cm dbh. Subcanopy species are shorter with larger canopies than tall species. A simple canopy model based on these

  9. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  10. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  11. A genetic evaluation of seed dispersal in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Jones, F A; Chen, J; Weng, G-J; Hubbell, S P

    2005-11-01

    Seed dispersal is a critical but poorly understood life-history stage of plants. Here we use a genetic approach to describe seed dispersal patterns accurately in a natural population of the Neotropical tree species Jacaranda copaia (Bignoniaceae). We used microsatellite genotypes from maternally derived tissue on the diaspore to identify which individual of all possible adult trees in the population was the true source of a given seed collected after it dispersed. Wind-dispersed seeds were captured in two different years in a large array of seed traps in an 84-ha mapped area of tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We were particularly interested in the proportion of seeds that traveled long distances and whether there was evidence for direct dispersal into gaps, which are required for successful recruitment of this pioneer tree species. Maximum likelihood procedures were used to fit single- and multiple-component dispersal kernels to the distance data. Mixture models, with separate distributions near and far, best fit the observed dispersal distances, albeit with considerable uncertainty in the tail. We discuss the results in light of different mechanisms responsible for separate distributions near the adult source and in the tail of the curve.

  12. Plant DNA barcodes and a community phylogeny of a tropical forest dynamics plot in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L; Jones, F Andrew; Swenson, Nathan G; Perez, Rolando; Sanjur, Oris; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-11-03

    The assembly of DNA barcode libraries is particularly relevant within species-rich natural communities for which accurate species identifications will enable detailed ecological forensic studies. In addition, well-resolved molecular phylogenies derived from these DNA barcode sequences have the potential to improve investigations of the mechanisms underlying community assembly and functional trait evolution. To date, no studies have effectively applied DNA barcodes sensu strictu in this manner. In this report, we demonstrate that a three-locus DNA barcode when applied to 296 species of woody trees, shrubs, and palms found within the 50-ha Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, resulted in >98% correct identifications. These DNA barcode sequences are also used to reconstruct a robust community phylogeny employing a supermatrix method for 281 of the 296 plant species in the plot. The three-locus barcode data were sufficient to reliably reconstruct evolutionary relationships among the plant taxa in the plot that are congruent with the broadly accepted phylogeny of flowering plants (APG II). Earlier work on the phylogenetic structure of the BCI forest dynamics plot employing less resolved phylogenies reveals significant differences in evolutionary and ecological inferences compared with our data and suggests that unresolved community phylogenies may have increased type I and type II errors. These results illustrate how highly resolved phylogenies based on DNA barcode sequence data will enhance research focused on the interface between community ecology and evolution.

  13. Effects of climate change on plant population growth rate and community composition change.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Ting; Jia, Xiao-Rong; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on forest community composition are still not well known. Although directional trends in climate change and community composition change were reported in recent years, further quantitative analyses are urgently needed. Previous studies focused on measuring population growth rates in a single time period, neglecting the development of the populations. Here we aimed to compose a method for calculating the community composition change, and to testify the impacts of climate change on community composition change within a relatively short period (several decades) based on long-term monitoring data from two plots-Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China (DBR) and Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI)-that are located in tropical and subtropical regions. We proposed a relatively more concise index, Slnλ, which refers to an overall population growth rate based on the dominant species in a community. The results indicated that the population growth rate of a majority of populations has decreased over the past few decades. This decrease was mainly caused by population development. The increasing temperature had a positive effect on population growth rates and community change rates. Our results promote understanding and explaining variations in population growth rates and community composition rates, and are helpful to predict population dynamics and population responses to climate change.

  14. Mass determination of K2-19b and K2-19c from radial velocities and transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespral, D.; Gandolfi, D.; Deeg, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present FIES@NOT and HARPS-N@TNG radial velocity follow-up observations of K2-19, a compact planetary system hosting three planets, of which the two larger ones, namely K2-19b and K2-19c, are close to the 3:2 mean motion resonance. The masses of these larger planets have previously been derived from transit timing only. An analysis considering only the radial velocity measurements is able to detect only K2-19b, the largest and more massive planet in the system, with a mass of 71.7 ± 6.3 M_{Jupiter}. We also used the TRADES code to simultaneously model both our RV measurements and the existing transit-timing measurements. We derived a mass of K2-19b of 59.5^{+7.2} _{‑11.4} M_{Jupiter} and of K2-19c of 9.7 ^{+3.9} _{‑2.0} M_{oplus}. A prior K2-19b mass estimated by Barros et al. (2015), based exclusively on transit timing measurements, is only consistent with our combined TTV and RV analysis, but not with our analysis based purely on RV measurements. K2-19b supports the suspicion that planet masses and densities involving TTV data are systematically lower than those based purely on RV measurements.

  15. Predation by odonates depresses mosquito abundance in water-filled tree holes in Panama.

    PubMed

    Fincke, Ola M; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Hanschu, Richard D

    1997-10-01

    In the lowland moist forest of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, larvae of four common species of odonates, a mosquito, and a tadpole are the major predators in water-filled tree holes. Mosquito larvae are their most common prey. Holes colonized naturally by predators and prey had lower densities of mosquitoes if odonates were present than if they were absent. Using artificial tree holes placed in the field, we tested the effects of odonates on their mosquito prey while controlling for the quantity and species of predator, hole volume, and nutrient input. In large and small holes with low nutrient input, odonates depressed the number of mosquitoes present and the number that survived to pupation. Increasing nutrient input (and consequently, mosquito abundance) to abnormally high levels dampened the effect of predation when odonates were relatively small. However, the predators grew faster with higher nutrients, and large larvae in all three genera reduced the number of mosquitoes surviving to pupation, even though the abundance of mosquito larvae remained high. Size-selective predation by the odonates is a likely explanation for this result; large mosquito larvae were less abundant in the predator treatment than in the controls. Because species assemblages were similar between natural and artificial tree holes, our results suggest that odonates are keystone species in tree holes on BCI, where they are the most common large predators.

  16. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    PubMed Central

    Cañón, Javier; Alexandrino, Paolo; Bessa, Isabel; Carleos, Carlos; Carretero, Yolanda; Dunner, Susana; Ferran, Nuno; Garcia, David; Jordana, Jordi; Laloë, Denis; Pereira, Albano; Sanchez, Armand; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P < 0.01). Five different genetic distances were computed and compared with no correlation found to be significantly different from 0 between distances based on the effective size of the population and those which use the size of the alleles. The Weitzman recursive approach and a multivariate analysis were used to measure the contribution of the breeds diversity. The Weitzman approach suggests that the most important breeds to be preserved are those grouped into two clusters: the cluster formed by the Mirandesa and Alistana breeds and that of the Sayaguesa and Tudanca breeds. The hypothetical extinction of one of those clusters represents a 17% loss of diversity. A correspondence analysis not only distinguished four breed groups but also confirmed results of previous studies classifying the important breeds contributing to diversity. In addition, the variation between breeds was sufficiently high so as to allow individuals to be assigned to their breed of origin with a probability of 99% for simulated samples. PMID:11403750

  17. The Glocal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial ecological patterns reflect the underlying processes that shape the structure of species and communities. Mechanisms like intra- and inter-specific competition, dispersal and host-pathogen interactions can act over a wide range of scales. Yet, the inference of such processes from patterns is a challenging task. Here we call attention to a quite unexpected phenomenon in the extensively studied tropical forest at the Barro-Colorado Island (BCI): the spatial deployment of (almost) all tree species is statistically equivalent, once distances are normalized by ℓ0, the typical distance between neighboring conspecific trees. Correlation function, cluster statistics and nearest-neighbor distance distribution become species-independent after this rescaling. Global observables (species frequencies) and local spatial structure appear to be interrelated. This "glocality" suggests a radical interpretation of recent experiments that show a correlation between species' abundance and the negative feedback among conspecifics. For the forest to be glocal, the negative feedback must govern spatial patterns over all scales. PMID:25955587

  18. Response of five tropical plant species to natural solar ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Searles, P.S.; Caldwell, M.M. ); Winter, K. )

    1994-06-01

    The tropical latitudes currently receive high solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm) even without ozone depletion. Thus, the influence of natural, present-day UV-B irradiance was examined for three native rainforest tree species and two economically important species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (9[degrees] N). Solar UV-B radiation conditions were obtained using a UV-B excluding plastic film or a near-ambient UV-B transmitting film over potted plants in a small clearing. Significant differences were often exhibited as increased foliar UV-B absorbing compounds, increased leaf mass pre area, and reduced leaf blade length for plants receiving solar UV-B radiation. Plant height was typically reduced under solar UV-B, but some variation among species in response was seen. Biomass and photosystem II function were generally unaffected. The results provide evidence that tropical vegetation responds to the present level of Solar UV-B radiation. This suggests even a small increase in UV-B radiation with ozone depletion may have biological implications.

  19. Near-continuous thermal monitoring of a diverse tropical forest canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, S.; Still, C. J.; Kim, Y.; Detto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical species may be highly sensitive to temperature increases associated with climate change because of their narrow thermal tolerances. Recent work has highlighted the importance of temperature in tropical forest function, however most studies use air temperature measurements from sparse meteorological stations even though surface temperatures are known to deviate from air temperatures. Tropical organisms exist in microclimates that are highly variable in space and time and not easily measured in natural environments. This is in part because of the complex structure of tropical forests and the potential for organisms themselves to modify their own environment. In the case of plants, leaf temperature is linked to the water and surface energy balance of their microenvironment. Here we present results from near-continuous thermal camera monitoring of the forest canopy in Barro Colorado Island, Panama (5-minute intervals for approximately 9 months). We compare daytime (maximum) vs. nighttime (minimum) differences between canopy temperature and air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and precipitation. On average, canopy temperatures are consistently ~2 degrees Celsius higher than air temperatures. These data can paired with flux tower data on-site and used to advance understanding of temperature controls on the structure and function of tropical forests, such as carbon assimilation, phenology, and habitat monitoring, and can be integrated into models to improve predictions of tropical forest response to future climate change.

  20. When Can Species Abundance Data Reveal Non-neutrality?

    PubMed Central

    Al Hammal, Omar; Alonso, David; Etienne, Rampal S.; Cornell, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SAD) are probably ecology’s most well-known empirical pattern, and over the last decades many models have been proposed to explain their shape. There is no consensus over which model is correct, because the degree to which different processes can be discerned from SAD patterns has not yet been rigorously quantified. We present a power calculation to quantify our ability to detect deviations from neutrality using species abundance data. We study non-neutral stochastic community models, and show that the presence of non-neutral processes is detectable if sample size is large enough and/or the amplitude of the effect is strong enough. Our framework can be used for any candidate community model that can be simulated on a computer, and determines both the sampling effort required to distinguish between alternative processes, and a range for the strength of non-neutral processes in communities whose patterns are statistically consistent with neutral theory. We find that even data sets of the scale of the 50 Ha forest plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, are unlikely to be large enough to detect deviations from neutrality caused by competitive interactions alone, though the presence of multiple non-neutral processes with contrasting effects on abundance distributions may be detectable. PMID:25793889

  1. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Arthur J; Mosher, Jennifer J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Fortner, Allison M; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  3. Solar UV-B in tropical forest gaps: Analysis using direct and diffuse radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1995-06-01

    Experiments with natural levels of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) have recently shown inhibition of the growth of some tropical forest tree seedlings. A knowledge of forest radiation environments is needed to help assess UV-B effects in natural situations. Although forest canopies strongly attenuate solar radiation, treefall gaps provide a very different radiation environment. We simultaneously measured both UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest gaps on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Outside the forest, UV-B is predominately diffuse even under clear sky conditions. In sunflecks of small forest gaps, most of the UV-B was in the direct beam component. Compared to conditions outside the forest, the UV-B in these sunflecks was low relative to PAR. Shaded portions of the gap, in contrast, had proportionately high levels of UV-B relative to PAR. There are indications in the literature that relatively low UV-B levels may be effective under low PFD. Seasonal trends of PAR and UV-B in different locations in gaps can be inferred from hemispherical canopy photographs.

  4. ``Dual Society Ever Precedes through Trevor SWAN & Wassily Leontief''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    ``Dual Society'' introduced by E.F. Schumacher are classified as non-stabile society who easy to shakes by politics uncertainties.in Robert J. Barro & X. Sala-i-Martin: ``Convergence''states: `` a key economic issue is whether poor countries or regions tend to grow faster than rich ones''.For growth models from Roy Forbes Herrod & EvseyDomar, three assumptions described by Eduardo Ley are?[U+2639]i). output is proportional to capital,(ii). Investment ex anteequals saving & (iii) saving proportional to output. Underlines Trevor SWAN, developing countries differ significantly among themselves. Economic growth models comprises Herrod-Domar growth model, Solow growth model & endogenous growth model.Further, for five stages of economic groeth from Rostov of Leontief technology, ever retrieves the Jens Beckert:''Institutional Isomorphism revisited: Convergence & Divergence in Institutional Change''instead Frumkin's ``Institutional Isomorphism & Public Sector Organizations''. Acknowledgment devotes to theLates HE. Mr. BrigadierGeneral-TNI[rtd].Prof. Ir. HANDOJO.

  5. Error propagation and scaling for tropical forest biomass estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Chave, Jerome; Condit, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Hernandez, Andres; Lao, Suzanne; Perez, Rolando

    2004-01-01

    The above-ground biomass (AGB) of tropical forests is a crucial variable for ecologists, biogeochemists, foresters and policymakers. Tree inventories are an efficient way of assessing forest carbon stocks and emissions to the atmosphere during deforestation. To make correct inferences about long-term changes in biomass stocks, it is essential to know the uncertainty associated with AGB estimates, yet this uncertainty is rarely evaluated carefully. Here, we quantify four types of uncertainty that could lead to statistical error in AGB estimates: (i) error due to tree measurement; (ii) error due to the choice of an allometric model relating AGB to other tree dimensions; (iii) sampling uncertainty, related to the size of the study plot; (iv) representativeness of a network of small plots across a vast forest landscape. In previous studies, these sources of error were reported but rarely integrated into a consistent framework. We estimate all four terms in a 50 hectare (ha, where 1 ha = 10(4) m2) plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and in a network of 1 ha plots scattered across central Panama. We find that the most important source of error is currently related to the choice of the allometric model. More work should be devoted to improving the predictive power of allometric models for biomass. PMID:15212093

  6. Tardigrada from a sub-Andean forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) with the description of Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Londoño, Rosana; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-07-29

    Currently only 32 species of limno-terrestrial tardigrades have been reported in the literature for Colombia. Our study focused on both heterotardigrades and eutardigrades, which were extracted from eight samples of bryophytes and lichens collected in a sub-Andean forest transect in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Fourteen species were found, six of which are new records for Colombia: Echiniscus madonnae Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2006, Echiniscus virginicus Riggin, 1962, Milnesium krzysztofi Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2007, Doryphoribius amazzonicus Lisi, 2011, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters, 1902) and Diphascon higginsi Binda, 1971; and one new to science. Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov., is characterized by having smooth cuticle, no eyes, buccal tube almost as long as the pharyngeal tube, well developed, obvious stylet furcae with long branches, slender claws, no lunules and no cuticular bars on the legs. The new species differs from I. umbellinae Barros, 1939, the most similar species, in having the stylet supports inserted precisely at the border between buccal and pharyngeal tube, more slender claws and more pronounced length differential between the external and internal claws of each leg. The total number of Colombian limno-terrestrial tardigrade species is raised to 37. 

  7. The cost of defeat: Capuchin groups travel further, faster and later after losing conflicts with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C

    2013-09-01

    Although competition between social groups is central to hypotheses about the evolution of human social organization, competitive interactions among group-mates are thought to play a more dominant role in shaping the behavior and ecology of other primate species. However, few studies have directly tested the impact of intergroup conflicts in non-human primates. What is the cost of defeat? To address this question, the movements of six neighboring white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus) social groups living on Barro Colorado Island, Panama were tracked simultaneously using an Automated Radio Telemetry System (ARTS), for a period of six months. Groups moved 13% (441 m) further on days they lost interactions compared with days they won interactions. To cover these larger distances, they traveled faster, stopped less frequently, and remained active later in the evening. Defeat also caused groups to alter their patterns of space use. Losing groups had straighter travel paths than winning groups, larger net displacements and were more likely to change their sleeping site. These results demonstrate that losing groups pay increased travel costs and suggest that they forage in low-quality areas. They provide some of the first direct evidence that intergroup conflicts have important energetic consequences for members of competitively unsuccessful primate social groups. A better understanding of how intergroup competition impacts patterns of individual fitness is thus needed to clarify the role that this group-level process plays in shaping the evolution of human- and non-human primate behavior.

  8. Surviving in a Cosexual World: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Dioecy in Tropical Trees.

    PubMed

    Bruijning, Marjolein; Visser, Marco D; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Wright, S Joseph; Comita, Liza S; Hubbell, Stephen P; de Kroon, Hans; Jongejans, Eelke

    2017-03-01

    Dioecy has a demographic disadvantage compared with hermaphroditism: only about half of reproductive adults produce seeds. Dioecious species must therefore have fitness advantages to compensate for this cost through increased survival, growth, and/or reproduction. We used a full life cycle approach to quantify the demographic costs and benefits associated with dioecy while controlling for demographic differences between dioecious and hermaphroditic species related to other functional traits. The advantage of this novel approach is that we can focus on the effect of breeding system across a diverse tree community. We built a composite integral projection model for hermaphroditic and dioecious tree populations from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using long-term demographic and newly collected reproductive data. Integration of all costs and benefits showed that compensation was realized through increased seed production, resulting in no net costs of dioecy. Compensation was also facilitated by the low contribution of reproduction to population growth. Estimated positive effects of dioecy on tree growth and survival were small and insignificant for population growth rates. Our model revealed that, for long-lived organisms, the cost of having males is smaller than generally expected. Hence, little compensation is required for dioecious species to maintain population growth rates similar to those of hermaphroditic species.

  9. Spatial and phylogenetic variation in plant defense in a tropical moist forest canopy community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    Plants employ physical and chemical defenses to mitigate damage caused by herbivory. Spatial patterns of plant defense may provide insight into the role of plant-herbivore interactions in the assembly of plant communities. Within plant communities, the spatial overdispersion of anti-herbivore defenses by individuals may reflect a strategy to avoid host shifts from herbivore assemblages of neighboring plants. However, variation in plant defense may also result from trade-offs between foliar investment into defense and growth, mediated by variations in abiotic nutrient availability, or constrained by phylogeny. We measured four defensive traits (leaf toughness, total phenols, condensed tannins, and hydrolysable tannins) and three growth traits (LMA, C:N, total protein) of outer canopy foliage for 345 canopy trees representing 78 species, 65 genera, and 34 families in a moist tropical rainforest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The outer canopy provides an important, but rarely evaluated, cross-sectional image of the tropical forest ecosystem, and observations at this scale may provide an important link between field and remote sensing based studies. We used existing data on edaphic and geological properties to investigate the relationships of abiotic nutrient variation on variation in defense. Using regression and nested random-effects variance modeling, we found strong phylogenetic association with defensive traits at the family and species level, and little evidence for a trade-off between defensive traits. Greater understanding of phylogenetic structure in trait variation may yield improved characterizations of tropical biodiversity, from functional traits to risk assessments.

  10. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level.

    PubMed

    Einzmann, Helena J R; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2014-11-11

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ(13)C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests.

  11. Identification of Novel Gammaherpesviruses in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Panama and Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Caitlin C; Sweanor, Linda L; Wilson-Henjum, Grete; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Ryan M

    2015-10-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) have been identified in many species and are often associated with disease. Recently, we characterized three novel felid GHVs in domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor). We investigated whether free-ranging ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats are infected with additional GHVs. We screened DNA samples from ocelots on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and bobcats in western Colorado, US, by using a degenerate nested PCR that targets the GHV glycoprotein B gene. We identified a novel GHV glycoprotein B sequence in two ocelots and a second novel sequence in a bobcat, which is distinct from the previously characterized bobcat GHV (Lynx rufus GHV 1). Utilizing additional degenerate and virus-specific PCRs, we extended these sequences to include 3.4 kilobases of the GHV glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. These sequences identify the first GHV detected in ocelots and the second GHV in bobcats. These viruses were provisionally named L. pardalis GHV 1 and Lynx rufus GHV 2, respectively. The viruses are most closely related to recently identified GHVs of the Percavirus genus found in domestic cats (F. catus GHV 1) and bobcats (L. rufus GHV 1), suggesting that a cluster of felid GHVs exists within the Percavirus genus.

  12. Seasonal cues in tropical organisms. Rainfall? Not necessarily!

    PubMed

    Wolda, Henk

    1989-09-01

    Activity seasons of tropical organisms often start, on the average, at or about the beginning of the rainy or dry seasons. The hypothesis that the onset or cessation of the wet season provides the seasonal cues necessary of the initiation of the activity season of some tropical organisms is tested with data on Panamanian cicadas. Seasonal adult activity patterns are described for cicada species in Panama, mostly from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), some from Las Cumbres. In all species the correlation between the timing of the beginning and the end of the cicada season was low and not significant, so that the actual beginning data of a cicada season in a particular year had little or no predictive value for the end date. Seven out of eleven species on BCI started their average activity season at the average beginning of the dry season (one species) or rainy season (six species). Nevertheless, in 13 years, correlations between the start or end of the cicada seasons and that of the meteorological seasons were low and not significant. At best, the beginning and end of the rains played a minor role as seasonal cues governing cicada emergence or the termination of the cicada season. It is speculated that photoperiod might be a major seasonal cue governing emergence, through its effects on the host plants.

  13. Photochemical efficiency of adult and young leaves of the neotropical understory shrub Psychotria limonensis (Rubiaceae) in response to changes in the light environment.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Gerardo; Mulkey, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    We explored the short-term adjustment in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) in adult and young leaves of the understory neotropical shrub Psychotria limonensis Krause (Rubiaceae) in response to rapid changes in the light environment. Leaves were collected from 20 individual plants growing under sun and shade conditions on Gigante Peninsula, Barro Colorado Natural Monument (Republic of Panama), during the wet season of 1996. Leaves were distributed in four sequences of light treatments (AB leaves were expanded under sun and were transferred to shade, BA leaves experienced the opposite transfer, and the controls AA and BB leaves that were expanded and maintained under sun or shade conditions). Adult and young leaves did not differ in overall photochemical efficiency. Instead, differences were found among light environments, for which leaves transferred from shade to sun showed the lowest Fv/Fm ratios. There was no relationship between photochemical efficiency and leaf temperature. In P. limonensis, understory plants are susceptible of photoinhibition independently of the leaf ontogenetic stage. The approach utilized in this experiment allowed the rapid exploration of this capacity, and could be applied to poorly studied understory species.

  14. Hydrologic Simulations in Complex Terrain Conditioned on Different Precipitation Inputs During IPHEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, E. N.; Erlingis, J. M.; Vergara, H. J.; Gourley, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    An Intensive Observation Period for the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), part of NASA's Ground Validation campaign for the newly launched Global Precipitation Measurement Mission took place from May-June 2014 in the Smoky Mountains of western North Carolina. As part of the experiment, the National Severe Storms Laboratory's (NSSL) mobile dual-pol X-band radar, NOXP, was deployed in the Pigeon River Basin (PRB). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of different post-processing algorithms of NOXP data with the suite of observation platforms within the IPHEx domain. In addition, the impact of standard precipitation datasets (Stage IV gauge-corrected radar estimates, Multi-Radar/Multi-Sensor System Quantitative Precipitation Estimates, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42V7 rainfall, CMORPH, WRF, etc.) on the performance of the CREST hydrologic model at small basin scales in complex terrain will be examined. Hydrologic simulations using a version of CREST with a priori parameters were conducted in the three small catchments within the PRB previously studied by Tao and Barros (2013): the Cataloochee Creek Basin, the East Fork Pigeon River Basin, and the West Fork Pigeon River Basin.

  15. Culturing and direct PCR suggest prevalent host generalism among diverse fungal endophytes of tropical forest grasses.

    PubMed

    Higgins, K Lindsay; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Most studies examining endophytic fungi associated with grasses (Poaceae) have focused on agronomically important species in managed ecosystems or on wild grasses in subtropical, temperate and boreal grasslands. However grasses first arose in tropical forests, where they remain a significant and diverse component of understory and forest-edge communities. To provide a broader context for understanding grass-endophyte associations we characterized fungal endophyte communities inhabiting foliage of 11 species of phylogenetically diverse C(3) grasses in the understory of a lowland tropical forest at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Our sample included members of early-arising subfamilies of Poaceae that are endemic to forests, as well as more recently arising subfamilies that transitioned to open environments. Isolation on culture media and direct PCR and cloning revealed that these grasses harbor species-rich and phylogenetically diverse communities that lack the endophytic Clavicipitaceae known from diverse woodland and pasture grasses in the temperate zone. Both the incidence and diversity of endophytes was consistent among grass species regardless of subfamily, clade affiliation or ancestral habitat use. Genotype and phylogenetic analyses suggest that these endophytic fungi are predominantly host generalists, shared not only among distinctive lineages of Poaceae but also with non-grass plants at the same site.

  16. Habitat fragmentation and haemoparasites in the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis (Phyllostomidae) in a tropical lowland forest in Panamá.

    PubMed

    Cottontail, V M; Wellinghausen, N; Kalko, E K V

    2009-09-01

    Anthropogenic influence on ecosystems, such as habitat fragmentation, impacts species diversity and interactions. There is growing evidence that degradation of habitats favours disease and hence affects ecosystem health. The prevalence of haemoparasites in the Common Fruit Bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) in a tropical lowland forest in Panamá was studied. We assessed the relation of haemoparasite to the general condition of the animals and tested for possible association of haemoparasite prevalence to habitat fragmentation, with special focus on trypanosomes. Overall, a total of 250 A. jamaicensis sampled from fragmented sites, here man-made, forested islands in Lake Gatùn, and sites in the adjacent, continuous forest in and around the Barro Colorado Nature Monument were examined. Using microscopy and DNA-sequencing 2 dominant types of haemoparasite infections, trypanosomes and Litomosoides (Nematoda) were identified. Trypanosome prevalence was significantly higher in bats from forest fragments, than in bats captured in continuous forest. We attribute this to the loss of species richness in forest fragments and specific characteristics of the fragments favouring trypanosome transmission, in particular changes in vegetation cover. Interestingly, the effect of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of trypanosomes as multi-host parasites could not be observed in Litomosoides which probably has a higher host specificity and might be affected less by overall diversity loss.

  17. Estimation of the Distribution of Tabebuia guayacan (Bignoniaceae) Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Wright, Joseph; Feng, Ji-Lu; Li, Peijun; Chong, Mei Mei; Bohlman, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments. PMID:22163825

  18. Adult mortality in a low-density tree population using high-resolution remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Kellner, James R; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2017-04-04

    We developed a statistical framework to quantify mortality rates in canopy trees observed using time series from high-resolution remote sensing. By timing the acquisition of remote sensing data with synchronous annual flowering in the canopy tree species Handroanthus guayacan, we made 2,596 unique detections of 1,006 individual adult trees within 18,883 observation attempts on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) during an 11-year period. There were 1,057 observation attempts that resulted in missing data due to cloud cover or incomplete spatial coverage. Using the fraction of 123 individuals from an independent field sample that were detected by satellite data (109 individuals, 88.6%), we estimate that the adult population for this species on BCI was 1,135 individuals. We used a Bayesian state-space model that explicitly accounted for the probability of tree detection and missing observations to compute an annual adult mortality rate of 0.2% · yr(-1) (SE = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.06 - 0.45). An independent estimate of the adult mortality rate from 260 field-checked trees closely matched the landscape-scale estimate (0.33% · yr(-1) , SE = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.74). Our proof-of-concept study shows that one can remotely estimate adult mortality rates for canopy tree species precisely in the presence of variable detection and missing observations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, A. P.; Petersen, W.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    Three Microwave Radiometers (two 3-channel and one 2-channel) were deployed in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina as part of the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), which was the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaign after the launch of the GPM Core Satellite (Barros et al. 2014). The radiometers were used along with other instrumentation to estimate the liquid water content of low-level clouds and fog. Specifically, data from the radiometers were collected to help, with other instrumentation, to characterize fog formation, evolution, and dissipation in the region (by monitoring the liquid water path in the column) and observe the effect of that fog on the precipitation regime. Data were collected at three locations in the Southern Appalachians, specifically western North Carolina: a valley in the inner mountain region, a valley in the open mountain pass region, and a ridge in the inner region. This project contributes to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility mission by providing in situ observations designed to improve the understanding of clouds and precipitation processes in complex terrain. The end goal is to use this improved understanding of physical processes to improve remote-sensing algorithms and representations of orographic precipitation microphysics in climate and earth system models.

  20. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  1. The relative roles of environment, history and local dispersal in controlling the distributions of common tree and shrub species in a tropical forest landscape, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svenning, J.-C.; Engelbrecht, B.M.J.; Kinner, D.A.; Kursar, T.A.; Stallard, R.F.; Wright, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    We used regression models and information-theoretic model selection to assess the relative importance of environment, local dispersal and historical contingency as controls of the distributions of 26 common plant species in tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. We censused eighty-eight 0.09-ha plots scattered across the landscape. Environmental control, local dispersal and historical contingency were represented by environmental variables (soil moisture, slope, soil type, distance to shore, old-forest presence), a spatial autoregressive parameter (??), and four spatial trend variables, respectively. We built regression models, representing all combinations of the three hypotheses, for each species. The probability that the best model included the environmental variables, spatial trend variables and ?? averaged 33%, 64% and 50% across the study species, respectively. The environmental variables, spatial trend variables, ??, and a simple intercept model received the strongest support for 4, 15, 5 and 2 species, respectively. Comparing the model results to information on species traits showed that species with strong spatial trends produced few and heavy diaspores, while species with strong soil moisture relationships were particularly drought-sensitive. In conclusion, history and local dispersal appeared to be the dominant controls of the distributions of common plant species on BCI. Copyright ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  2. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  3. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  4. Selection and processing of the spatial enhanced multispectral Landsat TM images - comparison between the results from merged and source data. (Polish Title: Selekcja i przetwarzanie wzmocnionych przestrzennie obrazów wielospektralnych Landsat TM - porównanie wyników opartych o dane scalone i dane zródłowe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirowski, T.; Szczaciuk, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents results of merging lower-resolution spectral data (Landsat, 30m) with panchromatic images of higher spatial resolution (IRS 5.8m). During the first stage of the research, thirty methods of merging satellite data (including their variants) have been tested. The first assessment was based on statistical measures covering spectral distortion and spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The second assessment was based on the color composite factors essential for photo interpretation. Comparing both obtained ranks of methods revealed substantial differences in their assessed spectral distortion. On the other hand, there appeared similarities in the obtained values for the spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The reasons of such discrepancies were defined. The research allowed appointing the HPF (High Pass Filter) and LCM (Local Correlation Modeling) methods as the best according to the tested factors. In the second part of the research, the applicability of the selected methods was tested. Information content of color composites was analyzed as well as tresholding and band ratioing. In the tests there were used images fused through five merging methods: HPF, LCM, IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation), PCA (Principal Components Analysis) and WMK (based on band ratioing and having specific photo interpretation features). The findings of the research suggest that none of the merging algorithms provide universal solution. Depending on the data processing technique used, the best results are based on images obtained from various integration methods. It means that the method ranks do not correspond with method applicability. Methods appointed as the best ones obtain poor results in some tests and methods which came low in the rank received high rank in some tests. If this conclusion becomes confirmed, it might be necessary to revise the assessment methods of merged images.

  5. Comparison of point clouds derived from aerial image matching with data from airborne laser scanning. (Polish Title: Porównanie wóaściwości chmury punktów wygenerowanej metodą dopasowania obrazów zdjęć lotniczych z danymi z lotniczego skanowania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, W.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010-2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season - from March to December. Two LiDAR point clouds were used for the comparison - one with a density of 1.3 p/m2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m2. Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi-global matching method. The properties of the obtained point clouds were analyzed in three ways: - by the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS-RTK method - by visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds - by visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality of SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation where SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SGM point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point clouds generated with appropriate parameters can have better accuracy than LiDAR point clouds and present more detailed information about the terrain surface.

  6. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  7. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  8. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy…

  9. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  10. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  11. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  12. Modèle numérique de terrain comme outil pour contrôler et mesurer l'érosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevación como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosión por cárcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  13. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  14. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  15. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  16. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  17. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  18. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  19. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  20. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  1. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  2. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  3. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  4. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-05

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  5. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  6. Distributional Ecology of New Guinea Birds: Recent ecological and biogeographical theories can be tested on the bird communities of New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Diamond, J M

    1973-02-23

    The concepts by which MacArthur and Wilson have transformed the science of ecology in the past decade, and the results of ecological studies such as mine on New Guinea bird communities, have implications for conservation policies. For example, primary tropical rain forest, the most species-rich and ecologically complex habitat on earth, has for millions of years served as the ultimate evolutionary source of the world's dominant plant and animal groups. Throughout the tropics today, the rain forests are being destroyed at a rate such that little will be left in a few decades. When the rain forests have been reduced to isolated tracts separated by open country, the distribution of obligate rain forest species will come to resemble bird distributions on New Guinea land-bridge islands after severing of the land bridges. The smaller the tract, the more rapidly will forest species tend to disappear and be replaced by the widespread second-growth species that least need protection (13). This ominous process is illustrated by Barro Colorado Island, a former hill in Panama that became an island when construction of the Panama Canal flooded surrounding valleys to create Gatun Lake. In the succeeding 60 years several forest bird species have already disappeared from Barro Colorado and been unable to recolonize across the short intervening water gap from the forest on the nearby shore of Gatun Lake. The consequences of the species-area relation (Fig. 1) should be taken into consideration during the planning of tropical rain forest parks (13). In a geographical area that is relatively homogeneous with regard to the fauna, one large park would be preferable to an equivalent area in the form of several smaller parks. Continuous nonforest strips through the park (for example, wide highway swaths) would convert one rain forest "island" into two half-size islands and should be avoided. If other considerations require that an area be divided into several small parks, connecting them

  7. Operational Tree Species Mapping in a Diverse Tropical Forest with Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baldeck, Claire A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Robin E.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Knapp, David E.; Kellner, James R.; Wright, S. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Remote identification and mapping of canopy tree species can contribute valuable information towards our understanding of ecosystem biodiversity and function over large spatial scales. However, the extreme challenges posed by highly diverse, closed-canopy tropical forests have prevented automated remote species mapping of non-flowering tree crowns in these ecosystems. We set out to identify individuals of three focal canopy tree species amongst a diverse background of tree and liana species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using airborne imaging spectroscopy data. First, we compared two leading single-class classification methods—binary support vector machine (SVM) and biased SVM—for their performance in identifying pixels of a single focal species. From this comparison we determined that biased SVM was more precise and created a multi-species classification model by combining the three biased SVM models. This model was applied to the imagery to identify pixels belonging to the three focal species and the prediction results were then processed to create a map of focal species crown objects. Crown-level cross-validation of the training data indicated that the multi-species classification model had pixel-level producer’s accuracies of 94–97% for the three focal species, and field validation of the predicted crown objects indicated that these had user’s accuracies of 94–100%. Our results demonstrate the ability of high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing to accurately detect non-flowering crowns of focal species within a diverse tropical forest. We attribute the success of our model to recent classification and mapping techniques adapted to species detection in diverse closed-canopy forests, which can pave the way for remote species mapping in a wider variety of ecosystems. PMID:26153693

  8. Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

  9. Effects of ingestion by neotropical bats on germination parameters of native free-standing and strangler figs (Ficus sp., Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Heer, Katrin; Albrecht, Larissa; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2010-06-01

    Fruit-eating animals can influence the germination success of seeds through transportation and handling. We experimentally tested the contribution of ingestion by the common fruit-eating bat, Artibeus jamaicensis (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera), to the percentage and rate of seed germination of figs (Ficus, Moraceae), which are considered keystone species for many frugivores. We collected fruits from three species of native free-standing figs (subgenus Pharmacosycea: F. insipida, F. maxima and F. yoponensis) and three species of native strangler figs (subgenus Urostigma: F. nymphiifolia, F. obtusifolia and F. popenoei) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The germination success of seeds removed from fruit pulp either manually or by ingestion was very high (>92%), while seeds that were not removed from fruit pulp were destroyed by fast-growing fungi within a few days. The dynamics of seed germination were not influenced by ingestion, but differed between the two subgenera of figs. In free-standing figs, germination started significantly earlier (5.3 +/- 0.7 days) than in strangler figs (8.6 +/- 1.4 days). Furthermore, strangler seeds were covered with a sticky coating and their seedlings developed cotyledons faster than fine roots, in contrast to free-standing figs that showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the germination of fig seeds is positively influenced by passage through the gut of A. jamaicensis. Furthermore, free-standing and strangler figs revealed differences in germination parameters that might be adaptive with respect to the suitability of microsites such as tree fall gaps or host trees for establishment.

  10. Analysis of the slaughterhouses in Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Bugallo, Pastora M Bello; Andrade, Laura Cristóbal; de la Torre, María Agrelo; López, Rosa Torres

    2014-05-15

    In the last five years, slaughterhouses in Galicia have been producing more than 350,000 tonnes of carcass per year (Ministry of Environmental and Marine and Rural Media (MARM), 2013). The main environmental problems derived from this economic activity are the high consumption of water, the generation of waste water with a high organic load and the intensive use of energy (electricity and fuel) (European Commission, 2005). In this region of Spain, there are seventy-one slaughterhouses but only 10 to 15% of them have a carcass production capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day (Casares et al., 2006), consequently needing an environmental permit according to the requirements set by the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Directive (European Commission, 2008). The slaughterhouses can be specialized in one livestock type, such as pigs, cattle, sheep, goats or rabbits, or they can be polyvalent. In 2009, the most important meat productions were from porcine, poultry and bovine, as they represented 96% of total production in Spain (AICE, 2011). This paper presents a general view of this important sub-sector (according to the Spanish CNAE, National Classification of Economical Activities) of the food and drinking industry in Galicia. The work considers general information about the activity, an exhaustive description of the industrial process (including preliminary operations, processing, final and auxiliary operations), environmental aspects about consumption and emission levels, and finally a proposal of technique candidates to be BAT (best available techniques) for each process stage. This structure has permitted to obtain an inventory of pollution prevention and control techniques, as well as qualitative data of incomes and outcomes of consumptions and emissions respectively. The methodology, which has already been used in previous works (Barros et al., 2008), has been proved to be appropriate to optimize the process considering environmental factors as

  11. Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker-Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?

    PubMed

    Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E

    2011-12-01

    Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker-Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed strong genetic structure at both fine- and large-spatial scales. Over short distances (200-750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11-0.46, P < 0.05), with values of spatial genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03-0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus.

  12. Variability within the 10-Year Pollen Rain of a Seasonal Neotropical Forest and Its Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Phenological Research

    PubMed Central

    Haselhorst, Derek S.; Moreno, J. Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1–3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (≥7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen

  13. Different crystal morphologies lead to slightly different conformations of light-harvesting complex II as monitored by variations of the intrinsic fluorescence lifetime.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Bart; Maréchal, Amandine; Ruban, Alexander V; Robert, Bruno; Pascal, Andrew A; de Ruijter, Norbert C A; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2011-07-21

    In 2005, it was found that the fluorescence of crystals of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII of green plants is significantly quenched when compared to the fluorescence of isolated LHCII (A. A. Pascal et al., Nature, 2005, 436, 134-137). The Raman spectrum of crystallized LHCII was also found to be different from that of isolated LHCII but very similar to that of aggregated LHCII, which has often been considered a good model system for studying nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), the major protection mechanism of plants against photodamage in high light. It was proposed that in the crystal LHCII adopts a similar (quenching) conformation as during NPQ and indeed similar changes in the Raman spectrum were observed during NPQ in vivo (A. V. Ruban et al., Nature, 2007, 450, 575-579). We now compared the fluorescence of various types of crystals, differing in morphology and age. Each type gave rise to its own characteristic mono-exponential fluorescence lifetime, which was 5 to 10 times shorter than that of isolated LHCII. This indicates that fluorescence is not quenched by random impurities and packing defects (as proposed recently by T. Barros et al., EMBO Journal, 2009, 28, 298-306), but that LHCII adopts a particular structure in each crystal type, that leads to fluorescence quenching. Most interestingly, the extent of quenching appears to depend on the crystal morphology, indicating that also the crystal structure depends on this crystal morphology but at the moment no data are available to correlate the crystals' structural changes to changes in fluorescence lifetime.

  14. Army ants in four forests: geographic variation in raid rates and species composition.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sean; Lattke, John; Powell, Scott; Kaspari, Michael

    2007-05-01

    1. The New World army ants are top predators in the litter of tropical forest, but no comprehensive studies exist on variation in assemblage-wide activity and species composition. We used standardized protocols to estimate foraging raid rates and species composition of army ant communities in four Neotropical forests. The study sites spanned approximately 10 degrees latitude, with two sites each in Central and South America. 2. We recorded a total of 22 species of army ants. The four sites varied in observed and estimated species richness. Species overlap was highest between the Central American sites, and lowest between the South American sites. 3. Raid activity varied significantly among sites. Raid activity per kilometre of trail walks was over four times higher at the most active site (Sta. Maria, Venezuela) than at the least active site (Barro Colorado Island, Panama). Furthermore, each site showed a different diel pattern of activity. For example, raid activity was higher during daylight hours in Costa Rica, and higher at night in Venezuela. Raid activity relationships with ambient temperature also varied significantly among sites. 4. The overall rate of army ant raids passing through 1 m(2) plots was 0.73 raids per day, but varied among sites, from 0 raids per day (Panama) to 1.2 raids per day (Venezuela). 5. Primarily subterranean species were significantly more abundant in Venezuela, and above-ground foragers that form large swarm fronts were least abundant in Panama. The site heterogeneity in species abundance and diel activity patterns has implications for army ant symbionts, including ant-following birds, and for the animals hunted by these top predators.

  15. Size-class effect contributes to tree species assembly through influencing dispersal in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-Hua; Kitching, Roger L; Lan, Guo-Yu; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of trees. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining species-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used tree species data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the species level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the species and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape species' distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to species assembly and enhances our understanding of species coexistence.

  16. Prevalence of deltaF508, G551D, G542X, and R553X mutations among cystic fibrosis patients in the North of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, F G de; Novaes, F C; Santos, N P C dos; Martins, V C; Souza, S M de; Santos, S E B dos; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, A K C

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and is rare among sub-Saharan Africans. The Brazilian population is not ethnically homogeneous but it is the result of three-way ethnic admixture of Europeans, Africans and Amerindians in varying proportions, depending on the region. In the present study, we investigated 33 patients who had been diagnosed and are currently under treatment for CF at the University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Belém, Pará State. The molecular analysis for G542X, G551D and R553X mutations was performed by PCR followed by RFLP using BstNI, HincII and MboI, respectively, in polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis and stained with AgNO3. ThedeltaF508 mutation (a deletion of 3 bp) was only analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with AgNO3. Each sample was analyzed for regions of interest in the CFTR gene using amplified by PCR and specific primers. The deltaF508 and G551D mutations presented frequencies of 22.7 and 3%, respectively. In 74.3% of the remaining patients, none of the mutations investigated was found. The present study characterized in a sample of patients with an established clinical diagnosis of CF (asthma, repeated bronchopneumonia, disorders of nutritional status, etc.) the most frequent mutation (deltaF508) in the North region of Brazil and is also the first report of the G551D mutation. In spite of the wide spectrum of CF mutations and the heterogeneous ethnic origin of the Amazon population, the molecular diagnosis is a helpful additional tool for the diagnosis and treatment of CF patients.

  17. Inter-twined Hydrometeorology and Hydrogeomorphology in the Central Andes - Implications for Geomorphological Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitz, R.; Barros, A. P.; Erlingis, J.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this study includes the Central Andes Mountains between 11-15S and 70-75W, with heights ranging from about 230 m to 5700 meters. On March 4, 2010 an overnight storm caused over 200 landslides within one small river valley alone. The geologically young region is abundant with streams ranging from first to seventh order, as well as steep slopes, deep gorges, and broad valleys. Stream orders vary from 1-7 and watersheds of stream order 4 or higher were analyzed in detail. This resulted in the delineation of 112 watersheds ranging in area from roughly 360 km2 to 90,000 km2. Morphometric analysis, including Order and Hypsometry, were conducted for these basins. Results show that Horton's ratios are lower in the Central Andes compared to previous studies, and this is especially true for area ratios. A joint analysis of the hypsometric curve and distribution of stream orders with elevation shows that sharp breaks in the hypsometric curve are associated with specific stream orders and their distributions in the landscape. We hypothesize that these breaks are associated with extreme orographic precipitation events such as that which caused the March 2010 landslides. Subsequently, 10 years of TRMM precipitation features over the region were analyzed and mapped to investigate the co-organization of the drainage network and orographic precipitation patterns for the monsoon and dry seasons separately. The results will be discussed in the context of Montgomery al. (2001, Geology) and Giovannetone and Barros (2009, Journal of Hydrometeorology).

  18. Positive density-dependent reproduction regulated by local kinship and size in an understorey tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, Antonio R.; Pope, Nathaniel; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Global pollinator declines and continued habitat fragmentation highlight the critical need to understand reproduction and gene flow across plant populations. Plant size, conspecific density and local kinship (i.e. neighbourhood genetic relatedness) have been proposed as important mechanisms influencing the reproductive success of flowering plants, but have rarely been simultaneously investigated. Methods We conducted this study on a continuous population of the understorey tree Miconia affinis in the Forest Dynamics Plot on Barro Colorado Island in central Panama. We used spatial, reproductive and population genetic data to investigate the effects of tree size, conspecific neighbourhood density and local kinship on maternal and paternal reproductive success. We used a Bayesian framework to simultaneously model the effects of our explanatory variables on the mean and variance of maternal viable seed set and siring success. Key Results Our results reveal that large trees had lower proportions of viable seeds in their fruits but sired more seeds. We documented differential effects of neighbourhood density and local kinship on both maternal and paternal reproductive components. Trees in more dense neighbourhoods produced on average more viable seeds, although this positive density effect was influenced by variance-inflation with increasing local kinship. Neighbourhood density did not have significant effects on siring success. Conclusions This study is one of the first to reveal an interaction among tree size, conspecific density and local kinship as critical factors differentially influencing maternal and paternal reproductive success. We show that both maternal and paternal reproductive success should be evaluated to determine the population-level and individual traits most essential for plant reproduction. In addition to conserving large trees, we suggest the inclusion of small trees and the conservation of dense patches with low kinship as

  19. Annual variation in seedfall, postdispersal predation, and recruitment of a neotropical tree

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, E.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Knowledge of the dynamics of seed production and seedling recruitment of individual tree species is crucial for a complete understanding of tropical forest dynamics, yet multiyear studies on the seed and young seedling stages of tropical trees are virtually nonexistent. In a 4-yr study of the understory tree Faramea occidentalis on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, the author quantified natural levels of viable seedfall, seedling emergence, and seedling establishment, and experimentally estimated postdispersal seed predation. The levels of viable seedfall, seed predation, seedling emergence, early seedling survival, and seedling recruitment all differed significantly among years. The proportion of fallen seeds destroyed by predators before germination was not related to the quantity of F. occidentalis seedfall. Within a year, however, F. occidentalis seed predation appeared to be influenced by community-wide seedfall, with high predation rates during times of low seed abundance and very low predation during the late dry season peak in seedfall by the community. Most of the annual variation in recruitment can be explained by the combination of seedfall and seed predation; in 3 of the 4 yr seedling emergence could be predicted from a knowledge of viable seedfall and the probability of a seed surviving until the peak of germination. The 4th yr, however, demonstrated that environmental conditions provide a sporadic, though important, limitation to recruitment. In comparison to many tree species, early seedling survival was relatively high, as was the ratio of seedlings recruited per seed falling. The highly successful recruitment of F. occidentalis is associated with a high population density of both saplings and adults in the study area.

  20. Overland flow generation in two lithologically distinct rainforest catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2004-01-01

    Streams on uniformly rainforest-covered, but lithologically very diverse Barro Colorado Island in central Panama?? show remarkable differences in their runoff response to rainfall. This lithological diversity is reflected in equally diverse soilscapes, and our objective was to test the hypothesis that contrasting runoff responses derive from soilscape features that control the generation of overland flow. We determined the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of two neighboring, but hydrologically contrasting catchments (Lutz Creek with a flashy and Conrad Trail with a delayed response to rainfall), and quantified the spatial and temporal frequency of overland flow occurrence. The median Ks values at a depth of 12.5 cm are large enough to rule out Hortonian overland flow, but a marked decrease in K s in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm suggests the formation of a perched water table and the generation saturation overland flow; the decrease in Ks in the Conrad Trail catchment is more gradual, and a perched water table is expected to form only at depths below 50 cm. In Lutz Creek, overland flow was generated frequently in time and space and regardless of topographic position, including near the interfluve, with very low thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, intensity and antecedent wetness, whereas in Conrad Trail, overland flow was generated much less frequently and then only locally. We conclude that soilscape features and microtopography are important controls of overland flow generation in these catchments. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that overland flow and forests are not a priori a contradiction in terms. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil nutrient-landscape relationships in a lowland tropical rainforest in Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barthold, F.K.; Stallard, R.F.; Elsenbeer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Soils play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles as spatially distributed sources and sinks of nutrients. Any spatial patterns depend on soil forming processes, our understanding of which is still limited, especially in regards to tropical rainforests. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of landscape properties, with an emphasis on the geometry of the land surface, on the spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, and to test the suitability of soil-landscape modeling as an appropriate technique to predict the spatial variability of exchangeable K and Mg in a humid tropical forest in Panama. We used a design-based, stratified sampling scheme to collect soil samples at 108 sites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stratifying variables are lithology, vegetation and topography. Topographic variables were generated from high-resolution digital elevation models with a grid size of 5 m. We took samples from five depths down to 1 m, and analyzed for total and exchangeable K and Mg. We used simple explorative data analysis techniques to elucidate the importance of lithology for soil total and exchangeable K and Mg. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were adopted to investigate importance of topography, lithology and vegetation for the spatial distribution of exchangeable K and Mg and with the intention to develop models that regionalize the point observations using digital terrain data as explanatory variables. Our results suggest that topography and vegetation do not control the spatial distribution of the selected soil chemical properties at a landscape scale and lithology is important to some degree. Exchangeable K is distributed equally across the study area indicating that other than landscape processes, e.g. biogeochemical processes, are responsible for its spatial distribution. Lithology contributes to the spatial variation of exchangeable Mg but controlling variables could not be detected. The spatial variation of soil total K

  2. Persistence of Neighborhood Demographic Influences over Long Phylogenetic Distances May Help Drive Post-Speciation Adaptation in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Christopher; Harms, Kyle E.; Wiegand, Thorsten; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Gilbert, Gregory S.; Erickson, David; Kress, W. John; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Gunatilleke, C. V. Savitri; Gunatilleke, I. A. U. Nimal

    2016-01-01

    Studies of forest dynamics plots (FDPs) have revealed a variety of negative density-dependent (NDD) demographic interactions, especially among conspecific trees. These interactions can affect growth rate, recruitment and mortality, and they play a central role in the maintenance of species diversity in these complex ecosystems. Here we use an equal area annulus (EAA) point-pattern method to comprehensively analyze data from two tropical FDPs, Barro Colorado Island in Panama and Sinharaja in Sri Lanka. We show that these NDD interactions also influence the continued evolutionary diversification of even distantly related tree species in these FDPs. We examine the details of a wide range of these interactions between individual trees and the trees that surround them. All these interactions, and their cumulative effects, are strongest among conspecific focal and surrounding tree species in both FDPs. They diminish in magnitude with increasing phylogenetic distance between heterospecific focal and surrounding trees, but do not disappear or change the pattern of their dependence on size, density, frequency or physical distance even among the most distantly related trees. The phylogenetic persistence of all these effects provides evidence that interactions between tree species that share an ecosystem may continue to promote adaptive divergence even after the species’ gene pools have become separated. Adaptive divergence among taxa would operate in stark contrast to an alternative possibility that has previously been suggested, that distantly related species with dispersal-limited distributions and confronted with unpredictable neighbors will tend to converge on common strategies of resource use. In addition, we have also uncovered a positive density-dependent effect: growth rates of large trees are boosted in the presence of a smaller basal area of surrounding trees. We also show that many of the NDD interactions switch sign rapidly as focal trees grow in size, and that

  3. Tropical forest structure characterization using airborne lidar data: an individual tree level approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz, A.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale tropical forest structure characterization has been performed by means of field measurements techniques that record both the specie and the diameter at the breast height (dbh) for every tree within a given area. Due to dense and complex vegetation, additional important ecological variables (e.g. the tree height and crown size) are usually not measured because they are hardly recognized from the ground. The poor knowledge on the 3D tropical forest structure has been a major limitation for the understanding of different ecological issues such as the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, regeneration and competition dynamics and light penetration gradient assessments. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing technique that provides georeferenced distance measurements between the aircraft and the surface. It provides an unstructured 3D point cloud that is a high-resolution model of the forest. This study presents the first approach for tropical forest characterization at a fine scale using remote sensing data. The multi-modal lidar point cloud is decomposed into 3D clusters that correspond to single trees by means of a technique called Adaptive Mean Shift Segmentation (AMS3D). The ability of the corresponding individual tree metrics (tree height, crown area and crown volume) for the estimation of above ground biomass (agb) over the 50 ha CTFS plot in Barro Colorado Island is here assessed. We conclude that our approach is able to map the agb spatial distribution with an error of nearly 12% (RMSE=28 Mg ha-1) compared with field-based estimates over 1ha plots.

  4. Trace metal mobility and microbial community structure in tropical soils: examples from adjacent forest and grassland ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A. D.; Roberts, J. A.; MacPherson, G. L.; Mauck, B. S.; Stallard, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    Many factors determine the quality and sustainability of a soil environment and changes in land use can impact significantly soil geochemistry and the associated soil microbial communities. Native tropical forests and human-constructed grasslands on Barro Colorado Island provide an excellent setting for comparing changes in soil ecosystems in undisturbed and altered landscapes. The goals of this study were to examine biological, chemical, and mineralogical changes in soil properties as a function of land use changes during the wet and dry seasons. Soil pits were excavated at two study sites, a tropical forest and an adjacent plot that has been converted to grassland, during March 2002 and August 2003. The 1 meter deep pits were sampled at 5 cm intervals and characterized for soil organic matter content, soil moisture, community structure and total lipid biomass of the soil microbial community, mineralogy, and trace metal distribution using a sequential extraction method. Results demonstrate that forested soils exhibit higher organic matter content than grassland soils regardless of soil moisture content. Total lipid biomass of the active soil microbial population decreases with depth in both soils, but is elevated in the forested soil, likely correlating with the organic matter content in this system. Diversity of the soil microbial community, determined by PLFA analysis, decreases sharply at the base of the root zone and general trends in community structure are similar in both soils. XRD analysis of the soils reveal that the weathering profile in the forest has extended to a greater depth, but these differences in the mineralogy profile do not exert significant control on trace element mobility. Vanadium, copper, zinc, and aluminum show strong affinities for the organically bound fraction in both soils.

  5. Soil Hydrologic Response and Nutrient Movement in Three Small Tropical Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, N. H.; Hamann, H. B.; Stallard, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    The movement of water over and through soils by storm-generated flowpaths in tropical forests not only mediates nutrient movement and physical weathering, but also potentially influences vegetation growth and dynamics with seasonally dry or saturated soil conditions. However, few small-scale catchment studies (10-1000ha) have produced a comprehensive, standardized dataset on soil hydrologic properties among tropical forest catchments, due in part to complexities within tropical systems, and to inconsistencies in methods, data collection, and/or analyses. In response, this study has utilized the global, standardized network of forest dynamics plots of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) for the rapid assessment of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and the water chemistry from storm-generated flowpaths. Ks measurements at varying depths help in testing Elsenbeer's (2001) functional classification continuum of tropical forest soilscapes and resulting hydrologic flowpaths. In Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Ks decreased rapidly with soil depth where horizontal surface and near-surface flowpaths were most prevalent. Ks measurements in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador indicated limited vertical movement of water at depths >15cm due to an impermeable soil layer. Ks measurements from Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia, represented both ends of the continuum due to variability in soil type and lithology. In relation to soil hydrology and hydrological flowpaths, runoff chemistry at Yasuni reveals a general pattern of increased nutrient export as water moves through the canopy and over the soil surface, with concentrations of K+ increasing significantly in throughfall, and concentrations of both K+, and NO3- remaining high in overland flow. The results from the composite overland flow samples may indicate a more open nutrient cycle in tropical forest environments than has been suggested from earlier studies using radioactively labeled isotopes.

  6. Partitioning of water resources among plants of a lowland tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P C; Cavelier, J; Goldstein, G; Meinzer, F C; Holbrook, N M

    1995-02-01

    Source water used by plants of several species in a semi-evergreen lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, was assessed by comparing the relative abundance of deuterium, D, versus hydrogen, H (stable hydrogen isotope composition, δD) in xylem sap and in soil water at different depths, during the dry season of 1992. Ecological correlates of source water were examined by comparing xylem water δD values with leaf phenology, leaf water status determined with a pressure chamber, and rates of water use determined as mass flow of sap using the stem heat balance method. Soil water δD values decreased sharply to 30 cm, then remained relatively constant with increasing depth. Average δD values were-13‰, for 0-30 cm depth and-36.7‰ for 30-100 cm depth. Soil water δD values were negatively associated with soil water content and soil water potential. Concurrent analyses of xylem water revealed a high degree of partitioning of water resources among species of this tropical forest. Xylem water δD of deciduous trees (average=-25.3±1.4‰) was higher than that of evergreen trees (average=-36.3±3.5‰), indicating that evergreen species had access to the more abundant soil water at greater depth than deciduous species. In evergreen shade-tolerant and high-light requiring shrubs and small trees, δD of xylem water was negatively correlated with transpiration rate and leaf water potential indicating that species using deeper, more abundant water resources had both higher rates of water use and more favorable leaf water status.

  7. Linkage of organic anion transporter-1 to metabolic pathways through integrated "omics"-driven network and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun-Young; Jamshidi, Neema; Mo, Monica L; Wu, Wei; Eraly, Satish A; Dnyanmote, Ankur; Bush, Kevin T; Gallegos, Tom F; Sweet, Douglas H; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2011-09-09

    The main kidney transporter of many commonly prescribed drugs (e.g. penicillins, diuretics, antivirals, methotrexate, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) is organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), originally identified as NKT (Lopez-Nieto, C. E., You, G., Bush, K. T., Barros, E. J., Beier, D. R., and Nigam, S. K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6471-6478). Targeted metabolomics in knockouts have shown that OAT1 mediates the secretion or reabsorption of many important metabolites, including intermediates in carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. This observation raises the possibility that OAT1 helps regulate broader metabolic activities. We therefore examined the potential roles of OAT1 in metabolic pathways using Recon 1, a functionally tested genome-scale reconstruction of human metabolism. A computational approach was used to analyze in vivo metabolomic as well as transcriptomic data from wild-type and OAT1 knock-out animals, resulting in the implication of several metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle, polyamine, and fatty acid metabolism. Validation by in vitro and ex vivo analysis using Xenopus oocyte, cell culture, and kidney tissue assays demonstrated interactions between OAT1 and key intermediates in these metabolic pathways, including previously unknown substrates, such as polyamines (e.g. spermine and spermidine). A genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction generated some experimentally supported predictions for metabolic pathways linked to OAT1-related transport. The data support the possibility that the SLC22 and other families of transporters, known to be expressed in many tissues and primarily known for drug and toxin clearance, are integral to a number of endogenous pathways and may be involved in a larger remote sensing and signaling system (Ahn, S. Y., and Nigam, S. K. (2009) Mol. Pharmacol. 76, 481-490, and Wu, W., Dnyanmote, A. V., and Nigam, S. K. (2011) Mol. Pharmacol. 79, 795-805). Drugs may alter metabolism by

  8. Jointly determined saving and fertility behaviour: theory, and estimates for Germany, Italy, UK and USA.

    PubMed

    Cigno, A; Rosati, F C

    1996-11-01

    This study uses new theories of capital accumulation and fertility in a comparative framework to test predictions with time-series data for Germany, Italy, the UK, and the US. The exogenous-fertility model is based on models of Barro and Becker. The endogenous-fertility models are based on models of Veall and Nishimura and Zhang. It is assumed that life cycle periods are youth, middle age, and old age. Several theoretical frameworks are tested with endogenous and exogenous fertility and altruism and nonaltruism. Data are obtained during 1950-90. Dependent variables are the total lifetime fertility rate and real per capita household savings. Explanatory variables include social security, the real social security deficit per capita, the real rate of interest, the real per capita disposable income, the average male real wage rate, the average female real wage rate, and the real child benefit rate. The explanatory variables are individually graphed to show differences by country over time. Findings suggest that fertility is endogenous in a nonaltruistic model. The only model not rejected by the data was the model in which fertility and intergenerational transfers were explained by nonaltruistic concerns. Fertility was positively affected by the male wage rate in all countries. Fertility was negatively affected by the female wage rate in all countries. Disposable income was insignificant in the UK and Germany and positive and significant in Italy and the US. The interest rate was significant in only 1 model. Child benefits had a positive and significant effect on fertility in the UK. In savings models, disposable income was significant and positive, and child benefits and wage rates were insignificant. Social security coverage had a negative effect on fertility and a positive effect on savings, except in Germany. Findings indicate that saving and fertility are jointly determined.

  9. Coexistence in tropical forests through asynchronous variation in annual seed production.

    PubMed

    Usinowicz, Jacob; Wright, S Joseph; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    The storage effect is a mechanism that can facilitate the coexistence of competing species through temporal fluctuations in reproductive output. Numerous natural systems have the prerequisites for the storage effect, yet it has rarely been quantitatively assessed. Here, we investigate the possible importance of the storage effect in explaining the coexistence of tree species in the diverse tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. This tropical forest has been monitored for more than 20 years, and annual seed production is asynchronous among species, a primary requirement for the storage effect. We constructed a model of forest regeneration that includes species-specific recruitment through seed, sapling, and adult stages, and we parameterized the model using data for 28 species for which information is known about seedling germination and survival. Simulations of the model demonstrated that the storage effect alone can be a strong mechanism allowing long-term persistence of species. We also developed a metric to quantify the strength of the storage effect in a way comparable to classical resource partitioning. Applying this metric to seed production data from 108 species, the storage effect reduces the strength of pairwise interspecific competition to 11-43% of the strength of intraspecific competition, thereby demonstrating strong potential to facilitate coexistence. Finally, for a subset of 51 species whose phylogenetic relationships are known, we compared the strength of the storage effect between pairs of species to their phylogenetic similarity. The strength of the storage effect between closely related species was on average no different from distantly related species, implying that the storage effect can be important in promoting the coexistence of even closely related species.

  10. Variability within the 10-year pollen rain of a seasonal neotropical forest and its implications for paleoenvironmental and phenological research.

    PubMed

    Haselhorst, Derek S; Moreno, J Enrique; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-01-01

    Tropical paleoecologists use a combination of mud-water interface and modern pollen rain samples (local samples of airborne pollen) to interpret compositional changes within fossil pollen records. Taxonomic similarities between the composition of modern assemblages and fossil samples are the basis of reconstructing paleoclimates and paleoenvironments. Surface sediment samples reflect a time-averaged accumulation of pollen spanning several years or more. Due to experimental constraints, modern pollen rain samples are generally collected over shorter timeframes (1-3 years) and are therefore less likely to capture the full range of natural variability in pollen rain composition and abundance. This potentially biases paleoenvironmental interpretations based on modern pollen rain transfer functions. To determine the degree to which short-term environmental change affects the composition of the aerial pollen flux of Neotropical forests, we sampled ten years of the seasonal pollen rain from Barro Colorado Island, Panama and compared it to climatic and environmental data over the same ten-year span. We establish that the pollen rain effectively captured the strong seasonality and stratification of pollen flow within the forest canopy and that individual taxa had variable sensitivity to seasonal and annual changes in environmental conditions, manifested as changes in pollen productivity. We conclude that modern pollen rain samples capture the reproductive response of moist tropical plants to short-term environmental change, but that consequently, pollen rain-based calibrations need to include longer sampling periods (≥7 years) to reflect the full range of natural variability in the pollen output of a forest and simulate the time-averaging present in sediment samples. Our results also demonstrate that over the long-term, pollen traps placed in the forest understory are representative samples of the pollen output of both canopy and understory vegetation. Aerial pollen traps

  11. Overland flow generation in two lithologically distinct rainforest catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2004-08-01

    Streams on uniformly rainforest-covered, but lithologically very diverse Barro Colorado Island in central Panamá show remarkable differences in their runoff response to rainfall. This lithological diversity is reflected in equally diverse soilscapes, and our objective was to test the hypothesis that contrasting runoff responses derive from soilscape features that control the generation of overland flow. We determined the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity ( Ks) of two neighboring, but hydrologically contrasting catchments (Lutz Creek with a flashy and Conrad Trail with a delayed response to rainfall), and quantified the spatial and temporal frequency of overland flow occurrence. The median Ks values at a depth of 12.5 cm are large enough to rule out Hortonian overland flow, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm suggests the formation of a perched water table and the generation saturation overland flow; the decrease in Ks in the Conrad Trail catchment is more gradual, and a perched water table is expected to form only at depths below 50 cm. In Lutz Creek, overland flow was generated frequently in time and space and regardless of topographic position, including near the interfluve, with very low thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, intensity and antecedent wetness, whereas in Conrad Trail, overland flow was generated much less frequently and then only locally. We conclude that soilscape features and microtopography are important controls of overland flow generation in these catchments. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that overland flow and forests are not a priori a contradiction in terms.

  12. Overland Flow Generation and Soil Hydraulic Properties in Two Catchments in Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Land management decisions in the Panama Canal watershed directly impact the hydrological functioning of the canal itself. Knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the forested portions of the watershed provides a baseline comparison for future land use changes. We chose to work on two streams on Barro Colorado Island that are representative of large regions of the watershed. These two streams respond differently to the same storm events: Conrad Trail Stream exhibits a fairly subdued and delayed response and Lutz Creek stream is flashier. In order to understand these differences, we investigated the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the two catchments and studied the frequency of overland flow generation. The Ks measurements in dominant geologies in Lutz Creek as well as in Conrad Trail Stream are great enough at shallow depths (median Ks = 29.7, 65.6 and 38.3 mm/hr) that Hortonian overland flow is rare, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm (to 1.4 and 5.8 mm/hr) indicates that a perched water table leading to saturated overland flow is the likely runoff mechanism in Lutz Creek. In Conrad, Ks does not decrease as markedly with soil depth, and a perched water table would form at about 60 cm below the surface (median Ks = 0.7 mm/hr). Therefore, more water is able to infiltrate into the soil in Conrad Trail Stream and saturated overland flow is less common. Overland flow was generated much more frequently in Lutz Creek than in Conrad Trail Stream, with lower thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, antecedent wetness and intensity required to generate overland flow. We also quantified the importance of microtopographic features such as concentrated flow lines and the results have implications for experimental design at other field sites. The Lutz Creek and Conrad Trail stream information will provide a useful baseline for land management decisions.

  13. The Plutón Diorítico Moat: Mildly alkaline monzonitic magmatism in the Fuegian Andes of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Guillot, M.; Escayola, M.; Acevedo, R.; Pimentel, M.; Seraphim, G.; Proenza, J.; Schalamuk, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Plutón Diorítico Moat (Moat Dioritic Pluton, PDM) is the largest of several isolated Cretaceous plutons exposed in the Fuegian Andes of Argentina. It is made of a large variety of rock types ranging from ultramafic bodies (pyroxenites and hornblendites) to syenites. The petrological diversity is thought to have been originated by fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma combined with minor assimilation of continental crust (AFC). Its geochemical characteristics indicate a mildly-alkaline monzonitic affinity, contrasting with the typical calc-alkaline plutons of the Southern Patagonian Batholith (PB) to the south, in the Chilean archipelago. The PDM original magma is arc-related and its crystallization, as indicated by the Rb-Sr mineral isochron age of 115 ± 3 Ma, is coeval with some plutons of the PB. Therefore a similar tectonic regime is assumed for the emplacement of these plutonic bodies, both south and north of the Beagle channel. Differences in magma sources and degree of partial melting are inferred to account for the contrasting lithological and geochemical characteristics of the PB and PDM. The data suggest that the original magmas of the PDM were generated at greater depths in the mantle, by a smaller degree of partial melting, compared with the PB. The Barros Arana basalts, exposed to the north in Chile, forming a back-arc volcanic complex, display the same mildly-alkaline shoshonitic affinity, and are considered in this study as the volcanic equivalents of the PDM. All the plutons in the Argentinean Fuegian Andes display similar lithological and geochemical characteristics and are, therefore, grouped in this work under the name of Magmatismo Potásico Fueguino ( Fuegian Potassic Magmatism).

  14. Neutral theory and the evolution of ecological equivalence.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Stephen P

    2006-06-01

    Since the publication of the unified neutral theory in 2001, there has been much discussion of the theory, pro and con. The hypothesis of ecological equivalence is the fundamental yet controversial idea behind neutral theory. Assuming trophically similar species are demographically alike (symmetric) on a per capita basis is only an approximation, but it is equivalent to asking: How many of the patterns of ecological communities are the result of species similarities, rather than of species differences? The strategy behind neutral theory is to see how far one can get with the simplification of assuming ecological equivalence before introducing more complexity. In another paper, I review the empirical evidence that led me to hypothesize ecological equivalence among many of the tree species in the species-rich tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island (BCI). In this paper, I develop a simple model for the evolution of ecological equivalence or niche convergence, using as an example evolution of the suite of life history traits characteristic of shade tolerant tropical tree species. Although the model is simple, the conclusions from it seem likely to be robust. I conclude that ecological equivalence for resource use are likely to evolve easily and often, especially in species-rich communities that are dispersal and recruitment limited. In the case of the BCI forest, tree species are strongly dispersal- and recruitment-limited, not only because of restricted seed dispersal, but also because of low recruitment success due to heavy losses of the seedling stages to predators and pathogens and other abiotic stresses such as drought. These factors and the high species richness of the community strongly reduce the potential for competitive exclusion of functionally equivalent or nearly equivalent species.

  15. Polarization patterns of the twilight sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Warrant, Eric J.; Greiner, Birgit

    2005-08-01

    Although natural light sources produce depolarized light, patterns of partially linearly polarized light appear in the sky due to scattering from air molecules, dust, and aerosols. Many animals, including bees and ants, orient themselves to patterns of polarization that are present in daytime skies, when the intensity is high and skylight polarization is strong and predictable. The halicitid bee Megalopta genalis inhabits rainforests in Central America. Unlike typical bees, it forages before sunrise and after sunset, when light intensities under the forest canopy are very low, and must find its way to food sources and return to its nest in visually challenging circumstances. An important cue for the orientation could be patterns of polarization in the twilight sky. Therefore, we used a calibrated digital camera to image skylight polarization in an overhead patch of sky, 87.6° across, before dawn on Barro Colorado Island in Panama, where the bees are found. We simultaneously measured the spectral properties of polarized light in a cloudless patch of sky 15° across centered on the zenith. We also performed full-sky imaging of polarization before dawn and after dusk on Lizard Island in Australia, another tropical island. During twilight, celestial polarized light occurs in a wide band stretching perpendicular to the location of the hidden sun and reaching typical degrees of polarization near 80% at wavelengths >600 nm. This pattern appears about 45 minutes before local sunrise or disappears 45 minutes after local sunset (about 20 minutes after the onset of astronomical twilight at dawn, or before its end at dusk) and extends with little change through the entire twilight period. Such a strong and reliable orientation cue could be used for flight orientation by any animal with polarization sensitivity that navigates during twilight.

  16. Geospatial observations on biodiversity and biogeochemistry of a tropical forest rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Jeffrey Arien

    Understanding the links between biodiversity and biogeochemistry in a spatial context within tropical forest plant communities is an unresolved problem. High plant diversity -- phylogenetic, functional, and genetic -- often characteristic of tropical forests, is poorly understood in the context of soils. I collected and georeferenced a large sample of surface soil cores (n=625, 6.25 cm diameter x 10 cm depth) from the Barro Colorado Island (BCI) 50 ha (0.5 km2) Forest Dynamics Plot (FDP), Republic of Panama (9.15 N, 79.8 W) -- described in Chapter One. In Chapter Two, I tested a commonly made assumption in research on plot scales in tropical forests, that abiotic controls entirely explain plot scale soil heterogeneity. To do this, I analyzed a high spatial resolution and multiple spatial scale (multiscale) set of topography features from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a bedrock map, and the geospatial soil chemical observations to test if abiotic controls (erosion, hydrology, bedrock) were sufficient to explain soil heterogeneity in the BCI tree community. In Chapter Three, I evaluate whether spatial variation in soil organic matter (SOM) and patterns of correlation with rock-derived nutrients are consistent with plants changing soils through litterfall. In Chapter Four, I document the first use of high-throughput DNA sequencing data for observing plant species roots in a tropical forest rhizosphere. The main findings of my dissertation are that at the plot scale in a tropical forest soil chemical heterogeneity was weakly related to abiotic controls and rock-derived macronutrients vary in association strength with soil organic matter in a manner consistent with plants exerting strong biotic controls on the spatial heterogeneity of soil calcium. Furthermore, that research is needed to understand plant nutrient cycling within the context of tropical forest plant communities.

  17. A Reassessment of Carbon Content in Tropical Trees

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam R.; Thomas, Sean C.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of carbon (C) content in live wood is essential for quantifying tropical forest C stocks, yet generic assumptions (such as biomass consisting of 50% carbon on a weight/weight basis) remain widely used despite being supported by little chemical analysis. Empirical data from stem cores of 59 Panamanian rainforest tree species demonstrate that wood C content is highly variable among co-occurring species, with an average (47.4±2.51% S.D.) significantly lower than widely assumed values. Prior published values have neglected to account for volatile C content of tropical woods. By comparing freeze- and oven-dried wood samples, we show that volatile C is non-negligible, and excluding the volatile fraction underestimates wood C content by 2.48±1.28% (S.D.) on average. Wood C content varied substantially among species (from 41.9–51.6%), but was neither strongly phylogenetically conserved, nor correlated to ecological (i.e. wood density, maximum tree height) or demographic traits (i.e. relative growth rate, mortality rate). Overall, assuming generic C fractions in tropical wood overestimates forest C stocks by ∼3.3–5.3%, a non-trivial margin of error leading to overestimates of 4.1–6.8 Mg C ha−1 in a 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. In addition to addressing other sources of error in tropical forest C accounting, such as uncertainties in allometric models and belowground biomass, compilation and use of species-specific C fractions for tropical tree species would substantially improve both local and global estimates of terrestrial C stocks and fluxes. PMID:21858157

  18. The first species of the genus Caponina from Brazilian Amazonia (Araneae: Caponiidae).

    PubMed

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caponina Simon, 1891 comprises eleven species of medium-sized, soil-dwelling caponiids. Most members of Caponina have six eyes, but some have five, four, three or two eyes (Brignoli 1977, Platnick 1994). The genus is widespread in South and Central America (Platnick 2012). To date, only three species have been recorded from Brazil: Caponina alegre Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, C. notabilis (Mello-Leitão, 1939) from the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and C. tijuca Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Platnick 1994). In this paper we describe a new species from the state of Pará, in Brazilian Amazonia. Caponina papamanga new species was collected during the "Butantan na Amazonia" project, founded by the Instituto Butantan. The phylogenetic relationships of C. papamanga could not be studied, but the greatly elongated embolus, the dorsal tubercle on the palpal femur (Figs. 7, 9) and the massive epigynal sclerotizations (Fig. 10) suggest that this species belongs to the monophyletic Andean group proposed by Platnick (1994: 7). All morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. The epigynum was dissected and immersed in clove oil for visualization of internal structures following Levi (1965). Descriptions and measurements follow Platnick (1994). Measurements are given in millimeters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken using a Jeol-JSM-5200 with attached SLR digital camera. The material examined was deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, Sgo Paulo (IBSP, curator: D.M. Barros Battesti) and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, curator: A.B. Bonaldo).

  19. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469].

  20. Methane emissions and uptake in temperate and tropical forest trees on free-draining soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Bertie; Sayer, Emma; Siegenthaler, Andy; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the exchange of radiatively important gases with the atmosphere. Previous studies have shown that in both temperate and tropical wetland forests tree stems are significant sources of methane (CH4), yet little is known about trace greenhouse gas dynamics in free-draining soils that dominate global forested areas. We examined trace gas (CH4 and N2O) fluxes from both soils and tree stems in a lowland tropical forest on free-draining soils in Panama, Central America and from a deciduous woodland in the United Kingdom. The tropical field site was a long-term experimental litter manipulation experiment in the Barro Colorado Nature Monument within the Panama Canal Zone, fluxes were sampled over the dry to wet season transition (March-August) in 2014 and November 2015. Temperate fluxes were sampled at Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, over 12 months from February 2015 to January 2016. Tree stem samples were collected via syringe from temporary chambers strapped to the trees (as per Siegenthaler et al. (2015)) and the soil fluxes were sampled from permanently installed collars inserted to a 3cm depth. We found that seasonality (precipitation) is a significant driver of changing soil exchange from methane uptake to emission at the Panama sites. Experimental changes to litter quantity only become significant when coupled with seasonal change. Seasonal variability is an important control of the fluxes at out temperate forest site with changes in temperature and soil water content leading to changes in soil and tree stem trace gas fluxes from Wytham Woods. Siegenthaler, A., Welch, B., Pangala, S. R., Peacock, M., and Gauci, V.: Technical Note: Semi-rigid chambers for methane gas flux measurements on tree-stems, Biogeosciences Discuss., 12, 16019-16048, doi:10.5194/bgd-12-16019-2015, 2015.

  1. Do abundance distributions and species aggregation correctly predict macroecological biodiversity patterns in tropical forests?

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Thorsten; Lehmann, Sebastian; Huth, Andreas; Fortin, Marie‐Josée

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim It has been recently suggested that different ‘unified theories of biodiversity and biogeography’ can be characterized by three common ‘minimal sufficient rules’: (1) species abundance distributions follow a hollow curve, (2) species show intraspecific aggregation, and (3) species are independently placed with respect to other species. Here, we translate these qualitative rules into a quantitative framework and assess if these minimal rules are indeed sufficient to predict multiple macroecological biodiversity patterns simultaneously. Location Tropical forest plots in Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, and in Sinharaja, Sri Lanka. Methods We assess the predictive power of the three rules using dynamic and spatial simulation models in combination with census data from the two forest plots. We use two different versions of the model: (1) a neutral model and (2) an extended model that allowed for species differences in dispersal distances. In a first step we derive model parameterizations that correctly represent the three minimal rules (i.e. the model quantitatively matches the observed species abundance distribution and the distribution of intraspecific aggregation). In a second step we applied the parameterized models to predict four additional spatial biodiversity patterns. Results Species‐specific dispersal was needed to quantitatively fulfil the three minimal rules. The model with species‐specific dispersal correctly predicted the species–area relationship, but failed to predict the distance decay, the relationship between species abundances and aggregations, and the distribution of a spatial co‐occurrence index of all abundant species pairs. These results were consistent over the two forest plots. Main conclusions The three ‘minimal sufficient’ rules only provide an incomplete approximation of the stochastic spatial geometry of biodiversity in tropical forests. The assumption of independent interspecific placements is most

  2. Landform controls on low level moisture convergence and the diurnal cycle of warm season orographic rainfall in the Southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Anna M.; Barros, Ana P.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate two warm season events representative of reverse orographic enhancement of warm season precipitation in the Southern Appalachians under weak (9-12 July, 2012) and strong (12-16 May, 2014) synoptic forcing conditions. Reverse orographic enhancement refers to significant enhancement of rainfall intensity (up to one order of magnitude) at low elevations in the inner mountain valleys, but not in the ridges. This is manifest in significant increases of radar reflectivity observations and associated integral quantities (rain rate) at low levels (within 500 m of the surface), as well as changes in the observed microphysical properties of rainfall (raindrop size distribution). Analysis of high-resolution (1.25 km × 1.25 km) WRF simulations shows that the model captures the march of observed rainfall, though not the timing in the case of strong synoptic forcing. For each event, the results show that the space-time variability of rainfall in the inner region is strongly coupled to the development and persistence of organized within-valley low-level moisture convergence that is a necessary precursor to valley fog and low level cloud formation. Microphysical interactions among precipitation from propagating storm systems, and local low-level clouds and fog promote coalescence efficiency through the seeder-feeder mechanism leading to significant enhancement of rainfall intensity near the ground as shown by Wilson and Barros (2014). The simulations support the hypothesis that ridge-valley precipitation gradients, and in particular the reverse orographic enhancement effects in inner mountain valleys, are linked to horizontal heterogeneity in the vertical structure of low level clouds and precipitation promoted through landform controls on moisture convergence.

  3. Comparative life history and physiology of two understory Neotropical herbs.

    PubMed

    Mulkey, Stephen S; Smith, Alan P; Wright, S Joseph

    1991-10-01

    Demography and physiology of two broad-leaved understory tropical herbs (Marantaceae) were studied in gaps and shaded understory in large-scale irrigated and control treatments during the dry season at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Because photosynthetic acclimation potential may not predict light environments where tropical species are found, we studied a suite of physiological features to determine if they uniquely reflect the distribution of each species. Calathea inocephala and Pleiostachya pruinosa grow and reproduce in gaps, persist in shade, and have equivalent rates of leaf production. Calathea leaves survived 2 to 3 times as long as leaves of Pleiostachya and plants of Pleiostachya were 6 to 8 times more likely to die as plants of Calathea during 3.5 years of study. Pleiostachya had lowest survival in shade and when not irrigated during the dry season, while Calathea survived well in both habitats and both treatments. Pleiostachya had higher photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance than Calathea and acclimated to gaps by producing leaves with higher photosynthetic capacity. Calathea had lower mesophyll CO2 concentrations than Pleiostachya. Both species had similar dark respiration rates and light compensation points, and water-use and nitrogen-use efficiencies were inversely related between species. Species showed no differences in leaf osmotic potentials at full turgor. Calathea roots were deeper and had tuberous swellings.Leaf-level assimilation and potential water loss are consistent with where these species are found, but photosynthetic acclimation to high light does not reflect both species' abilities to grow and reproduce in gaps. Pleiostachya's gap-dependent, rapid growth and reproduction require high rates of carbon gain in short-lived leaves, which can amortize their cost quickly. High rates of water loss are associated with reduced longevity during drought. Calathea's roots may confer greater capacitance, while its leaves are

  4. Strong spatial genetic structure in five tropical Piper species: should the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis be revived for tropical shrubs?

    PubMed Central

    Lasso, E; Dalling, J W; Bermingham, E

    2011-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Baker and Fedorov proposed that the high species diversity of tropical forests could arise from the combined effects of inbreeding and genetic drift leading to population differentiation and eventually to sympatric speciation. Decades of research, however have failed to support the Baker–Fedorov hypothesis (BFH), and it has now been discarded in favor of a paradigm where most trees are self-incompatible or strongly outcrossing, and where long-distance pollen dispersal prevents population drift. Here, we propose that several hyper-diverse genera of tropical herbs and shrubs, including Piper (>1,000 species), may provide an exception. Species in this genus often have aggregated, high-density populations with self-compatible breeding systems; characteristics which the BFH would predict lead to high local genetic differentiation. We test this prediction for five Piper species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. All species showed strong genetic structure at both fine- and large-spatial scales. Over short distances (200–750 m) populations showed significant genetic differentiation (Fst 0.11–0.46, P < 0.05), with values of spatial genetic structure that exceed those reported for other tropical tree species (Sp = 0.03–0.136). This genetic structure probably results from the combined effects of limited seed and pollen dispersal, clonal spread, and selfing. These processes are likely to have facilitated the diversification of populations in response to local natural selection or genetic drift and may explain the remarkable diversity of this rich genus. PMID:22393518

  5. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-09

    finding its market in Jor- dan, Morocco, and Argentina . Outside of theBasque Country, he stresses Instalaza (Zaragoza), specializing in the Latin...30 por 100 J 3por100(Lf) fc 1por100(L$) (20) 4. £Cree qua las mujeres deben ir (2") SI ........... 36 poKlDO V No .......... 67 por 100

  6. Effect of dietary porphyran from the red alga, Porphyra yezoensis, on glucose metabolism in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Murazumi, Koki; Duan, Jingjing; Kurose, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Porphyran (POR) from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis is a water soluble dietary fiber. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary POR on glucose metabolism in KK-Ay mice (a model for type 2 diabetes). Mice were divided into 4 groups and fed a diet containing 5% cellulose (control), POR, POR Arg or POR K. After 3 wk of feeding, plasma insulin levels and the calculated homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were significantly lower in the POR group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly increased in the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups. These results suggest that dietary POR should improve glucose metabolism in diabetes via up-regulation of adiponectin levels. In addition, the amount of propionic acid in the cecum of the POR group was significantly higher than in the control group and the profile of bacterial flora was changed by dietary POR. In the cecum of the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups, Bacteroides was significantly increased and Clostridium coccoides was significantly decreased compared with in the control group. The effects of dietary POR on the hindgut environment might contribute to the improvement of glucose metabolism.

  7. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in

  8. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGES

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  9. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-08

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 × 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 × 10(9)-1.25 × 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+•)-AlPor(-•)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+•)-AlPor-H2Por(-•) radical pair.

  10. Monóxido de carbono

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La mayoria de los accidentes causados por envenenamiento por monoxido de carbono (CO) se producen en los hogares y estan relacionados a nuestras actividades diarias como cocinar y usar la calefaccion.

  11. Isolation of porphyran-degrading marine microorganisms from the surface of red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Sumi, Toshihisa; Yoshiki, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Yumi; Abe, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Shiduo; Sanematsu, Seigo; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    Marine microorganisms degrading porphyran (POR) were found on the surface of thalli of Porphyra yezoensis. Fifteen crude microorganism groups softened and liquefied the surface of agar-rich plate medium. Among these, 11 microorganism groups degraded porphyran that consisted of sulfated polysaccharide in Porphyra yezoensis. Following isolation, 7 POR-degradable microorganisms were isolated from the 11 POR-degradable microorganism groups.

  12. 78 FR 27954 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... DunAn did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, we preliminarily determine... potential shipments made by DunAn during the POR; CBP did not provide any evidence that contradicts DunAn's... determine that DunAn did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, the...

  13. Autonomous Vehicle Panel 2011 Pacific Operations Science and Technology Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Transportable Robot System (MTRS) POR Multi- Mission Unmanned Ground Vehicle (MM- UGV) CDD Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS) POR...Battlefield Extraction Assist Robot (BEAR) Initiative Squad Multi- purpose Equipment Transport (SMET) CDD Exoskeleton (XOS) CDD Autonomous Mobility...Appliqué System (AMAS) CDD M160 Light Flail POR 3 CPD To be released Ground Robotics Capability Sets (photos are notional representations

  14. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR.

  15. Oral bioaccessibility of inorganic contaminants in waste dusts generated by laterite Ni ore smelting.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Polák, Ladislav; Mihaljevič, Martin; Ratié, Gildas; Garnier, Jérémie; Quantin, Cécile

    2016-09-14

    The laterite Ni ore smelting operations in Niquelândia and Barro Alto (Goiás State, Brazil) have produced large amounts of fine-grained smelting wastes, which have been stockpiled on dumps and in settling ponds. We investigated granulated slag dusts (n = 5) and fly ash samples (n = 4) with a special focus on their leaching behaviour in deionised water and on the in vitro bioaccessibility in a simulated gastric fluid, to assess the potential exposure risk for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that both wastes contained significant amounts of contaminants: up to 2.6 wt% Ni, 7580 mg/kg Cr, and 508 mg/kg Co. In only one fly ash sample, after 24 h of leaching in deionised water, the concentrations of leached Ni exceeded the limit for hazardous waste according to EU legislation, whereas the other dusts were classified as inert wastes. Bioaccessible fractions (BAF) of the major contaminants (Ni, Co, and Cr) were quite low for the slag dusts and accounted for less than 2 % of total concentrations. In contrast, BAF values were significantly higher for fly ash materials, which reached 13 % for Ni and 19 % for Co. Daily intakes via oral exposure, calculated for an adult (70 kg, dust ingestion rate of 50 mg/day), exceeded neither the tolerable daily intake (TDI) nor the background exposure limits for all of the studied contaminants. Only if a higher ingestion rate is assumed (e.g. 100 mg dust per day for workers in the smelter), the TDI limit for Ni recently defined by European Food Safety Authority (196 µg/day) was exceeded (324 µg/day) for one fly ash sample. Our data indicate that there is only a limited risk to human health related to the ingestion of dust materials generated by laterite Ni ore smelting operations if appropriate safety measures are adopted at the waste disposal sites and within the smelter facility.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Local-Scale Tree Soil Associations in a Lowland Moist Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schreeg, Laura A.; Kress, W. John; Erickson, David L.; Swenson, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water). We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the ‘traits’ (i.e., soil variables) evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. Conclusions Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny-wide signal. Trends

  17. Partitioning of soil water among canopy trees in a seasonally dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Andrade, José Luis; Goldstein, Guillermo; Holbrook, N Michele; Cavelier, Jaime; Wright, S Joseph

    1999-11-01

    Little is known about partitioning of soil water resources in species-rich, seasonally dry tropical forests. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil water utilization in several canopy tree species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, during the 1997 dry season. Stable hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of xylem and soil water, soil volumetric water content (θv), and sap flow were measured concurrently. Evaporative fractionation near the soil surface caused soil water δD to decrease from about -15‰ at 0.1 m to -50 to -55‰ at 1.2 m depth. Groundwater sampled at the sources of nearby springs during this period yielded an average δD value of -60‰. θv increased sharply and nearly linearly with depth to 0.7 m, then increased more slowly between 0.7 and 1.05 m. Based on xylem δD values, water uptake in some individual plants appeared to be restricted largely to the upper 20 cm of the soil profile where θv dropped below 20% during the dry season. In contrast, other individuals appeared to have access to water at depths greater than 1 m where θv remained above 45% throughout the dry season. The depths of water sources for trees with intermediate xylem δD values were less certain because variation in soil water δD between 20 and 70 cm was relatively small. Xylem water δD was also strongly dependent on tree size (diameter at breast height), with smaller trees appearing to preferentially tap deeper sources of soil water than larger trees. This relationship appeared to be species independent. Trees able to exploit progressively deeper sources of soil water during the dry season, as indicated by increasingly negative xylem δD values, were also able to maintain constant or even increase rates of water use. Seasonal courses of water use and soil water partitioning were associated with leaf phenology. Species with the smallest seasonal variability in leaf fall were also able to tap increasingly deep sources of soil water as the dry season progressed

  18. An Ecoinformatic Analysis of the Effect of Seasonal and Annual Variation in Temperature, Precipitation, and Solar Irradiance on Pollen Productivity in Two Neotropical Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselhorst, D. S.; Tcheng, D. K.; Moreno, J. E.; Punyasena, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Observational data provide a powerful source of information for understanding the phenological response of tropical forests to a changing climate. Annual changes in mean temperature, precipitation, and solar irradiance, in part driven by ENSO cycles, provide a natural experiment. However, these time series are often relatively short (several years to several decades), the average climatic variability experienced in that timeframe is relatively small, and the corresponding response is therefore often very weak. As a result, standard statistical approaches may fail in detecting a biological response. We present an alternative ecoinformatic analysis that demonstrates the power of weak models in the discovery and interpretation of statistically significant signals in short, noisy, ecological time series. We developed a simple response prediction model that uses cross-validation to explore a landscape of models that correlate the phenological behavior of individual taxa (pollen production, flowering, fruiting) to seasonal and annual mean temperature, precipitation, and solar irradiance using multivariate linear regression. We use a sign slope sensitivity analysis of each linear model that tallies positive and negative slope counts of a taxon's phenological behavior to our environmental and null variables. We applied this analysis to pollen trap data collected from 1996 to 2006 from two lowland Panamanian forests, Barro Colorado Island and Parque National San Lorenzo. We also tested the performance of our predictive model using published data of annual flowering and fruiting from BCI to corroborate that our approach could reproduce previously published results on tropical phenology. Our results indicate that although the overall variation in temperature was 3.28 °C over the ten year period, pollen productivity at both sites was most consistently affected by changes in temperature. This result was replicated by the published BCI flower and fruit data, which also

  19. Tracing the Sources of Atmospheric Phosphorus Deposition to a Tropical Rain Forest in Panama Using Stable Oxygen Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Turner, B L; Goren, T; Berry, A; Angert, A

    2016-02-02

    Atmospheric dust deposition can be a significant source of phosphorus (P) in some tropical forests, so information on the origins and solubility of atmospheric P is needed to understand and predict patterns of forest productivity under future climate scenarios. We characterized atmospheric dust P across a seasonal cycle in a tropical lowland rain forest on Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM), Republic of Panama. We traced P sources by combining remote sensing imagery with the first measurements of stable oxygen isotopes in soluble inorganic phosphate (δ(18)OP) in dust. In addition, we measured soluble inorganic and organic P concentrations in fine (<1 μm) and coarse (>1 μm) aerosol fractions and used this data to estimate the contribution of P inputs from dust deposition to the forest P budget. Aerosol dry mass was greater in the dry season (December to April, 5.6-15.7 μg m(-3)) than the wet season (May to November, 3.1-7.1 μg m(-3)). In contrast, soluble P concentrations in the aerosols were lower in the dry season (980-1880 μg P g(-1)) than the wet season (1170-3380 μg P g(-1)). The δ(18)OP of dry-season aerosols resembled that of nearby forest soils (∼19.5‰), suggesting a local origin. In the wet season, when the Trans-Atlantic Saharan dust belt moves north close to Panama, the δ(18)OP of aerosols was considerably lower (∼15.5‰), suggesting a significant contribution of long-distance dust P transport. Using satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the P concentrations in aerosols we sampled in periods when Saharan dust was evident we estimate that the monthly P input from long distance dust transport during the period with highest Saharan dust deposition is 88 ± 31 g P ha(-1) month(-1), equivalent to between 10 and 29% of the P in monthly litter fall in nearby forests. These findings have important implications for our understanding of modern nutrient budgets and the productivity of tropical forests in the region under future

  20. Cytogenetic data on six leafcutter ants of the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): insights into chromosome evolution and taxonomic implications.

    PubMed

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; Mariano, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Costa, Marco Antonio; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais - Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado - Panama. The number and morphology of the chromosomes were studied and the following banding techniques were applied: C-banding, fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI, as well as the detection of 45S rDNA using FISH technique. All the six species had the same chromosome number observed for already studied species, i.e. 2n = 38. Acromyrmex balzani had a different karyotype compared with other species mainly due to the first metacentric pair. The heterochromatin distribution also showed interspecific variation. Nevertheless, all the studied species had a pair of bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair. The fluorochrome CMA3 visualized bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair for all the six species, while Acromyrmex rugosus and Acromyrmex niger also demonstrated in the other chromosomes. The AT-rich regions with differential staining using DAPI were not observed. 45S ribosomal genes were identified by FISH in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair in Acromyrmex coronatus, Acromyrmex disciger and

  1. Environmental and physiological regulation of transpiration in tropical forest gap species: the influence of boundary layer and hydraulic properties.

    PubMed

    Meinzer, F C; Goldstein, G; Jackson, P; Holbrook, N M; Gutiérrez, M V; Cavelier, J

    1995-04-01

    Environmental and physiological regulation of transpiration were examined in several gap-colonizing shrub and tree species during two consecutive dry seasons in a moist, lowland tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Whole plant transpiration, stomatal and total vapor phase (stomatal + boundary layer) conductance, plant water potential and environmental variables were measured concurrently. This allowed control of transpiration (E) to be partitioned quantitatively between stomatal (g s) and boundary layer (g b) conductance and permitted the impact of invividual environmental and physiological variables on stomatal behavior and E to be assessed. Wind speed in treefall gap sites was often below the 0.25 m s(-1) stalling speed of the anemometer used and was rarely above 0.5 m s(-1), resulting in uniformly low g b (c. 200-300 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) among all species studied regardless of leaf size. Stomatal conductance was typically equal to or somewhat greater than g b. This strongly decoupled E from control by stomata, so that in Miconia argentea a 10% change in g s when g s was near its mean value was predicted to yield only a 2.5% change in E. Porometric estimates of E, obtained as the product of g s and the leaf-bulk air vapor pressure difference (VPD) without taking g b into account, were up to 300% higher than actual E determined from sap flow measurements. Porometry was thus inadequate as a means of assessing the physiological consequences of stomatal behavior in different gap colonizing species. Stomatal responses to humidity strongly limited the increase in E with increasing evaporative demand. Stomata of all species studied appeared to respond to increasing evaporative demand in the same manner when the leaf surface was selected as the reference point for determination of external vapor pressure and when simultaneous variation of light and leaf-air VPD was taken into account. This result suggests that contrasting stomatal responses to similar leaf

  2. Long-Period Cultural Noise: The Panama Canal Seiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Hutt, C. R.; Ringler, A.; Gee, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the spectral composition of human generated or “cultural” seismic noise is dominated by short-period (SP) energy (<1s). In this study, we present evidence for long-period (LP) cultural noise (100-200s) at the USGS Global Seismographic Network (GSN) station CU.BCIP, located at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal. The LP seismic energy has a strong diurnal signal, with highest power during the daytime when traffic through the Panama Canal is the heaviest, ~1 ship every 10 minutes. The lowest power occurs during the late-night/early-morning hours, when container ship traffic slows to ~1 ship every hour. Spectral power observations are corroborated with data recorded by a water-level meter located approximately 80m from the seismic station, indicating that water waves are the primary source of the LP seismic signal. We show that the observed water waves are a “seiche” induced by the wakes of container ship traffic in the canal. As passing ships disturb the water surface, standing waves are induced by the summation of propagating waves, traveling in opposite directions, due to reflections off the opposite shorelines of the Panama Canal. Vertical harmonic motion results as gravity seeks to restore the horizontal surface of the body of water to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. The longest natural-period of a seiche in an enclosed body of water is a function of basin depth and length and can be computed by a common oceanographic relationship, known as the Merian formula. For a reasonable range of Panama Canal dimensions in the vicinity of BCI, (depths from 15 to 30m and lengths from 700 to 1500m), the predicted dominant period of a seiche is between 100-200s, consistent with our seismic spectral power observations. Small rhythmic seiches are always present in disturbed enclosed bodies of water and are most often caused by either meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure

  3. Presence of c.3956delC mutation in familial adenomatous polyposis patients from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Alcântara, Diego di Felipe Ávila; Lima-Júnior, Sérgio Figueiredo; Cavalléro, Sandro Roberto de Araújo; Rey, Juan Antonio; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; de Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize APC gene mutations and correlate them with patient phenotypes in individuals diagnosed with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in northern Brazil. METHODS: A total of 15 individuals diagnosed with FAP from 5 different families from the north of Brazil were analyzed in this study. In addition to patients with histopathological diagnosis of FAP, family members who had not developed the disease were also tested in order to identify mutations and for possible genetic counseling. All analyzed patients or their guardians signed a consent form approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the João de Barros Barreto University Hospital (Belem, Brazil). DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of a member of each of the affected families was subjected to direct sequencing. The proband of each family was sequenced to identify germline mutations using the Ion Torrent platform. To validate the detected mutations, Sanger sequencing was also performed. The samples from all patients were also tested for the identification of mutations by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the amplification refractory mutation system. RESULTS: Through interviews with relatives and a search of medical records, it was possible to construct genograms for three of the five families included in the study. All 15 patients from the five families with FAP exhibited mutations in the APC gene, and all mutations were detected in exon 15 of the APC gene. In addition to the patients with a histological diagnosis of FAP, family members without disease symptoms showed the mutation in the APC gene. In the present study, we detected two of the three most frequent germline mutations in the literature: the mutation at codon 1309 and the mutation at codon 1061. The presence of c.3956delC mutation was found in all families from this study, and suggests that this mutation was introduced in the population of the State of Pará through ancestor immigration (i.e., a de novo

  4. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation: A European Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.; Alexander, Jan; Barros, Henrique; Bergström, Anna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burdorf, Alex; Costet, Nathalie; Danileviciute, Asta; Eggesbø, Merete; Fernández, Mariana F.; González-Galarzo, M. Carmen; Hanke, Wojciech; Jaddoe, Vincent; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kull, Inger; Lertxundi, Aitana; Melaki, Vasiliki; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olea, Nicolás; Polanska, Kinga; Rusconi, Franca; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Santos, Ana Cristina; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Zugna, Daniela; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Cordier, Sylvaine; Vrijheid, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women of reproductive age can be exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) at work, and exposure to EDCs in pregnancy may affect fetal growth. Objectives: We assessed whether maternal occupational exposure to EDCs during pregnancy as classified by application of a job exposure matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery. Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC groups as assessed through a job exposure matrix. For each group, we combined the two levels of exposure categories (possible and probable) and compared birth outcomes with the unexposed group (exposure unlikely). We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates. Results: Eleven percent of pregnant women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p < 0.05) with the other outcomes; women holding job titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame retardants were at higher risk for longer length of gestation. Conclusion: Results from our large population-based birth cohort design indicate that employment during pregnancy in occupations classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs was associated with an increased risk of term LBW. Citation: Birks L, Casas M, Garcia AM, Alexander J, Barros H, Bergström A, Bonde JP, Burdorf A, Costet N, Danileviciute A, Eggesbø M, Fernández MF, González-Galarzo MC, Gražulevičienė R

  5. Cytogenetic data on six leafcutter ants of the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): insights into chromosome evolution and taxonomic implications

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; Mariano, Cléa dos Santos Ferreira; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Costa, Marco Antonio; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais – Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado – Panama. The number and morphology of the chromosomes were studied and the following banding techniques were applied: C-banding, fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI, as well as the detection of 45S rDNA using FISH technique. All the six species had the same chromosome number observed for already studied species, i.e. 2n = 38. Acromyrmex balzani had a different karyotype compared with other species mainly due to the first metacentric pair. The heterochromatin distribution also showed interspecific variation. Nevertheless, all the studied species had a pair of bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair. The fluorochrome CMA3 visualized bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair for all the six species, while Acromyrmex rugosus and Acromyrmex niger also demonstrated in the other chromosomes. The AT-rich regions with differential staining using DAPI were not observed. 45S ribosomal genes were identified by FISH in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair in Acromyrmex coronatus, Acromyrmex

  6. Relative breed contributions to neutral genetic diversity of a comprehensive representation of Iberian native cattle.

    PubMed

    Cañón, J; García, D; Delgado, J V; Dunner, S; Telo da Gama, L; Landi, V; Martín-Burriel, I; Martínez, A; Penedo, C; Rodellar, C; Zaragoza, P; Ginja, C

    2011-08-01

    This study is aimed at establishing priorities for the optimal conservation of genetic diversity among a comprehensive group of 40 cattle breeds from the Iberian Peninsula. Different sets of breed contributions to diversity were obtained with several methods that differ in the relative weight attributed to the within- and between-breed components of the genetic variation. The contributions to the Weitzman diversity and the expected heterozygosity (He) account for between- and within-breed variation only, respectively. Contributions to the core set obtained for several kinship matrices, incorporate both sources of variation, as well as the combined contributions of Ollivier and Foulley and those of Caballero and Toro. In general, breeds that ranked high in the different core set applications also ranked high in the contribution to the global He, for example, Sayaguesa, Retinta, Monchina, Berrenda en Colorado or Marismeña. As expected, the Weitzman method prioritised breeds with low contributions to the He, like Mallorquina, Menorquina, Berrenda en Negro, Mostrenca, Vaca Palmera or Mirandesa, all showing highly negative contributions to He - that is, their removal would significantly increase the average He. Weighing the within- and between-breed components with the FST produced a balanced set of contributions in which all the breeds ranking high in both approaches show up. Unlike the other methods, the contributions to the diversity proposed by Caballero and Toro prioritised a good number of Portuguese breeds (Arouquesa, Barrosã, Mertolenga and Preta ranking highest), but this might be caused by a sample size effect. Only Sayaguesa ranked high in all the methods tested. Considerations with regard to the conservation scheme should be made before adopting any of these approaches: in situ v. cryoconservation, selection and adaptation within the breeds v. crossbreeding or the creation of synthetic breeds. There is no general consensus with regard to balancing within

  7. Effects of the 100-year most severe El Niño driven drought on above and below ground CO2 exchanges in a seasonal tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detto, M.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Davies, S. J.; Rubio Ramos, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The role of environmental drivers in regulating carbon exchanges, such as the combined effects of different meteorological and hydrological factors, are still poorly understood in many tropical forests. For example, Central American tropical forests are characterized by a distinct dry season with large atmospheric evaporative demand, driven by solar radiations and sustained winds. In contrast, during the wet seasons, cloudiness results in lower radiation inputs but higher diffuse fraction, and higher water availability. Our site, Barro Colorado Island, located in Gatun Lake, Central Panama, averages 2800 mm of annual precipitation, with a pronounced dry season in Jan-Apr. Forest age varies between 100 and >400 yr. In July 2012, an eddy covariance system was installed on a 41 m tower on the top plateau of the island. In the current year (2015) the island is experiencing the most severe El Niño driven drought on record (precipitation is measured since 1921). The eddy covariance measurements show that carbon and water fluxes are strongly influenced by hydrological conditions. Prolonged dry spells during the dry season limit both above ground fluxes (ET and GPP) and below ground processes (root and microbial activities). Light use efficiency is about 30% lower during the dry season and evapotranspiration can be as 40% below potential. These decreases in ecosystem functions are driven primarily by a combination of structural (reduction in leaf area) and physiological (stomata regulation) adaptation. Similarly, soil effluxes respond strongly to hydrological conditions. In the dry season, lower soil respiration rates are spaced out by rare rain events generating large pulses. In contrast, during the wet season, frequent rain events suppress soil CO2effluxes, because of reduced diffusivity and oxygen depletion. Diurnal variation of soil respiration also suggested a potential translocation of photosynthates from leaf to roots to increase nutrient uptake during the dry

  8. The effects of land abandonment and long-term afforestation practices on the organic carbon and lignin content of a Mediteranean soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stijsiger, Romy; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Campo, Julian; Cammeraat, Erik

    2016-04-01

    /010) of the Generalitat Valenciana for funding. Finally, authors want to thank to Chiara Cerli and Joke Westerveld for their help in the laboratory work and for discussion. References FAO (2015a) The Spanish Afforestation program. An International Review of Forestry and Forest Products. Unasylva, 12(1). Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5386e/x5386e02.htm#TopOfPage Pérez-Cruzado, C., Sande, B., Omil, B., Rovira, P., Martin-Pastor, M., Barros, N., ... & Merino, A. (2014). Organic matter properties in soils afforested with Pinus radiata. Plant and soil, 374(1-2), 381-398.

  9. Tracking the Creation of Tropical Forest Canopy Gaps with UAV Computer Vision Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandois, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of canopy gaps is fundamental for shaping forest structure and is an important component of ecosystem function. Recent time-series of airborne LIDAR have shown great promise for improving understanding of the spatial distribution and size of forest gaps. However, such work typically looks at gap formation across multiple years and important intra-annual variation in gap dynamics remains unknown. Here we present findings on the intra-annual dynamics of canopy gap formation within the 50 ha forest dynamics plot of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing. High-resolution imagery (7 cm GSD) over the 50 ha plot was obtained regularly (≈ every 10 days) beginning October 2014 using a UAV equipped with a point and shoot camera. Imagery was processed into three-dimensional (3D) digital surface models (DSMs) using automated computer vision structure from motion / photogrammetric methods. New gaps that formed between each UAV flight were identified by subtracting DSMs between each interval and identifying areas of large deviation. A total of 48 new gaps were detected from 2014-10-02 to 2015-07-23, with sizes ranging from less than 20 m2 to greater than 350 m2. The creation of new gaps was also evaluated across wet and dry seasons with 4.5 new gaps detected per month in the dry season (Jan. - May) and 5.2 per month outside the dry season (Oct. - Jan. & May - July). The incidence of gap formation was positively correlated with ground-surveyed liana stem density (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001) at the 1 hectare scale. Further research will consider the role of climate in predicting gap formation frequency as well as site history and other edaphic factors. Future satellite missions capable of observing vegetation structure at greater extents and frequencies than airborne observations will be greatly enhanced by the high spatial and temporal resolution bridging scale made possible by UAV remote sensing.

  10. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  11. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  12. RNAi based simultaneous silencing of all forms of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes result in the accumulation of protochlorophyllide in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2013-10-01

    Conversion of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide), a key step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, is mediated by a light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). POR exists in multiple isoforms that share high degree of homology. RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach was used to suppress the expression of POR genes in order to study its role in the Chls biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants were devoid of chlorophyll pigments and resembled albino plants. Northern blot analysis confirmed the degradation of POR transcripts into 21-23 bp fragments. Pigment analysis showed the accumulation of various intermediate compounds of Chl biosynthesis pathway including Pchlide. However, no trace of chlorophyll was observed. As compared to wild type, POR-silenced plants accumulated larger (60%) amounts of Pchlide from its endogenous substrate. When leaf discs of WT and POR-silenced plants were treated with exogenous ALA both WT and POR-silenced plants accumulated large amounts of tetrapyrrolic intermediates demonstrating that Pchlide biosynthesis potential was not suppressed in POR-silenced plants. Upon illumination, WT plants photo-transformed large amounts of Pchlide to Chlide. However, POR-silenced plants almost completely failed to do so. Results demonstrate that the antisense approaches to drop expression of individual POR isoforms have provided valuable insights into the role of distinct PORs during greening. Moreover, data illustrate that the POR is the only enzyme that can convert the Pchlide to Chlide and there is no alternate enzyme that can substitute the POR in higher plants. Thus, this investigation describes ideal mechanism for the silencing of POR isozymes in tobacco.

  13. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  14. Comparison between natural Rain drop size distributions and corresponding models near equilibrium state during warm rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthes, Laurent; Mallet, Cécile

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: Rain Drop Size Distribution, Breakup, coalescence, disdrometer The study of the vertical evolution of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) during rainfall, from the freezing level isotherm to ground level, is a key to improving our understanding of the microphysics of rain. In numerous domains such as remote sensing, telecommunications, soil erosion, and the study of the rain's efficiency in 'washing' the atmosphere, the DSD plays an important role. Among the different processes affecting the evolution of DSD, breakup and coalescence are two of the most significant. Models of coalescence and breakup lead to equilibrium of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) after a fall through sufficient vertical height. At equilibrium, the DSD no longer evolves, and its shape is unique whatever the rain rate or LWC. This implies that the DSD is known, to within a multiplication constant. These models based on experimental measurements have been developed over the past 40 years. The Low and List (1982a,b) parameterization (hereinafter LL82) and the Greg M. McFarquhar (2004) model are both based on the same laboratory experiments, which lead to an equilibrium drop size distribution (EDSD) with two or three peaks, and an exponential tail with a slope of approximately Λ=65 cm-1. Numerous measurements using disdrometer collected in different climatic areas: Paris, France (Mars to October 2000), Iowa-City (April to October 2002), and Djougou (Benin June to September 2006) corresponding to 537 hours of rain period have shown that for high rain rates, close to a state of equilibrium, this slope lies between Λ=20 - 22 cm-1. This latter value is corroborated by others measurements found in the literature (Hu & Srivastava, 1995). Hu & Srivastava suggested that the Low and List parameterization may overestimate the effects of the breakup process. This hypothesis is in adequation with recent laboratory experiments (A.P. Barros 2008) in which the authors conclude that the number of

  15. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency - a new form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V; Huang, Ningwu; Agrawal, Vishal; Miller, Walter L

    2008-01-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency, genital anomalies and bony malformations resembling the Antley- Bixler syndrome (a craniosynostosis syndrome), are likely to have P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency. Since our first report in 2004, about 26 recessive POR mutations have been identified in 50 patients. POR is the obligate electron donor to all microsomal (type II) P450 enzymes, including the steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1. POR deficiency may cause disordered sexual development manifested as genital undervirilization in 46,XY newborns as well as overvirilization in those who are 46,XX. This may be explained by impaired aromatization of fetal androgens which may also lead to maternal virilization and low urinary estriol levels during pregnancy. A role for the alternate 'backdoor' pathway of androgen biosynthesis, leading to dihydrotestosterone production bypassing androstenedione and testosterone, has been suggested in POR deficiency but remains unclear. POR variants may play an important role in drug metabolism, as most drugs are metabolized by hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes. However, functional assays studying the effects of specific POR mutations on steroidogenesis showed that several POR variants impaired CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1 activities to different degrees, indicating that each POR variant must be studied separately for each potential target P450 enzyme. Thus, the impact of POR mutations on drug metabolism by hepatic P450s requires further investigation.

  16. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  17. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  18. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  19. 77 FR 58512 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... resulting benefit by POSCO's total free on board (f.o.b.) sales. See 19 CFR 351.525(b)(3). On this basis, we... attributable to the POR by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we determine a net... of exemptions by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we preliminarily...

  20. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris), southern white... available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\11\\ As a general matter,...

  1. ESHRE consensus on the definition of 'poor response' to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Ferraretti, A P; La Marca, A; Fauser, B C J M; Tarlatzis, B; Nargund, G; Gianaroli, L

    2011-07-01

    The definition presented here represents the first realistic attempt by the scientific community to standardize the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) in a simple and reproducible manner. POR to ovarian stimulation usually indicates a reduction in follicular response, resulting in a reduced number of retrieved oocytes. It has been recognized that, in order to define the poor response in IVF, at least two of the following three features must be present: (i) advanced maternal age or any other risk factor for POR; (ii) a previous POR; and (iii) an abnormal ovarian reserve test (ORT). Two episodes of POR after maximal stimulation are sufficient to define a patient as poor responder in the absence of advanced maternal age or abnormal ORT. By definition, the term POR refers to the ovarian response, and therefore, one stimulated cycle is considered essential for the diagnosis of POR. However, patients of advanced age with an abnormal ORT may be classified as poor responders since both advanced age and an abnormal ORT may indicate reduced ovarian reserve and act as a surrogate of ovarian stimulation cycle outcome. In this case, the patients should be more properly defined as 'expected poor responder'. If this definition of POR is uniformly adapted as the 'minimal' criteria needed to select patients for future clinical trials, more homogeneous populations will be tested for any new protocols. Finally, by reducing bias caused by spurious POR definitions, it will be possible to compare results and to draw reliable conclusions.

  2. Characterisation and immune responses to meningococcal recombinant porin complexes incorporated into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sandra; Abel, Ana; Marzoa, Juan; Gorringe, Andrew; Criado, Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2009-08-27

    We have analysed the structure of meningococcal outer membrane complexes and found that the main complexes are formed by different combinations of PorA and/or PorB molecules, associated to other proteins such as RmpM. In view of the growing knowledge of the importance of conformational epitopes in the immune responses to many pathogens, our aim in this study was to analyse the interactions of PorA and PorB by reconstitution of both recombinant porins into liposomes and determine the relevance of these interactions for the immune response. Recombinant PorA and PorB incorporated into liposomes associate forming complexes that are homomeric when only one of the porins is present, but heteromeric when both neisserial porins are present, mimicking those found previously in native outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Association of PorA and PorB to form heterocomplexes modifies the immunogenicity of at least PorB, allowing the production of antibodies that recognise conformational epitopes, and produces new epitopes that react with a 50 kDa outer membrane protein not yet identified.

  3. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  4. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae).

    PubMed

    Mathis, Wayne N; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbaesp. n., the

  5. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  6. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  7. Changes in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Abundance and Community Structure in Response to the Long-Term Manipulation of Inorganic Nutrients in a Lowland Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldrake, Merlin; Rosenstock, Nicholas; Tanner, Ed

    2014-05-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is considered primarily mutualistic. In exchange for up to 30% of plants' total photosynthate, AM provide improved access to mineral nutrients. While there is evidence that AM fungi provide nitrogen, potassium and other nutrients to their host plants, most research has focused on their effect on plant phosphorus uptake. Pot experiments have shown, and field experiments have provided further support, that nutrient availability (primarily P, but also N) is inversely correlated with mycorrhizal colonization, indicating plant control over carbon losses to AM fungi. Yet pot experiments have also shown that some fungal species are more mutualistic than others and that AM colonization may cause decreased plant growth, suggesting that plant control is not absolute. AMF communities are diverse, and it is poorly understood how factors such as adaptation to local soil environment, fungal-plant compatibility, and plant nutrient status combine to shape AMF community structure. We conducted a study to examine the relative effects of N, P, and K addition on the AMF community in a plant species rich tropical forest, given the long-held belief that AMF are primarily involved in plant P uptake, particularly on weathered tropical soils. Our study site is the Barro Colorado Nature Monument in Panama. It is a 13 year-old factorial N, P, and K addition experiment (40 m x 40m plots; n=4) in an AMF dominated, old (>200 yr), secondary, tropical forest. Previous research has shown co-limitation by N, P, and K, but the strongest plant growth responses were obtained with K additions. We analyzed the AMF community using 454 pyrosequencing of the ribosomal small subunit (SSU) on both soils and the roots of the 6 dominant AMF tree species. Additionally, we used the AMF-specific neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) biomarker as a measure of AMF biomass. Both AMF biomass and community structure were altered by nutrient additions. AMF biomass in soil was reduced

  8. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae)

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Wayne N.; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbae sp

  9. Assessing the snowmelt submodel of TETIS within the DMIP2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Ismael; Francés, Félix

    2010-05-01

    Melt modelling is a crucial element in any attempt to predict runoff from snow-covered or glacierised areas, as well as to assess changes in the cryosphere associated with clime change. In mountainous regions, snow and ice significantly affect catchment hydrology by temporarily storing and releasing water on various time scales (Jansson et al., 2003). Hence, success of runoff modelling in such areas largely depends on accurate quantification of the melt process (Hock, 2003). Snowmelt modelling is complex and dependent on elevation, slope, vegetation type, surface roughness, radiation load, and energy exchange at the snow-air interface (Baron, 1992; Barros and Lettenmaier, 1993; Becker et al., 1994; Cline, 1995; Elder et al., 1991). This paper describes the application of the degree-day method for snowmelt-runoff at hourly time discretization, which is implemented in the distributed and conceptually based hydrological model TETIS, as well as the evaluation of results. In the TETIS model the natural basins are discretizated in grid cells according to drainage network. This conceptualization permits all parameters do not lose its physical meaning (Francés et al., 2007). At each cell the main soil properties need to be estimated previously using topographical, environmental, land use, geological and soil maps. The model has been applied to the Sierra Nevada basins, in USA: the American River (886 km2) and the Carson River (922 km2), as a part of the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project, second phase (DMIP2), of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA/NWS), in which we are participating. These basins are geographically close, but their hidrological regimes are quite different: the Carson River is a high altitude basin with a snow dominated regime; while the American River drains an area that is lower in elevation with precipitation falling as rain and mixed snow and rain (Jeton et al., 1996). Details on the basins

  10. Encapsulation of cobalt porphyrins in organically modified silica gel glasses and their nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chan; Huang, Li; Li, Wei; Chen, Wenzhe

    2017-01-01

    2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin Cobalt(II) (CoPor) was introduced into nanostructured organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) using a sol-gel technique. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were performed to investigate the morphology, structure, thermal stability, and linear optical properties of the resulting gel glasses. The FT-IR spectrum and UV-Vis spectra strongly indicated the formation of a silica gel glass network and the successful encapsulation of CoPor in ORMOSIL silica gel glasses, respectively. The introduction of guest CoPor molecules induces silica to form more condensed surface characteristics, owing to the fact that CoPor can promote the hydrolysis and polycondensation procedure, and hence have better thermal stability as compared to blank silica gel glasses. Meanwhile, the dimerization phenomenon in a liquid matrix can be effectively suppressed in a silica solid-state matrix and is attributed to the `cage protection effect.' The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of CoPor gel glasses were investigated using the open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm. The NLO performance of CoPor-incorporated solid-state silica gel glasses has been improved in comparison with those dispersed in dimethylformamide solution. More significantly, the NLO properties of CoPor-doped ORMOSIL gel glasses can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the CoPor molecules.

  11. [Pure neural leprosy. Diagnostic aspects of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Ezsol-Lendvai, S; Rodriguez-Vazquez, M; Agudo-Mena, J L; Godes-Medrano, B

    2016-09-16

    Introduccion. La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por la bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Presenta especial avidez por la piel y los troncos nerviosos, y, de hecho, ambos se afectan en la mayor parte de los infectados. Se trasmite por exposicion con enfermos y en ocasiones por reactivacion. Una posibilidad inhabitual es la lepra neural pura, caracterizada por neuropatia, pero sin lesiones en la piel. Se describe un paciente con lepra neural pura y se revisan los aspectos diagnosticos. Caso clinico. Varon de 40 años, inmigrante, diagnosticado y tratado de lepra 20 años antes. Acudio por parestesias y disestesias dolorosas en las manos y las piernas sin lesiones en la piel. Se demostro mononeuritis multiple aguda con principal afectacion de cubitales. La enfermedad, tipificada como tuberculoide paucibacilar, se trato y en pocas semanas la mejoria fue evidente. Conclusiones. En este caso de lepra neural pura por reactivacion, el diagnostico temprano permitio un rapido tratamiento. Es recomendable la evaluacion de la neuropatia integrada con criterios clinicos, electrofisiologicos y ecograficos. De este modo se consigue una alta sensibilidad y especialmente una precocidad en el diagnostico y la instauracion del tratamiento, y por consecuencia una mejor recuperacion funcional.

  12. Use of the Maximum Likelihood Method in the Analysis of Chamber Air Dives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    de probabilidad maxima para evaluar ci niesgo de enfermedad por des- t,- 1.WalersbyP. doeo (EPD) onimrinsd aaacnaire electivas. Sc optmz los...parametros -Medic Rcsearc dedsmodelos matemnaticos para predecir la EPD, hasta que se alcanzo el mejor critenio tute, 198 (medido por la probabilidad maxima

  13. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  14. Algunos Resumenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    En una sesion especial celebrada en Ginebra el dia 26 de marzo el Consejo de la ESO aeepto por unanimidad a Italia y Suiza eomo nuevos estados miembros de la organizaeion. Una vez que los proeedimientos necesarios para la ratifieaeion por las Camaras de ambos pafses hayan sido eoneluldos eon exito, podrfan ellos ser asoeiados efectivamente a prineipios dei ario 1981.

  15. 77 FR 47593 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Baosteel and Hunan Valin did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. Further, the Department preliminarily finds that because the other two respondents, Anshan and Liaoning, did not establish their... shipments of subject merchandise to the United States during the POR. In addition, CBP did not provide...

  16. 78 FR 29322 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final No Shipments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Jinneng''), did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. We gave interested parties an..., we continue to find that Shanghai Jinneng did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. \\1... Determination of No Shipments In the Preliminary Results, we preliminarily determined that Shanghai Jinneng...

  17. 76 FR 33204 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (``SSSS from Mexico... the cost changes and the sales prices during the POR. See SSSS from Mexico at Comment 6 and SSPC from... between Borusan's changing costs and sales prices during the POR. See id. See also SSSS from Mexico...

  18. 25 CFR 900.112 - What are construction phases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... project Program of Requirements (POR); (3) The design phase. The phase during which licensed design professional(s) using the POR as the basis for design of the project, prepare project plans, specifications, and other documents that are a part of the construction documents used to build the project....

  19. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  20. Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine (Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Forreiter, C; Apel, K

    1993-01-01

    Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the two POR polypeptides are differentially affected by light: one of them is predominantly present in prolamellar bodies of etiochloroplasts and its abundance rapidly declines once the pine seedlings are exposed to light; the other is found in thylakoid membranes and its amount does not change during illumination of dark-grown seedlings. Two types of cDNA sequences are identified that encode two distinct POR polypeptides in pine. The relevance of these POR polypeptides for the two chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways active in gymnosperms is discussed.

  1. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Breast Cancer a Novel Application of an Etiologic Theory for Allergies, Asthma, and Other Immune Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    acerca de alergias . Por alergias , estamos hablando de los siguientes síntomas: nariz constipada, ojos lagrimosos, congestión o estornudos, ahogo o asma...anafiláctico o alérgico B. ¿A qué edad notó por primera vez esta alergia ? C. ¿A que edad tuvo por última vez una reacción alérgica a polvo casero...alérgico B. ¿A qué edad noto por primera vez esta alergia ? C. ¿A qué edad tuvo por última vez una reacción alérgica a [animal]? D. ¿Cuántos

  2. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of four neurovirulent Mexican isolates of porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrera, Ali A; Del Valle, Alberto; Montaño-Hirose, Juan A; Barrón, Blanca Lilia; Salinas-Trujano, Juana; Torres-Flores, Jesus

    2017-02-09

    We report the complete genome sequences of four neurovirulent isolates of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) from 2015 and one historical PorPV isolate from 1984 obtained by next-generation sequencing. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the individual sequences of the complete HN genes of the 2015 isolates and other historical sequences deposited in the GenBank database revealed that several recent neurovirulent isolates of PorPV (2008-2015) cluster together in a separate clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences revealed that the neurovirulent strains of PorPV that circulated in Mexico during 2015 are genetically different from the PorPV strains that circulated during the 1980s.

  3. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  4. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds.

  5. [The two faces of veno-arteriolar reflex: cutaneous vasodilatation and vasoconstriction to raise and to lower the arm].

    PubMed

    Estanol-Vidal, B; Gutierrez-Manjarrez, F; Martinez-Memije, R; Senties-Madrid, H; Berenguer-Sanchez, M J; Magana-Zamora, L; Delgado-Garcia, G; Chiquete-Anaya, E

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. El reflejo venoarteriolar (RVA) lo provoca un incremento en la presion venosa transmural al colocar una parte del cuerpo en el sentido de la aceleracion gravitatoria por debajo del corazon. Objetivo. Evaluar el RVA en sujetos sanos al levantar una parte del cuerpo por encima del corazon. Sujetos y metodos. En 16 sujetos sanos (20-65 años) se estudio el RVA mediante cambios en el flujo sanguineo de la piel con un fotopletismografo digital infrarrojo colocado en el pulpejo en sujetos sanos durante las siguientes condiciones: brazo derecho a la altura del corazon, brazo derecho 40 cm por debajo del corazon y brazo derecho 40 cm por encima del corazon. Las variables medidas fueron: amplitud del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo a la altura del corazon (amplitud basal), porcentaje de disminucion del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por debajo del corazon y porcentaje de aumento del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por encima del corazon. Resultados. El porcentaje de vasoconstriccion con el brazo derecho por debajo del corazon fue del 35%, y el de vasodilatacion, del 50%. Conclusiones. La evaluacion del RVA con el brazo por debajo del corazon provoca vasoconstriccion, y la elevacion del brazo produce una importante vasodilatacion. La vasoconstriccion y la vasodilatacion se mantienen mientras la extremidad se mantenga por encima o por debajo del corazon. Este es un estudio potencialmente muy util y economico para estudiar la inervacion de la microcirculacion en diversas neuropatias perifericas de fibras delgadas y mixtas.

  6. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  7. Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) in the US ART Population: Diagnostic Trends Among 181,536 Cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS)

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Kate; Mumford, Sunni L.; Wu, Mae; DeCherney, Alan H.; Hill, Micah J.; Propst, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate trends in DOR assignment in the SART CORS database and to evaluate its accuracy in predicting poor ovarian response (POR) as defined in ESHRE’s ‘Bologna Criteria’ (2011). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Not applicable. Patients 181,536 fresh, autologous ART cycles reported to SART by US clinics in 2004 and 2011 (earliest and most recent available reporting years). Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) DOR assignment was the primary exposure. POR, defined as cycle cancellation for poor response or <4 oocytes retrieved following conventional gonadotropin stimulation (>149 IU FSH daily), was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were live birth and number of oocytes retrieved. DOR prevalence, power of DOR and FSH (POR, and live birth in POR cycles were also calculated. Results DOR prevalence increased from 19 to 26% from 2004 to 2011. Among cycles clinically assigned as DOR, incidence of POR decreased from 32 to 30%, and live birth improved from 15 to 17%. Comparing basal FSH ≥12 versus clinical assignment of DOR, basal FSH had a higher specificity (92.2% vs.81.6%) and PPV (38.3%vs.30.9%) for predicting POR. Live birth among POR cycles was 4%. Conclusions DOR diagnosis is increasing, and accuracy remains poor, despite the availability of additional diagnostic parameters such as antral follicle count and anti-mullerian hormone. POR entailed poor outcomes, but the majority of patients clinically assigned as DOR did not experience POR. Development and utilization of more accurate predictors of POR are needed to minimize patient distress resulting from over-diagnosis. PMID:26049057

  8. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  9. [Analysis of maternal deaths in Mexico occurred during 2009].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Meljem-Moctezuma, José; Vicente-González, Esther; Venegas-Páez, Francisco Vicente; Villalba-Espinoza, Ignacio; Pérez-Cardoso, Ana Luisa; Barrón-Saldaña, Dante Adrián; Montesinos-Gómez, Gabriela; Aguirre Güemez, Ana Valeria; Novoa-Boldo, Alejandro; Mendoza-Larios, Laura Alejandra; López-González, Rosa; Mazón-González, Betania; Aguirre-Gas, Héctor Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 ocurrieron 955 defunciones maternas en México, 49.9 por 100 000 nacidos vivos. La meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para 2015 es reducir la tasa a 22.5: 560 defunciones anuales. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 1257 muertes maternas ocurridas en México durante 2009, con una muestra representativa de 173 expedientes. Se calcularon frecuencias simples y porcentajes. Resultados: las muertes maternas ocurrieron por causas directas como preeclampsia-eclampsia, infección y hemorragia obstétrica secundaria a atonía uterina, acretismo placentario y placenta previa. Quince mujeres tuvieron complicaciones por abortos. Cuatro murieron por embarazo extrauterino debido a diagnóstico y tratamiento tardíos. Las causas indirectas de la muerte materna fueron neoplasias, sepsis abdominal, eventos vasculares, problemas metabólicos y cardiopatías. Veinticinco pacientes fallecieron por neumonía atípica y 11 por influenza A H1N1. Conclusiones: es factible disminuir la mortalidad materna mediante suficientes consultas prenatales de calidad y evitar embarazos con riesgo alto por los antecedentes obstétricos y los padecimientos asociados. La influenza A H1N1 interrumpió la tendencia descendente de la mortalidad materna.

  10. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  11. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  12. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2012-03-01

    During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development.

  13. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17α-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  14. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-03-25

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación.

  15. Swinging Over the Water Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    de una cuerda en el borde de un agujero de agua en x = 0, oscilando hacia arriba, y suelta la cuerda en algunos momentos, volando libremente por el...aire hasta que se sumerge en el agua en x = 0. Para pequeñas velocidades iniciales, el máximo rango de R se obtiene mediante la liberación de la...cuerda justo por debajo de su punto de inflexión y cayendo casi en línea recta hacia abajo en el agua desde el reposo. Por otra parte, como la velocidad

  16. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2006-03-01

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is the first stereospecific enzyme in the putative biosynthetic pathway of Digitalis cardenolides. Selenomethionine-derivatized 5beta-POR from D. lanata was successfully overproduced and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.73, c = 186.64 A. A MAD data set collected at 2.7 A resolution allowed the identification of six out of eight possible Se-atom positions. A first inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5beta-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5beta-POR will readily be built.

  18. Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: implications in drug metabolism and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Zhuo, Wei; He, Yi-Jing; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Fan, Lan

    2012-11-01

    The redox reaction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is an important physiological and biochemical reaction in the human body, as it is involved in the oxidative metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only obligate electron donor for all of the hepatic microsomal CYP enzymes. It plays a crucial role in drug metabolism and treatment by not only acting as an electron donor involved in drug metabolism mediated by CYP enzymes but also by directly inducing the transformation of some antitumor precursors. Studies have found that the gene encoding human POR is highly polymorphic, which is of considerable clinical significance as it affects the metabolism and curative effects of clinically used drugs. This review aims to discuss the effect of POR and its genetic polymorphisms on drug metabolism and therapy, as well as the potential mechanisms of POR pharmacogenetics.

  19. Neural tube defects and drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J B; Pyrch, L A

    1999-07-01

    We conducted a population-based case control study of neural tube defects and drinking water contaminants, specifically, disinfection by-products. We used public monitoring records concurrent with the first month of gestation to assess exposure. The prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for the highest tertile of total trihalomethanes compared with the lowest was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9-2.70). Surface water source was also associated with neural tube defects (POR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.5). Sensitivity analyses restricted to isolated neural tube defect cases and mothers with known residence at conception yielded stronger associations [total trihalomethanes, POR = 2.1 (95% CI = 1.1-4.0); surface water, POR = 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9-3.2)]. Other major groups of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles) showed little relation to these defects.

  20. 75 FR 18788 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., 2010) (SSSS from Mexico); see also Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of... cost changes and sales prices during the POR. See Preliminary Cost Calculation Memo. See, e.g.,...

  1. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (SSSS from Mexico), and accompanying Issues and Decision... between LMEL's changing costs and sales prices during the POR. See Cost Calculation Memo. See, e.g.,...

  2. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  3. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\23\\ As a general matter, the Department prefers...

  4. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., publicly available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\10\\ As a general...

  5. 76 FR 62776 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Chemicals, Co., Ltd. (``Jiheng'') by-product offsets for chlorine, ammonia gas, hydrogen, and recovered... production of chlorine, ammonia gas, hydrogen, and sulfuric acid recovered during the POR. However,...

  6. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  7. 78 FR 72633 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from Spain.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2011... notice. \\1\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping...

  8. Light-harvesting ytterbium(III)-porphyrinate-BODIPY conjugates: synthesis, excitation-energy transfer, and two-photon-induced near-infrared-emission studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2013-01-07

    Based on a donor-acceptor framework, several conjugates have been designed and prepared in which an electron-donor moiety, ytterbium(III) porphyrinate (YbPor), was linked through an ethynyl bridge to an electron-acceptor moiety, boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). Photoluminescence studies demonstrated efficient energy transfer from the BODIPY moiety to the YbPor counterpart. When conjugated with the YbPor moiety, the BODIPY moiety served as an antenna to harvest the lower-energy visible light, subsequently transferring its energy to the YbPor counterpart, and, consequently, sensitizing the Yb(III) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region with a quantum efficiency of up to 0.73% and a lifetime of around 40 μs. Moreover, these conjugates exhibited large two-photon-absorption cross-sections that ranged from 1048-2226 GM and strong two-photon-induced NIR emission.

  9. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review (``POR... Republic of Vietnam'' from Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping and...

  10. Enzymatic product formation impairs both the chloroplast receptor- binding function as well as translocation competence of the NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, a nuclear-encoded plastid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The key enzyme of chlorophyll biosynthesis in higher plants, the light- dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1), is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein. Its posttranslational transport into plastids of barley depends on the intraplastidic availability of one of its substrates, protochlorophyllide (PChlide). The precursor of POR (pPOR), synthesized from a corresponding full-length barley cDNA clone by coupling in vitro transcription and translation, is enzymatically active and converts PChlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in a light- and NADPH-dependent manner. Chlorophyllide formed catalytically remains tightly but noncovalently bound to the precursor protein and stabilizes a transport-incompetent conformation of pPOR. As shown by in vitro processing experiments, the chloroplast transit peptide in the Chlide-pPOR complex appears to be masked and thus is unable to physically interact with the outer plastid envelope membrane. In contrast, the chloroplast transit peptide in the naked pPOR (without its substrates and its product attached to it) and in the pPOR- substrate complexes, such as pPOR-PChlide or pPOR-PChlide-NADPH, seems to react independently of the mature region of the polypeptide, and thus is able to bind to the plastid envelope. When envelope-bound pPOR- PChlide-NADPH complexes were exposed to light during a short preincubation, the enzymatically produced Chlide slowed down the actual translocation step, giving rise to the sequential appearance of two partially processed translocation intermediates. However, ongoing translocation induced by feeding the chloroplasts delta-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of PChlide, was able to override these two early blocks in translocation, suggesting that the plastid import machinery has a substantial capacity to denature a tightly folded, envelope-bound precursor protein. Together, our results show that pPOR with Chlide attached to it is impaired both in the ATP-dependent step of binding to a

  11. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Alegría, Analucía A; Brinson, Helen

    2014-02-24

    Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los estudios con resonancia magnetica en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) infantil y adulto. Desarrollo. Dichos estudios han demostrado que el TDAH se caracteriza por la presencia de multiples anomalias de caracter estructural y funcional, primordialmente en los circuitos frontoestriatales, pero tambien en los circuitos frontoparietotemporales, frontocerebelares e, incluso, frontolimbicos. Los datos aportados por los estudios longitudinales de resonancia magnetica estructural demuestran que el TDAH se caracteriza por un retraso en la maduracion estructural del cerebro. Esta conclusion se ve reforzada por los indicios indirectos ofrecidos por los estudios de cortes transversales, que indican la existencia de una inmadurez sustancial tanto en la funcion cerebral como en los patrones de conectividad estructural y funcional, indicios que, sin embargo, estan pendientes de confirmar en estudios longitudinales. La alteracion funcional de la corteza prefrontal ventrolateral parece estar mas afectada en el TDAH que en otros trastornos pediatricos, y existen algunos indicios de anomalias distintivas en los ganglios basales. Un metaanalisis sobre los efectos de los estimulantes en la funcion cerebral demuestra que el mecanismo de accion agudo mas congruente de los farmacos psicoestimulantes consiste en el aumento de la activacion de la corteza prefrontal inferior y los ganglios basales. Los primeros intentos por utilizar los datos de los estudios de neuroimagen para elaborar clasificaciones diagnosticas individuales de los niños con TDAH a partir de tecnicas de reconocimiento de patrones han cosechado resultados alentadores, pero todavia deben ser replicados por mas centros y aparatos de resonancia magnetica. Conclusiones. Durante los ultimos 20 años, las tecnicas de neuroimagen han perfilado los biomarcadores del TDAH, pero es necesario que nuevos estudios descubran la utilidad clinica de esa informacion, como el

  12. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  13. Conditional deletion of cytochrome p450 reductase in osteoprogenitor cells affects long bone and skull development in mice recapitulating antley-bixler syndrome: role of a redox enzyme in development.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satya P; Guntur, Anyonya R; Polusani, Srikanth R; Fajardo, Roberto J; Gakunga, Peter T; Roman, Linda J; Masters, Bettie Sue

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the primary electron donor for cytochromes P450, dehydrocholesterol reductase, heme oxygenase, and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with specific mutations in POR exhibit severe developmental malformations including disordered steroidogenesis, sexual ambiguities and various bone defects, similar to those seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). To probe the role of POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Por (lox/lox) and Dermo1 Cre mice. CKO mice were smaller than their littermate controls and exhibited significant craniofacial and long bone abnormalities. Differential staining of the CKO mice skull bases shows premature fusion of the sphenooccipital and basioccipital-exoccipital synchondroses. Class III malocclusion was noted in adult knockout mice with an unusual overgrowth of the lower incisors. Shorter long bones were observed along with a reduction in the bone volume fraction, measured by microCT, in the Por-deleted mice compared to age- and sex-matched littermate controls. Concerted up- or down-regulation of proteins in the FGF signaling pathway observed by immunohistochemistry in the tibia samples of CKO mice compared to wild type controls shows a decrease in the FGF signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mouse model that recapitulates both skull and long bone defects upon Por deletion, offering an approach to study the sequelae of POR mutations. This unique model demonstrates that P450 metabolism in bone itself is potentially important for proper bone development, and that an apparent link exists between the POR and FGF signaling pathways, begging the question of how an oxidation-reduction flavoprotein affects developmental and cellular signaling processes.

  14. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    procedural and subjective (see Program Managers Guide: A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http...a sensor pod for the Man- Transportable Robotic System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program...subjective (see Program Managers Guide: A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil

  15. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004...System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program Office (RS-JPO), under the TACOM Program Executive...Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004). Systems engineering

  16. Phosphoethanolamine Residues on the Lipid A Moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Modulate Binding of Complement Inhibitors and Resistance to Complement Killing

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, William M.; Dutta Ray, Tathagat; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) from the lipid A of gonococcal strain FA19 results in increased sensitivity to killing by the classical pathway of complement. Here we demonstrate that loss of PEA from lipid A diminishes binding of the complement regulatory protein C4b binding protein (C4BP) to the FA19 porin B (PorB), providing a molecular basis to explain the susceptibility of an lptA null strain of FA19 to killing by normal human serum (NHS). Loss of PEA from lipid A in three additional gonococcal strains that expressed diverse PorB molecules also resulted in decreased C4BP binding, increased deposition of C4b, and increased susceptibility to killing by NHS. Complementation of lptA null strains with lptA restored C4BP binding, decreased C4b deposition, and increased resistance to killing by NHS. These effects of lipid A PEA on C4BP binding to gonococcal PorB and serum resistance were simulated when gonococcal PorB was expressed in a meningococcal background. Loss of PEA from lipid A also affected binding of the alternative pathway regulator factor H (fH) to PorB of some strains. For instance, PorB molecules of lptA null mutants of strains 252 and 1291 bound less fH than those of their parent strains when lipooligosaccharide (LOS) was sialylated, whereas PorB molecules of lptA null mutants of strains FA1090 and 273 retained the ability to bind fH when LOS was sialylated. These data indicate that replacement of lipid A with PEA alters binding of C4BP and fH to PorB and contributes to the ability of gonococci to resist complement-mediated killing. PMID:23071134

  17. DoD LSI Transformation: Creating a Model-Based Acquisition Framework \\201MBAF\\202

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Warfare Concept (IWC) • Mission centric approach to defining operational requirements • Using MBSE Need to interface POR MBSE to IWC MBSE 3...Background (cont) POR Workforce, Tools, Training Documents, Process, System Reqmts IWC LSI, SoS, Models Opera onal & Mission Reqmts SDEA 4 Problem...optimization and cross platform interoperability that provide traceability to mission level requirements. • Define and control system interfaces consistent

  18. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  19. Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas (profesionalismo de inteligencia en las americas)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    inteligencia. Aspecto importante para el profesionalismo de la actividad de inteligencia: evitar su empleo indiscriminado en materia policial. Otro...consiste, fundamentalmente, en el empleo por parte de instituciones policiales dentro de la actividad policial de determinados métodos propios de la...Tam- bién, por extensión, a actividades delictivas complejas o cuyas características requerían del empleo de una importante capacidad de análisis

  20. [Cytomegalovirus: congenital infection and clinical presentation in infants with respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Contreras, Angélica; Lira, Rosalía; Soria-Rodríguez, Carmen; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angélica; Rojas-Montes, Othón; Ayala-Figueroa, Rafael; Estrada-Guzmán, Julia; Álvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) es una enfermedad común multifactorial que varía del 15 al 50 % en el recién nacido (RN), y la mortalidad es de 50 %. Puede estar asociado a infecciones bacterianas y virales, una de las más frecuentes: el citomegalovirus (CMV). En el periodo neonatal la incidencia de infección por CMV es de 0.4 a 2.5 % y la seroprevalencia de 50 a 75 %; se desconoce la incidencia de infección en los RN. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de infección por CMV en recién nacidos con SDR e identificar factores de riesgo asociados a infección. Métodos: el DNA-CMV fue identificado en plasma por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa, y las variables maternas y neonatales que definieron el cuadro clínico fueron analizadas por regresión logística. Resultados: la frecuencia de infección por CMV en 197 RN con SDR fue de 8.6 % (IC 95 % 4.7-12.5). Las variables significativas en los RN fueron: neutropenia (p = 0.012), trombocitopenia (p = 0.021), piel marmórea (p = 0.03) y la variable materna significativa fue cervicovaginitis (p = 0.05). Conclusiones: se reporta por primera vez la frecuencia más alta de infección por CMV en RN con SDR y la asociación de varios factores de riesgo con la infección por CMV.

  1. Army Delivers Route Clearance Vehicle Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the Husky Vehicle-Mount- ed Mine-Detection (VMMD) System, the Buffalo® Mine- Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV), the Panther Medium Mine-Protected...cord (POR) RCVs—the Husky, the Buf- falo, and the Panther . POR-configured Huskys, Buffalos, and Panthers have already been fielded in-theater—albeit...IED vehicle equipped with a distinctive hydraulic arm that inter- rogates suspected explosive hazards and clears them when necessary. The Panther

  2. [Therapeutic potential of bone marrow stem cells in cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Milián-Rodríguez, Lismary

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. Las celulas madre constituyen una alternativa terapeutica que se encuentra en fase de experimentacion para el infarto cerebral. Objetivo. Mostrar la evidencia cientifica existente sobre el potencial terapeutico de las celulas madre de la medula osea en esta enfermedad. Desarrollo. El infarto cerebral representa el 80% de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares. La trombolisis constituye la unica terapia aprobada, pero, por su estrecha ventana terapeutica, solo se aplica a un bajo porcentaje de los pacientes. De manera alternativa, los tratamientos neurorrestauradores, como el de celulas madre, pueden aplicarse en periodos mas prolongados. Por esta razon se efectuo una busqueda bibliografica en PubMed con el empleo de las palabras clave 'stem cells', 'bone marrow derived mononuclear cells' y 'stroke'. Se encontraron evidencias de seguridad y eficacia de dichas celulas en diferentes momentos evolutivos del infarto cerebral. Se identificaron estudios que en clinica y preclinica las recolectaron por puncion medular y en sangre periferica, y las trasplantaron directamente en el area infartada o por via intravascular. El efecto terapeutico se relaciona con sus propiedades de plasticidad celular y liberacion de factores troficos. Conclusiones. El concentrado de celulas mononucleares autologas, obtenido en sangre periferica o por puncion de la medula osea, y trasplantado por via intravenosa, es una factible opcion metodologica que permitira rapidamente incrementar el numero de ensayos clinicos en diferentes etapas evolutivas del infarto cerebral. Esta terapia muestra seguridad y eficacia; sin embargo, deben ampliarse las evidencias que avalen su generalizacion en humanos.

  3. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  4. In situ FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the low-temperature NO disproportionation mediated by solid state manganese(II) porphyrinates.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Garik G; Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2006-05-15

    The heterogeneous reaction between NO gas and sublimed layers of manganese(II) porphyrinato complexes Mn(Por) (Por = TPP (tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion), TMP (tetramesitylporphyrinato dianion), or TPP(d20) (perdeuterated tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion)) has been monitored by IR and optical spectroscopy over the temperature range of 77 K to room temperature. These manganese porphyrins promote NO disproportionation to NO2 species and N2O, and the reaction proceeds via several distinct stages. At 90 K, the principal species observed spectrally are the nitric oxide dimer, cis-ONNO, two manganese nitrosyls, the simple NO adduct Mn(Por)(NO), and another intermediate (1) that is apparently critical to the disproportionation mechanism. This key intermediate is formed prior to N2O evolution, and proposals regarding its likely structure are offered. When the system is warmed to 130 K, the disproportionation products, N2O and the O-coordinated nitrito complex Mn(Por)(NO)(ONO) (2), are formed. IR spectral changes show that, upon further warming to 200 K, 2 isomerizes into the N-bonded nitro linkage isomer Mn(Por)(NO)(NO2) (3). After it is warmed to room temperature, the latter species loses NO and converts to the known 5-coordinate nitrito complex Mn(Por)(ONO) (4).

  5. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu.

  6. [Familial microepidemic of food-borne botulism in the Region of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Jalda, D; Junco, A; Alvarez-Moreno, M; Rodero, I; Carneado-Ruiz, J

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. El botulismo es un sindrome causado por la toxina del bacilo Clostridium botulinum. La toxina actua bloqueando las terminaciones colinergicas presinapticas de la placa motora y del sistema nervioso parasimpatico, y ocasiona una paralisis flacida y un fallo parasimpatico. El modo mas habitual de adquisicion de la enfermedad es por ingesta de toxina preformada presente en las conservas caseras mal esterilizadas, aunque otros mecanismos son posibles. Su incidencia actual en Espana es muy baja. Casos clinicos. Se describen tres miembros convivientes de una familia que presentaron un cuadro de botulismo alimentario. Las manifestaciones clinicas iniciales mostraron predileccion por la paresia ocular y por sintomatologia disautonomica de escasa especificidad, y la agregacion familiar fue el indicio fundamental que sugirio el diagnostico. Posteriormente, los pacientes empeoraron y dos de ellos presentaron afectacion de la funcion respiratoria y precisaron ingreso prolongado en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los tres pacientes convalecieron y se recuperaron sin secuelas. Se consiguio detectar la toxina botulinica por bioensayo en los restos de alimentos, lo que confiere al caso la categoria diagnostica de confirmado. Conclusiones. La microepidemia familiar presentada constituye un caso de afectacion inicial predominantemente ocular y disautonomica. Asimismo, ilustra varios aspectos tipicos de la enfermedad: la sospecha diagnostica ante pacientes convivientes que acuden simultaneamente por clinica similar, las complicaciones caracteristicas del proceso y su tratamiento, el diagnostico de laboratorio y su historia natural hacia la resolucion.

  7. Arabidopsis light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanhong; Apel, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Recently the porA-1 null mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified, which contains an insertion of the Dissociation (Ds) element in the PORA gene (Paddock et al. in Plant Mol Biol 78:447-460, 2012). Light-grown porA-1 seedlings suffer from a drastically reduced chlorophyll content and a developmental arrest beyond the cotyledon stage, suggesting that PORA is not only transiently involved in initiating chlorophyll synthesis during illumination of etiolated seedlings but is also essential for normal growth and plant development. Here we report the presence of a second Ds element in this porA-1 mutant line that inactivates the Speechless gene required for stomata formation. Similar to porA-1, speechless seedlings are severely impaired in their development. Our results suggest that the lack of stomata in porA-1 may contribute to the dwarfed phenotype of the mutant and thus emphasizes the need to re-address the proposed role of PORA during plant development by studying a porA mutant that retains its stomata formation.

  8. Effect of binge eating disorder on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    García Díaz, Eduardo; Jerez Arzola, María Elena; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Morcillo Herrera, Luis; Jiménez Sosa, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios previos sobre el efecto del trastorno por atracón en los resultados del tratamiento de la obesidad mediante bypass gástrico por vía laparoscópica (LGBP) son controvertidos. Faltan trabajos que comparen a pacientes con y sin trastorno por atracón según el sistema BAROS, que incluye: el porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, la evolución de las comorbilidades, la calidad de vida y las complicaciones. Objetivo: Estudiar si el trastorno por atracón predispone a peores resultados tras el LGBP en los términos que definen el sistema BAROS. Métodos: En un estudio de cohortes con 45 obesos mórbidos intervenidos mediante LGBP, se identificó a los pacientes con trastorno por atracón prequirúrgico mediante el Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns- Revised y se valoró sus resultados según los parámetros incluidos en el sistema BAROS. Resultados: El 21,4% de los pacientes presentaban trastorno por atracón. La mediana de seguimiento postoperatorio fue 12 meses. Los pacientes con trastorno por atracón presentaron menor tasa de resolución de la hipertensión arterial (42,9% frente a 92,9%; p = 0,025) y mayor frecuencia de estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal (70% frente al 17,1%; p = 0,003) que los pacientes sin trastorno por atracón. No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos con y sin trastorno por atracón respecto al porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, calidad de vida y puntuación global BAROS. Conclusiones: Los obesos con trastorno por atracón presentan tras el LGBP menores tasas de resolución de la hipertensión arterial y se complican más frecuentemente con una estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal. La valoración BAROS, la pérdida de peso y la calidad de vida son equiparables a la de los pacientes sin trastornopor atracón.

  9. Five- and six-coordinate adducts of nitrosamines with ferric porphyrins: structural models for the Type II interactions of nitrosamines with ferric cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Goodrich, Lauren E; Lehnert, Nicolai; Powell, Douglas R; Richter-Addo, George B

    2010-05-17

    Nitrosamines are well-known for their toxic and carcinogenic properties. The metabolic activation of nitrosamines occurs via interaction with the heme-containing cytochrome P450 enzymes. We report the preparation and structural characterization of a number of nitrosamine adducts of synthetic iron porphyrins. The reactions of the cations [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) (por = TPP, TTP, OEP) with dialkylnitrosamines (R(2)NNO; R(2) = Me(2), Et(2), (cyclo-CH(2))(4), (cyclo-CH(2))(5), (PhCH(2))(2)) in toluene generate the six-coordinate high-spin (S = 5/2) [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) compounds and a five-coordinate intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) [(OEP)Fe(ONNMe(2))]ClO(4) derivative in 57-72% yields (TPP = 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TTP = 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, OEP = 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrinato dianion). The N-O and N-N vibrations of the coordinated nitrosamine groups in [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) occur in the 1239-1271 cm(-1) range. Three of the six-coordinate [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) compounds and one five-coordinate [(OEP)Fe(ONNMe(2))]ClO(4) compound have been characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. All the nitrosamine ligands in these complexes bind to the ferric centers via a sole eta(1)-O binding mode. No arylnitrosamine adducts were obtained from the reactions of the precursor compounds [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) with three arylnitrosamines (Ph(2)NNO, Ph(Me)NNO, Ph(Et)NNO). However, prolonged exposure of [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) to these arylnitrosamines resulted in the formation of the known five-coordinate (por)Fe(NO) derivatives. The latter (por)Fe(NO) compounds were obtained more readily by the reactions of the three arylnitrosamines with the four-coordinate (por)Fe(II) precursors.

  10. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es la neuropatia hereditaria sensitivomotora mas frecuente. Avances en el diagnostico molecular han incrementado las posibilidades diagnosticas de estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 36 casos pediatricos diagnosticados de CMT en un centro terciario en el periodo 2003-2015. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 pacientes con CMT1A por una duplicacion en PMP22; dos casos se diagnosticaron de neuropatia hereditaria con predisposicion a paralisis por presion, uno de ellos con una mutacion puntual en PMP22; un varon con un fenotipo leve desmielinizante se diagnostico de CMTX1 por mutacion en GJB1; un paciente con una hipotonia paralitica en el nacimiento y un patron axonal por mutacion en MFN2; un paciente de origen rumano se diagnostico de CMT4D por una mutacion en el gen NDRG1; una paciente con una atrofia muscular espinal congenita distal con neuropatia axonal leve asociada por mutacion en el gen TRPV4; tres niñas de una familia consanguinea de etnia gitana se diagnosticaron de CMT axonal con descargas neuromiotonicas por una mutacion en el gen HINT1; 12 pacientes no tienen diagnostico molecular actualmente, cuatro de ellos de etnia gitana. Conclusiones. CMT1A predomino en nuestra serie (44%), como corresponde a la bibliografia. Destacamos la descripcion de una paciente con una mutacion en TRPV4 recientemente descrita como causa de CMT2C y tres casos de una misma familia consanguinea gitana con la misma mutacion en el gen HINT1 recientemente publicada como causa de neuropatia axonal con neuromiotonia autosomica recesiva (AR-CMT2). El porcentaje de casos sin diagnostico molecular es similar al de grandes series europeas.

  11. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  12. [Incidence and lethality of ischaemic stroke among people 60 years or older in the region of Tarragona (Spain), 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Vila-Corcoles, Ángel; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Vila-Rovira, Ángel; Blade, Jordi; Bobé, Francesc; Casanova, Raquel; Jariod, Manuel; Reig, Rosaura

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La informacion existente sobre la epidemiologia del ictus en nuestro pais es limitada. Este estudio analizo la incidencia y mortalidad por ictus isquemico en la poblacion general mayor de 60 años del area de Tarragona. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio de cohortes de base poblacional que incluyo a 27.204 personas de 60 o mas años adscritas a nueve areas basicas de salud en la comarca del Tarragones. Se realizo un seguimiento prospectivo durante tres años, en los que se seleccionaron todos los episodios de ictus isquemicos ocurridos entre los miembros de la cohorte desde el 1 de diciembre de 2008 hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2011. Se incluyeron exclusivamente episodios con diagnostico validado tras la revision de la historia clinica y se excluyeron aquellos casos sin confirmacion diagnostica por neuroimagen. Resultados. Se observo un total de 343 casos confirmados de ictus isquemico, lo cual supuso una incidencia de 453 episodios por 100.000 personas/año (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 408-504). La incidencia fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (531 frente a 392 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001) y aumento sustancialmente con la edad (195 frente a 517 y frente a 1.006 por 100.000 personas/año en 60-69, 70-79 y >= 80 años, respectivamente; p < 0,001). La incidencia fue mas de ocho veces superior entre las personas con antecedentes de ictus previo en comparacion con aquellas sin historia de ictus previo (2.962 frente a 340 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001). El indice de letalidad global fue del 13%, y alcanzo el 21% entre las personas de 80 o mas años. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por ictus es considerable en nuestra poblacion. Medidas preventivas y tratamientos mas eficaces son imperativos.

  13. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  14. [Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada por la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró por debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 por mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 por mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron por debajo de los indicadores (< 1 por mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada por la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones agudas de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.

  15. The crystal structure of progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata defines a novel class of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Andrea; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Jäger, Christof M; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2008-06-20

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of cardenolides in Digitalis (foxglove) plants. Sequence considerations suggested that 5beta-POR is a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family of proteins but at the same time revealed that the sequence motifs that in standard SDRs contain the catalytically important residues are missing. Here we present crystal structures of 5beta-POR from Digitalis lanata in complex with NADP(+) at 2.3A and without cofactor bound at 2.4A resolution together with a model of a ternary complex consisting of 5beta-POR, NADP(+), and progesterone. Indeed, 5beta-POR displays the fold of an extended SDR. The architecture of the active site is, however, unprecedented because none of the standard catalytic residues are structurally conserved. A tyrosine (Tyr-179) and a lysine residue (Lys-147) are present in the active site, but they are displayed from novel positions and are part of novel sequence motifs. Mutating Tyr-179 to either alanine or phenylalanine completely abolishes the enzymatic activity. We propose that the distinct topology reflects the fact that 5beta-POR reduces a conjugated double bond in a steroid substrate via a 1-4 addition mechanism and that this requires a repositioning of the catalytically important residues. Our observation that the sequence motifs that line the active site are conserved in a number of bacterial and plant enzymes of yet unknown function leads us to the proposition that 5beta-POR defines a novel class of SDRs.

  16. The relationship between different spectral forms of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase complex and the structural organisation of prolamellar bodies isolated from Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Selstam, Eva; Brain, Anthony P R; Williams, W Patrick

    2011-05-01

    Incubation of prolamellar bodies (PLB) in high-salt media leads to changes in PLB structure and properties of their protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase-protochlorophyllide (POR-PChlide) complex. The paracrystalline organisation typical of PLB is disrupted and NADPH dissociates from photoconvertible POR-PChlide, with absorption maxima at 640 and 650 nm (POR-PChlide (640/650)), and a non-photoconvertible form, with absorption maxima at 635 nm (POR-PChlide (635)), is formed. These effects are strongly dependent on the valence of the cation of the perturbing salt, indicating that they involve surface double layers effects. They are also influenced by the nature of the anion and by high concentrations of non-electrolytes, suggesting the involvement of surface hydration effects. The structural changes are largely, if not entirely, independent of the presence of excess NADPH. Changes to the POR-PChlide complex, however, are strongly inhibited by excess NADPH suggesting that the two sets of changes may not be causally linked. As long as the disruption is not too great, the structural changes seen on incubation of PLB in high salt media lacking excess NADPH are reversed on removal of the high salt perturbation. This reversal is independent of the presence or absence of added NADPH. Reformation of photoconvertible POR-PChlide, however, requires the presence of NADPH. The reformation of paracrystalline PLB in the absence of NADPH strongly indicates that preservation of PLB structure, in isolated PLB preparations at least, is independent of the presence or absence of POR-PChlide (650).

  17. Electrostriction effects on electron transfer reactions in solution. I. Adiabatic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jonggu; Kim, Hyung J.

    1997-04-01

    The outer-sphere unimolecular electron transfer reactions, DA⇌D+A-, in polar solvents are studied theoretically. By employing a recent theory of fluctuating cavities [H. J. Kim, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6818, 6833 (1996)], we construct a nonequilibrium free energy formulation that accounts for both the solvation and electrostriction aspects of the changing solute dipole moment during the reaction. With a two-state diabatic description for the solute electronic structure, we obtain a two-dimensional free energy surface in terms of the cavity radius a and a solvent coordinate that gauges the nonequilibrium solvent orientational polarization Por. The equilibrium a values for the reactant and product states are found to differ significantly, indicating that the cavity reorganization plays an important role in the reaction free energetics and dynamics. The reaction mechanism and rate constant are analyzed via the solution-phase reaction path, which is found to vary markedly with the relative time scales of the Por and a motions. To be specific, the charge transfer proceeds in a concerted fashion with active participation of both Por and a when their characteristic times are comparable. By contrast, a stepwise mechanism results when there is a large mismatch between the Por and a time scales. In the slow cavity limit where a is much slower than Por, the reorganization through the cavity size adjustment precedes the barrier crossing that occurs exclusively along the Por coordinate. In the opposite fast cavity regime where Por is mainly responsible for activation and deactivation, it is found that the saddle point on the free energy surface is no longer rate-determining due to the nonlinear residual entropic effects. A brief comparison with other reaction systems involving charge shift in solution is also made.

  18. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Aeby, Greta S; Cowie, Rebecca O M; Davy, Simon K

    2010-02-17

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  19. Predictive Modeling of Coral Disease Distribution within a Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Aeby, Greta S.; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  20. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Introduccion. El tarantismo es la enfermedad producida por la picadura de la tarantula, en la que la musica de la tarantela desencadena un baile involuntario. Se conoce en Italia desde el siglo XVI. Objetivo. Analizar el tarantismo descrito en España a finales del siglo XVIII, atendiendo especialmente a sus aspectos neurologicos, y proponer su explicacion medica y psicopatologica. Desarrollo. En 1782 hubo una epidemia de afectados por picadura de tarantula en España. Medicos españoles describieron correctamente los efectos clinicos, identicos a los provocados por la picadura de la araña viuda negra (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), identificada en la epoca como tarantula. Los casos descritos por Francisco Xavier Cid curaban con el baile involuntario provocado por la tarantela, como se describia en Italia desde el siglo XVI. Interpretamos el efecto curativo de este baile en España como un fenomeno de sugestion. En los pacientes españoles no se producian los trastornos del comportamiento, las recidivas periodicas ni la afectacion colectiva descritos por autores italianos, y que sugieren un fenomeno histerico, probablemente continuacion de la mania danzante de la Edad Media. Conclusiones. El tarantismo descrito en España en el siglo XVIII incluye dos fenomenos distintos: los sintomas sistemicos producidos de la mordedura de la tarantula, que es en realidad un latrodectismo, y el efecto curativo de la tarantela, lo cual se explica por un fenomeno de sugestion. Los trastornos psiquicos falsamente asociados a la picadura de la tarantula observados en Italia, de origen histerico, no estuvieron presentes en los casos españoles de tarantismo del siglo XVIII.

  1. Optimization of heme precursors for the expression of human cytochrome P450 2A13 and its co-expression with oxidoreductase in baculovirus/sf9 system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Yuan; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Yang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-06-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), mainly expressed in respiratory tract, is active towards numerous toxicants. To establish the metabolism in vitro, we expressed CYP2A13 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) in a baculovirus/sf9 system. Due to the deficiency of sf9 cells in heme incorporation, we investigated the effects of different heme precursors on the expression of CYP2A13, POR and their co-expression. The present results showed that both CYP2A13 and POR were presented the highest expression levels or activity with 0.2 mM δ-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA), 0.02 mM Fe(3+) and 0.5-1.0 μg/ml hemin. The combination of 0.2 mM 5-ALA and 0.02 mM Fe(3+) significantly improved CYP2A13 expression and content compared with heme precursors alone, so was POR activity. A multiplicity of infection (MOI) value of 5 pfu/cell for CYP2A13 baculovirus particles induced very high CYP2A13 expression. When co-infected with different POR MOI values, a viral ratio of 5 : 2 was associated with the highest CYP2A13 activity, whereas POR activity dose dependently increased with POR MOI. Furthermore, the expressed CYP2A13 in the optimized conduction could eliminate its substrate aflatoxin B1 at a significantly higher than those in other condition (P < 0.01). Our results provide an efficient approach for expressing functionally characterized, highly active and homogeneous CYP2A13 proteins.

  2. Toll-Like Receptors Expression in Follicular Cells of Patients with Poor Ovarian Response

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Karimian, Leili; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropin stimulation has led to a significant decline in success rate of fertility treatment. The immune system may play an important role in pathophysiology of POR by dysfunctions of cytokines and the growth factor network, and the presence of ovarian auto-antibodies. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 genes in follicular cells and concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as major parts of innate immunity, in follicular fluid (FF) obtained from POR women in comparison with normal women. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 20 infertile POR patients and 20 normal women took part in this study and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. The FF was obtained from the largest follicle (>18 mm). The FF was centrifuged and cellular pellet was then used for evaluation of expression of TLRs and COX2 genes by real-time PCR. FF was used for quantitative analysis for IL-6, IL-8 and MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and COX2 gene expression were significantly higher in POR (p<0.05). Concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and MIF proteins was significantly increased in POR compared with normal women (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the immune system may be involved in pathophysiology of POR through TLRs. PMID:25083184

  3. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity among people consulting for HIV antibody testing: a pilot surveillance study in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Castel, J

    1990-01-01

    The surveillance of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) through case reporting only reflects the epidemiologic features of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission a few years earlier and not the prevalence of HIV seropositivity. HIV infection is not a notifiable condition in Quebec. We were asked by the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec to perform a pilot project for the surveillance of HIV seropositivity using a network of sentinel physicians. From May 15, 1988, to Sept. 30, 1989, physicians from four collaborating centres collected data on the serologic status, demographic characteristics and risk factors for 4209 patients who underwent HIV antibody testing. Of the 3899 subjects included in the study 7.9% were HIV positive. Through logistic regression analysis the following variables were found to be significantly associated with HIV seropositivity: presence of HIV-related symptoms (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 36.5), origin from an endemic area (POR 9.1), homosexuality or bisexuality (POR 8.4), intravenous drug use (POR 4.2), male sex (POR 2.8), previous HIV antibody testing (POR 2.5) and previous sexually transmitted disease (POR 1.8). Over the study period we found a large increase in HIV seroprevalence among intravenous drug users (4.2% in 1988 to 19.0% in 1989) (p = 0.02). This increase might reflect a recent change in the epidemiologic pattern of HIV transmission in Quebec. Surveillance of HIV seropositivity through a network of sentinel physicians may be a reasonable alternative to mandatory reporting. PMID:2357678

  4. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    implementation. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness in two different catchments in the Mediterranean. The catchments Evros and Rafina in Greece were affected by flood events during the past 20 years. However, even in case of extreme events, the vulnerability of the (social) system to stress is considerably low due to social networks, economic settings as well as institutional and political factors, and consequently the speed of return to the equilibrium steady state, defined as the prevailing livelihood conditions, is fast. In other words, even if the magnitude of a hazardous event is high, the vulnerability is considerably low due to multiple compensation mechanisms installed in the Greek society, ranging from spreading risk to a larger community to governmental compensation and private donation. Therefore, ex-post recovery following an event is well-organised, and the initial systems state is re-established immediately or with only little delay. Therefore, affected citizens simply do not care much about being affected by floods, will be able to prevent those damages. There are no incentives for the affected population to react pro-active by e.g. investing in local structural protection or any other management strategy. Key words: vulnerability; private adaptation; structural protection; risk management; floods; Greece References: Bohle H-G (2001) Vulnerability and criticality: Perspectives from social geography. IHDP Update 02/2001:3-5 Chambers R (1989) Vulnerability, coping and policy. IDS Bulletin 20 (2):1-7 Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Dahe Q, Dokken DJ, Plattner G-K, Ebi KL, Allen SK, Mastrandrea MD, Tignor M, Mach KJ, Midgley PM (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Fuchs S (2009) Susceptibility versus resilience to mountain hazards in Austria - Paradigms of vulnerability

  5. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  6. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  7. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  8. PubMed

    Fernández-Pacheco, P A De la Rosa; Delfrade Osinaga, J; Floristán Floristán, Y; Teijeira Alvarez, R; Moreno-Iribas, C

    2016-12-30

    Fundamento. Se analizan las tendencias de la mortalidad por accidentes de transporte entre 1999 y 2013 y se evalúa el impacto de la introducción del permiso de conducción por puntos en Navarra.Material y métodos. Los datos para la realización de este estudio proceden de los ficheros de defunciones según la causa de muerte que anualmente publica el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE). La codificación de la causa de defunción se realizó con la CIE-10, a partir de la información de los documentos estadísticos de defunción y los informes forenses. Se calcularon tasas por edad, sexo, tipo de víctima, tipo de accidente y residencia (urbano/rural). Para estimar el efecto de la ley del permiso de conducción por puntos que entró en vigor en julio de 2006 se utilizó un modelo ARIMA de Box and Jenkins de series temporales.Resultados. Se registraron un total de 1.052 fallecimientos por accidentes de transporte, de los cuales 1.044 fueron de vehículos de transporte terrestre (1.020 por accidentes de tráfico y 24 por accidentes no de tráfico). Entre los jóvenes, destaca la mortalidad en conductores de vehículo de motor; mientras que entre los mayores de 84 años, las víctimas fueron en mayor proporción peatones. Los hombres y mujeres residentes en zonas rurales presentaron tasas de mortalidad un 33% y un 21% más elevadas. Tras la instauración del permiso de conducción por puntos, la tasa de mortalidad por accidente de tráfico descendió un 51%.Conclusiones. Las estadísticas de mortalidad de Navarra muestran la efectividad de las estrategias preventivas organizadas en España.

  9. [Neurological health care activity in a recently created district hospital: model of high efficiency].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix J; Plaza-Nieto, José F; Navacerrada, Francisco; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; Guillán, Marta; Calleja, Marisol; Moreno-Puertas, Dolores

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Analizar la actividad asistencial de un hospital comarcal de reciente creacion, con especial enfasis en los indicadores asistenciales en consultas externas y en actos medicos de pacientes ingresados. Pacientes y metodos. Describimos la actividad asistencial realizada por nuestra seccion de neurologia durante los años 2008-2013. Se comparan nuestros indicadores asistenciales de los años 2012 y 2013 (quinto y sexto año de actividad), tanto en consultas externas como en pacientes ingresados, con los de otros dos hospitales de caracteristicas similares, otros tres de nivel secundario y otros cuatro de nivel terciario. Resultados. La seccion de neurologia de nuestro hospital fue la que realizo mayor numero de primeras consultas por facultativo, tuvo el mejor indice de consultas sucesivas/primeras y el mayor porcentaje de consultas de alta resolucion, tuvo la menor estancia media en los dos grupos relacionados por el diagnostico (GRD) mas frecuentes en nuestra especialidad, y fue la segunda en ingresos por facultativo del GRD 'ictus con infarto' y la tercera en ingresos por facultativo del GRD 'otros trastornos del sistema nervioso'. Conclusiones. Los indicadores asistenciales de la seccion de neurologia de nuestro hospital muestran un modelo de muy alta eficiencia, al cual solo se aproximan los de otros dos de caracteristicas y desarrollo similares al nuestro. La implantacion gradual de modelos similares al de estos tres hospitales en los niveles secundario y terciario podria ser de utilidad en la mejora de su eficiencia asistencial.

  10. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli.

  11. Respiratory disease in growing pigs after Porcine rubulavirus experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenicity and distribution of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs. Nine 6-week-old pigs were infected with PorPV and examined clinically. Blood, nasal swab, and tissue samples were collected on different days post-infection (DPI). The humoral immune responses and viral loads were evaluated. The infected pigs exhibited an increase in the respiratory clinical signs. In addition, the excretion of PorPV was extended to 23 DPI in the nasal fluid. The distribution of PorPV in the respiratory tract tissues was extended until the end of the experiment; soft palate tonsil and lymph nodes exhibited high viral loads. The major microscopic lesions observed in the lungs corresponded to interstitial pneumonia and hyperplasia of the associated lymphoid tissue. In conclusion, PorPV infection causes a pneumonic disease characterized by a prolonged virus excretion and high viral load in the lymphoid tissues.

  12. [Comparison between the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with the DSM-5 and neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions].

    PubMed

    Abad-Mas, L; Caloca-Catala, O; Mulas, F; Ruiz-Andres, R

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. El trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) tiene una prevalencia del 3-7% de la poblacion en edad escolar y cursa con problemas academicos y disfunciones ejecutivas. Objetivo. Estudiar la relacion entre el diagnostico del TDAH por medio de los criterios del Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, quinta edicion (DSM-5), y la evaluacion neuropsicologica de las funciones ejecutivas. Sujetos y metodos. Se evaluo a 50 sujetos, 12 mujeres y 38 varones, entre 8 y 10 años. Para evaluar el control inhibitorio se utilizo el Continuous Performance Test (CPT) y el test de Stroop; para la inteligencia y la memoria de trabajo, la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños-IV; y para la atencion, el CPT y el Selective Attention Test. Resultados. No habia diferencias significativas entre ambos subtipos de TDAH en cuanto a la memoria de trabajo. Las niñas presentaban mejores habilidades en la tarea de flexibilidad cognitiva que los niños, y los sujetos diagnosticados de TDAH combinado presentaban mayores dificultades en el control inhibitorio. Conclusiones. Confirmamos que las definiciones del TDAH en el DSM-5 son imprecisas. Son una escasa enumeracion de sintomas clinicos del trastorno, sin definir con claridad criterios propios de el. Por lo tanto, la definicion del trastorno se realiza por la evaluacion especifica de la atencion y de los mecanismos de control inhibitorio y, por ello, es necesaria una evaluacion neuropsicologica de las funciones cerebrales superiores.

  13. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Herl, Vanessa; Fischer, Gabriele; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    A full-length cDNA clone that encodes progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) was isolated from Digitalis lanata leaves. The reading frame of the 5beta-POR gene is 1170 nucleotides corresponding to 389 amino acids. For expression, a Sph1/Sal1 5beta-POR fragment was cloned into the pQE vector and was transformed into Escherichia coli strain M15[pREP4]. The recombinant gene was functionally expressed and the recombinant enzyme was characterized. The K(m) and v(max) values for the putative natural substrate progesterone were calculated to be 0.120 mM and 45 nkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. Only 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione but not its alpha-isomer was formed when progesterone was used as the substrate. Kinetic constants for cortisol, cortexone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and NADPH were also determined. The molecular organization of the 5beta-POR gene in D. lanata was determined by Southern blot analysis. The 5beta-POR is highly conserved within the genus Digitalis and the respective genes and proteins share considerable homology to putative progesterone reductases from other plant species.

  14. [Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2015-08-16

    Introduccion. La intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono es la mas frecuente en nuestro medio a consecuencia de la exposicion a gases toxicos. Los efectos de la intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono no se limitan a la exposicion aguda porque, tras la aparente recuperacion de la intoxicacion, pueden aparecer alteraciones neurologicas o del comportamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio de las intoxicaciones por monoxido de carbono en un area sanitaria de 80.000 habitantes durante un periodo de 10 años. Posteriormente se hizo un seguimiento de estos pacientes y se valoro la aparicion de sindrome neurologico tardio (SNT) y su relacion con diferentes variables en la exposicion inicial al monoxido de carbono, en el tratamiento administrado o en la gravedad de la intoxicacion. Resultados y conclusiones. Se observo que el 9,1% de los intoxicados por monoxido de carbono detectados en el area sanitaria de Salnes desarrollan el SNT, que es mas frecuente en los pacientes con criterios analiticos de gravedad y muy poco probable en los que no los tienen. Los pacientes con SNT no expresaron manifestaciones clinicas ni analiticas diferentes a los que no presentaron el sindrome; tampoco se observaron diferencias en relacion con la terapia con oxigeno administrada. La tasa de SNT en el area sanitaria de Salnes entre 2002 y 2012 es de 0,84 casos por 100.000 habitantes y año.

  15. Genetic variations in NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase in a Czech Slavic cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tomková, Mária; Panda, Satya Prakash; Šeda, Ondřej; Baxová, Alice; Hůlková, Martina; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martásek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene polymorphisms encoding the enzyme NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response. Aim To estimate polymorphic allele frequencies of the POR gene in a Czech Slavic population. Materials & Methods The gene POR was analyzed in 322 Czech Slavic individuals from a control cohort by sequencing and HRM analysis. Results Twenty-five SNP genetic variations were identified. Of these variants, 7 were new, unreported SNPs, including two SNPs in the 5´flanking region (g.4965 C>T and g.4994 G>T), one intronic variant (c.1899 −20C>T), one synonymous SNP (p.20Ala=) and three nonsynonymous SNPs (p.Thr29Ser, p.Pro384Leu and p.Thr529Met). The p.Pro384Leu variant exhibited reduced enzymatic activities compared to wild type. Conclusion New POR variant identification indicates that the number of uncommon variants might be specific for each subpopulation being investigated, particularly germane to the singular role that POR plays in providing reducing equivalents to all CYPs in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25712184

  16. [Subcutaneous drug administration in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Matoses Chirivella, Carmen; Rodríguez Lucena, Francisco José; Sanz Tamargo, Gregorio; Murcia López, Ana Cristina; Morante Hernández, María; Navarro Ruiz, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía que recopile toda la información disponible en la bibliografía para el personal sanitario sobre la administración de medicamentos por vía subcutánea en pacientes de cuidados paliativos de la Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio. Método: Se diseña una tabla resumen de fármacos susceptibles de ser administrados por vía subcutánea en pacientes de cuidados paliativos mediante la revisión de los informes técnicos de los laboratorios fabricantes y de otra literatura publicada por organizaciones científicas, además de la búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed® y Micromedex®. Resultados: Se han revisado 65 fármacos y se ha elaborado una guía de recomendaciones en función de si existe información de su administración por vía subcutánea o, si por el contrario, esta contraindicado su uso. Conclusiones: Aunque mayoritariamente los laboratorios fabricantes no disponen de datos, la información recopilada en esta guía permitirá el manejo de la vía subcutánea de algunos de los medicamentos más utilizados en cuidados paliativos.

  17. [The neural networks of facial expression].

    PubMed

    Gordillo, F; Mestas, L; Castillo, G; Perez, M A; Lopez, R M; Arana, J M

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. La percepcion de caras involucra una amplia red de conexiones entre regiones corticales y subcorticales que intercambian y sincronizan informacion a traves de haces de sustancia blanca. Este preciso sistema de comunicacion puede verse afectado tanto a traves de las propias estructuras como por las vias que las conectan. Objetivos. Delimitar el sustrato neuronal que subyace a la percepcion de la expresion facial y analizar los diferentes factores que participan modulando la integridad de esta red neuronal, con el fin de proponer mejoras en los programas de rehabilitacion. Desarrollo. Cuando la compleja red de conexiones que participa en la percepcion de la expresion facial se altera por traumatismos, patologias neurodegenerativas, trastornos del desarrollo, incluso por aislamiento social o contextos negativos, se deteriora tambien la capacidad para interactuar de manera adaptativa con el entorno. Conclusiones. La posibilidad de restaurar la integridad de la red neuronal encargada del procesamiento de la expresion facial pasa por tener en cuenta diferentes variables que en mayor o menor grado se han mostrado capaces de modificar la estructura o funcionalidad de las redes neuronales, como el entrenamiento aerobico, la estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, la estimulacion electrica transcraneal y el aprendizaje, sin bien estas variables estarian condicionadas por la edad, el tipo y evolucion del trastorno o el contexto generador, lo que plantearia la necesidad de protocolos de rehabilitacion ajustados y orientados a delimitar el sustrato neuronal del deficit.

  18. Correlation between NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 C609T polymorphism and increased risk of esophageal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jingfang; Bao, Jie; Peng, Jianxin; Mo, Jiaqiang; Ye, Qing; He, Junming

    2016-01-01

    NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the risk for esophageal cancer (EC) in many studies. However, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. We performed a meta-analysis, which included 13 independent studies with a total of 2357 subjects, to examine the association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and EC. The association was assessed by five different gene models. The overall analysis suggested that the variant allele and genotypes were significantly related to increased risk of EC (odds ratio [OR] T versus C = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–1.40, probability of rejection [POR] = 0.014; OR TT versus CC = 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.73, POR = 0.045; OR TC versus CC = 1.32, 95% CI 0.98–1.21, POR = 0.128; OR TT + TC versus CC = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00–1.20, POR = 0.05; OR TT versus CC + TC = 1.26, 95% CI 0.95–1.57, POR = 0.103). Sensitivity analysis confirmed the reliability of these findings. Our study shows that individuals carrying the NQO1 C609T variant allele and genotypes are more susceptible to EC. PMID:28203294

  19. Estimación de pequeñas perturbaciones en satélites geocéntricos como un problema inverso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadunaisky, P. E.

    El movimiento geocéntrico de un satélite artificial es simulado automáticamente por un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden que incluyen dos funciones perturbadoras. La primera representa el segundo término del potencial gravitatorio de la Tierra y la segunda corresponde al frenado atmosférico. Asumiendo como conocidas, por hipótesis o por mediciones, la posición y velocidad del satélite en instantes sucesivos se estiman las perturbaciones a intervalos sucesivos por un método determinístico. Para ilustrar el método y comprobar la precisión de nuestros resultados hemos simulado dos ejemplos incluyendo valores conocidos de las perturbaciones que luego comparamos con los resultados de nuestro método. El método puede aplicarse por ejemplo para el intervalo de una revolución satelital lo cual permitiría el diseño inmediato de una maniobra correctiva de la órbita satelital.

  20. Simultaneous measurements of solvent dynamics and functional kinetics in a light-activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Durin, Guillaume; Delaunay, Aude; Darnault, Claudine; Heyes, Derren J; Royant, Antoine; Vernede, Xavier; Hunter, C Neil; Weik, Martin; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2009-03-04

    Solvent fluctuations play a key role in controlling protein motions and biological function. Here, we have studied how individual steps of the reaction catalyzed by the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) couple with solvent dynamics. To simultaneously monitor the catalytic cycle of the enzyme and the dynamical behavior of the solvent, we designed temperature-dependent UV-visible microspectrophotometry experiments, using flash-cooled nanodroplets of POR to which an exogenous soluble fluorophore was added. The formation and decay of the first two intermediates in the POR-catalyzed reaction were measured, together with the solvent glass transition and the buildup of crystalline ice at cryogenic temperatures. We find that formation of the first intermediate occurs below the glass transition temperature (T(g)), and is not affected by changes in solvent dynamics induced by modifying the glycerol content. In contrast, formation of the second intermediate occurs above T(g) and is influenced by changes in glycerol concentration in a manner remarkably similar to the buildup of crystalline ice. These results suggest that internal, nonslaved protein motions drive the first step of the POR-catalyzed reaction whereas solvent-slaved motions control the second step. We propose that the concept of solvent slaving applies to complex enzymes such as POR.

  1. Cholesterol metabolism: the main pathway acting downstream of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in skeletal development of the limb.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katy; Hughes, Catherine; Chudek, J A; Goodyear, Simon R; Aspden, Richard M; Talbot, Richard; Gundersen, Thomas E; Blomhoff, Rune; Henderson, Colin; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor for all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which catalyze the metabolism of a wide spectrum of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Point mutations in POR have been found recently in patients with Antley-Bixler-like syndrome, which includes limb skeletal defects. In order to study P450 function during limb and skeletal development, we deleted POR specifically in mouse limb bud mesenchyme. Forelimbs and hind limbs in conditional knockout (CKO) mice were short with thin skeletal elements and fused joints. POR deletion occurred earlier in forelimbs than in hind limbs, leading additionally to soft tissue syndactyly and loss of wrist elements and phalanges due to changes in growth, cell death, and skeletal segmentation. Transcriptional analysis of E12.5 mouse forelimb buds demonstrated the expression of P450s involved in retinoic acid, cholesterol, and arachidonic acid metabolism. Biochemical analysis of CKO limbs confirmed retinoic acid excess. In CKO limbs, expression of genes throughout the whole cholesterol biosynthetic pathway was upregulated, and cholesterol deficiency can explain most aspects of the phenotype. Thus, cellular POR-dependent cholesterol synthesis is essential during limb and skeletal development. Modulation of P450 activity could contribute to susceptibility of the embryo and developing organs to teratogenesis.

  2. [Blood and urine lead levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villegas, M del Carmen S; Cortés-Vargas, Astrid; Hidalgo-Luna, Ricardo Gerardo; Alam-Escamilla, David Abraham; Vargas-García, Víctor Manuel; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: los síntomas del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad pueden persistir hasta la vida adulta en 60 % de quienes la padecieron en la niñez. Nuestro objetivo fue cuantificar los niveles de plomo en la sangre y la orina en niños con diagnóstico de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad para identificar si existe alguna relación. MÉTODOS: estudio observacional que incluyó a una muestra cautiva del Servicio de Higiene Mental del Hospital General del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, con diagnóstico de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Se cuantificaron los niveles séricos y urinarios del plomo mediante la técnica de absorción atómica.

  3. [Presacral tumor as a differential diagnosis of recurrent pilonidal sinus].

    PubMed

    Mengual-Ballester, Mónica; Pellicer-Franco, Enrique; Valero-Navarro, Graciela; Alcaraz-Mateos, Eduardo; Soria-Aledo, Victoriano; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: durante el desarrollo embriológico, el espacio retrorrectal o presacro está ocupado por células pluripotenciales y, por tanto, puede contener un grupo heterogéneo de tumores. Caso clínico: se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 22 años de edad, intervenido de sinus pilonidal recidivado. Con estudios de tomografía computada de pelvis y resonancia magnética nuclear se sospechó la existencia de un tumor quístico presacro compatible con tumor germinal; la lesión se extirpó quirúrgicamente por vía abdominal y se estableció el diagnóstico definitivo de teratoma quístico. Conclusiones: los tumores retrorrectales son lesiones poco habituales que es necesario descartar en caso de sinus recidivantes.

  4. Linking hepatitis C virus infection to pre-1994 blood transfusions in female patients.

    PubMed

    Ramos Flores, Christian; Echeagaray, Ernesto; Castañeda, Guadalupe; Vargas, Maria de Lourdes; Montes-González, Raúl; Luna, Susana; Díaz, Laura; Torres, Oscar

    2017-03-15

    La mayor parte de las transfusiones se llevan a cabo en mujeres. La introducción en los bancos de sangre de las técnicas serológicas disminuyó la incidencia de infección por virus de hepatitis C después de una transfusión. En México, las pacientes que se transfundieron antes de 1994 están en riesgo de presentar una infección por virus de hepatitis C. El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la asociación entre el antecedente transfusional antes de 1994 e infección por virus de hepatitis C en mujeres atendidas en la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México.

  5. [Rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism associated to multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas].

    PubMed

    Mejia, P; Piedra, L M; Merchan-Del Hierro, X

    2017-03-01

    Introduccion. Las demencias rapidamente progresivas son un grupo poco frecuente de enfermedades caracterizadas por un deterioro cognitivo y otras alteraciones neurologicas que evolucionan en el transcurso de semanas a meses. Su etiologia es diversa e incluye un gran numero de condiciones neurodegenerativas, toxicas, metabolicas, autoinmunes, infecciosas y vasculares. Caso clinico. Varon de 69 años, que ingreso por demencia rapidamente progresiva y parkinsonismo causado por multiples fistulas arteriovenosas durales tratadas exitosamente mediante terapia endovascular. Conclusion. Las fistulas arteriovenosas durales son conexiones anomalas entre las arterias durales y los senos venosos o venas corticales que constituyen una causa inusual de demencia rapidamente progresiva, pero que debe considerarse, dada la disponibilidad de un tratamiento especifico con reversion de los sintomas.

  6. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection - an overview.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico.

  7. Heteroleptic Tetrapyrrole-Fused Dimeric and Trimeric Skeletons with Unusual Non-Frustrated Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuehong; Oh, Juwon; Wang, Kang; Chen, Chao; Cao, Wei; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Dongho; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and porphyrin (Por) chromophores have been fused through the benzo[α]pyrazine moiety, resulting in unprecedented heteroleptic tetrapyrrole-fused dimers and trimers. The heteroleptic tetrapyrrole nature has been clearly revealed based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the zinc dimer. Electrochemical analysis, theoretical calculations, and time-resolved spectroscopic results disclose that the two/three-tetrapyrrole-fused skeletons behave as one totally π-conjugated system as a result of the strong conjugative interaction between/among the tetrapyrrole chromophores. In particular, the effectively extended π-electron system through the fused-bridge induced strong electronic communication between the Pc and Por moieties and large transition dipole moments in the Pc-Por-fused systems, providing high fluorescence quantum yields (>0.13) and relatively long excited state lifetimes (>1.3 ns) in comparison with their homo-tetrapyrrole-fused analogues.

  8. NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase-Structure, Catalytic Function, and Role in Prolamellar Body Formation and Morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P

    2013-02-01

    The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is a critical biochemical step in the development of photosynthetic vascular plants and green algae. From photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) to algae, non-vascular plants, gymnosperms and vascular plants, mechanisms have evolved for protochlorophyllide reduction a key step in chlorophyll synthesis. Protochlorophyllide reduction is carried out by both a light-dependent (POR) and light-independent (LIPOR) mechanisms. NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.1.33, abbreviated POR) catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide). In contrast, a light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (LIPOR) involves three plastid gene products (chlL, chlN, and chlB) and several nuclear factors. Our work focused on characterization of both the POR and LIPOR catalyzed processes.

  9. Molecular and epidemiological studies of Porcine rubulavirus infection – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus-La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico virus (PorPV-LPMV) was identified as the causative agent of a viral disease that emerged spontaneously in Mexican swine in the 1980s. Since the report of the initial outbreak of the disease, only one full-length genome from a strain isolated in 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been sequenced; sequence data are scarce from other isolates. The genetic variation of this virus that has spread throughout the main endemic region of Mexico is almost a complete mystery. The development of molecular techniques for improved diagnostics and to investigate the persistence, molecular epidemiology, and the possible reservoirs of PorPV are needed. Together, this will provide greater knowledge regarding the molecular genetic changes and useful data to establish new strategies in the control of this virus in Mexico. PMID:26584829

  10. Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs in professional drivers of terrain vehicles--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aström, Charlotte; Rehn, Börje; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr; Burström, Lage; Sundelin, Gunnevi

    2006-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of symptoms of Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs, between professional drivers of terrain vehicles and a referent group. 769 male professional drivers of forest machines, snowmobiles, snowgroomers and reindeer herders and 296 randomly selected male referents completed a questionnaire about symptoms of HAVS and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs. They also gave information about their lifetime exposure duration driving terrain vehicles and their nicotine use. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) were determined and adjusted for age and nicotine use. Results show that there is a relation between exposure to driving terrain vehicles and some of the symptoms of HAVS (POR: 1.2-6.1). Increased odds of musculoskeletal symptoms in neck, shoulders and wrists were also found (POR 1.2-6.4), and it seemed to be related to the cumulative exposure time.

  11. [Validation of cut points of skeletal muscle mass index for identifying sarcopenia in Chilean older people].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Ángel, Bárbara; Sánchez, Hugo; Picrin, Yaisy; Hormazabal, María José; Quiero, Andrea; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-09-28

    Objetivos: Estimar y validar puntos de corte de índice de masa muscular esquelética (IMMAE) en adultos mayores chilenos, para el diagnóstico de sarcopenia Métodos: Estimación de puntos de corte para IMMAE determinados por DEXA y por ecuación antropométrica en un análisis secundario de datos transversales de 440 Adultos Mayores (AM) chilenos, y posterior validación transversal en una muestra de 164 AM. Se realizaron pruebas de rendimiento físico, auto-reporte de salud, antropometría y DEXA. Se definió la fuerza muscular disminuida por dinamometría de mano.

  12. Structural domains in NADPH: Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Timko, Michael P.

    1999-09-24

    Until recently little direct information was available about specific structural determinants within the light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) required for substrate and cofactor binding, catalytic activity, and thylakoid membrane localization. Based on our previous DOE-funded studies, during the past year we brought to fruition a number of ongoing experiments, initiated several new avenues of investigations, and overall have made considerable progress towards establishing the basic structural parameters governing POR function. Our studies to date have defined residues and domains involved in substrate and cofactor binding and catalysis, and elaborated on the mechanism for membrane localization of POR in developing plastids. Our results and their significance, as well as our work in progress, are detailed.

  13. Formation of the seed layers for layer-transfer process silicon solar cells by zone-heating recrystallization of porous silicon structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianov, A.; Murakami, K.; Takazawa, C.; Ihara, M.

    2016-05-01

    Thin-film crystalline silicon is promising for photovoltaic application to reduce the cost of photovoltaic energy. Porous silicon structures have been intensively studied as a seed layer for epitaxial growth of thin Si film and layer-transfer process (LTP). In this article, another approach for LTP has been proposed. The seed layers for epitaxial silicon growth have been formed by zone-heating recrystallization of double-layer por-Si structures. The influence of annealing parameters on porous silicon structures was studied. The transformation of por-Si layer to crystalline Si was observed with the formation of smooth continuous surface with the roughness 0.3 nm, peak-to-valley distance around 3.5 nm, and reduced density of pores. The mechanism of the transformation of por-Si surface due to the action of hydrogen in the passivated pores with preventing surface oxidation was proposed.

  14. Buracos negros primordiais e astrofísica observacional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A história da física contemporânea é pródiga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mecânica Quântica entre as mais importantes) até meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos é tão grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleossíntese nas estrelas) são geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imaginação popular. Porém, algumas exceções à regra não-escrita são dignas de menção. Entre estas últimas está a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emissão dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida própria denominada Termodinâmica de Buracos Negros.

  15. Resonancias en la región trans-neptuniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, T.; Ferraz-Mello, S.

    La expansión de la órbita del planeta Neptuno en la etapa de acreción del Sistema Solar exterior (Fernández e Ip 1984, 1996) parece ser un mecanismo eficiente para la captura de planetesimales en las resonancias exteriores con Neptuno (Malhotra 1995). Por otro lado, los estudios dinámicos realizados por varios autores indican que las resonancias son regiones de evolución estable, en contraste con el comportamiento caótico del resto de la región trans-neptuniana. Por estas razones, y si bien los datos observacionales son todavía muy limitados, se supone que los objetos descubiertos se encuentran en alguna de esas resonancias. En esta comunicación presentamos un estudio analítico y numérico de las principales resonancias exteriores con Neptuno.

  16. Como Lo Hago Yo: Anomalías del Tubo Neural en Guatemala — Mielomeningocele Unidad de Espina Bífida e Hidrocefalia

    PubMed Central

    Manucci, Graciela; von Quednow, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    En Guatemala nacen por añ 786 niños con defectos de tubo neural. Operamos 65 a 70 niños con mielomenigocele por año. Tenemos equipo multidisciplinario. Recomendamos parto por cesárea. Infección antes de la cirugía es un problema mayor. Derivación tardía es un problema. Disecamos la plaqueta con la técnica clásica. Suturamos la plaqueta para restituir la forma de la médula. Corpectomía en casos de cifósis. Hidrocefalía: Operamos el 80% de los niños. Chiari II: Operamos basados en los síntomas, primero nos aseguramos que la válvula funciona bien. Médula anclada: Operamos basados en los síntomas. PMID:24791216

  17. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation.

    PubMed

    Bolognini Pereira, Kallyne; de Azeredo, Vilma Blondet; Barros da Sileira, Camila; Pedruzzi, Liliana Magnago

    2013-11-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición de la leche materna de lactantes adolescentes en función del tiempo de la lactancia. Métodos: Se siguieron 51 adolescentes lactantes, entre la semana 6 y 14 después del parto (WPP). Se llevaron a cabo la determinación de grasa, proteína y lactosa de la leche, respectivamente, por los métodos de Lucas, Lowry y Perry & Doan. Los micronutrientes se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Los datos fueron presentados por la media y el error estándar. ANOVA con medidas repetidas se utilizó Tukey como prueba post. Se aceptó un nivel de significación del 5%. Resultados: Se observó una reducción significativa (P.

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la cuantificación y registro de la ingesta alimentaria del paciente hospitalizado es clave dentro del plan de cuidado nutricional. Objetivo: evaluar la validez de un cuestionario semicuantitativo de valoración del consumo comparado con una técnica de registro de alimentos por observación y pesada de los platos incluidos en la dieta hospitalaria. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Las técnicas de valoración del consumo que se compararon fueron un registro por doble pesada y un cuestionario semicuantitativo por observación de la ingesta de cinco categorías (todo [> 80%], casi todo [80-60%], la mitad [60-40%], casi nada [40-20%] o nada [< 20%]), ambas realizadas por un dietista-nutricionista. La comparación entre ambas herramientas fue realizada con el índice kappa con ponderación cuadrática e intervalo de confianza del 95%. Resultados: fueron realizadas un total de 1.980 valoraciones. Se observó con el cuestionario semicuantitativo que en el 50% de los casos se ingirió todo, en el 19% casi todo, en el 13% la mitad, en el 9% menos de la mitad y en el 9% nada. La mediana de la ingesta por doble pesada de alimentos fue de 76,8 (RIC 45,8)%. Se observó que existió un acuerdo satisfactorio entre la técnica de doble pesada y la valoración visual del consumo con un valor κ = 0,907 (IC 95% 0,894-0,925). Conclusión: la escala visual empleada en este estudio permite cuantificar la ingesta real del paciente de forma precisa y adecuada por personal cualificado.

  19. Preparation of novel porphyrin nanomaterials based on the pH-responsive shape evolution of porphyrin microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbo; Xing, Lingbo; Wang, Haisheng; Liu, Xiujun; Feng, Yaqing; Gao, Changyou

    2015-04-14

    The shapes and properties of self-assembled materials can be adjusted easily using environmental stimuli. Yet, the stimulus-triggered shape evolution of organic microspheres in aqueous solution has rarely been reported so far. Here, a novel type of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-porphyrin microspheres (PAH-g-Por MPs) was prepared by a Schiff base reaction between 2-formyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (Por-CHO) and PAH doped in 3.5-μm CaCO3 microparticles, followed by template removal. The PAH-g-Por MPs had an average diameter of 2.5 μm and could be transformed into one-dimensional nanorods (NRs) and wormlike nanostructures (WSs) after being incubated for different times in pH 1-4 HCl solutions. The rate and degree of hydrolysis had a significant effect on the formation and morphologies of the nanorods. The NRs@pH1, NRs@pH2, and NRs@pH3 were all composed of the released Por-CHO and the unhydrolyzed PAH-g-Por because of the incomplete hydrolysis of the Schiff base. However, the WSs@pH4 were formed by a pure physical shape transformation, because they had the same composition as the PAH-g-Por MPs and the Schiff base bonds were not hydrolyzed. The self-assembled NRs and WSs exhibited good colloidal stability and could emit stable red fluorescence over a relatively long period of time.

  20. A PHYSICAL EDUCATION-BASED STRETCHING PROGRAM PERFORMED ONCE A WEEK ALSO IMPROVES HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: A CLUSTER-RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Real, Javier; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: los profesores de educación física deben llevar a cabo programas de intervención para que los estudiantes alcancen niveles de flexibilidad saludables. Lamentablemente, no se conocen estudios que examinen el efecto de un programa de estiramiento llevado a cabo solo una vez por semana en escolares. Objetivos: el objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar los efectos de un programa de intervención de estiramiento a corto plazo realizado una y dos veces por semana sobre la extensibilidad isquiosural en escolares en el contexto de la educación física. Métodos: una muestra de 180 estudiantes de educación secundaria de 12-14 años fue asignado aleatoriamente (por grupos naturales) a los grupos control, experimental 1 y experimental 2. Durante las clases de educación física, los estudiantes experimentales realizaron un programa de estiramiento durante ocho semanas. El grupo experimental 1 y 2 realizaron el programa de estiramiento una y dos veces por semana, respectivamente. Resultados: los resultados del análisis de varianza mostraron que los estudiantes de ambos grupos experimentales obtuvieron una mejora estadísticamente significativa de la extensibilidad isquiosural, comparado con los estudiantes del grupo de control (p < 0,01). Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos experimentales (p > 0,05). Conclusiones: un programa de estiramiento a corto plazo realizado una vez por semana mejora la extensibilidad isquiosural en escolares. Cuando el programa de estiramiento se lleva a cabo dos veces por semana, la mejora en la extensibilidad isquiosural de los estudiantes no es estadísticamente mayor.

  1. Anastomotic reinforcement with omentoplasty following gastrointestinal anastomosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, T; Markar, S R; Arya, S; Hanna, G B

    2015-09-01

    Anastomotic leak is a potentially devastating complication following gastrointestinal anastomosis. Some surgeons believe that reinforcing the anastomosis with omentum reduces the incidence and severity of anastomotic leak. A comprehensive electronic search of EMBASE, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases was performed. Pooled odds ratios (POR) were calculated for discrete variables. There were six studies investigating esophageal anastomosis and 3 studies investigating colorectal anastomosis identified by the literature search. A total of 2296 patients were included, 1073 with omentoplasty and 1223 without. In esophageal surgery omentoplasty significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic leak (2.9% vs 10.5% (POR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.47; P < 0.0001), but there was no significant effect upon in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs. 2.5%; POR = 0.911 [95% CI 0.439-1.887]; P = 0.802) or anastomotic stricture between the two groups (6.6% vs 9.1%; POR = 0.842 [95% CI 0.331 to 2.145]; P = 0.720). In colorectal surgery there was no significant difference in anastomotic leak rate (5.0% vs 8.4%; POR: 0.50; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.17) or in-hospital mortality (4.2% vs 4.1%; POR: 0.90; 95% CI 0.34 to 2.41). The results of this analysis show that omentoplasty significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic leak following esophageal anastomosis but these results were not observed in colorectal anastomosis. Omentoplasty could be used as an adjunct technique to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leak in oesophageal anastomosis.

  2. [Adherence to oral nutrition supplements in hospitalized patients with clinical pathology-surgical].

    PubMed

    Villagra, Anabel; Merkel, María Cecilia; Rodriguez Bugueiro, Julia; Lacquaniti, Natalia; Remoli, Rosario

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: Los trabajos cientificos realizados respecto al uso de los suplementos nutricionales sugieren que su aceptacion es en general buena, por lo que su utilizacion es ampliamente aceptada por los profesionales. Sin embargo en la practica diaria hospitalaria se observa que dicha aceptacion es variable. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es conocer el nivel de adherencia a los suplementos nutricionales orales y los principales motivos de no adherencia en pacientes internados por patologia clinica o quirurgica. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo, unicentrico. Se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos internados en un hospital de alta complejidad, con evaluacion global subjetiva categoria B, entre agosto 2012 y mayo 2013. Se indico un suplemento diario, se evaluo la adherencia y se determinaron los motivos de no adherencia. Se considero paciente adherente cuando el consumo fue ≥75% de los suplementos indicados. Resultados: Sobre un total de 807 pacientes con evaluacion global subjetiva, 73 pacientes tuvieron indicacion de suplemento nutricional oral. La mediana de edad fue 52 anos (IIC 35-62), hombres 58,9%, mediana de indice de masa corporal 24,5 (IIC 22,5-27,3). Se indicaron un total de 489 suplementos y fueron consumidos un total de 371. La mediana de tiempo de indicacion de suplemento por paciente fue de 5 dias (IIC 4-10) y la mediana de dias consumidos fue de 4 por paciente (IIC 1-8). La adherencia fue de 58,9% (43 pacientes). Los motivos de no adherencia fueron: causas digestivas propias del paciente 5 pacientes (16,7%), intolerancia al suplemento nutricional oral 18 pacientes (60%), negativa del paciente no justificada 7 pacientes (23,3%). Conclusiones:En pacientes internados por patologia clinica o quirurgica con evaluacion global subjetiva B, la adherencia a los suplementos nutricionales orales fue insuficiente. La intolerancia al suplemento fue la causa mas frecuente de no adherencia.

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martin, Ismael; Mendive Dubourdieu, Paula; Paredes Barato, Víctor; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la tradición de la comida picante desempeña un papel muy importante en el gusto por este tipo de comida y su tolerancia. Las preferencias alimentarias muestran influencia genética y ambiental.Objetivos: estudiar la tolerancia y el gusto por el picante de tres poblaciones, y la influencia hereditaria y del ambiente.Métodos:se realizó una encuesta a 522 sujetos, de tres continentes (Asia, Europa y Latinoamérica) en tres idiomas (español, inglés y chino) a través de Internet. Se realizaron preguntas acerca de la tolerancia al picante, el gusto por los alimentos picantes, su uso, la edad de comienzo de consumo, el gusto del padre y de la madre y si ella lo consumía durante el embarazo y/o lactancia.Resultados: existe diferencia entre el gusto por el picante del hijo y el sexo (p < 0,001), la tolerancia (p < 0,001) y, solo en el sexo femenino, el gusto de la madre por el picante (p < 0,001), su consumo durante el embarazo (p < 0,001) y la lactancia (p = 0,005) y el gusto del padre por el picante (p = 0,003). Existe correlación entre el continente de residencia (p = 0,007) y de nacimiento (p = 0,012) y la tolerancia a los alimentos picantes.Conclusión: la influencia de los progenitores, el género y la composición corporal se relacionaron con gustos y tolerancias diferentes.

  4. SUBCORTICAL CONNECTIONS OF THE PERIRHINAL, POSTRHINAL, AND ENTORHINAL CORTICES OF THE RAT. I. AFFERENTS

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Inês Tomás; Agster, Kara L.; Burwell, Rebecca D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we characterized the subcortical afferents for the rat PER areas 35 and 36, POR, and the lateral and medial entorhinal areas (LEA and MEA). We analyzed 33 retrograde tract-tracing experiments distributed across the five regions. For each experiment, we estimated the total numbers, percentages, and densities of labeled cells in 36 subcortical structures and nuclei distributed across septum, basal ganglia, claustrum, amygdala, olfactory structures, thalamus, and hypothalamus. We found that the complement of subcortical inputs differs across the five regions, especially the PER and POR. The PER receives input from the reuniens, suprageniculate, and medial geniculate thalamic nuclei as well as the amygdala. Overall, the subcortical inputs to the PER are consistent with a role in perception, multimodal processing, and the formation of associations that include the motivational significance of individual items and objects. Subcortical inputs to the POR were dominated by the dorsal thalamus, particularly the lateral posterior nucleus, a region implicated in visuospatial attention. The complement of subcortical inputs to the POR is consistent with a role in representing and monitoring the local spatial context. We also report that, in addition to the PER, the LEA and the medial band of the MEA also receive strong amygdala input. In contrast, subcortical input to the POR and the MEA lateral band includes much less amygdala input and is dominated by dorsal thalamic nuclei, particularly nuclei involved in spatial information processing. Like the cortical inputs, the patterns of subcortical inputs to these regions are consistent both with the view that the dorsal hippocampus is important for spatial cognition and the ventral hippocampus is important for affective cognition, and the view that they provide considerable functional integration. We conclude that the patterns of subcortical inputs to the PER, POR, and the entorhinal LEA and MEA provide further evidence

  5. [Premature twins: clinic comparison, reproductive assisted techniques versus spontaneous conception].

    PubMed

    Noriega-Alvarez, Roxana; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: los embarazos gemelares ocurren una vez cada 800 embarazos. Debido al incremento en la edad materna y a la prevalencia de la infertilidad ha aumentado el uso de las técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA). De los embarazos resueltos por medio de estas técnicas, 35 % son gemelares. Las TRA se definen como tratamientos de infertilidad en los que oocitos y espermatozoides son manipulados. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en comparar el comportamiento clínico de los gemelos obtenidos por técnicas de reproducción asistida frente al de los gemelos obtenidos de manera espontánea. Métodos: estudio de cohorte retrolectiva. La información se obtuvo de expedientes de pacientes gemelares recién nacidos con 37 semanas de gestación o menos durante el periodo agosto 2010-2013. La población se dividió en dos grupos: los concebidos por técnicas de reproducción asistida (TRA) y los espontáneos (CE). Se compararon características demográficas y resultados neonatales. Resultados: fueron en total 398 pacientes: 208 pacientes por TRA y 190 por CE. De las variables analizadas no existe diferencia significativa entre grupos, únicamente en enterocolitis necrosante y nutrición parenteral. El número de días de estancia intrahospitalaria por grupos no tuvo resultados significativos. Conclusión: el modo de concepción no tuvo un efecto detectable en la mortalidad y la morbilidad neonatales.

  6. MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IS CORRELATED WITH DYSLIPIDEMIA AND LOW-GRADE INFLAMMATION IN CHILDHOOD OBESITY BUT MOSTLY IN MALE OBESE.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Barbara de Moura Mello; Monteiro, Paula Alves; Silveira, Loreana Sanches; Brunholi, Claudia de Carvalho; Lira, Fábio Santos; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte

    2015-09-01

    Introducción y objetivo: la hipoxia causada por la hipertrofia de las células adiposas en la obesidad desencadena macrófagos de reclutamiento y la producción de citoquinas. Además, el alto consumo de ácidos grasos saturados (AGS) y las comidas con alto índice glucémico pueden contribuir al estrés oxidativo y la inflamación crónica de bajo grado por los aumentos de activación de NF-kB. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del estudio fue analizar la contribución de la ingesta de macronutrientes en el perfil metabólico e inflamatorio, por niveles de lipoproteínas, resistencia a la insulina, citoquinas anti y pro inflamatorias, en adolescentes obesos según el género. Métodos: la muestra estaba compuesta por 37 adolescentes, de ambos géneros, identificados como obesos según el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La composición corporal se evaluó mediante absorciometría de energía dual de rayos X (DEXA) y medidas de adiposidad intraabdominal (IAAT) y del tejido adiposo subcutáneo (SAT) se realizaron mediante ecografía. Los análisis bioquímicos se realizaron mediante la medición de citoquinas; los ácidos grasos y la insulina se realizaron por la técnica de ELISA. La estimación del consumo de macronutrientes fue llevado a cabo durante tres días mediante el registro de alimentos con respecto a la ingesta total. La significación estadística se estableció en el valor p.

  7. [Burden of hospitalization for pneumonia in a Spanish tertiary hospital. Period 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    López-Gobernado, Miguel; Pérez-Rubio, Alberto; López-García, Eva; Mayo-Iscar, Agustín; Eiros, José María

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo es estimar la carga de hospitalización por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad y neumonía neumocócica en un hospital de nivel terciario del Sistema Nacional de Salud Español. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo en el que se recogen los datos del Conjunto Mínimo de Datos Básicos que usa códigos clínicos del Código Internacional de Enfermedades, asi como el índice de hospitalización por mil habitantes, la tasa de hospitalización por mil habitantes, el índice de mortalidad y la tasa de letalidad, usando como denominador los datos demográficos de la población del Área de Salud. Resultados: la descarga de 5758 episodios codificados con los códigos CIE 480 a 486 relativos a neumonía, señalan un índice de hospitalización de 3.54 personas hospitalizadas por cada 1000 habitantes, 65.34% del total de ingresos hospitalarios se produce en los Servicios de Medicina Interna y de Neumología. La estancia media hospitalaria por año es de 16.63 días. La tasa bruta de mortalidad es de 69.15 cada 100 000 y la tasa de letalidad de 19.56%, siendo más elevadas en adultos mayores de 65 años. Conclusiones: a pesar de las medidas terapéuticas y preventivas actuales, la incidencia y la mortalidad por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en adultos se mantienen elevadas, lo que justifica fortalecer y abordar nuevas estrategias de concienciación y prevención.

  8. [Identification of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex by PCR of AIDS and disseminated mycobacteriosis].

    PubMed

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Degollado-Estrada, Edgar; Villagómez-Ruiz, Alfredo; Cortés-Torres, Nancy; Arreguín-Reséndiz, Lilián; Del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este artículo es Identificar y diferenciar el complejo MAC por PCR en pacientes con SIDA y micobacteriosis diseminada. Métodos: se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal para identificar MAC por biología molecular. Se sintetizaron dos conjuntos de iniciadores: MAV y MIN, para M. avium y M. intracellulare, respectivamente. El ADN total de células obtenidas de 29 aislados clínicos y muestras de suero de otros 24 pacientes con SIDA e infección micobacteriana diseminada fue extraído y se amplificó por PCR con los iniciadores MAV y MIN. Cada uno de los iniciadores MAV y MIN amplificó un segmento altamente específico de 1.3 kb del ADN homólogo, respectivamente. Resultados: veintinueve ADN de los aislados clínicos de MAC identificadas por Gen-Probe AccuProbes se amplificaron con los iniciadores MAV (M. avium). De las 24 muestras clínicas, 3 fueron positivas para M. avium y 6 para M. tuberculosis. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados demostraron que la técnica de PCR se puede aplicar para la diferenciación de M. avium y M. intracellulare por iniciadores específicos 16S rRNA. En pacientes con estadio avanzado de SIDA y en quienes se sospecha micobacteriosis diseminada, la presencia de anemia (incluso con cultivos negativos) fosfatasa alcalina elevada y una mediana de CD4 de 15.9/ml, se debe considerar seriamente el diagnóstico de infección por MAC; sugerimos que, de acuerdo con nuestros resultados, se justifica una estratificación más precisa de los pacientes en términos de sus recuentos de células T CD4.

  9. Electrophysiological and morphological properties of neurons in layer 5 of the rat postrhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sills, Joseph B; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2012-09-01

    The postrhinal (POR) cortex of the rat is homologous to the parahippocampal cortex of the primate based on connections and other criteria. POR provides the major visual and visuospatial input to the hippocampal formation, both directly to CA1 and indirectly through connections with the medial entorhinal cortex. Although the cortical and hippocampal connections of the POR cortex are well described, the physiology of POR neurons has not been studied. Here, we examined the electrical and morphological characteristics of layer 5 neurons from POR cortex of 14- to 16-day-old rats using an in vitro slice preparation. Neurons were subjectively classified as regular-spiking (RS), fast-spiking (FS), or low-threshold spiking (LTS) based on their electrophysiological properties and similarities with neurons in other regions of neocortex. Cells stained with biocytin included pyramidal cells and interneurons with bitufted or multipolar dendritic patterns. Similarity analysis using only physiological data yielded three clusters that corresponded to FS, LTS, and RS classes. The cluster corresponding to the FS class was composed entirely of multipolar nonpyramidal cells, and the cluster corresponding to the RS class was composed entirely of pyramidal cells. The third cluster, corresponding to the LTS class, was heterogeneous and included both multipolar and bitufted dendritic arbors as well as one pyramidal cell. We did not observe any intrinsically bursting pyramidal cells, which is similar to entorhinal cortex but unlike perirhinal cortex. We conclude that POR includes at least two major classes of neocortical inhibitory interneurons, but has a functionally restricted cohort of pyramidal cells.

  10. [Systemic reaction after performing a food prick-to-prick test. A case report].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Karen Estefanía; Diez, Libia Susana

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: La prueba por punción epidérmica es la principal prueba para el diagnóstico de enfermedades mediadas por IgE. Para su realización se utilizan extractos comerciales; en el caso de frutas y verduras es mejor emplear alimentos frescos. Si bien ambas modalidades poseen un buen perfil de seguridad, se han registrado reacciones de hipersensibilidad. Caso clínico: Mujer de 47 años de edad con antecedentes de rinitis alérgica persistente, sensibilizada a polen de gramíneas, olivo y salsola; fue remitida a un servicio de alergología por anafilaxia desencadenada por el consumo de aguacate, melón, zanahoria y sandía. Minutos después de la punción cutánea con extracto estandarizado y punción cutánea con alimentos frescos, desarrolló disnea, prurito, eritema, mareo y sibilancias. Se le administraron 0.5 mg de adrenalina intramuscular y 4 inhalaciones de salbutamol; también fue colocada en posición de Trendelemburg. La disnea persistió y el monitoreo de los signos vitales mostró incremento de las frecuencias cardiaca y respiratoria, por lo que se aplicó nuevamente salbutamol, 2 L/min de oxígeno por cánula nasal, líquidos endovenosos y 100 mg de hidrocortisona intravenosa; a los 40 minutos se observó mejoría. La paciente fue hospitalizada durante 48 horas. Conclusiones: Aunque las pruebas cutáneas son seguras, no debe excluirse el riesgo de reacciones de hipersensibilidad y anafilaxia, especialmente en pacientes susceptibles.

  11. [Visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV positive patient].

    PubMed

    Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la leishmaniasis visceral o kala azar es la presentación clínica más grave. En México, es una enfermedad rara por lo que su diagnóstico es tardío y generalmente culmina en la muerte del paciente. Se describe a un paciente VIH positivo que desarrolló leishmaniasis visceral. El objetivo es explicar sus características fisiopatológicas y de su tratamiento. Caso clínico: hombre de 45 años de edad, quien ingresó al hospital por cuadro crónico de diarrea sanguinolenta, distensión abdominal, dolor tipo cólico, pérdida de peso y fiebre. A la exploración física se identificó paciente febril con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha y hepatoesplenomegalia. La prueba ELISA para VIH resultó positiva y el ultrasonido hizo evidente una tumoración en ciego, por lo que se realizó biopsia. El informe histopatológico indicó que se trataba de leishmaniasis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con leishmaniasis e infección por VIH existe pobre respuesta al tratamiento y la mortalidad es alta, causada por la menor respuesta inmune del huésped. En la literatura especializada se sugiere el tratamiento establecido para la infección por VIH combinado con miltefosine y anfotericina B liposomal para la leishmaniasis.

  12. PubMed

    Escandón-Nagel, Neli

    2016-11-29

    Introducción: si bien el Trastorno por Atracón es un trastorno de la conducta alimentaria que  no se da exclusivamente en personas obesas, es más común en este grupo que en sujetos con normopeso, sin embargo no todas las personas con malnutrición por exceso presentan Trastorno por Atracón. Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento actual respecto a las diferencias y semejanzas existentes entre personas con malnutrición por exceso con y sin Trastorno por Atracón.Método: para lograr el objetivo anterior, se realizó una revisión de artículos científicos en torno al tema.Resultados: primero se analizó la comorbilidad psicopatológica en obesidad y después se detectaron similitudes y diferencias entre los grupos de interés, tanto en sintomatología general, como así también en sintomatología de la conducta alimentaria. Además, se identificaron algunos aspectos controversiales, en que existe evidencia contradictoria respecto a la comparación intergrupal.Conclusión: de esta revisión se concluye que en el estudio de la obesidad se hace necesario conocer en mayor profundidad las características del subgrupo de pacientes que además presenta Trastorno por Atracón,  ya que estas personas poseen características distintivas cuyo conocimiento permitirá ofrecer tratamientos integrales más adecuados a las necesidades de los pacientes, lo que posibilitará, en consecuencia, diseñar intervenciones más eficaces.

  13. [Subjective memory complaints, personality and prefrontal symptomatology in young adults].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M

    2013-10-01

    Introduccion. El presente trabajo explora dos cuestiones relacionadas con la aparicion de quejas subjetivas de memoria en adultos jovenes: la posibilidad de que dichas quejas sean resultado de deficits atencionales y ejecutivos, y, por otro lado, si determinadas caracteristicas de la personalidad propician y modulan la expresion clinica de las quejas. Sujetos y metodos. Se administro el Memory Everyday Failures, version española, el inventario de sintomas prefrontales y el inventario del temperamento y el caracter-revisado a una muestra de 1.132 participantes (900 de poblacion general y 232 en tratamiento por adiccion a drogas). Se exploro la correlacion entre variables de las quejas de memoria, del funcionamiento prefrontal en la vida diaria y de las dimensiones de la personalidad propuestas por Cloninger. Se estudiaron relaciones de causalidad entre las variables mediante metodos estructurales. Resultados. Se observa una fuerte correlacion entre las quejas cognitivas y la sintomatologia prefrontal, lo que sugiere que las quejas son, en realidad, resultado de una inadecuada gestion atencional y ejecutiva que propicia los errores cotidianos. Se aprecia tambien una relacion con gran tamaño del efecto entre las quejas cognitivas y la baja autodireccion. Esta dimension de la personalidad presenta una importante capacidad predictiva sobre la aparicion y la intensidad de las quejas, bien directamente, bien modulada por otras dimensiones, especialmente la evitacion del daño. Conclusiones. Los datos apoyan la idea de que las quejas de memoria son producto de la autopercepcion de fallos y errores cotidianos provocados a nivel atencional y ejecutivo –aunque son tenidos por olvidos mnesicos–, y que la expresion clinica de dichas quejas esta modulada por un perfil de la personalidad.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Ruiz-Ariza, Alberto; Izquierdo-Rus, Tomás; Salas-Sánchez, Jesús; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-30

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario de disfrute por el ejercicio físico (PACES) en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad.Métodos: participaron 139 adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad: 91 niñas (edad = 13,85 ± 1,92 años; índice de masa corporal [IMC] = 26,83 ± 3,16 kg/m2) y 48 niños (edad = 14,29 ± 1,62 años; IMC = 28,31 ± 3,74 kg/m2). Para analizar el disfrute por la actividad física se empleó el cuestionario Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES).Resultados: los resultados del análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio han mostrado una estructura de dos factores; a su vez el PACES presenta una consistencia interna muy alta (alfa de Cronbach = 0,908). La fiabilidad test-retest indica una buena concordancia temporal (Spearman rho = 0,815, p < 0,001). Por último, el PACES en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad manifiesta una validez convergente adecuada con la intencionalidad de ser activo (MIFA), la atracción por la actividad física (CAPA), la resistencia cardiorrespiratoria y los pliegues suprailiacoy subescapular.Conclusión: los resultados confirman que el PACES es una medida válida y fiable del disfrute por la actividad física en adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. El disfrute por la actividad física puede ser relevante en la participación de los adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad en estas actividades.

  15. [Supratentorial cavernous malformations in an Argentinian institution: experience with surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Vergara, G E; Cervio, A; Farez, M; Mormandi, R; Condomi-Alcorta, S; Salvat, J

    2017-04-01

    Introduccion. Las malformaciones cavernosas son lesiones vasculares del sistema nervioso central constituidas por endotelio sinusoidal que forma capilares agrupados o cavernas que carecen de los elementos tipicos de una pared arterial madura y ausencia de tejido neural interpuesto. El endotelio esta rodeado por una densa capa de fibras colagenas que dejan pequeñas hendiduras por las que se extravasa hemosiderina. Se comunican con el sistema vascular a muy baja presion y su tratamiento puede ser por microcirugia o radiocirugia. Objetivos. Analizar las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales tratadas quirurgicamente en nuestra institucion (FLENI), determinar la epidemiologia y las caracteristicas intrinsecas, estudiar la clinica de presentacion, determinar las indicaciones quirurgicas y complicaciones, y establecer el pronostico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo analitico de historias clinicas e imagenes de pacientes operados de malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales en la FLENI desde enero de 1996 hasta diciembre de 2013. Resultados. Evaluamos a 51 pacientes, de 34 años de media, seguidos durante una media de 30 meses. El 1,96% de los pacientes presento diagnostico incidental y el resto mostro sintomas. El 23,52% presento hemorragia en el momento del diagnostico. En todas las cirugias se logro una exeresis total de las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales. Se observo un caso de meningitis postoperatoria. Conclusiones. La tasa de sangrado de las malformaciones cavernosas supratentoriales en nuestro medio es del 1,38% por paciente por año. El tratamiento quirurgico es eficaz para erradicar o disminuir los sintomas y para evitar un posible resangrado. Presenta una tasa muy baja de complicaciones y un pronostico neurologico favorable.

  16. ?Cuales son las amenazas o peligros volcanicos?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Bobbie; Brantley, Steven R.; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Los volcanes son capaces de producir numerosos peligros geologicos e hidrologicos. Los cientificos del Servicio Geologico de los EE. UU. (USGS, por sus siglas en ingles) y de otras instituciones alrededor del mundo estan estudiando los peligros de muchos de los centenares de volcanes activos y potencialmente activos del mundo. Estos cientificos vigilan muy de cerca la actividad de algunos de los volcanes mas peligrosos, por lo que estan preparados para alertar a las autoridades y/o a la poblacion en caso de que aumente sustancialmente la probabilidad de que ocurra una erupcion u otro evento peligroso.

  17. Anthropometric, food intake differences and applicability of low-cost instruments for the measurement of body composition in two distinct groups of individuals with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bizari, Letícia; Da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Marques Miguel Suen, Vivian

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome del intestino corto se asocia con pérdida de peso por la malabsorción de nutrientes, electrolitos y líquidos. A la vista de la fisiopatología del SIC, se esperaría que todos los pacientes exhibieran signos y síntomas clínicos similares, mientras que pueden ocurrir variaciones probablemente por la capacidad de adaptación del intestino delgado restante con el fin de compensar el área resecada.

  18. Functional comparison of the binding of factor H short consensus repeat 6 (SCR 6) to factor H binding protein from Neisseria meningitidis and the binding of factor H SCR 18 to 20 to Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Lewis, Lisa A; Jarva, Hanna; Ram, Sanjay

    2009-05-01

    Both Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae recruit the alternative pathway complement inhibitory protein factor H (fH) to their surfaces to evade complement-dependent killing. Meningococci bind fH via fH binding protein (fHbp), a surface-exposed lipoprotein that is subdivided into three variant families based on one classification scheme. Chimeric proteins that comprise contiguous domains of fH fused to murine Fc were used to localize the binding site for all three fHbp variants on fH to short consensus repeat 6 (SCR 6). As expected, fH-like protein 1 (FHL-1), which contains fH SCR 6, also bound to fHbp-expressing meningococci. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified histidine 337 and histidine 371 in SCR 6 as important for binding to fHbp. These findings may provide the molecular basis for recent observations that demonstrated human-specific fH binding to meningococci. Differences in the interactions of fHbp variants with SCR 6 were evident. Gonococci bind fH via their porin (Por) molecules (PorB.1A or PorB.1B); sialylation of lipooligosaccharide enhances fH binding. Both sialylated PorB.1B- and (unsialylated) PorB.1A-bearing gonococci bind fH through SCR 18 to 20; PorB.1A can also bind SCR 6, but only weakly, as evidenced by a low level of binding of FHL-1 relative to that of fH. Using isogenic strains expressing either meningococcal fHbp or gonococcal PorB.1B, we discovered that strains expressing gonococcal PorB.1B in the presence of sialylated lipooligosaccharide bound more fH, more effectively limited C3 deposition, and were more serum resistant than their isogenic counterparts expressing fHbp. Differences in fH binding to these two related pathogens may be important for modulating their individual responses to host immune attack.

  19. [Electrolytes content in parenteral drugs authorised in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mirchandani Jagwani, J N; Arias Rico, R

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La fluidoterapia es una de las prácticas más habituales en la práctica clínica diaria pero para un correcto manejo de electrolitos tanto en la sueroterapia como en la Nutrición Parenteral se deben conocer todos los aportes de electrolitos y fluidos y todas aquellas situaciones fisiopatológicos que conllevan alteraciones en la homeostasis de fluidos. Objetivos: Conocer el contenido y tipo de electrolitos de los medicamentos administrados por vía parenteral comercializados y autorizados en España hasta Febrero 2012. Métodos: Revisión de todas las fichas técnicas de todos aquellos medicamentos que estuvieran comercializados en España y con presentación comercial disponible por vía parenteral. Aquellos medicamentos con un contenido menor de 1 miliequivalente o 1 milimol por presentación comercial fueron excluidos. Resultados: De los 1800 principios activos estudiados, sólo 221 formaban parte de alguna presentación comercial por vía parenteral. De estos 221, 52 principios activos cumplían los criterios de inclusión del estudio y la mayoría (51-98,07%) tenían sodio en contenido mayor de un miliequivalente por presentación comercial, luego el potasio estaba presente en 3 y el calcio únicamente en uno. Discusión: La mayoría de medicamentos objeto del estudio contenían como principal electrolito el sodio, siendo la alteración de las concentraciones de este electrolito una de las más frecuentes en el entorno hospitalario y, en algunos casos, indicador de calidad en la atención del paciente. Por ello, para un mejor manejo de la reposición de electrolitos tanto en la sueroterapia como por Nutrición Parenteral es necesario tener en cuenta el aporte recibido por la medicación prescrita en los casos en que sea necesario.

  20. Pasado, presente y futuro de la epidemiología. Una perspective latinoamericana

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo intenta contestar tres preguntas. Sobre el pasado: ¿Por qué no existió una epidemiología precolombina? Sobre el presente: ¿Cuáles son los orígenes de la epidemiología moderna, incluyendo sus raíces sudamericanas? Y sobre el futuro, escogí un título surrealista para enfatizar el hecho que estoy consciente de que es siempre delicado hacer predicciones: ¿Por qué fenómenos complejos son los “objetos oscuros del deseo” epidemiológico? PMID:25124247