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Sample records for basal medium supplemented

  1. Survival of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in basal-casein medium supplemented with sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The trace substance selenium is known to influence several systems exhibiting a high rate of cellular proliferation. Data are reported on survival patterns and times in various developmental stages of Tribolium confusum Duval reared in a defined medium supplemented with sodium selenite. Insects reared from eggs hatching in a selenium medium (Se medium) show a prolonged time in the larval period and marked larval mortality compared with those reared on unsupplemented medium. Adults emerging in an Se medium show reduced survival compared with adults transferred to such medium 1 wk after emergence. Larval survival patterns mimic those of the adult, whereby younger larvae that are transferred to Se medium appear to be more sensitive than those exposed to Se medium later in the larval stage. Transfer of Se medium-reared adults to unsupplemented medium as pupae has a beneficial effect on survival compared with adults that emerged in Se medium 1 wk before transfer.

  2. Recombinant protein production by the baculovirus-insect cell system in Basal media without serum supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Norikatsu; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki

    2003-11-01

    The production of beta-galactosidase by Sf9 cells infected with recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) was investigated in shake-flask culture using two serum-free basal media: Grace's medium and TNM-FH (Grace's medium supplemented with lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract). At the time of infection, cells grown in serum-supplemented TNM-FH were transferred into fresh basal media without adaptation. The absence of serum depressed the beta-galactosidase yield considerably in Grace's medium, but to a much lesser extent in TNM-FH, where it reached around 2/3 of the level obtained in TNM-FH supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). While both lactalbumin hydrolysate and yeast extract promoted beta-galactosidase production, their removal by medium replacement on post-infection day 1 gave a beta-galactosidase yield nearly equal to that obtained in their continuous presence. Supplementation of basal media with phosphatidic acid (PA) from egg yolk lecithin, which has been shown to enhance cell growth and recombinant protein production in serum-free culture of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, was also effective in increasing beta-galactosidase yield. Elevating the multiplicity of infection (MOI) from 2 to 10 plaque-forming units per cell (pfu/cell) also resulted in an increase in product yield. These results provide information important to the development of cost-effective serum-free culture technology for use in large-scale production of recombinant proteins by the baculovirus-insect cell system.

  3. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

  4. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  5. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w).

  6. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 4, 1985-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    An extension is presented of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements which have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1985 to 1988, and 1985 IMF data from the Czechoslovakian Soviet Prognoz 10 spacecraft. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1985 to 1988 data as for the earlier data.

  7. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement 5, 1988-1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.

    1994-01-01

    This publication represents an extension of the series of Interplanetary Medium Data Books and supplements that have been issued by the National Space Science Data Center since 1977. This volume contains solar wind magnetic field and plasma data from the IMP 8 spacecraft for 1988 through the end of 1993. The normalization of the MIT plasma density and temperature, which has been discussed at length in previous volumes, is implemented as before, using the same normalization constants for 1988-1993 data as for the earlier data. Owing to a combination of non-continuity of IMP 8 telemetry acquisition and IMP's being out of the solar wind for about 40 percent of its orbit, the annual solar wind coverage for 1988-1993 is 40 plus or minus 5 percent. The plots and listings of this supplement are in essentially the same format as in previous supplements. Days for which neither IMF nor plasma data were available for any hours are omitted from the listings.

  8. Human amniotic fluid cells grown in a hormone-supplemented medium: suitability for prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, H C; Jones, O W; Masui, H

    1982-01-01

    A new supplemented medium has been developed to improve human amniotic fluid cell growth and to reduce the dependence on exogenously added serum. The medium consists of a mixture of Ham's F12 medium and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with Hepes, antibiotics, and 10 growth-promoting factors at 4% fetal bovine serum. Good clonal growth is achieved consistently in 8--13 days and is associated with large numbers of metaphase cells. Primary clones may be analyzed directly, thereby reducing difficulty with interpretation of chromosomal mosaicism. This medium could also be used for cultivation of fetal solid tissues and peripheral blood cultures of lymphocytes. Images PMID:6956891

  9. In vitro culture medium (IVC) supplementation with sericin improves developmental competence of ovine zygotes.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, Faranak; Hajarian, Hadi; KaramiShabankareh, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of supplementation of potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM-aa) with various sericin concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2.5%) on ovine zygotes. The results indicate that the supplementation of oocyte in vitro culture medium with optimal concentration of sericin (0.1 and 0.5%) may have beneficial effects on developmental competence of in vitro-derived ovine embryos.

  10. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts.

  11. Chlorella vulgaris production enhancement with supplementation of synthetic medium in dairy manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Pandey, Pramod K; Franz, Annaliese K; Deng, Huiping; Jeannotte, Richard

    2016-03-01

    To identify innovative ways for better utilizing flushed dairy manure wastewater, we have assessed the effect of dairy manure and supplementation with synthetic medium on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. A series of experiments were carried out to study the impacts of pretreatment of dairy wastewater and the benefits of supplementing dairy manure wastewater with synthetic medium on C. vulgaris growth increment and the ultrastructure (chloroplast, starch, lipid, and cell wall) of C. vulgaris cells. Results showed that the biomass production of C. vulgaris in dairy wastewater can be enhanced by pretreatment and using supplementation with synthetic media. A recipe combining pretreated dairy wastewater (40 %) and synthetic medium (60 %) exhibited an improved growth of C. vulgaris. The effects of dairy wastewater on the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris cells were distinct compared to that of cells grown in synthetic medium. The C. vulgaris growth in both synthetic medium and manure wastewater without supplementing synthetic medium was lower than the growth in dairy manure supplemented with synthetic medium. We anticipate that the results of this study will help in deriving an enhanced method of coupling nutrient-rich dairy manure wastewater for biofuel production.

  12. The Effectiveness of the Language Experience Approach as a Supplement to a Basal Reader Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Betsy B.; Sunal, Cynthia S.

    Ten second grade students in a slow reading group were studied to compare the effects of basal and language experience instruction on word recognition skills. For four weeks, all the students received 90 minutes of basal instruction each morning. During the afternoon sessions, the five language experience students dictated and read stories related…

  13. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohammad M.; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  14. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida medium with Pal's medium for rapid identification of Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-11-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures.

  15. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of

  16. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  17. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bivi, M. Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M. S.; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-01-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease. PMID:27721689

  18. Control of Basal Stem Rot Disease in Oil Palm by Supplementation of Calcium, Copper, and Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bivi, M Shahul Hamid Rahamah; Paiko, Adamu Saidu; Khairulmazmi, Ahmad; Akhtar, M S; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-10-01

    Continuous supplementation of mineral nutrients and salicylic acid (SA) as foliar application could improve efficacy in controlling basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm seedling. It is revealed from the results that the highest disease severity index (58.3%) was recorded in T8 treatments at 9 months after inoculation. The best disease control was achieved by T7 treatments (calcium/copper/SA [Ca/Cu/SA]) (5.0%) followed by T1 (5.5%), T5 (5.8%), T3 (8.3%), T6 (8.3%), T4 (13.3%), and T2 (15.8%) treatments. Continuous supplementation of Ca/Cu/SA was found to be the most effective in controlling the disease and the high performance liquid chromatography results showed the detection of ergosterol at very low concentration in the treated samples. Moreover, the transmission electron microscopy analysis results clearly indicated that T7 treatment was also enhancing lignification, which was responsible for the thickness of the secondary cell walls and middle lamella compared to untreated samples. It was therefore, concluded that continuous supplementation of minerals nutrients and SA could effectively suppress disease severity by reducing ergosterol activity and also improve the process of lignification in the treated plants. Furthermore, this treatment also managed to delay the onset of BSR symptoms and promote the growth of the seedlings and eventually suppress the BSR disease.

  19. Does supplementation of in-vitro culture medium with melatonin improve IVF outcome in PCOS?

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Park, Eun A; Kim, Hyung Joon; Choi, Won Yun; Cho, Jung Hyun; Lee, Woo Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Kim, You Shin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    Human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid (FF) contains a higher concentration of melatonin than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation of culture medium on the clinical outcomes of an in-vitro maturation (IVM) IVF-embryo transfer programme for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Melatonin concentrations in the culture media of granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) were measured and the clinical outcomes after using IVM media with or without melatonin were analysed. In the culture media of GC or COC, melatonin concentrations gradually increased. When human chorionic gonadotrophin priming protocols were used, implantation rates in the melatonin-supplemented group were higher than those of the non-supplemented control group (P<0.05). Pregnancy rates were also higher, although not significantly. The findings suggest that the addition of melatonin to IVM media may improve the cytoplasmic maturation of human immature oocytes and subsequent clinical outcomes. It is speculated that follicular melatonin may be released from luteinizing GC during late folliculogenesis and that melatonin supplementation may be used to improve the clinical outcomes of IVM IVF-embryo transfer. Melatonin is primarily produced by the pineal gland and regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. Interestingly, human pre-ovulatory follicular fluid contains a higher concentration of melatonin than serum. However, in contrast to animal studies, the direct role of melatonin on oocyte maturation in the human system has not yet been investigated. So, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin supplementation of culture medium on the clinical outcome of an in-vitro maturation (IVM) IVF-embryo transfer programme for PCOS patients. The melatonin concentrations in culture medium of granulosa cells (GC) or cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) were measured and

  20. Dietary Medium Chain Fatty Acid Supplementation Leads to Reduced VLDL Lipolysis and Uptake Rates in Comparison to Linoleic Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwijk, Daniël B.; Pasman, Wilrike J.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Verheij, Elwin R.; Rubingh, Carina M.; van Bochove, Kees; Vaes, Wouter H. J.; Adiels, Martin; Freidig, Andreas P.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic acid supplementation and body fat distribution affect the fasting lipoprotein subclass profile, lipoprotein kinetics, and postprandial fatty acid kinetics. In a randomized double blind cross-over trial, 12 male subjects (age 51±7 years; BMI 28.5±0.8 kg/m2), were divided into 2 groups according to waist-hip ratio. They were supplemented with 60 grams/day MCFA (mainly C8:0, C10:0) or linoleic acid for three weeks, with a wash-out period of six weeks in between. Lipoprotein subclasses were measured using HPLC. Lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism were studied using a combination of several stable isotope tracers. Lipoprotein and tracer data were analyzed using computational modeling. Lipoprotein subclass concentrations in the VLDL and LDL range were significantly higher after MCFA than after linoleic acid intervention. In addition, LDL subclass concentrations were higher in lower body obese individuals. Differences in VLDL metabolism were found to occur in lipoprotein lipolysis and uptake, not production; MCFAs were elongated intensively, in contrast to linoleic acid. Dietary MCFA supplementation led to a less favorable lipoprotein profile than linoleic acid supplementation. These differences were not due to elevated VLDL production, but rather to lower lipolysis and uptake rates. PMID:25049048

  1. Maternal choline supplementation differentially alters the basal forebrain cholinergic system of young-adult Ts65Dn and disomic mice.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Strupp, Barbara J; Mufson, Elliott J

    2014-04-15

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is a multifaceted condition marked by intellectual disability and early presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathological lesions including degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) system. Although DS is diagnosable during gestation, there is no treatment option for expectant mothers or DS individuals. Using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS that displays age-related degeneration of the BFCN system, we investigated the effects of maternal choline supplementation on the BFCN system in adult Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) littermates at 4.3-7.5 months of age. Ts65Dn dams were maintained on a choline-supplemented diet (5.1 g/kg choline chloride) or a control, unsupplemented diet with adequate amounts of choline (1 g/kg choline chloride) from conception until weaning of offspring; post weaning, offspring were fed the control diet. Mice were transcardially perfused with paraformaldehyde, and brains were sectioned and immunolabeled for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or p75-neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR) ). BFCN number and size, the area of the regions, and the intensity of hippocampal labeling were determined. Ts65Dn-unsupplemented mice displayed region- and immunolabel-dependent increased BFCN number, larger areas, smaller BFCNs, and overall increased hippocampal ChAT intensity compared with 2N unsupplemented mice. These effects were partially normalized by maternal choline supplementation. Taken together, the results suggest a developmental imbalance in the Ts65Dn BFCN system. Early maternal-diet choline supplementation attenuates some of the genotype-dependent alterations in the BFCN system, suggesting this naturally occurring nutrient as a treatment option for pregnant mothers with knowledge that their offspring is trisomy 21.

  2. Accelerated and safe proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells in medium supplemented with human serum.

    PubMed

    Josh, Fonny; Kobe, Kyoko; Tobita, Morikuni; Tanaka, Rica; Suzuki, Koji; Ono, Kasumi; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell source and are being investigated for a variety of therapeutic applications. However, standard expansion protocols use fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a growth factor supplement, which is a potential source of undesirable xenogeneic pathogens. For clinical safety, autologous human serum (HS) would be more appropriate. This study compared FBS-supplemented and HS-supplemented media for their enhancement of the proliferation and differentiation potential of human ASCs (hASCs). HS was obtained from the blood of 8 healthy volunteers using collection devices specially designed to derive growth factors from platelets. Growth factors in HS or FBS were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The hASCs were isolated with an established protocol from discarded human fat tissues obtained during a medical procedure and cultured in a medium supplemented with either 10% HS or 10% FBS. The hASCs were collected at several time points for the proliferation assays. The capacity for differentiation into the osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages was assessed qualitatively with the histochemical stains von Kossa, Alcian blue, and Oil red O, respectively, and quantitatively with the qualitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Differences in cell surface marker expression between the HS-supplemented and FBS-supplemented cultures were examined with flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation assays showed that the growth of hASCs was more rapid in HS-supplemented medium than in FBS-supplemented medium. All cells grown in each medium expressed similar patterns of cell surface markers. The ASCs cultured in the HS-supplemented medium proliferated more rapidly than those cultured in the FBS-supplemented medium and retained their differentiation capacity and immunophenotype. These results support the establishment of a safe and rapid expansion protocol with autologous serum for cell-based therapies, such as

  3. Supplementation of strontium to a chondrogenic medium promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human dedifferentiated fat cells.

    PubMed

    Okita, Naoya; Honda, Yoshitomo; Kishimoto, Naotaka; Liao, Wen; Azumi, Eiko; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    Dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) isolated from adipose tissue have been demonstrated to differentiate into chondrogenic cells in vitro. Nevertheless, an efficient method to facilitate its chondrogenic differentiation is still unexplored, hampering the extensive application of these cells in cartilage regeneration therapies. Here we provide the evidence that supplementation of strontium ions (Sr) in a chondrogenic medium (CM) significantly promotes early chondrogenic differentiation of DFAT cells. Human DFAT cells and the mesenchymal stem cell line (RCB2153) were subjected to the CM supplemented with/without Sr. After 14 days, alcian blue staining intensity significantly increased in DFAT cells, but not in RCB2153, subjected to CM with Sr. mRNA expression analysis revealed that the CM with 1.5 mM Sr increased the expression of chondrogenic marker, collagen type 2 alpha 1, whereas there was no significant change in osteogenic markers, collagen type 1 alpha 1, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin, and hypertrophic chondrogenic marker, collagen type 10 alpha 1. Inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) pathways significantly diminished the alcian blue staining intensity, providing the first evidence that these signal pathways are associated with chondrogenic differentiation of DFAT cells. CaSR and ERK1/2 pathways independently induced Sr-mediated early chondrogenic differentiation. These results suggest that Sr supplementation into the CM may provide a powerful platform for preparing chondrogenically differentiated DFAT cells for cartilage regeneration.

  4. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine.

  5. The use of tropical protein-rich leaves as supplements to Thai swamp buffalo receiving a basal diet of rice straw and treated leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Jetana, T; Vongpipatana, C; Usawang, S; Thongruay, S

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) the effects of protein-rich trees (PRTs) and (ii) the effects of leucaena treated with NaOH solution and leucaena plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, urinary purine derivatives excretion and blood metabolites in Thai swamp buffaloes. In Experiment 1, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and one of the four PRT supplements: (i) oven-dried rain tree pods (RTPP, control); (ii) sun-dried leucaena leaves; (iii) sun-dried cassia leaves and (iv) sun-dried mulberry leaves. Fibre digestibility and N balance were lower (P < 0.05), but microbial N in the rumen was higher (P < 0.05) in animals supplemented with RTPP than in those fed with the other supplements. In Experiment 2, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and leucaena were treated in one of three ways: (i) untreated (control), (ii) leucaena treated with NaOH solution and (iii) leucaena + PEG. Fibre digestibility and N balance in the rumen improved (P < 0.05) in animals supplemented with leucaena + PEG, but microbial N was not increased. The study demonstrated a way of using local PRTs for a suitable and worthwhile method to improve the quality of buffalo feeding systems in the tropics.

  6. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  7. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    PubMed

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Md Zahangir; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Md Noor; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%.

  8. Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanlong; Larson, Brian; Araujo, Joseph A; Lau, Winnie; de Rivera, Christina; Santana, Ruben; Gore, Asa; Milgram, Norton W

    2010-06-01

    The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5.5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention. The groups were maintained on the diets for 8 months. The MCT-supplemented group showed significantly better performance in most of the test protocols than the control group. The group differences also varied as a function of task difficulty, with the more difficult task showing greater supplementation effects than the easier tasks. The group given the MCT supplement showed significantly elevated levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body. These results indicate, first, that long-term supplementation with MCT can have cognition-improving effects, and second, that MCT supplementation increases circulating levels of ketones. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of aged dogs can be improved by MCT supplementation, which provides the brain with an alternative energy source.

  9. Oral supplementation of medium-chain fatty acids during the dry period supports the neutrophil viability of peripartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piepers, Sofie; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2013-08-01

    A randomised clinical trial was conducted to explore the effect of orally supplemented medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to heifers and cows starting 6-8 weeks prior to expected calving date on blood and milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leucocyte (PMNL) apoptosis between 1 and 3 d in milk (DIM). The effects of MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactation, and test-day somatic cell count (SCC) and average daily milk yield (MY) during the first 4 months of lactation were evaluated as well. Twenty-two animals were included of which half were orally supplemented with MCFA starting 6-8 weeks prior to calving and half served as non-supplemented controls. The PMNL viability in both blood and milk was quantified using dual-colour flow cytometry with fluorescein-labelled annexin and propidium iodide. In non-supplemented animals, % blood PMNL apoptosis significantly increased between start of supplementation and early lactation, reflecting a potential reduction in innate immune capacity, whereas this was not true in the MCFA-supplemented animals. Similar results were seen in milk PMNL apoptosis. Overall, the % apoptotic milk PMNL between 1 and 3 DIM was significantly lower in the MCFA-supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented group. There was no substantial effect of oral MCFA-supplementation on the likelihood of quarter IMI nor on the composite test-day milk SCC or average daily MY. In conclusion, oral MCFA-supplementation starting 6-8 weeks before expected calving date supported the blood and milk neutrophil viability in early lactating dairy cows. Still, this was not reflected in an improvement of udder health nor MY in early and later lactation. The results should trigger research to further unravel the mechanisms behind the observed immunomodulating effect, and the potential relevance for the cows' performances throughout lactation.

  10. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    PubMed

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value.

  11. Effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata, Gliricidia sepium or Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake and digestibility by goats.

    PubMed

    Aregheore, E M; Perera, D

    2004-02-01

    Two 4 x 4 Latin square design experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, four mature Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, pre-experimental body weight 25.0 +/- 0.6 kg, 22-24 months old, were used to study the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of maize stover with Erythrina variegata (EV), Gliricidia sepium (GS) and Leucaena leucocephala (LL) on dry matter intake (DMI) and nutrient digestibility. Maize stover treated with urea was used as a control diet. E. variegata was higher in crude protein content than LL or GS. The DMI of the urea treated stover diet was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the diets of untreated stover supplemented with forage legumes. The DMI was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the GS diet than in the EV or LL diets. Significant (p < 0.05) differences existed between the urea-treated stover and the diets of stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), organic matter (OM) and energy. In experiment 2, four mature goats, pre-experimental body weight 27.0 +/- 0.3 kg, 24-28 months old, were used to measure their response when the urea-treated maize stover and the maize stover and forage legume diets were sprayed with molasses. The intake of the urea-treated stover diet sprayed with molasses was significantly lower (p < 0.05) that that of the maize stover/forage legume diets sprayed with molasses. The DMI of the diets improved with the addition of molasses. The DMI among the goats offered the maize stover/forage legume diets + molasses did not differ significantly. (p > 0.05). Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences were obtained in this second study between the urea-treated stover and the stover supplemented with forage legumes in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, OM and energy. The stover supplemented with forage legumes had a higher (p < 0.05) nutrient digestibility. The present studies demonstrated that the use of forage legumes as

  12. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice.

    PubMed

    Ash, Jessica A; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Powers, Brian E; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2014-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is marked by intellectual disability (ID) and early-onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including basal forebrain cholinergic neuron (BFCN) degeneration. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) improves spatial mapping and protects against BFCN degeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS and AD. During pregnancy and lactation, dams were assigned to either a choline sufficient (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or choline supplemented (5.0g/kg choline chloride) diet. Between 13 and 17months of age, offspring were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) to examine spatial mapping followed by unbiased quantitative morphometry of BFCNs. Spatial mapping was significantly impaired in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice relative to normal disomic (2N) littermates. Additionally, a significantly lower number and density of medial septum (MS) hippocampal projection BFCNs was also found in unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice. Notably, MCS significantly improved spatial mapping and increased number, density, and size of MS BFCNs in Ts65Dn offspring. Moreover, the density and number of MS BFCNs correlated significantly with spatial memory proficiency, providing support for a functional relationship between these behavioral and morphometric effects of MCS for trisomic offspring. Thus, increasing maternal choline intake during pregnancy may represent a safe and effective treatment approach for expectant mothers carrying a DS fetus, as well as a possible means of BFCN neuroprotection during aging for the population at large.

  13. Supplementation of bovine embryo culture medium with L-arginine improves embryo quality via nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Santana, Priscila Di Paula Bessa; Silva, Thiago Velasco Guimarães; da Costa, Nathália Nogueira; da Silva, Bruno Barauna; Carter, Timothy Frederick; Cordeiro, Marcela da Silva; da Silva, Bruno José Martins; Santos, Simone do Socorro Damasceno; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Adona, Paulo Roberto; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Miranda, Moysés dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a cell-signaling molecule that regulates a variety of molecular pathways. We investigated the role of NO during preimplantation embryonic development by blocking its production with an inhibitor or supplementing in vitro bovine embryo cultures with its natural precursor, L-arginine, over different periods. Endpoints evaluated included blastocyst rates, development kinetics, and embryo quality. Supplementation with the NO synthase inhibitor N-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) from Days 1 to 8 of culture decreased blastocyst (P < 0.05) and hatching (P < 0.05) rates. When added from Days 1 to 8, 50 mM L-arginine decreased blastocyst rates (P < 0.001); in contrast, when added from Days 5 to 8, 1 mM L-arginine improved embryo hatching rates (P < 0.05) and quality (P < 0.05) as well as increased POU5F1 gene expression (P < 0.05) as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, NO levels in the medium during this culture period positively correlated with the increased embryo hatching rates and quality (P < 0.05). These data suggest exerts its positive effects during the transition from morula to blastocyst stage, and that supplementing the embryo culture medium with L-arginine favors preimplantation development of bovine embryos.

  14. Milk fat responses to dietary supplementation of short- and medium-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vyas, D; Teter, B B; Erdman, R A

    2012-09-01

    Short-and medium-chain fatty acids (SMCFA), which are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland, are reduced to a much greater extent than the long-chain fatty acids during diet-induced milk fat depression. Our hypothesis was that SMCFA are limiting for milk fat synthesis even under conditions when milk fat is not depressed. Our objective was to test the potential limitation of SMCFA on milk fat synthesis via dietary supplementation. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (107±18 d in milk) were fed a corn silage-based total mixed ration. Cows were randomly assigned to groups of 4 per pen and supplemented with 1 of 4 dietary fat supplements (600 g/d) supplied in a 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d experimental periods. Treatments consisted of fat supplements containing mixtures of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Megalac; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) and an SMCFA mixture (S; 3.3% C8, 7.6% C10, 9.85% C12, 32.12% C14, and 47.11% C16) that contained 0, 200, 400, and 600 g/d of S substituted for Megalac (S0, S200, S400, and S600, respectively). No treatment effects were observed for dry matter and fat-corrected milk. However, milk yield was decreased with S600. Milk fat increased linearly by 0.17, 0.25, and 0.33 percentage units for the respective S treatments. However, fat yield peaked at S200 and milk protein concentration and yield was significantly decreased at the higher S levels because of a linear trend toward decreased milk yield in the S600 treatment. In conclusion, SMCFA supplementation linearly increased milk fat concentration but decreased milk production at the higher levels of supplementation. The dietary inclusion of SMCFA had no effects on total milk fat yield.

  15. The effect of supplementation of amino acids and taurine to modified KSOM culture medium on rat embryo development.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuomi; Morimoto, Kayoko; Shima, Kaoru; Yoshimura, Yuki; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Osamu; Matsuda, Junichiro; Ohbayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    The rat is widely used as a laboratory animal for research. In particular, genetically engineered rats are essential for production of animal models of several diseases. Although embryo manipulation techniques are needed to produce them, such technology for rat preimplantation embryos is not as advanced as it is for mouse embryos. One reason is that in vitro culture systems for preimplantation embryos are limited in rats. Therefore, we intended to develop a new culture system for rat preimplantation embryos focusing on supplementation of amino acids as nutrition to the culture media. First, we found that taurine, glycine, glutamate, and alanine were abundant in the oviductal fluid of Wistar rats. The profile of taurine and these three amino acids was unchanged during the estrous cycle and from Days 0 to 3 of pregnancy (Day 0; vaginal plug was confirmed). Second, we assessed the effect of phosphate and phenol red on the development of rat zygotes and confirmed that they caused two-cell block. Third, we examined the effect of changing the medium on zygote development because addition of amino acids into culture medium causes ammonium accumulation, which is detrimental to embryo development. Blastocyst formation was suppressed in cultures with no medium change (P = 0.004; decreased to approximately one-fourth of that with medium change). Fourth, we examined the effect of supplementation of these three amino acids and taurine to modified potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM). The zygote development rates were increased by the three amino acids and taurine in a concentration-dependent manner at 48, 72, and 96 hours (P = 0.001, 0.005, and 0.009, respectively) in culture. Finally, we confirmed that blastocysts cultured in modified KSOM had the capacity to develop to full term after implantation. These results showed that not only the supply of nutrients but also removal of wastes and toxicants is important for culture of rat preimplantation embryos.

  16. Growth and production of laccases by the ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Botryosphaeria rhodina , cultured on basal medium containing the herbicide, Scepter (imazaquin).

    PubMed

    Rezende, Maria I; Barbosa, Aneli M; Vasconcelos, Ana-Flora D; Haddad, Renata; Dekker, Robert F H

    2005-01-01

    The herbicide, Scepter, whose active principle is imazaquin, is commonly used in soybean farming to combat wide-leaf weeds. The basidiomycete, Pleurotus ostreatus , and the ascomycete, Botryosphaeria rhodina , were evaluated for their growth and laccase production when cultured on basal media containing Scepter. Both fungi could grow on the herbicide when cultivated in solid and submerged liquid culture in the presence of Scepter at concentrations of 0-6% (v/v) for P. ostreatus , and up to 0-50% (v/v) for B. rhodina , and in each case produced laccases when assayed against ABTS [2,2(1)-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. P . ostreatus could tolerate up to 6% of Scepter before it became toxic to the fungus, while in the case of B. rhodina , 50% (v/v) Scepter was the highest amount that supported grow, and laccase activity was detectable up to 25% (v/v). An inverse relationship existed between the level of Scepter in the culture medium that supported fungal growth and laccase production. Analysis of the results showed that the fungi studied presented different behaviour towards Scepter in the culture environment.

  17. Predictors of Student Success in Supplemental Instruction Courses at a Medium Sized Women's University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Keston; Carlsen-Landy, Bev; Boaz, Cammy; Marshall, David

    2017-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a program that seeks to improve student success by targeting classes with high failure rates, as defined with a failure percentage of 30% or more. It is organized by an administrative SI supervisor who supervises SI leaders, which are students that have successfully completed the courses that they have been…

  18. Supplementation of an Artificial Medium for the Parasitoid Exorista larvarum (Diptera: Tachnidae) With Hemolymph of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) or Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Dindo, Maria Luisa; Vandicke, Jonas; Marchetti, Elisa; Spranghers, Thomas; Bonte, Jochem; De Clercq, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The effect of supplementing hemolymph of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), or the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville), to a basic insect-free artificial medium for the tachinid Exorista larvarum (L.) was investigated. The supplementation (20% w/w) was based on the assumption that insect additives may optimize the media for this parasitoid. Egg hatch, pupal and adult yields, and sex ratio did not differ among the enriched and basic media. Preimaginal development was faster on both hemolymph-enriched media than on the basic medium. Despite the shorter development on the medium supplemented with H. illucens hemolymph than on the basic medium, on the two media puparium weights were comparable. The female flies reared on the medium enriched with H. illucens hemolymph did not lay more eggs, but the latter yielded significantly more puparia compared with the control females. Conversely, the medium enriched with A. pernyi hemolymph yielded lower female puparium weights than the basic medium and produced only one ovipositing female out of the five obtained female adults. These results indicate that the in vitro development of E. larvarum improved when the basic artificial medium was enriched with H. illucens hemolymph, whereas the supplementation with A. pernyi hemolymph negatively affected the quality of the in vitro-reared females.

  19. Supplementation of insulin-transferrin-selenium to embryo culture medium improves the in vitro development of pig embryos.

    PubMed

    Das, Ziban Chandra; Gupta, Mukesh Kumar; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2014-08-01

    Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-treated controls. Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05) of blastocysts and increased the total number of cells per blastocyst (53 ± 2.5 versus 40.9 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of ITS on PA embryos was associated with significantly reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (20.0 ± 2.6 versus 46.9 ± 3.0). However, in contrast to PA embryos, ITS had no significant effect on the blastocyst quality of IVF and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro.

  20. Effect of genistein supplementation of thawing medium on characteristics of frozen human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Soto, Juan Carlos; de DiosHourcade, Juan; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Landeras, José Lorenzo; Gadea, Joaquín

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of genistein supplementation of the thawing extender on frozen-thawed human semen parameters. We analyzed the effect of supplementation on sperm motility, capacitation (membrane lipid disorder), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, chromatin condensation and DNA damage. Using this preliminary information, it maybe possible to improve the cryopreservation process and reduce the cellular damage. We have confirmed that the isoflavone genistein (10 micromol L(-1)) has antioxidant properties on the frozen-thawed spermatozoa. This results in a decreased ROS production that shows a slight improvement in the sperm motility, and decreases the membrane lipid disorder and DNA damage caused by cryopreservation. These results suggest an effect of genistein on sperm functionality that could be of interest for assisted reproduction treatments using frozen-thawed human spermatozoa, but further studies will be necessary to confirm our findings and to evaluate the possible clinical applications.

  1. Cognition and Synaptic-Plasticity Related Changes in Aged Rats Supplemented with 8- and 10-Carbon Medium Chain Triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; Mitchell, Ellen S.

    2016-01-01

    Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats. Both MCT diets increased ketones plasma similarly compared to control diet, but MCT diets did not increase ketones in the brain. Treatment with MCT10, but not MCT8, significantly improved novel object recognition memory compared to control diet, while social recognition increased in both MCT groups. MCT8 and MCT10 diets decreased weight compared to control diet, where MCFA plasma levels were higher in MCT10 groups than in MCT8 groups. Both MCT diets increased IRS-1 (612) phosphorylation and decreased S6K phosphorylation (240/244) but only MCT10 increased Akt phosphorylation (473). MCT8 supplementation increased synaptophysin, but not PSD-95, in contrast MCT10 had no effect on either synaptic marker. Expression of Ube3a, which controls synaptic stability, was increased by both MCT diets. Cortex transcription via qPCR showed that immediate early genes related to synaptic plasticity (arc, plk3, junb, egr2, nr4a1) were downregulated by both MCT diets while MCT8 additionally down-regulated fosb and egr1 but upregulated grin1 and gba2. These results demonstrate that treatment of 8- and 10-carbon length MCTs in aged rats have slight differential effects on synaptic stability, protein synthesis and behavior that may be independent of brain ketone levels. PMID:27517611

  2. Cognition and Synaptic-Plasticity Related Changes in Aged Rats Supplemented with 8- and 10-Carbon Medium Chain Triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Mitchell, Ellen S

    2016-01-01

    Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT). Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet) in 21 month old Wistar rats. Both MCT diets increased ketones plasma similarly compared to control diet, but MCT diets did not increase ketones in the brain. Treatment with MCT10, but not MCT8, significantly improved novel object recognition memory compared to control diet, while social recognition increased in both MCT groups. MCT8 and MCT10 diets decreased weight compared to control diet, where MCFA plasma levels were higher in MCT10 groups than in MCT8 groups. Both MCT diets increased IRS-1 (612) phosphorylation and decreased S6K phosphorylation (240/244) but only MCT10 increased Akt phosphorylation (473). MCT8 supplementation increased synaptophysin, but not PSD-95, in contrast MCT10 had no effect on either synaptic marker. Expression of Ube3a, which controls synaptic stability, was increased by both MCT diets. Cortex transcription via qPCR showed that immediate early genes related to synaptic plasticity (arc, plk3, junb, egr2, nr4a1) were downregulated by both MCT diets while MCT8 additionally down-regulated fosb and egr1 but upregulated grin1 and gba2. These results demonstrate that treatment of 8- and 10-carbon length MCTs in aged rats have slight differential effects on synaptic stability, protein synthesis and behavior that may be independent of brain ketone levels.

  3. Effect of antioxidant supplementation of cryopreservation medium on post-thaw integrity of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katrina; Roberts, Peter; Sanders, Kathy; Burton, Peter

    2009-02-01

    This study examined whether the addition of an antioxidant to cryopreservation medium could improve the post-thaw integrity of cryopreserved human spermatozoa, particularly from men with abnormal semen parameters. Semen samples were collected by masturbation and assessed following WHO standards. Normal (n = 23) and abnormal (n = 20) samples were divided into three aliquots prior to cryopreservation. The first aliquot remained untreated and was mixed with cryopreservation medium (in-house 1:1). The second and third aliquots were mixed with cryopreservation medium containing either 100 micromol or 200 micromol vitamin E analogue. Samples were frozen at -10 degrees C per minute to -80 degrees C, then plunged into liquid nitrogen. Thawed samples were assessed for motility, vitality and DNA integrity. Split-plot repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess within-subject (dose) and between-group (normal/abnormal) differences in post-thaw motility index, vitality staining and DNA fragmentation. Vitamin E dose was significantly associated with post-thaw motility (P = 0.041) and the pattern of response across doses was similar for normal and abnormal groups. Post-thaw motility was significantly improved by the addition of 200 micromol vitamin E (P = 0.006), but neither vitality nor sperm DNA fragmentation were altered. These results suggest that the addition of vitamin E to cryopreservation medium improves post-thaw motility.

  4. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  5. One-step seeding of neural stem cells with vitronectin-supplemented medium for high throughput screening assays

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Sheng; Li, Rong; Long, Yan; Titus, Steve; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Human neuronal cells differentiated from induced pluripotent cells have emerged as a new model system for the study of disease pathophysiology and evaluation of drug efficacy. Differentiated neuronal cells are more similar in genetics and biological content to the human brain cells than other animal disease models. However, culture of neuronal cells in assay plates requires a labor-intensive procedure of plate pre-coating, hampering its applications in high throughput screening (HTS). We developed a simplified method with one-step seeding of neural stem cells in assay plates by supplementing the medium with a recombinant human vitronectin (VTN), thus avoiding plate pre-coating. Robust results were obtained from cell viability, calcium response, and neurite outgrowth assays using this new method. Our data demonstrate that this approach greatly simplifies high throughput assays using neuronal cells differentiated from human stem cells for translational research. PMID:27647668

  6. Supplementation of culture medium with L-carnitine improves development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshikiyo; Inaba, Yasushi; Somfai, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Geshi, Masaya; Nagai, Takashi; Manabe, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    High lipid content in embryos is associated with low freezing tolerance. This study assessed the effects of exogenous L-carnitine, an enhancer of lipid metabolism, on the in vitro development and freezing survival of bovine embryos. Also, effects on metabolic activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were investigated. Supplementation of embryo culture medium with 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine significantly increased the rates of zygote development to the blastocyst stage and blastocyst cell numbers whereas 6.072 mM of this compound did not improve embryo development. Survival rates after slow freezing of blastocysts were significantly higher when embryos were cultured in the presence of 1.518 mM or 3.030 mM L-carnitine compared with the control. A lower density of lipid droplets was detected in L-carnitine-treated blastocysts compared with the control. L-carnitine significantly reduced ROS levels in 2-cell embryos but did not reduce ROS levels at later stages. The apoptotic cell rate was not different between control and L-carnitine-treated blastocysts. L-carnitine significantly increased ATP levels in 2-cell embryos but not at the 8-cell or blastocyst stages. L-carnitine increased the expression of metabolism-related ATP6 and COX1 genes in blastocysts. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation enhanced lipid metabolism in embryos resulting in improved development and cryotolerance of bovine blastocysts produced in vitro.

  7. Glycerol supplementation of the growth medium enhances in situ detoxification of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii during butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural adversely affect fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals due to their toxicity on fermenting microbes. To harness the potential of lignocellulose as a cheap source of fermentable sugars, in situ detoxification of furfural and other lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors is essential. To enhance in situ detoxification and tolerance of furfural by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, the effect of glycerol on NADH/NADPH generation and ABE production by furfural (4, 5, and 6 g/L)-challenged cultures was investigated in this study. In all instances, beneficial outcomes were observed. For example, the fermentation medium supplemented with glycerol and subjected to 5 g/L furfural elicited up to 1.8- and 3-fold increases, respectively, in NADH and NADPH levels in C. beijerinckii 8052 relative to the control culture. These critical changes are the likely underpinnings for the glycerol-mediated 2.3-fold increase in the rate of detoxification of 5 g/L furfural, substrate consumption, and ABE production compared to the unsupplemented medium. Collectively, these results demonstrate that increased intracellular NADH/NADPH in C. beijerinckii 8052 due to glycerol utilization engenders favorable effects on many aspects of cellular metabolism, including enhanced furfural reduction and increased ABE production.

  8. Supplementation of IVF medium with melatonin: effect on sperm functionality and in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Cheuquemán, C; Arias, M E; Risopatrón, J; Felmer, R; Álvarez, J; Mogas, T; Sánchez, R

    2015-08-01

    Gamete co-incubation generates high free radical levels surrounding growing zygotes which may impair subsequent embryo viability. Melatonin eliminates a wide variety of free radicals; hence, we tried to improve in vitro embryo production by adding melatonin to in vitro fertilisation (IVF) media in high (Exp. 1) and low concentrations (Exp. 2), and we evaluated its effect on bull sperm function during IVF co-incubation time (Exp. 3). In Experiment 1, we supplemented IVF media culture with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mmol of melatonin, along with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 2, melatonin levels were reduced to 10, 100 and 1000 nmol, with a no melatonin control group. In Experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated in IVF media with melatonin (as Exp. 2) and functional parameters were analysed at 0, 4 and 18 h. In Experiment 1, only 1 mmol melatonin showed lesser blastocyst rates than control (C: 23.2 ± 6.7% versus 1 mmol: 2.0 ± 1.7%). In Experiment 2, no statistical differences were found in cleavage percentage, blastocyst percentage and total cell count for any melatonin treatment. In Experiment 3, sperm samples with 1000 nmol melatonin had a significantly higher wobbler (WOB) coefficient, a lower percentage of intact acrosomes, a lower percentage of viable spermatozoa with ROS, greater DNA fragmentation and higher DNA oxidation than controls. Total fluorescence intensity for ROS at 10 nmol melatonin was significantly greater than controls (P < 0.05). IVF media with 1 mmol melatonin is deleterious for embryo development, and in lower concentrations, it modulated sperm functionality, but had no effects on embryo production.

  9. In vitro culture of Babesia bovis in a bovine serum-free culture medium supplemented with insulin, transferrin, and selenite.

    PubMed

    Rojas Martínez, C; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Figueroa Millán, J V; Acosta Viana, K Y; Gutiérrez Ruiz, E J; Álvarez Martínez, J A

    2016-11-01

    Bovine serum is an important factor for the optimal growth of Babesia bovis in vitro. This protozoan can be cultured in M-199 with Earle's salts medium (M-199) supplemented with 40% bovine serum (BS). In the present study, four media were assessed along with the control medium M-199. The effect on the proliferation of B. bovis in vitro was tested when these media were combined with insulin (Ins), transferrin (Trans) and selenite (Sel) in the absence of bovine serum. Treatment with Advanced DMEM/F12 medium (A-DMEM/F12) achieved the highest percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (PPE), reaching a maximum value of 9.59%. A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with a mixture of Ins (2000 mg/L), Trans (1100 mg/L), and Sel (1.34 mg/L) allowed for the adaptation and proliferation of B. bovis without bovine serum, showed a constant increase in PPE, and reached a maximum value of 9.7% during seven cycles of in vitro culture. It was concluded that continuous proliferation of B. bovis in vitro could be achieved using A-DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with Ins-Trans-Sel, without bovine serum. After adaptation for proliferation in serum-free medium, the B. bovis strain of parasites could have future use in the study of this economically important protozoan species that affects cattle.

  10. Biological activity of a standardized freeze-dried platelet derivative to be used as cell culture medium supplement.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Anita; Ottonello, Chiara; Spanò, Raffaele; Dozin, Beatrice; Strada, Paolo; Grandizio, Michele; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    Serum of animal origin and in particular fetal bovine serum is the most commonly utilized cell culture medium additive for in vitro cell growth and differentiation. However, several major concerns have been raised by the scientific community regarding the use of animal sera for human cell-based culture applications. Among the possible alternatives to the animal serum, platelet-derived compounds have been proposed since more than 10 years. Nevertheless, the high degree of variability between the different platelet preparations, and the lack of standardized manufacturing and quality control procedures, made difficult to reach a consensus on the applicability of this novel cell culture medium supplement. In this study, we describe the preparation of a standardized platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivative obtained starting from human-certified buffy coat samples with a defined platelet concentration and following protocols including also freeze-drying, gamma irradiation and biological activity testing prior the product release as cell culture medium additive. Biological activity testing of the different preparations was done by determining the capability of the different PRP preparations to sustain human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clone formation and proliferation. Taking advantage of a developed MSC in vitro clonogenicity test, we also determined biological activity and stability of the freeze-dried gamma-sterilized PRP preparations after their storage for different times and at different temperatures. The PRP effects on cell proliferation were determined both on primary cell cultures established from different tissues and on a cell line. Results were compared with those obtained in "traditional" parallel control cultures performed in the presence of bovine serum [10% fetal calf serum (FCS)]. Compared to FCS, the PRP addition to the culture medium increased the MSC colony number and average size. In primary cell cultures and in cell line cultures, the PRP

  11. Reduced supplementation frequency increased insulin-like growth factor 1 in beef steers fed medium quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Huntington, G B; Poore, M H

    2014-06-01

    Reducing supplementation frequency in calf growing programs can reduce labor and equipment operation costs. However, little is understood about the metabolic response of ruminants to large fluctuations in nutrient intake. Eighteen Angus or Angus × Simmental cross steers (287 ± 20 kg and 310 ± 3.6 d of age) were individually fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments using Calan gates. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum hay and no supplement (NS), ad libitum hay and 1% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement daily (DS), or ad libitum hay and 2% BW (as-fed basis) of supplement every other day (SA). The supplement was 90% DM and contained (as-fed basis) 47% corn gluten feed, 47% soybean hulls, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses. Hay intake and ADG was measured over a 52-d period. Steers were then moved to individual tie stalls. Steers were fed at 0800 h and blood samples were collected every hour from 0600 to 1400 h and at 1800, 2200, and 0200 h over a 2-d period. Gains were increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.68) due to supplementation frequency. Average daily gain was 0.45, 0.90, and 0.87 kg ·hd(-1)·d(-1) (SEM ± 0.05) for steers NS, DS, and SA, respectively. Across the 2-d supplementation cycle area under the concentration time curve (AUC) for plasma glucose was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.41) due to supplementation frequency. The AUC for plasma insulin was increased by supplementation (P < 0.01) but did not differ (P = 0.67) due to supplementation frequency. Plasma IGF-1 was increased (P = 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.04) for steers supplemented SA than DS. Gains of steers supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend on alternate days did not differ from those supplemented daily suggesting the steers were able to efficiently utilize large boluses of nutrients fed every other day. The effect of less frequent supplementation on IGF-1 deserves further examination as

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of wheat using a superbinary vector and a polyamine-supplemented regeneration medium.

    PubMed

    Khanna, H K; Daggard, G E

    2003-01-01

    Immature embryo-derived calli of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv Veery5 were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying either binary vector pHK22 or superbinary vector pHK21, the latter carrying an extra set of vir genes--vir B, -C and -G. In both cases, transient beta-glucuronidase ( GUS) expression ranging from 35-63% was observed 3 days after co-cultivation, but 587 calli infected with pHK22/LBA4404 failed to produce a single stably transformed plant, whereas 658 calli infected with pHK21/LBA4404 gave rise to 17 transformants carrying both the GUS and bar genes. Regeneration media supplemented with 0.1 M spermidine improved the recovery of transformants from pHK21/LBA4404-infected calli from 7% to 24.2%, resulting in an increase in the overall transformation frequency from 1.2% to 3.9%. The results suggest that two important factors that could lead to an improvement in transformation frequencies of cereals like wheat are (1) the use of superbinary vectors and (2) modification of the polyamine ratio in the regeneration medium. Stable expression and inheritance of the transgenes was confirmed by both genetic and molecular analyses. T1 progeny showed segregation of the transgenes in a typical Mendelian fashion in most of the plants. Of the transformed plants, 35% showed single-copy insertion of the transgene as shown by both Southern analysis and the segregation ratios.

  13. Comparison of high fibre diets, basal insulin supplements, and flexible insulin treatment for non-insulin dependent (type II) diabetics poorly controlled with sulphonylureas.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, A. R.; Attenborough, Y.; Peacock, I.; Fletcher, E.; Jeffcoate, W. J.; Tattersall, R. B.

    1988-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare high fibre diet, basal insulin supplements and a regimen of insulin four times daily in non-insulin dependent (type II) diabetic patients who were poorly controlled with sulphonylureas. DESIGN--Run in period lasting 2-3 months during which self monitoring of glucose concentration was taught, followed by six months on a high fibre diet, followed by six months' treatment with insulin in those patients who did not respond to the high fibre diet. SETTING--Teaching hospital diabetic clinics. PATIENTS--33 patients who had had diabetes for at least two years and had haemoglobin A1 concentrations over 10% despite receiving nearly maximum doses of oral hypoglycaemic agents. No absolute indications for treatment with insulin. INTERVENTIONS--During the high fibre diet daily fibre intake was increased by a mean of 16 g (95% confidence interval 12 to 20 g.) Twenty five patients were then started on once daily insulin. After three months 14 patients were started on four injections of insulin daily. ENDPOINT--Control of diabetes (haemoglobin A1 concentration less than or equal to 10% and fasting plasma glucose concentration less than or equal to 6 mmol/l) or completion of six months on insulin treatment. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS-- No change in weight, diet, or concentrations of fasting glucose or haemoglobin A1 occurred during run in period. During high fibre diet there were no changes in haemoglobin A1 concentrations, but mean fasting glucose concentrations rose by 1.7 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 2.5, p less than 0.01). With once daily insulin mean concentrations of fasting plasma glucose fell from 12.6 to 7.6 mmol/l (p less than 0.001) and haemoglobin A1 from 14.6% to 11.2% (p less than 0.001). With insulin four times daily concentrations of haemoglobin A1 fell from 11.5% to 9.6% (p less than 0.02). Lipid concentrations were unchanged by high fibre diet. In patients receiving insulin the mean cholesterol concentrations fell from 7.1 to 6

  14. Enhanced production of prodigiosin-like pigment from Serratia marcescens SMdeltaR by medium improvement and oil-supplementation strategies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Hong; Chen, Wei-Chuan

    2005-06-01

    Serratia marcescens SMdeltaR, an SpnR-defective isogenic mutant of S. marcescens SS-1, was used to produce a prodigiosin-like pigment (PLP). Luria-Bertani (LB) broth, frequently used for prodigiosin biosynthesis with S. marcescens strains, was modified by increasing the concentrations of tryptone and yeast extract while completely removing NaCl from the medium. The resulting modified LB (MLB) medium achieved an almost 3.0-fold increase in PLP yield (152 mg l(-1)) when compared with the original LB broth. The addition of vegetable oils (2-6% [v/v]) to the fermentation broth markedly enhanced PLP production. PLP yields of 525, 579, and 790 mg l(-1) were obtained when the MLB medium was supplemented with 4% soybean oil, 4% olive oil and 6% sunflower oil, respectively. PLP production was found to be positively correlated with extracellular surface emulsification activity, suggesting a link between the PLP production and the presence of biosurfactant. This work shows that the optimal medium for PLP yield was sunflower oil (6%)-supplemented MLB medium, which resulted in an approximately 14-fold higher PLP yield than that in LB broth. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis indicated that the PLP product is a prodigiosin derivative, called undecylprodigiosin.

  15. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Robert; Venus, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016) [1]". This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  16. Corneal keratocyte transition to mesenchymal stem cell phenotype and reversal using serum-free medium supplemented with FGF-2, TGF-ß3 and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Sidney, Laura E; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2016-09-29

    Keratocytes of the corneal limbal stroma can derive populations of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) when expanded in vitro. However, once a corneal MSC (cMSC) phenotype is achieved, regaining the keratocyte phenotype can be challenging, and there is no standardised differentiation medium. Here, we investigated the transition of keratocytes to cMSC and compared different supplements in their ability to return cMSC to a keratocyte phenotype. Immunofluorescence and RT-qPCR demonstrated in vivo keratocyte expression of ALDH3A1, CD34 and keratocan, but not any of the typical MSC markers (CD73, CD90, CD105). As the keratocytes were expanded in vitro, the phenotypic profile reversed and the cells expressed MSC markers but not keratocyte markers. Differentiating the cMSC back to a keratocyte phenotype using non-supplemented, serum-free medium restored keratocyte markers but did not maintain cell viability or support corneal extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Supplementing the differentiation medium with combinations of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) and retinoic acid (RA) maintained viability, restored expression of CD34, ALDH3A1 and keratocan, and facilitated production of abundant ECM as shown by immunofluorescent staining for collagen-I and lumican, alongside quantitative assays for collagen and glycosaminoglycan production. However, no differentiation medium was able to downregulate the expression of MSC markers in the 21-day culture period. This study shows that the keratocyte to MSC transition can be partially reversed using serum-free media and supplementation with RA, FGF-2 and TGF-β3 can enhance this effect. This is relevant for development of corneal regenerative strategies that require the production of a keratocyte phenotype.

  17. Effect of sericin supplementation in maturation medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, F; Hajarian, H; Shabankareh, H Karami; Abdolmohammadi, A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sericin with different concentrations (0% [control], 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.5%) added to the IVM medium on cumulus cell expansion, oocyte nuclear maturation, and subsequent embryo development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season. The resumption of meiosis was assessed by the frequency of germinal vesicle breakdown and the first polar body extrusion. After IVF with fresh ram semen, presumptive zygotes were cultured 8 days in potassium simplex optimization medium supplemented by amino acids, and the percentages developing to the two-cell and blastocyst stages were measured as the indicators of early embryonic developmental competence. More cumulus-oocyte complexes matured with 0.5% sericin underwent germinal vesicle breakdown and reached metaphase II stage compared with the control cumulus-oocyte complexes matured without sericin (P ≤ 0.05). The present findings indicated that supplementation with 0.5% sericin during the maturation culture may improve the nuclear maturation and the cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of blastocysts obtained from 0.5% and 0.1% sericin (37.8 ± 1.76% and 34.8 ± 1.09%, respectively) was higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the control medium (29.60 ± 1.67%). However, addition of 1% and 2.5% of sericin to the IVM medium oocytes had a negative effect on nuclear maturation and cumulus cell expansion. Furthermore, the percentage of cleavage and blastocyst rate was significantly lower in the 1% and 2.5% sericin groups than in the control group. These findings showed that supplementation of IVM medium with 0.5% sericin may improve the meiotic competence of oocytes and early embryonic development in Sanjabi ewes during the breeding season.

  18. A simple and effective method for the removal of trace metal cations from a mammalian culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M H; Suzuki, K T

    1995-07-01

    Direct batch addition of sterile Chelex ion-exchange resin to Dubecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum with gentle stirring removed a very wide variety of trace metal ions from the medium to varying extents dependent upon Chelex content (between 0.01 and 4% w/v), exposure time (between 5 min and 10 days) and temperature (4, 25 and 37 degrees C). Prolonged treatment (10 days) with 4% w/v Chelex at 4 degrees C reduced the concentration of zinc, strontium, aluminum, copper, manganese, nickel and chromium from 100 to 2.7, 12.1, 7.7, 22.6, 13.0, 14.7 and 53.3% of their original concentrations, respectively. Re-supplementation of the metal depleted medium with a defined cocktail of metals restored the growth potential of the medium which was then capable of supporting growth over at least three subcultures without a decrease in fibroblast cell yield, demonstrating its suitability in cell culture studies on trace metal ions.

  19. Effect of protein supplementation and presence of an antioxidant on the development of bovine zygotes in synthetic oviduct fluid medium under high or low oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, P; O'Kearney-Flynn, M; Boland, M P

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of protein supplementation of culture medium and the presence of a putative antioxidant on bovine zygote development under 5% (low) and 20% (high) O2. In Experiment 1, presumptive zygotes (n=992) were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) alone or supplemented with 3 mg/mL PVP, 3 mg/mL BSA (SOFB), and/or 10% FCS (SOFBF) in 5% CO2, 5% O2, 90% N2. In Experiment 2, zygotes (n=1916) were cultured in SOF, SOFB or SOFBF with or without taurine under high and low O2. In Experiment 1, presence of BSA or BSA plus FCS significantly increased the speed of development compared to SOF or SOF+PVP. Blastocyst quality was also improved, as evidenced by increased hatching rate and cell numbers. In Experiments 2, taurine had no effect on development irrespective of oxygen concentration or protein supplementation. In conclusion, the presence of protein in the culture medium and culture under reduced O2 significantly improved embryo development. Taurine had no effect on development.

  20. Tooth Tissue Engineering: The Importance of Blood Products as a Supplement in Tissue Culture Medium for Human Pulp Dental Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pisciolaro, Ricardo Luiz; Duailibi, Monica Talarico; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Juliano, Yara; Pallos, Debora; Yelick, Pamela Crotty; Vacanti, Joseph Phillip; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Duailibi, Silvio Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    One of the goals in using cells for tissue engineering (TE) and cell therapy consists of optimizing the medium for cell culture. The present study compares three different blood product supplements for improved cell proliferation and protection against DNA damage in cultured human dental pulp stem cells for tooth TE applications. Human cells from dental pulp were first characterized as adult stem cells (ectomesenchymal mixed origin) by flow cytometry. Next, four different cell culture conditions were tested: I, supplement-free; II, supplemented with fetal bovine serum; III, allogeneic human serum; and IV, autologous human serum. Cultured cells were then characterized for cell proliferation, mineralized nodule formation, and colony-forming units (CFU) capability. After 28 days in culture, the comet assay was performed to assess possible damage in cellular DNA. Our results revealed that Protocol IV achieved higher cell proliferation than Protocol I (p = 0.0112). Protocols II and III resulted in higher cell proliferation than Protocol I, but no statistical differences were found relative to Protocol IV. The comet assay revealed less cell damage in cells cultured using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. The damage percentage observed on Protocol II was significantly higher than all other protocols. CFUs capability was highest using Protocol IV (p = 0.0018) and III, respectively, and the highest degree of mineralization was observed using Protocol IV as compared to Protocols II and III. Protocol IV resulted in significantly improved cell proliferation, and no cell damage was observed. These results demonstrate that human blood product supplements can be used as feasible supplements for culturing adult human dental stem cells.

  1. A novel chemical-defined medium with bFGF and N2B27 supplements supports undifferentiated growth in human embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yanxia; Song Zhihua; Zhao Yang; Qin Han; Cai Jun; Zhang Hong; Yu Tianxin; Jiang Siming; Wang Guangwen; Ding Mingxiao; Deng Hongkui . E-mail: hongkui_deng@pku.edu.cn

    2006-07-21

    Traditionally, undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells or on matrigel with an MEF-conditioned medium (CM), which hampers the clinical applications of hESCs due to the contamination by animal pathogens. Here we report a novel chemical-defined medium using DMEM/F12 supplemented with N2, B27, and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) [termed NBF]. This medium can support prolonged self-renewal of hESCs. hESCs cultured in NBF maintain an undifferentiated state and normal karyotype, are able to form embryoid bodies in vitro, and differentiate into three germ layers and extraembryonic cells. Furthermore, we find that hESCs cultured in NBF possess a low apoptosis rate and a high proliferation rate compared with those cultured in MEF-CM. Our findings provide a novel, simplified chemical-defined culture medium suitable for further therapeutic applications and developmental studies of hESCs.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  3. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Basal cell cancer is a malignant skin tumor involving cancerous changes of basal skin cells. Basal cell skin cancers ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and ...

  4. Strategies for reducing supplemental medium cost in bioethanol production from waste house wood hydrolysate by ethanologenic Escherichia coli: inoculum size increase and coculture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Naoyuki; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Katakura, Yoshio; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report a simultaneous realization of both efficient ethanol production and saving medium nutrient (corn steep liquor [CSL]) during bioethanol fermentation of overliming-treated hydrolysate of waste house wood (WHW) using ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11. In cultivation using WHW hydrolysate supplemented with 4% (v/v) CSL and 0.2 g-dry cell weight (DCW)/l E. coli KO11 cells, the overall ethanol yield reached 84% of the theoretical value at 61 h. When we conducted the cultivation with 1% CSL to reduce the supplemental medium cost, the overall ethanol yield remained in the range of 66-72% even at 90 h. We proposed two alternative methods for increasing the overall yield even with 1% CSL. The first method involved increasing the inoculum size of E. coli KO11 up to 0.8 g-DCW/l, where 83% of the overall yield was attained at 60 h of cultivation. The second method involved the coculture of 0.2 g-DCW/l E. coli KO11 together with 0.02 g-DCW/l of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ1, and the overall yield reached 81% at 47 h of cultivation.

  5. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, P; Boon, N; Goel, G; Yuangklang, C; Schonewille, J Th; Hendriks, W H; Fievez, V

    2013-12-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on rumen fermentation, protozoal counts and archaeal abundance, as well as their diversity and functional organization. KO contains similar amounts of C12:0 as CO (420 and 458 g/kg FA, respectively), but has a higher proportion of C14:0 (464 v. 205 g/kg FA, respectively). Treatments contained 35 g supplemental fat per kg DM: a control diet with tallow (T); a diet with supplemental CO; and a diet with supplemental KO. A 4th treatment consisted of a diet with similar amounts of MCFA (i.e. C10:0+C12:0+C14:0) from CO and KO. To ensure isolipidic diets, extra tallow was supplied in the latter treatment (KO+T). Eight fistulated bulls (two bulls per treatment), fed a total mixed ration predominantly based on cassava chips, rice straw, tomato pomace, rice bran and soybean meal (1.5% of BW), were used. Both KO and CO increased the rumen volatile fatty acids, in particular propionate and decreased acetate proportions. Protozoal numbers were reduced through the supplementation of an MCFA source (CO, KO and KO+T), with the strongest reduction by KO. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays based on archaeal primers showed a decrease in abundance of Archaea when supplementing with KO and KO+T compared with T and CO. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the rumen archaeal population did not result in a grouping of treatments. Richness indices were calculated from the number of DGGE bands, whereas community organization was assessed from the Pareto-Lorenz evenness curves on the basis of DGGE band intensities. KO supplementation (KO and KO+T treatments) increased richness and evenness within the archaeal community. Further research including methane

  6. Viability of rat spermatogenic cells in vitro is facilitated by their coculture with Sertoli cells in serum-free hormone-supplemented medium.

    PubMed Central

    Tres, L L; Kierszenbaum, A L

    1983-01-01

    Spermatogenic cells from 20- to 35-day-old rats were grown in vitro in the presence of Sertoli cells maintained in serum-free hormone/growth factor-supplemented medium and alternating high/low concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone in the medium. In cell reaggregation experiments, spermatogenic cells reassociate with Sertoli cells but not with peritubular cells or cell-free substrate. Autoradiographic experiments using [3H]thymidine as a labeled precursor for DNA synthesis show that spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes, connected by cytoplasmic bridges, have a synchronous S phase. [3H]Thymidine-labeled preleptotene spermatocytes progress until later stages of meiotic prophase. Time-lapse cinematographic studies of Sertoli/spermatogenic cell cocultures show three major movement patterns. While Sertoli cell cytoplasmic processes between adjacent cells display tensional forces, spermatogonia are engaged in oscillatory cell movements different from the nuclear rotation observed in meiotic prophase spermatocytes. Results of this study show that the proliferation of premeiotic cells and the differentiation of meiotic prophase cells do occur in vitro in association with Sertoli cells maintained in a medium that allows differentiated cell functions. Images PMID:6407012

  7. Characterization of the selective inhibition of growth of virulent Legionella pneumophila by supplemented Mueller-Hinton medium.

    PubMed Central

    Catrenich, C. E.; Johnson, W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenotypic difference between virulent and avirulent Legionella pneumophila with regard to growth on supplemented Mueller-Hinton (SMH) agar was investigated. Defined populations of virulent and avirulent L. pneumophila were inoculated onto hybrid growth media containing the combination of SMH agar components with potassium phosphate-buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar. The casein acid hydrolysate component of SMH agar was found to be inhibitory to the growth of virulent but not avirulent cells. The selectively inhibitory component of the casein acid hydrolysate was identified as NaCl. Images PMID:2722245

  8. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    PubMed

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  9. Effect of supplementation of different growth factors in embryo culture medium with a small number of bovine embryos on in vitro embryo development and quality.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, C J; Salvador, I; Cebrian-Serrano, A; Lopera, R; Silvestre, M A

    2013-03-01

    When embryos are cultured individually or in small groups, blastocyst yield efficiency and quality are usually reduced. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of supplementation of the embryo culture medium (CM) with several growth factors (GFs) on embryo development and apoptosis rate when a reduced number of embryos were in vitro cultured. Two experimental studies (ES) were carried out. In ES 1, five treatments were tested to study the effect of GF on embryo development: Control (∼30 to 50 embryos cultured in 500 μl of CM); Control 5 (Five embryos cultured in 50 μl microdrops of CM), without addition of GF in either of the two control groups; epidermal GF (EGF); IGF-I; and transforming GF-α (TGF-α) (Five embryos were cultured in 50 μl microdrops of CM with 10 ng/ml EGF, 10 ng/ml IGF-I or 10 ng/ml TGF-α, respectively). In ES 2, following the results obtained in ES 1, four different treatments were tested to study their effect on embryo development and quality (number of cells per blastocyst and apoptotic rate): Control; Control 5; EGF, all three similar to ES 1; EGF + IGF-I group (five embryos cultured in 50 μl microdrops of CM with 10 ng/ml EGF and 10 ng/ml IGF-I). In both ESs, it was observed that a higher proportion of embryos cultured in larger groups achieved blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in reduced groups (22.6% v. 14.0%, 12.6% and 5.3% for Control v. Control 5, IGF-I, TGF-α groups in ES 1, and 24.9% v. 17.1% and 19.0% for Control v. Control 5 and EGF in ES 2, respectively; P < 0.05), with the exception of embryos cultured in medium supplemented with EGF (18.5%) or with EGF + IGF-I (23.5%), in ES 1 and ES 2, respectively. With regard to blastocyst quality, embryos cultured in reduced groups and supplemented with EGF, alone or combined with IGF-I, presented lower apoptosis rates than embryos cultured in reduced groups without GF supplementation (11.6% and 10.5% v. 21.9% for EGF, EGF + IGF-I and Control 5 groups, respectively; P

  10. Caprine ovarian follicle requirements differ between preantral and early antral stages after IVC in medium supplemented with GH and VEGF alone or in combination.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, J; Leiva-Revilla, J; Vieira, L A; Apolloni, L B; Aguiar, F L N; Alves, B G; Lobo, C H; Rodrigues, A P R; Apgar, G A; Smitz, J; Figueiredo, J R; Maside, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of growth hormone (GH) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) added alone, sequentially or in combination, in the presence of insulin at physiological concentration (10 ng/mL) on the IVC of two different follicular categories: preantral (experiment 1; Exp.1) and early antral (experiment 2; Exp.2). Isolated follicles were individually cultured for 24 (Exp.1) and 18 days (Exp.2) in the following treatments: αMEM(+) (Control), or Control medium supplemented with 50 ng/mL GH (GH), 100 ng/mL VEGF (VEGF), the combination of both (GH + VEGF), GH during the first 12 days and VEGF from Day 12 until the end of the culture (GH/VEGF) and vice versa (VEGF/GH). At the end of the culture, cumulus-oocyte complexes from in vitro-grown follicles were recovered and subjected to IVM. The following end points were evaluated: Follicle morphology, growth rates and antrum formation, production of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, oocyte viability and meiotic stage, as well as relative expression of LHR, Amh, HAS2, PTGS2, CYP17, CYP19A1, and 3βHSD. A considerable amount of viable fully grown oocytes were recovered after the IVC of early antral follicles in all treatments. Nevertheless, the GH treatment presented the highest percentage of fully grown oocytes (60%), mean oocyte diameter (117.74 ± 2.61 μm), and meiotic resumption (50%). Furthermore, GH treatment produced higher (P < 0.05) rates of metaphase II oocytes than all the other treatments, and similar LHR, Amh, and PTGS2 transcript levels to in vivo. Contrary to early antral follicles, preantral follicles were not affected by medium supplementation. In conclusion, the addition of GH to a culture medium containing physiological concentrations of insulin improves oocyte growth and maturation after the IVC of goat early antral follicles.

  11. Supplementation of maturation medium with L-carnitine improves cryo-tolerance of bovine in vitro matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Somfai, Tamas; Inaba, Yasushi; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Nagai, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of adding L-carnitine (an enhancer of lipid metabolism) during IVM, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Oocytes matured in the absence (control) or presence (0.6 mg/mL) of L-carnitine were subjected to IVF and embryo culture after Cryotop vitrification or nonvitrification at the metaphase stage of the second meiotic cell division. Cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, and inner cell mass and trophectoderm cell numbers were determined. Also, ATP content in IVM oocytes was measured and intracellular lipid droplets were observed (Nile red staining and confocal microscopy). L-carnitine had no significant effect on the rate of matured oocytes. Vitrification reduced (P < 0.05) mean (±SEM) rates of live oocytes both in control (80.6 ± 1.9%) and L-carnitine groups (82.7 ± 5.1%) compared with nonvitrified oocytes (100%). After IVF, cleavage rates of vitrified control and L-carnitine groups (56.5 ± 3.9% and 62.8 ± 5.1%, respectively) were significantly lower than those in nonvitrified control and L-carnitine groups (83.9 ± 4.2% and 84.3 ± 1.3%). After vitrification, blastocyst formation rate in the L-carnitine group (54.4 ± 5.2%) was significantly higher compared with the control (34.9 ± 4.4%), and did not significantly differ from those in nonvitrified control and L-carnitine groups (52.1 ± 4.2% and 52.8 ± 3.0%). The numbers and ratio of inner cell mass and trophectoderm cells in blastocysts did not differ significantly among groups. The ATP content in L-carnitine-treated oocytes tended to be higher compared with the control. Vitrification did not reduce ATP content in oocytes, irrespective of L-carnitine treatment. Treatment with L-carnitine dislocated lipid droplets from the peripheral area to the inner cytoplasm. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation during IVM redistributed lipid droplets in oocytes; if they survived vitrification, their developmental competence was similar to

  12. Inhibition of calcineurin by FK506 stimulates germinal vesicle breakdown of mouse oocytes in hypoxanthine-supplemented medium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhen, Yan-Hong; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yan-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a serine/threonine phosphatase which plays important roles in meiosis maturation in invertebrate oocytes; however, the role of CN in mouse oocytes is relatively unexplored. In this study, we examined the expression, localization and functional roles of CN in mouse oocytes and granulosa cells. The RT-PCR results showed that the β isoform of calcineurin A subunit (Cn A) expressed significantly higher than α and γ isoforms, and the expression of Cn Aβ mRNA obviously decreased in oocytes in which germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) occurred, while only B1 of calcineurin B subunit (Cn B) was detected in oocytes and stably expressed during oocytes maturation. The following fluorescence experiment showed that Cn A was mainly located in the nucleus of germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and gruanlosa cells, and subsequently dispersed into the entire cytoplasm after GVBD. The decline of Cn A in oocytes suggested that it may play an important role in GVBD. To further clarify the role of calcineurin during meiotic maturation, FK506 (a calcineurin inhibitor) was used in the culture medium contained hypoxanthine (HX) which could keep mouse oocytes staying at GV stage. As expected, FK506 could induce a significant elevation of GVBD rate and increase the MPF level of denuded oocytes (DOs). Furthermore, FK506 could also play an induction role of GVBD of oocytes in COCs and follicles, and the process could be counteracted by MAPK kinase inhibitor (U0126). Above all, the results implied that calcineurin might play a crucial role in development of mouse oocytes and MPF and MAPK pathways are involved in this process. PMID:28243539

  13. Effects of supplementation of medium with different antioxidants during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes on subsequent embryo production.

    PubMed

    Sovernigo, T C; Adona, P R; Monzani, P S; Guemra, S; Barros, Fda; Lopes, F G; Leal, Clv

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different antioxidants on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM), as well as on the production of embryos. Oocyte of slaughterhouse-derived cattle ovaries were placed in IVM with different antioxidants: quercetin (2 μM), cysteamine (100 μM), carnitine (0.5 mg/ml), vitamin C (50 μg/ml) or resveratrol (2 μM). Oocytes matured without any antioxidant supplementation were used as control. The oocytes were assessed for maturation rates and for ROS and GSH levels by fluorescence staining in 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and Cell Tracker Blue, respectively. Embryo production was assessed in terms of cleavage, blastocysts and hatching rates and embryo cell numbers. The results expressed in arbitrary fluorescence units showed ROS reduction (p < .05) in the groups with quercetin (27.5 ± 3.4), vitamin C (27.1 ± 3.0) or resveratrol (28.1 ± 4.7), in comparison with those with cysteamine (34.9 ± 4.5), carnitine (34.6 ± 3.8) or to the control group (36.5 ± 5.2). GSH levels increased (p < .05) in cysteamine (63.5 ± 5.5) or carnitine (60.8 ± 4.4) groups in comparison with quercetin (52.7 ± 5.1), vitamin C (53.0 ± 3.8), resveratrol (53.1 ± 4.4) or to the control (49.6 ± 4.5). Nuclear maturation cleavage and hatched blastocysts rates did not differ (p > .05) between groups. However, blastocyst rates after in vitro fertilization in quercetin (53.5 ± 3.9%), vitamin C (52.1 ± 3.1%) resveratrol (54.2 ± 4.0%), cysteamine (52.4 ± 2.7%) or carnitine (54.2 ± 3.1%) groups were higher (p < .05) than in the control (47.2 ± 2.7%). Total cell numbers in embryos from the vitamin C, resveratrol, cysteamine or carnitine groups were higher than in quercetin and control groups, which were similar to each other. The results suggest that using antioxidants during IVM may reduce oxidative stress either

  14. Use of a long-chain triglyceride-restricted/medium-chain triglyceride-supplemented diet in a case of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Footitt, E J; Stafford, J; Dixon, M; Burch, M; Jakobs, C; Salomons, G S; Cleary, M A

    2010-12-01

    Malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.9, MCD) deficiency, or malonic aciduria, is a rare inborn error of metabolism characterised by a variable phenotype of developmental delay, seizures, cardiomyopathy and acidosis. There is no consensus for dietary treatment in this condition. This case describes the effect of a long-chain triglyceride (LCT)-restricted/medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-supplemented diet upon the progress of an affected child. A full-term Asian girl of birth weight 3590 g was screened for malonic aciduria after birth due to a positive family history. She had elevated urine malonic and methylmalonic acids and was presumably homozygous for a deleterious mutation in the MLYCD gene. Her echocardiography showed mild cardiomyopathy at 0.5 months of age, but heart function was good. She was treated with carnitine 100 mg/kg per day and continued a high-energy formula feed, as her growth was slow. At 3 months of age, echocardiography showed deteriorating cardiac function with a fractional shortening of 18%. She started an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (Captopril). Over the next few months, her diet was altered to comprise 1.9% energy from LCT, 25% from MCT and the remainder carbohydrate. Cardiac function improved and was optimal at 23 months of age, with a fractional shortening of 28% and good systolic function. During a period of low MCT intake, her cardiac function was noted to deteriorate. This reversed and stabilised following reinstatement of the diet. This case of malonic aciduria with cardiomyopathy demonstrates improvement in cardiac function attributable to LCT-restricted/MCT-supplemented diet.

  15. Combined epidermal growth factor and hyaluronic acid supplementation of in vitro maturation medium and its impact on bovine oocyte proteome and competence.

    PubMed

    Ríos, G L; Buschiazzo, J; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Cesari, A; Alberio, R H

    2015-03-15

    The conditions for in vitro oocyte maturation impact on cytoplasmic and nuclear processes in the oocyte. These events are differentially influenced by the nature of the maturation inducer and the presence of intact cumulus in cumulus-oocyte complexes. Epidermal growth factor is the main growth factor promoting oocyte maturation. Also, hyaluronic acid (HA) produced by cumulus cells is known to be responsible for the correct structural and functional organization of the cumulus during oocyte maturation. Therefore, we evaluated the developmental competence of bovine oocytes matured in vitro in a maturation medium supplemented with both EGF and HA, compared to FSH and fetal bovine serum (FBS). In addition, the impact of IVM conditions on the proteomic profile of metaphase II bovine oocytes was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured in two media: (1) 10 ng/mL EGF, 15 μg/mL HA, and 100-μM cysteamine and (2) 0.01 UI/mL rh-FSH and 10% FBS. The percentages of first polar body and embryo production and the kinetics of embryo development and oocyte proteomic profiles were analyzed. Oocytes matured in the presence of EGF-HA showed an increase (6%, P < 0.05) in the percentage of polar body extrusion. The blastocyst rate was 3% (P < 0.05) higher in the FSH-FBS group, but no differences were found in the rate of expanded blastocyst neither in total embryo production between IVM conditions. Cleavage rate of oocytes matured with FSH-FBS was 5% higher (P < 0.05) with respect to EGF-HA-matured oocytes when evaluated 30 hours after fertilization. However, at Day 7, those inseminated oocytes that underwent division at a correct timing showed that although there are still early blastocysts in the FSH-FBS condition, EGF-HA embryos have developed completely into blastocysts. Still, the production rate of those embryos that achieved expansion was similar between both maturation conditions. On the other hand, noncleaved presumptive

  16. Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8 ± 1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM + 33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM + 67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P < 0.05) total DM and organic matter (OM) than the non-supplemented group, but the intakes were not influenced (P > 0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) intake was observed in goats supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of E. brucei in the supplement mixture. The supplemented goats gained more (P < 0.05) weight than the control group. Apparent DM and OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P > 0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P < 0.05) for supplemented goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) for supplemented goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems.

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  18. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  19. Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.

    PubMed

    Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2000-08-01

    Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats.

  20. Sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed as a substitute for concentrate mix supplement in the diets of yearling washera rams fed on natural pasture hay as basal diet in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    In the mixed crop-livestock farming system of Ethiopia where crop residues are the major feed resources and concentrate supplement feeds are not common, home-grown legume protein sources can help to minimise the feed problem. A 69-day feeding experiment on sheep was conducted to evaluate the potential of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) cultivar Sanabor seed as a substitute for commercial concentrate supplement. Thirty yearling male intact Washera sheep with initial body weight of 21 ± 1.38 kg (mean ± SD) were used. The design was a randomised complete block design with six replications. The five experimental supplement feeds were 453 g concentrate (T1), 342 g concentrate + 74 g lupin seed (T2), 228 g concentrate + 147 g lupin seed (T3), 116 g concentrate + 219 g lupin seed (T4) and 290 g lupin seed (T5) in dry matter basis to supplement around 100 g crude protein per day per animal. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in total dry matter, crude protein, ash and organic matter intakes among treatments. The average daily body weight gain for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was 91, 79, 79, 87 and 74 g/day, respectively, and this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). It was concluded that blue lupin seed has a potential to substitute the commercial concentrate supplement feed in Ethiopia.

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  2. Pseudohypoparathyroidism with basal ganglia calcification

    PubMed Central

    Song, Cheng-Yuan; Zhao, Zhen-Xiang; Li, Wei; Sun, Cong-Cong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Parkinsonism can be secondary to many internal diseases, in some certain conditions, it seems that the clinical manifestations of parkinsonism presenting reversible. We report a case of patient with parkinsonism secondary to pseudohypoparathyroidism, who improved markedly after the supplement of serum calcium. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 52-year-old woman with acute parkinsonism was diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism after the conducting of brain computed tomography, laboratory examinations, and gene detection. The son of the patient was also examined and was diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism, who had ever complained of the history of epilepsy. The clinical manifestations of parkinsonism of the patient was reevaluated after the supplement of serum calcium according to the diagnosis. Interventions and outcomes: The brain computed tomography revealed the basal ganglia calcification of the patient, accompanying by serum hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Loss of function mutation also confirmed the diagnosis. Five days after the therapy targeting at correction of serum hypocalcemia, the patient improved greatly in dyskinesia. Lessons: This study reported a patient presenting as acute reversible parkinsonism, who was finally diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism. It indicated us that secondary parkinsonism should be carefully differentiated for its dramatic treatment effect. And the family history of seizures might be an indicator for the consideration of pseudohypoparathyroidism. PMID:28296742

  3. Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.

    PubMed

    Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

    2013-10-01

    The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production.

  4. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing.

  5. In vitro growth and organogenesis of Prosopis farcta plantlets (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae) in culture medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca++ and Na+.

    PubMed

    Stambouli, S; Bouzid, S; Dutuit, P; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to vary the mineral composition of the culture medium of Prosopis farcta seedlings per addition of Na+ and Ca++ ions with the aim to identify the culture media which support the growth and/or the expression of the in vitro plant organogenesis. The Na+ and Ca++ ions were added in the culture medium in various concentrations by taking the Gamborg medium, in which macroelements were diluted 10 times, as the basic one. After two months of culture, parameters relating to the vegetative development of plant seedlings and to the various expressions of organogenesis were measured. Weak concentrations in sodium and calcium ions as well as a weak concentration in Ca++ (0.1 mM) with 50 mM in Na+ support the best vegetative development of the plantlets. The most important percentage of plant seedlings presenting a bud initiation was obtained on a medium containing 0.1 mM of Na+ and 50 mM of Ca++. Our study defined several media likely to support in vitro development of Prosopis farcta plantlets allowing the selection of salt tolerant plants or cellular lines. Some other media were chosen for improving micropropagation of the species without adding growth substances.

  6. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  7. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters.

  8. Prospective Comparison of a New Chromogenic Medium, MRSASelect, to CHROMagar MRSA and Mannitol-Salt Medium Supplemented with Oxacillin or Cefoxitin for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Stoakes, Luba; Reyes, Romina; Daniel, Janis; Lennox, Gwen; John, Michael A.; Lannigan, Robert; Hussain, Zafar

    2006-01-01

    MRSASelect agar was compared to CHROMagar, mannitol-salt agar with oxacillin, and mannitol-salt agar with cefoxitin (MSA-CFOX) for the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The sensitivities and specificities were 97.3% and 99.8%, 82.9% and 99.1%, 80.2% and 79%, and 99.1% and 84.8%, respectively. MSA-CFOX and MRSASelect had a high sensitivity. MRSASelect, however, was more specific and proved to be a more reliable and rapid medium for the detection of MRSA. PMID:16455933

  9. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  10. Effect of pH, temperature and culture medium composition on the production of an extracellular cysteine proteinase by Micrococcus sp. INIA 528.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, A F; Fernández, J; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    1997-01-01

    Growth and proteinase production by Micrococcus sp. INIA 528 in a batch-operated laboratory fermentor were investigated, with trypticase soy broth as the basal medium for studies on optimum temperature, pH and medium composition. Maximum growth was recorded at 34 degrees C and pH 7.5, whereas optimum temperature and pH for proteinase production were 31 degrees C and pH 6.25. Maximum rate of enzyme production occurred during the late log and early stationary phases of growth. Addition of 5.0 g l-1 yeast extract, 1.0 g l-1 glucose, 1.0 g l-1 MgSO4 or 1.0 g l-1 K2HPO4 to basal medium resulted in a lower enzyme yield, but supplementation of basal medium with 2.5 g l-1 (NH4)2SO4 increased enzyme production by 45%. A high initial biomass added to fresh both supplemented with 2.5 g l-1 (NH4)2SO4 only increased enzyme activity by 19%, compared to the maximum enzyme activity achieved with the standard inoculum.

  11. Extracellular matrix (ECM) modulates the EGF-induced migration of liver epithelial cells in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Bade, E G; Nitzgen, B

    1985-04-01

    The influence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins collagen IV, laminin (LN), and fibronectin (FN) on the in vitro migration of epithelial cells was studied using the ECM migration track method (4) with preparations immunostained for LN and FN. The locomotion of rat liver epithelial cells stimulated to migrate in serum-free medium by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence of insulin is inhibited by substratum-bound FN. The inhibition is concentration-dependent up to 0.7 microgram of the protein per cm2. Neither LN nor collagen IV decreased the number of migrating cells, indicating that the inhibition is a specific effect of fibronectin. The data also indicate that the FN-mediated inhibition of migration is an additional and not alternative mechanism to the well-established contact inhibition of locomotion (1) which also occurs in liver epithelial cell cultures. The system is being used for a further analysis of the factors that influence migration of normal and neoplastic epithelial cells and the biochemical mechanisms underlying the migration reaction.

  12. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens.

  13. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in

  14. High bovine blastocyst development in a static in vitro production system using SOFaa medium supplemented with sodium citrate and myo-inositol with or without serum-proteins.

    PubMed

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Schmidt, M H; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    1999-09-01

    We describe a bovine embryo culture system that supports repeatable high development in the presence of serum or BSA as well as under defined conditions in the absence of those components. In the first experiment, embryo development in SOF with amino acids (SOFaa), sodium citrate (SOFaac) and myo-inositol (SOFaaci) and with BSA or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was compared with that in a M199 granulosa cell co-culture (M199 co-culture). Subsequently, development and cell numbers of blastocysts cultured under defined conditions in SOFaaci with PVA (SOFaaci-PVA), or under undefined conditions in SOFaaci with 5% cow serum (SOFaaci-CS) or M199 co-culture were compared. The repeatability of culture results in SOFaaci-CS was checked by weekly replicates (n = 30) spread over 11 months. The viability of embryos developed in SOFaaci-PVA was estimated by transfer of morphologically good blastocysts (n = 10) to synchronized recipients. In the second experiment, the effect of omitting CS or BSA from IVM and IVM-IVF on subsequent embryo development in SOFaaci-PVA or in SOFaaci-CS was investigated. Blastocyst development in SOFaa-PVA, SOFaac-PVA, SOFaa-BSA and M199 was 16 +/- 3b, 23 +/- 2ab, 30 +/- 8a and 36 +/- 7a%, respectively (Pab < 0.05). Additional inclusion of myoinositol resulted in 42 +/- 1a% blastocysts in SOFaaci-PVA vs 19 +/- 3b% in SOFaac-PVA, 47 +/- 7a% in SOFaac-BSA, and 36 +/- 7a% in M199 co-culture, respectively (Pab < 0.01). In 30 replicates, the average cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes in SOFaaci-CS were 87 +/- 4 and 49 +/- 5%, respectively. Five normal calves were produced after transfer of 10 blastocysts developed in defined culture medium (i.e., SOFaaci-PVA). Defined IVM or IVM-IVF (i.e., in absence of CS and BSA) reduced cleavage rates (83 +/- 3 and 55 +/- 3% vs 90 +/- 1% in presence of CS; P < 0.01). Subsequent embryo development in SOFaaci-CS was not affected in either of these defined conditions. However, cleavage and blastocyst rates under completely

  15. Developmental competence and embryo quality of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goats cultured in IVM medium supplemented with low level of hormones, insulin-transferrin-selenium and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Hammami, S; Morató, R; Romaguera, R; Roura, M; Catalá, M G; Paramio, M T; Mogas, T; Izquierdo, D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and L-ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation and the hormonal level during in vitro maturation (IVM) of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goat on the blastocyst yield and quality. Concretely, we used four maturation media: conventional IVM medium (CM), growth medium (GM: CM+ITS+AA and low level of hormones), modified CM (mCM: CM with low level of hormones) and modified GM (mGM: CM+ITS+AA and normal level of hormones). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified into two categories according to oocyte diameter: <125 μm and ≥ 125 μm. Large oocytes were matured 24 h in CM (Treatment A). Small oocytes were matured randomly in six experimental groups: Treatment B: 24 h in CM; Treatment C: 12 h in GM and 12 h in CM; Treatment D: 24 h in mGM; Treatment E: 12 h in mGM and 12 h in CM; Treatment F: 12 h in mCM and 12 h in CM; and Treatment G: 12 h in GM and 12 h in mGM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized and cultured for 8 days. The blastocyst quality was assessed by the survival following vitrification/warming and the mean cell number. When different maturation media were combined, the blastocyst rate did not improve. The large oocytes produced the highest blastocysts yield. However, the culture of small oocytes in GM (53.3%) enhanced the post-warming survival of blastocysts compared to large oocytes matured in CM (35.7%). In conclusion, IVM of pre-pubertal goat small oocytes in GM would be useful to improve the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts.

  16. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  17. Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-25

    Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications.

  18. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Sports Supplements? How Some Common Supplements Affect the Body Will Supplements ... improving your sports performance is probably on your mind. Lots of people wonder if taking sports supplements ...

  19. Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production and Lactobacillus species growth in a defined medium simulating vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Stingley, Robin L; Liu, Huanli; Mullis, Lisa B; Elkins, Christopher A; Hart, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Lactobacillus species are commensal with the healthy vaginal environment and inhibit the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the vaginal tract by a variety of mechanisms, such as the production of hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and antimicrobial substances. Simulation of the vaginal environment is crucial for proper investigation of the effects of Lactobacillus species on pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we modified a medium used to simulate vaginal secretions to improve the growth of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus clinical strains and Lactobacillus species so that interactions between these bacteria may be examined. A medium consisting of basal salts, vitamins, albumin, glycogen, mucin, urea, sodium bicarbonate, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate, and amino acids supported the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 as determined by Western analysis. Improved growth of the Lactobacillus species was seen when this same medium was supplemented with manganese chloride, sodium acetate, and an increase in glucose concentration. However, growth of S. aureus in the supplemented medium resulted in reduced levels of TSST-1. Production of TSST-1 was not detected in a medium routinely used for the growth of Lactobacillus species although S. aureus growth was not inhibited. The development of an improved genital tract secretion medium provides a more authentic environment in which to study the interactions of Lactobacillus species and vaginal pathogens, such as S. aureus.

  20. Children's Literature in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen A.

    Three basal reading series, levels kindergarten through grade three, were studied to categorize the types of literature each contained. The following series were analyzed: "The Headway Program" (Open Court Publishing Company), "Series r Macmillan Reading," and "Basics in Reading" (Scott, Foresman and Company). It was…

  1. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  2. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  3. Novel culture medium for the axenic growth of Balamuthia mandrillaris.

    PubMed

    Lares-Jiménez, Luis Fernando; Gámez-Gutiérrez, Ricardo Alfredo; Lares-Villa, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Until now, for axenic cultivation of Balamuthia mandrillaris, the BM-3 culture medium and the Modified Chang's special medium have been the only ones recommended, but they have some disadvantages, as both require many components and their preparations are laborious. Therefore, we developed a novel culture medium for B. mandrillaris axenic cultivation. Each one of the 11 components of BM-3 was combined with Cerva's medium as basal culture medium. Ten strains of B. mandrillaris including the reference strain CDC:V039 and 9 environmental isolates were used during trials. After testing all combinations, the basal medium complemented with 10× Hank's balanced salt solution was the only one that supported confluent growth of B. mandrillaris. Cell shape and motility of trophozoites were normal. This developed medium is as useful as BM-3 for axenization. The development of a cheaper and easy-to-prepare medium for B. mandrillaris opens the possibility of increasing its study.

  4. Examining Dictionary Instruction in Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; And Others

    This study explored the nature of dictionary instruction in several basal reading series. Three basal reading series from major academic publishers (Scott Foresman, Ginn, and Holt) with 1989 copyrights, were selected for detailed analysis. Results indicated that even where the professed aim of the basal reading series was to incorporate dictionary…

  5. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  6. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  7. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  8. Creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Trojian, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. The most common adverse effect is transient water retention in the early stages of supplementation. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. Further studies are needed to evaluate the remote and potential future adverse effects from prolonged creatine supplementation.

  9. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  10. Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

  11. Serum-free growth of human mammary epithelial cells: rapid clonal growth in defined medium and extended serial passage with pituitary extract

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, S.L.; Ham, R.G.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    A serum-free medium with bovine pituitary extract as the only undefined supplement has been developed for long-term culture of human mammary epithelial cells. This medium supports serial subculture of normal cells for 10-20 passages (1:10 splits) without conditioning or special substrates, and it supports rapid clonal growth with plating efficiencies up to 35%. It consists of an optimized basal nutrient medium, (MCDB 170, supplemented with insulin, hydrocortisone, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, phosphoethanolamine, and bovine pituitary extract. Replacement of pituitary extract with prostaglandin E/sub 1/ and ovine prolactin yields a defined medium that supports rapid clonal growth and serial subculture for three of four passages. Cultures initiated in these media from normal reduction mammoplasty tissue remain diploid and maintain normal epithelia morphology, distribution of cell-associated fibronectin, expression of keratin fibrils, and a low level of expression of milk fat globule antigen. Large cell populations can now be generated and stored frozen, permitting multiple experiments over a period of time with cells from a single donor. These media greatly extend the range of experiments that can be performed both conveniently and reproducibly with cultured normal and tumor-derived human mammary epithelial cells. 31 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  12. BASAL BODIES, BUT NOT CENTRIOLES, IN NAEGLERIA

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Chandler; Dingle, Allan D.

    1971-01-01

    Amebae of Naegleria gruberi transform into flagellates whose basal bodies have the typical centriole-like structure. The amebae appear to lack any homologous structure, even during mitosis. Basal bodies are constructed during transformation and, in cells transforming synchronously at 25°C, they are first seen about 10 min before flagella are seen. No structural precursor for these basal bodies has been found. These observations are discussed in the light of hypotheses about the continuity of centrioles. PMID:4942778

  13. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  15. Effects of the composition of the basal diet on the evaluation of mineral phosphorus sources and interactions with phytate hydrolysis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Shastak, Y; Zeller, E; Witzig, M; Schollenberger, M; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the availability of P from mineral phosphate sources by using different basal diets and measurement of P retention and prececal (pc) P digestibility as well as pc myo-inositol phosphate (InsP) degradation in broilers. Semi-synthetic and corn-soybean meal-based basal diets were used in experiment 1, and corn-based and wheat-based basal diets were used in experiment 2. Anhydrous monosodium phosphate (MSPa) or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPh) was supplemented to increment the P concentration by 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15% or by 0.075 and 0.150% in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Diets were pelleted through a 3-mm screen. In experiment 1, retention was measured based on total excreta collection from 20 to 24 d of age using 7 replicated birds per diet. In experiment 2, digesta from the terminal ileum was collected from 22-d-old broilers penned in groups of 19 with 5 replicated pens per diet. The P retention response to supplemented MSPa did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 1. The response in pc P digestibility to MCPh supplements also did not differ between the 2 basal diets in experiment 2, as calculated by linear regression analysis. Hydrolysis of InsP6 measured on both the excreta and pc levels was high in the basal diets without a mineral P supplement. Mineral P supplementation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) InsP6 hydrolysis from the InsP-containing diets in both experiments. Thus, the choice of the basal diet did not affect the evaluation of the supplemented mineral P source. However, calculated values for mineral P sources need to be adjusted for the decline in hydrolysis of InsP contained in the basal diet that results from the P supplement.

  16. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, Jelena; Stanić, Dušanka; Dmitrašinović, Gordana; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Batinić, Bojan; Popović, Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572. PMID:27042258

  17. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  18. The growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betanine when growing anaerobically.

  19. The growth of paracoccus halodenitrificans in a defined medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A synthetic medium, consisting of inorganic salts and any of a number of carbon sources, supported the aerobic growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans when supplemented with thiamine. The same medium plus a nitrogenous oxide supported anaerobic growth when additionally supplemented with methionine. The observation that vitamin B12 or betaine replaced methionine suggested that P. halodenitrificans had a defect in the cobalamin dependent pathway for methionine biosynthesis, as well as the inability to synthesize betaine when growing anaerobically.

  20. Effects of medium concentration on antibody production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody production by two different cell lines was measured as the media were supplemented with varied amounts of glucose and fetal bovine serum. Both cell lines elaborated antidinitrophenyl hapten antibodies. Two basic media were used: RPMI 1640 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The production of antibodies was followed from 0 to 180 h and was assayed by radioimmunoassay.

  1. Transmission of basal variability to a glacier surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar

    2003-05-01

    Transmission of basal variability to a glacier surface is investigated using analytical models for a linearly viscous medium. The three-dimensional transient response of the surface to both bedrock undulations and spatial variations in basal slipperiness for perturbations of arbitrary wavelengths is determined using perturbation methods. Both information transfer toward the surface and lateral transmission of horizontal stresses are strongly affected by the slip ratio, that is, the ratio of basal sliding to deformational velocity. For any mean bedrock slope, and above a minimum value of slip ratio, the amplitude transfer of bedrock undulations toward the surface has a local maximum at undulation span corresponding to about 3-8 times the mean ice thickness. The transmission of basal variability to a glacier surface increases quite significantly with increasing slip ratio. This explains why the surfaces of fast flowing ice streams are more undulating than the slower moving bordering areas. At slip ratios higher than about 100, the flow of glaciers and ice sheets becomes nonlocal in the sense that surface velocities and buildup and propagation of surface undulations cannot be calculated accurately on the basis of local thickness and slope. Using linearized long-wave theories at these slip ratios, instead of the more accurate arbitrary wavelength theory, gives estimates of decay times that are an order-of-magnitude too small and phase velocities several times too large. The problem of the propagation and decay of small-amplitude surface undulations on glaciers in three dimensions is solved. Small-amplitude surface waves on glaciers are strongly diffusive and dispersive. Redistribution of mass on ice sheets and glaciers is a diffusion process, and it is misleading, albeit not mathematically incorrect, to describe the reaction of glaciers to surface perturbations in terms of a wave propagation.

  2. Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves.

  3. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  4. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  5. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  6. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic

  7. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  8. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G; Conway, Kathleen; Dressler, Lynn G; Smith, Lisa V; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2008-05-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified "intrinsic" breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity.

  9. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.Herbal health products and supplements are available in ... wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in ...

  10. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with C3-monocarboxylates and C4-dicarboxylates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to examine aerobic growth of Campylobacter spp. in media supplemented with C4-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, or malate) and C3-monocarboxylates (pyruvate or lactate). Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplement...

  11. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  12. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  13. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Memory.

    PubMed

    Blake, M G; Boccia, M M

    2017-02-18

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex. The septohippocampal pathway is a bidirectional pathway constituting the main septal efferent system, which is widely known to be implicated in every memory process investigated. The present work aims to review the main neurotransmitter systems involved in modulating cognitive processes related to learning and memory through modulation of basal forebrain neurons.

  14. A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice.

    PubMed

    Enard, Wolfgang; Gehre, Sabine; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Hölter, Sabine M; Blass, Torsten; Somel, Mehmet; Brückner, Martina K; Schreiweis, Christiane; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Becker, Lore; Wiebe, Victor; Nickel, Birgit; Giger, Thomas; Müller, Uwe; Groszer, Matthias; Adler, Thure; Aguilar, Antonio; Bolle, Ines; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Dalke, Claudia; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Favor, Jack; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Javaheri, Anahita; Kalaydjiev, Svetoslav; Kallnik, Magdalena; Kling, Eva; Kunder, Sandra; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Naton, Beatrix; Racz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Schrewe, Anja; Busch, Dirk H; Graw, Jochen; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schulz, Holger; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Fisher, Simon E; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Arendt, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Fischer, Julia; Schwarz, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-05-29

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution due to effects on aspects of speech and language. Here, we introduce these substitutions into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice. Although these mice are generally healthy, they have qualitatively different ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased exploratory behavior and decreased dopamine concentrations in the brain suggesting that the humanized Foxp2 allele affects basal ganglia. In the striatum, a part of the basal ganglia affected in humans with a speech deficit due to a nonfunctional FOXP2 allele, we find that medium spiny neurons have increased dendrite lengths and increased synaptic plasticity. Since mice carrying one nonfunctional Foxp2 allele show opposite effects, this suggests that alterations in cortico-basal ganglia circuits might have been important for the evolution of speech and language in humans.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Forman, Seth B; Ferringer, Tammie C; Garrett, Algin B

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old white male with a basal cell carcinoma of the left thumb nail unit. Excision of the tumor via Mohs micrographic surgery was completed in 2 stages. The defect was repaired with a full thickness skin graft. Five months later the nail unit healed without complications. Prior to this report, 21 cases of basal cell carcinoma have been reported in the world literature. This case, as well as the prior reports, are reviewed with a focus on time to diagnosis, location, excisional technique, and method of repair.

  16. Perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation is not supported by evidence.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Dylan W; Kars, Marleen

    2008-10-01

    Ever since the first descriptions of adrenal insufficiency following exogenous supplementation physicians dread to abolish perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation. Now, 55 years after the first publications we can challenge those first reports. However, these cases have resulted in the supplementation of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticosteroids to patients that use exogenous corticosteroids: the so-called perioperative glucocorticosteroid supplementation or "(gluco)corticosteroid stress scheme". It is very questionable whether a dose that exceeds the normal daily production of 5.7 mg cortisol per square meter of body surface area is necessary to prevent perioperative hypotension. Retrospective, prospective and randomised studies, though all methodologically flawed, are discussed and show that continuation of the "basal" amount of glucocorticosteroids is sufficient to counterbalance surgical stress. The current and rather defensive strategy of perioperative supraphysiological glucocorticosteroid supplementation is not embedded in medical evidence. Additionally, high doses of glucocorticosteroids have disadvantages that should not be ignored.

  17. Basal ganglia hemorrhage related to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, B; Castillo, M

    1995-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage after a lightning strike to the head documented by a CT scan. Review of the literature shows this to be the most common brain imaging finding that can be attributed to a lightning strike. Several mechanistic theories are discussed, with the most plausible one being related to preferential conduction pathways through the brain.

  18. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master…

  19. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  20. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  1. Basal Ganglia Germinoma in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Vialatte de Pémille, Clément; Bielle, Franck; Mokhtari, Karima; Kerboua, Esma; Alapetite, Claire; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial germinoma is a rare primary brain cancer, usually located within the midline and mainly affecting Asian pediatric patients. Interestingly, we report here the peculiar case of a young North-African adult patient suffering from a basal ganglia germinoma without the classical ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy associated with this location.

  2. Basal Textbooks and the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2010-01-01

    Basal textbooks are rather popular for social studies teachers to use in the classroom setting. There are selected reasons for this occurring. They do provide beginning and new teachers a framework for ongoing lessons and units of study. The accompanying Manual provides suggestions for learning activities for learners to pursue. Evaluation…

  3. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hung Quang; Zhou, Qing; Rowlett, Veronica W.; Hu, Huiqing; Lee, Kyu Joon; Margolin, William

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote. PMID:28049148

  4. Non-linear finite-amplitude transfer of basal perturbations to a glacier surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, M.; Gudmundsson, G. H.; Funk, M.

    2003-04-01

    Disturbances of surface topography and velocity fields on ice streams can be caused by spatial variations in basal properties. Understanding the relationship between basal and surface perturbations allows estimates of the role of basal control on the dynamics of ice streams to be made. This relationship is well understood for linear medium and small-amplitude basal perturbations where analytical methods can be applied. Studies of the non-linear problems have so far been limited to special cases where semi-analytical methods can be used. Here the transfer of basal variability to a glacier surface is investigated using a numerical model for non-linear ice rheology. Two dimensional steady-state transfer functions for both sinusoidal bedrock undulations and variations in till resistance are determined using Glen's flow law and the full momentum equation system. Amplitude ratios and phase shifts are calculated for wavelengths up to thousand times the mean ice thickness and compared with predictions based on small-amplitude perturbation theory.

  5. Humanized Foxp2 specifically affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    PubMed

    Reimers-Kipping, S; Hevers, W; Pääbo, S; Enard, W

    2011-02-23

    It has been proposed that two amino acid substitutions in the transcription factor FOXP2 have been positively selected during human evolution and influence aspects of speech and language. Recently it was shown that when these substitutions are introduced into the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice, they increase dendrite length and long-term depression (LTD) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we investigated if these effects are found in other brain regions. We found that neurons in the cerebral cortex, the thalamus and the striatum have increased dendrite lengths in the humanized mice whereas neurons in the amygdala and the cerebellum do not. In agreement with previous work we found increased LTD in medium spiny neurons, but did not detect alterations of synaptic plasticity in Purkinje cells. We conclude that although Foxp2 is expressed in many brain regions and has multiple roles during mammalian development, the evolutionary changes that occurred in the protein in human ancestors specifically affect brain regions that are connected via cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

  6. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  7. Probiotic supplementation and fast freezing to improve quality attributes and oxidation stability of frozen chicken breast muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation and fast freezing on quality attributes and oxidation stability of frozen/thawed chicken breast meat. Broilers were fed with a basal diet or the basal diet plus 250 ppm Sporulin (three strains of Bacillus subtilis)...

  8. Interplanetary medium data book. Supplement 3: 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    The updating of the hourly resolution, near-Earth solar wind data compilation is discussed. Data plots and listings are then presented. In the text, the time shifting of ISEE 3 fine-scale magnetic field and and plasma data, using corotation delay, and the normalization of IMP-MIT and ISEE densities and temperatures to equivalent IMP-LANL values, are discussed in detail. The levels of arbitrariness in combining data sets, and of random differences between data sets, are elucidated.

  9. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    PubMed

    2000-05-01

    Glasgow University in July 1999 as part of the Summer Meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. The invited speakers were chosen to be wide ranging and contributions encompassed evolution, circuitry and receptors of the basal ganglia, striatal remodelling after dopamine loss, striatal functioning in humans with Huntington's disease and in primate models after midbrain fetal transplants, and the genetics of basal ganglia disorders. Short presentations and posters of current results supplemented the main presentations and some are also included amongst these reviews.

  10. Personalized intensification of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes - does a basal-bolus regimen suit all patients?

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Sieradzki, J; Stefanski, A; Gentilella, R

    2016-08-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) require insulin therapy. If basal insulin fails to achieve glycemic control, insulin intensification is one possible treatment intensification strategy. We summarized clinical data from randomized clinical trials designed to compare the efficacy and safety of basal-bolus and premixed insulin intensification regimens. We defined a between-group difference of ≥0.3% in end-of-study glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as clinically meaningful. A PubMed database search supplemented by author-identified papers yielded 15 trials which met selection criteria: randomized design, patients with T2DM receiving basal-bolus (bolus injection ≤3 times/day) vs. premixed (≤3 injections/day) insulin regimens, primary/major endpoint(s) HbA1c- and/or hypoglycemia-related, and trial duration ≥12 weeks. Glycemic control improved with both basal-bolus and premixed insulin regimens with - in most cases - acceptable levels of weight gain and hypoglycemia. A clinically meaningful difference between regimens in glycemic control was recorded in only four comparisons, all of which favored basal-bolus therapy. The incidence of hypoglycemia was significantly different between regimens in only three comparisons, one of which favored premixed insulin and two basal-bolus therapy. Of the four trials that reported a significant difference between regimens in bodyweight change, two favored basal-bolus therapy and two favored premixed insulin. Thus, on a population level, neither basal-bolus therapy nor premixed insulin showed a consistent advantage in terms of glycemic control, hypoglycemic risk, or bodyweight gain. It is therefore recommended that clinicians should adopt an individualized approach to insulin intensification - taking into account the benefits and risks of each treatment approach and the attitude and preferences of each patient - in the knowledge that both basal-bolus and premixed regimens may be successful.

  11. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M’rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:27795755

  12. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  13. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  14. The effect of culture medium and carrier on explant culture of human limbal epithelium: A comparison of ultrastructure, keratin profile and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Meeta; Olstad, O K; Drolsum, Liv; Moe, Morten C; Smorodinova, Natalia; Kalasova, Sarka; Jirsova, Katerina; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Noer, Agate

    2016-12-01

    Patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) often experience pain and photophobia due to recurrent epithelial defects and chronic inflammation of the cornea. Successfully restoring a healthy corneal surface in these patients by transplantation of ex vivo expanded human limbal epithelial cells (LECs) may alleviate these symptoms and significantly improve their quality of life. The clinical outcome of transplantation is known to be influenced by the quality of transplanted cells. Presently, several different protocols for cultivation and transplantation of LECs are in use. However, no consensus on an optimal protocol exists. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of culture medium and carrier on the morphology, staining of selected keratins and global gene expression in ex vivo cultured LECs. Limbal biopsies from cadaveric donors were cultured for three weeks on human amniotic membrane (HAM) or on tissue culture coated plastic (PL) in either a complex medium (COM), containing recombinant growth factors, hormones, cholera toxin and fetal bovine serum, or in medium supplemented only with human serum (HS). The expanded LECs were examined by light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC) for keratins K3, K7, K8, K12, K13, K14, K15 and K19, as well as microarray and qRT-PCR analysis. The cultured LECs exhibited similar morphology and keratin staining on LM, TEM and IHC examination, regardless of the culture condition. The epithelium was multilayered, with cuboidal basal cells and flattened superficial cells. Cells were attached to each other by desmosomes. Adhesion complexes were observed between basal cells and the underlying carrier in LECs cultured on HAM, but not in LECs cultured on PL. GeneChip Human Gene 2.0 ST microarray (Affymetrix) analysis revealed that 18,653 transcripts were ≥2 fold up or downregulated (p ≤ 0.05). Cells cultured in the same medium (COM or HS) showed more similarities in gene

  15. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-12-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy. They are the preferred treatment for people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes who require insulin. This article reviews the basics of how insulin pumps work, who benefits from a pump, and how to manage inpatients and outpatients on insulin pumps.

  16. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  17. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution.

  18. Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that oscillate spontaneously, firing action potentials even in the absence of any synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed. Only variations in its timing can carry the message. Among cells of this type are all those making up the deeper nuclei of the basal ganglia, including both segments of the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus. These cells receive thousands of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, but no input is required to maintain the firing of the cells; they fire at approximately the same rate when the synapses are silenced. Instead, synaptic inputs produce brief changes in spike timing and firing rate. The interactions among oscillating cells within and among the basal ganglia nuclei produce a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and decorrelates the network, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson’s disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by all the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134

  19. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  20. Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  1. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  2. Dopamine release in the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action-potential and Ca2+ dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release, by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA and aceylcholie (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

  3. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  4. Fractionation of a Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is thought to be sustained by dynamo action in a convecting metallic outer core since at least 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Convection induces an isentropic temperature gradient that drains 13±3 TW of heat from the core by thermal conduction (de Koker et al., 2012; Pozzo et al., 2012; Gomi et al., 2013), and suggests that Earth's core has cooled by ˜1,000 K or more since Earth's formation (Gomi et al., 2013). However, models of Earth's initial thermal evolution following a giant-impact predict rapid cooling to the mantle melting temperature (e.g., Solomatov, 2007). In order to understand how the core could have retained enough heat to explain the age of the geodynamo, we relax a key assumption of the basal magma ocean model of (Labrosse et al., 2007) to allow for the possibility that the magma is stably stratified. Recent giant impact simulations suggest extensive core-mantle mixing (Saitoh and Makino, 2013), which could have produced such a large stratified magma layer at the core-mantle boundary. In the presence of a stable density gradient, heat transfer through the basal magma ocean occurs through conduction and therefore delays heat loss from the core. Partitioning of iron in the liquid phase upon crystallization changes the density profile and triggers convection in the upper part of the basal magma ocean. Our hypothesis suggests that early core cooling is dominated by the diffusion timescale through the basal magma ocean, and predicts a delayed onset of the geodynamo (i.e, during the late Headean/early Archean). This model can therefore be falsified if the existence of a geomagnetic field can be inferred from magnetization of inclusions in Hadean zircons. N. de Koker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 190, 4070-4073 (2012).H. Gomi et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 88-103 (2013).S. Labrosse et al., Nature 450, 866-869 (2007).M. Pozzo et al., Nature 485, 355-358 (2012).T. Saitoh and J. Makino. Astrophys. J. 768, 44 (2013).V

  5. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-01

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  6. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  7. Advanced treatment for basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

    2014-07-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists.

  8. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  9. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  10. Prolactin Promotes the Secretion of Active Cathepsin D at the Basal Side of Rat Mammary Acini

    PubMed Central

    Castino, Roberta; Delpal, Serge; Bouguyon, Edwige; Demoz, Marina; Isidoro, Ciro; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Cathepsin D (CD), a lysosomal aspartic protease present in mammary tissue and milk in various molecular forms, is also found in the incubation medium of mammary acini in molecular forms that are proteolytically active on prolactin at a physiological pH. Because prolactin controls the vesicular traffic in mammary cells, we studied, in vivo and in vitro, its effects on the polarized transport and secretion of various forms of CD in the rat mammary gland. CD accumulated in vesicles not involved in endocytosis in the basal region of cells. Prolactin increased this accumulation and the release of endosomal active single-chain CD at the basal side of acini. The CD-mediated proteolysis of prolactin, leading to the antiangiogenic 16-kDa form, at a physiological pH, was observed only in conditioned medium but not milk. These data support the novel concept that an active molecular form of CD, secreted at the basal side of the mammary epithelium, participates in processing blood-borne prolactin outside the cell, this polarized secretion being controlled by prolactin itself. PMID:18420735

  11. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  12. Synthetic laser medium

    DOEpatents

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  13. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  14. Multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma (BCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Sestini, S.; Stambouli, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2006-02-01

    We used two-photon microscopy towards the imaging of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Our aim was to evaluate the morphology of BCC using two-photon fluorescence excitation and to establish a correlation with histopathology. We built a custom two-photon microscope and we measured the system capabilities. The system allowed to perform a preliminary measurement on a fresh human skin tissue sample. A human skin tissue sample of BCC excised during dermatological surgery procedures were used. The clinical diagnosis of BCC was confirmed by subsequent histopathological examination. The sample was imaged using endogenous tissue fluorescence within 2-3 hours from the excision with a two photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope. The acquired images allowed an obvious discrimination of the neoplastic areas toward normal tissue, based on morphological differences and aberrations of the intensity of the fluorescence signal. Our results showed that BCC tissue has a more homogeneous structure in comparison to normal tissue as well as a higher fluorescent response. The images obtained by two photon microscopy were further compared to the images acquired by an optical microscope after the conventional histopathological examination on one part of the respective sample. Our suggested method may represent a new diagnostic tool that improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination alone, enabling the accurate discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue.

  15. Evolution of basal deuterostome nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2015-02-15

    Understanding the evolution of deuterostome nervous systems has been complicated by the by the ambiguous phylogenetic position of the Xenocoelomorpha (Xenoturbellids, acoel flat worms, nemertodermatids), which has been placed either as basal bilaterians, basal deuterostomes or as a sister group to the hemichordate/echinoderm clade (Ambulacraria), which is a sister group of the Chordata. None of these groups has a single longitudinal nerve cord and a brain. A further complication is that echinoderm nerve cords are not likely to be evolutionarily related to the chordate central nervous system. For hemichordates, opinion is divided as to whether either one or none of the two nerve cords is homologous to the chordate nerve cord. In chordates, opposition by two secreted signaling proteins, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, regulates partitioning of the ectoderm into central and peripheral nervous systems. Similarly, in echinoderm larvae, opposition between BMP and Nodal positions the ciliary band and regulates its extent. The apparent loss of this opposition in hemichordates is, therefore, compatible with the scenario, suggested by Dawydoff over 65 years ago, that a true centralized nervous system was lost in hemichordates.

  16. Origins of basal ganglia output signals in singing juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Morgane; Bollu, Tejapratap; Riccelli, Tori

    2014-01-01

    Across species, complex circuits inside the basal ganglia (BG) converge on pallidal output neurons that exhibit movement-locked firing patterns. Yet the origins of these firing patterns remain poorly understood. In songbirds during vocal babbling, BG output neurons homologous to those found in the primate internal pallidal segment are uniformly activated in the tens of milliseconds prior to syllable onsets. To test the origins of this remarkably homogenous BG output signal, we recorded from diverse upstream BG cell types during babbling. Prior to syllable onsets, at the same time that internal pallidal segment-like neurons were activated, putative medium spiny neurons, fast spiking and tonically active interneurons also exhibited transient rate increases. In contrast, pallidal neurons homologous to those found in primate external pallidal segment exhibited transient rate decreases. To test origins of these signals, we performed recordings following lesion of corticostriatal inputs from premotor nucleus HVC. HVC lesions largely abolished these syllable-locked signals. Altogether, these findings indicate a striking homogeneity of syllable timing signals in the songbird BG during babbling and are consistent with a role for the indirect and hyperdirect pathways in transforming cortical inputs into BG outputs during an exploratory behavior. PMID:25392171

  17. Microbial Experiments on Basal Ice from John Evans Glacier, Eastern Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, M.; Foght, J.; Sharp. M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent research on permanent-ice associated microorganisms has focused on surficial ice environments. We present evidence that, to the authors' knowledge, is the first example that aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be cultured at 4C from sediment-rich basal ice from a large polythermal Arctic glacier (John Evans Glacier). This builds on previous work in which we demonstrated that both aerobic and anaerobic microbes exist in viable populations in subglacial meltwaters at the same glacier, and that the populations increase with sediment concentration. This high Arctic glacier (at 80N) may be a reasonable terrestrial analog for martian polar environments, and hence the findings of this study may be important in assisting sampling program development for microbiology in the martian polar regions. Sterile samples of both debris-rich basal ice and debris-poor (clean) glacier ice were taken aseptically from the glacier margin in the spring of 1997 prior to the onset of the melt season to examine whether any observed microbial activity was linked to sediment concentration. The samples were melted slowly in a sterile environment and then incubated at 4C under nutrient-amended and nutrient-unamended conditions for three months. Parallel sterile and poisoned controls were included to account for abiotic processes. In all cases microbiological activity was recorded in the sediment-rich samples amended with growth medium. This indicates that viable anaerobic and aerobic bacteria were present in the debris-rich basal ice. The dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations and sigma-13-C DOC of unamended ice samples were also analyzed. DOC concentrations in the basal ice were 4x higher than in the clean ice. Furthermore, the sigma-13-C values of the DOC suggested different sources for the DOC in the two types of ice. The higher DOC values in the unamended basal ice samples suggest that there is in situ microbial activity in the subglacial sediments. This is supported by the presence

  18. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  19. Nerve growth factor corrects developmental impairments of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the trisomy 16 mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, P; Coyle, J T

    1991-01-01

    The trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse, which shares genetic and phenotypic homologies with Down syndrome, exhibits impaired development of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Basal forebrains obtained from Ts16 and euploid littermate fetuses at 15 days of gestation were dissociated and cultured in completely defined medium, with cholinergic neurons identified by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. The Ts16 cultures exhibited fewer ChAT-immunoreactive neurons, which were smaller and emitted shorter, smoother, and more simplified neurites than those from euploid littermates. Whereas the addition of beta-nerve growth factor (100 ng/ml) augmented the specific activity of ChAT and neuritic extension for both Ts16 and euploid cholinergic neurons, only Ts16 cultures exhibited an increase in the number and size of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, Ts16 ChAT-immunoreactive neurites formed varicosities only in the presence of beta-nerve growth factor. Images PMID:2000385

  20. Use of an industrial grade medium and medium enhancing effects on high cell density CO fermentation by Eubacterium limosum KIST612.

    PubMed

    Chang, In Seop; Kim, Daehee; Kim, Byung Hong; Lovitt, Robert W

    2007-08-01

    Studies were made on the composition of the growth medium to increase the cell concentration in a cell-recycled continuous culture (Eubacterium limosum KIST612) with carbon monoxide as a sole energy source using phosphate-buffered basal medium (PBBM) and modified PBBM. One of major limiting factors in PBBM might be nitrogen during the high cell density culture. This limitation could be overcome by increasing of inorganic nitrogen or yeast extract concentration in the medium. Anaerobic digester fluid, which could replace the organic nitrogen in PBBM, was used to develop an industrial grade medium for conversion of CO to multi-carbon compound.

  1. Supplements and athletes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John A

    2004-09-01

    Supplements have become a staple with athletes. Athletes take supplements to enhance their performance through replenishment of real and perceived deficiencies, anabolic action of stimulants, increased energy and alertness, and for weight control. Physicians who deal with athletes should be aware of the supplements being utilized by athletes, the athletes' desired effects and the efficacy of the supplement, the adverse effects, and whether the supplement is banned by leagues or organizations in which the athletes are competing. For those athletes who are regularly drug tested for performance enhancers, it is important to remember that one cannot be 100% sure that any supplement will not result in a positive drug test, because there is no independent agency certifying purity.

  2. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma.

  3. Growth of Campylobacter incubated aerobically in fumarate-pyruvate media or media supplemented with dairy, meat, or soy extracts and peptones.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    The ability of Campylobacter to grow aerobically in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with dairy, meat, or soy extracts or peptones was examined. Optical densities (OD) of Campylobacter cultured in basal media, media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% beef extract was measured. Growth was also compared in media supplemented with other extracts or peptones. Finally, cfu/mL of Campylobacter recovered from basal media or media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate, casamino acids, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract and soytone was determined. Results indicated that OD of cultures grown in media supplemented with fumarate-pyruvate or with 5.0 or 7.5% beef extract were higher than OD of isolates grown in basal media or media supplemented with lower concentrations of beef extract. Highest OD were produced by isolates grown in media supplemented with beef extract, peptone from meat, polypeptone, proteose peptone, or soytone. Also, more cfu/mL were recovered from media with fumarate-pyruvate, beef extract, soytone, or beef extract-soytone than from basal media or media with casamino acids. Findings indicate that media supplemented with organic acids, vitamins, and minerals and media supplemented with extracts or peptones containing these metabolites can support aerobic growth of Campylobacter.

  4. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-07-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC.

  5. The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or L-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, K H; Abo-El maaty, Amal M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the same basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids (CSFA) at 3% of the basal diet dry matter intake (1.4 kg/ewe/d); 250 ppm l-carnitine (LC); or both these supplements (CSFA+LC). All use exhibited natural estrus on one or two occasions and were weighed at the start and the end of the study as well as body condition score was assessed at the end of study. All ewes were then synchronised for estrus using intravaginal sponges for 12 d prior to the start of the nutritional treatments and three weeks after the nutritional treatments began. The nutritional treatments were imposed for a total of 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of treatments and every two weeks thereafter except after sponge removal of first and second synchronisation where the blood samples were collected daily for progesterone assay. The results revealed that Rahmani ewes received basal diet (control) and l-carnitine had significantly decrease final body weight and body condition score (36.3+/-0.4; 36.8+/-0.3; 2.2+/-0.04; 2.1+/-0.05; p<0.05, respectively) than those on CSFA and CSFA+LC (38.6+/-0.9; 39.5+/-0.6; 3.3+/-0.07; 3.4+/-0.06; respectively). At the second ultrasound examination, the control animals had significantly fewer total follicles (7.3+/-0.8; p<0.05) than those on the CSFA (8.4+/-0.8), l-carnitine (8.7+/-1.5) and CSFA+LC (8.0+/-0.6) treatments. The increased numbers occurred in the medium and large categories of follicles. In addition, the ovulation rates were significantly lower (p<0.05) for control (1.3+/-0.2) and l-carnitine (1.5+/-0.00) than for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3) and

  6. Ecdysteroids in Axenically Propagated Caenorhabditis elegans and Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Chitwood, D. J.; Feldlaufer, M. F.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroids (insect molting hormones) from Caenorhabditis elegans were chromatographically purified and quantified by radioimmunoassay. Nematodes from semidefined medium contained the immunoreactive equivalent of 460 pg ecdysone per gram dry weight. Culture medium, however, contained the immunoreactive equivalent of 68 times the quantity within the nematodes. In a defined medium lacking immunoreactivity, C. elegans contained 520 pg ecdysone equivalents per gram dry weight but reproduced slowly. Reproduction of C. elegans in defined medium was enhanced by formulation in agar. Propagation of C. elegans in either agar-based or aqueous defined medium supplemented with [¹⁴C]cholesterol of high specific activity failed to result in production of radiolabeled free ecdysteroids or polar or apolar ecdysteroid conjugates. Failure to demonstrate ecdysteroid biosynthesis in C. elegans raises questions about the ecdysteroids identified previously in nematodes being products of endogenous biosynthesis, a necessary condition for these compounds to be nematode hormones. PMID:19287765

  7. Cerebral energetic effects of creatine supplementation in humans.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Takahashi, K

    2007-04-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation to treat neurological disorders. However, in contrast to muscle physiology, there are relatively few studies of creatine supplementation in the brain. In this report, we use high-field MR (31)P and (1)H spectroscopic imaging of human brain with a 7-day protocol of oral Cr supplementation to examine its effects on cerebral energetics (phosphocreatine, PCr; ATP) and mitochondrial metabolism (N-acetyl aspartate, NAA; and Cr). We find an increased ratio of PCr/ATP (day 0, 0.80 +/- 0.10; day 7, 0.85 +/- 09), with this change largely due to decreased ATP, from 2.7 +/- 0.3 mM to 2.5 +/- 0.3 mM. The ratio of NAA/Cr also decreased (day 0, 1.32 +/- 0.17; day 7 1.18 +/- 0.13), primarily from increased Cr (9.6 +/- 1.9 to 10.1 +/- 2.0 mM). The Cr-induced changes significantly correlated with the basal state, with the fractional increase in PCr/ATP negatively correlating with the basal PCr/ATP value (R = -0.74, P < 0.001). As NAA is a measure of mitochondrial function, there was also a significant negative correlation between basal NAA concentrations with the fractional change in PCr and ATP. Thus healthy human brain energetics is malleable and shifts with 7 days of Cr supplementation, with the regions of initially low PCr showing the largest increments in PCr. Overall, Cr supplementation appears to improve high-energy phosphate turnover in healthy brain and can result in either a decrease or an increase in high-energy phosphate concentrations.

  8. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  9. Effects of the dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tian-xing; Song, Zeng-fu; Cai, Li-sheng; Ding, Xue-yan; Yu, Qing-sen

    2005-08-01

    Effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in Miichthys miiuy fries were investigated. Nine hundred Miichthys miiuy fries were divided into 3 groups, each with triplicates. The basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with carnitine groups were considered as the negative and positive controls respectively. Results showed that the nitrogen concentration in excreted feces decreased significantly in fries fed the diet supplementation with 1000 x 10(-6) fructooligosaccharides and 200 x 10(-6) carnitine (P<0.05). The ammonic-nitrogen concentration decreased significantly in the carnitine group only (P<0.05), indicating the decreasing tendency caused by the supplementation with fructooligosaccharides. Supplementation with both did not have significant effects on the concentration of phosphorus in feces of Miichthys miiuy fries.

  10. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  11. Seismic signals associated with basal processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röösli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Kisslin, Edi; Helmstetter, Agnes; Lüthi, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding ice sheet and glacier dynamics is crucial for modeling of ice mass balance and resulting sea level changes. Ice dynamics is strongly influenced by surface melt water accumulating at the glacier base and its effect on basal sliding. The relationship between surface melt and ice flow depends on hydraulic processes in the subglacial drainage system. However, both subglacial and englacial drainage systems are inherently difficult to investigate due to their remoteness, and basal processes to date remain poorly understood. Borrowing concepts from volcano studies, recent glacier studies are employing passive seismology as a supplement to traditional glaciological techniques. When monitoring the seismic activity of a glacier or an ice sheet, several different types of so-called 'icequakes' and some times even 'tremor' may be detected in the seismic records that is dominated by the large number of surficial icequakes. Deep icequakes may provide information about englacial water flow and basal motion in response to hydraulic events over a region whose size is only limited by seismic background noise and the aperture of the monitoring network. Here, we present results from a passive seismic deployment on western Greenland's ablation zone during summer 2011. The high-density seismometer network consisted of 17 three-component stations installed at the ice surface or in boreholes. We recorded a large variety of seismic signals, including thousands of near-surface crevasse events as well as dislocation events deep within the ice sheet and near its bed. We discuss these 'deep icequakes' in view of hydraulic processes and basal motion. Furthermore, the seismic deployment was part of larger field campaign including a deep drilling project and glaciological surface observations. This provides the unique opportunity to interpret the seismic monitoring results within the variety of observations including subglacial water pressures and other borehole measurements.

  12. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  13. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  14. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Supplements Dietary Supplements More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  15. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Medication > Other Treatments > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Share: Print Page Text ... magazine: meds-other, In this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements ...

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  17. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome).

    PubMed

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-11-25

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5-10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic

  18. Effects of high copper supplements on performance, health, plasma copper and enzymes in goats.

    PubMed

    Solaiman, S G.; Maloney, M A.; Qureshi, M A.; Davis, G; D'Andrea, G

    2001-08-01

    Six growing female Nubian goats (average BW=34.8+/-0.55kg, 7-8 months of age) were randomly assigned to either a basal diet (BD, 10-15ppm Cu/DM), or to medium Cu (MC, BD+50mgCu), or to high Cu (HC, BD+100mgCu) diets for 9 weeks. This level would cause Cu toxicity in sheep, but none occurred in the goats. Therefore, Cu supplementation was then increased to 150 and 300mg per head per day, for the following 14 weeks; to 300 and 600mg per head per day, for the next 8 weeks; and to 600 and 1200mg per head per day, for an additional 4 weeks, in the MC and HC group, respectively. Body weight and vital signs were recorded and blood samples collected at different time intervals. Hematological parameters, plasma Cu, sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were determined. At the termination of the study, tissue Cu concentration in different organs was also determined. During first 23 weeks (<300mgCu per day) of the study there were no apparent signs of Cu toxicity. Cu supplementation at 600mg per head per day in young Nubian does, had no effect on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and decreased (P<0.05) rectal temperature (RT) in the HC group only. Leukocyte counts were positively correlated with Cu supplementation (r=+0.296, P<0.02) and negatively correlated (r=-0.254, P<0.05) with RT in the HC group. Plasma SDH increased (P<0.05) when Cu supplementation was >/=300mg per head per day, thus, SDH may serve as an early indicator of Cu toxicosis in goats. Increases (P<0.05) in GOT were noted when Cu intake was >/=600mg per head per day. Contrary to the results observed for SDH and GOT, feeding goats 50mgCu per day or more, resulted in an increased plasma GGT as compared to BD goats. Levels of SDH, GOT and GGT of the BD goats were within normal range. Plasma Cu was not indicative of Cu status of animals. Copper improved ADG by 28% at the 100-150ppm level in diet. No relationship between Cu intake and hair

  19. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  20. Heterogeneity of basal keratinocytes: nonrandom distribution of thymidine-labeled basal cells in confluent cultures is not a technical artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Milstone, L.M.; LaVigne, J.F.

    1985-06-01

    Basal surface autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)dThd-labeled, confluent, keratinocyte cultures reveals that proliferating cells have a nonrandom, patterned distribution. Unlabeled cells, likewise, appear nonrandomly in clusters. The authors show here that failure to detect DNA synthesis in some basal cells in culture is not an artifact caused either by physical separation of the labeled nuclei from the radiographic emulsion or by a diffusion barrier that would prevent (/sup 3/H)dThd from reaching basal cells.

  1. Rippled-pattern basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misago, Noriyuki; Tsuruta, Noriko; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant cutaneous neoplasm, however, there have been few studies on BCC with a "rippled pattern" so far. We reviewed the 650 BCC specimens from the archives of our institution, and only one example of BCC with a rippled pattern was found. We herein report the histopathological characteristics of this case. Within the lesion, which showed the typical histopathological features of nodular BCC, there was a noticeable area composed of 10-15 basaloid aggregations, which showed the rippled pattern. The rippled pattern was characterized by alternating bands of epithelial cords of spindle-shaped basaloid cells and mucinous spaces. Characteristically, around the rippled-pattern area, neoplastic aggregations with a mucinous reticulated or cystic pattern (pseudo-tubular structures), and many cord-like structures were seen. A review of the published work and the present case suggested that the histopathological characteristics of rippled-pattern BCC are: (i) a nodular type of BCC; (ii) considerably rare; (iii) have frequent intervention by mucinous spaces between the epithelial cords; and (iv) no apparent divergent differentiation with folliculosebaceous-apocrine lineage. The last three characteristics contrasted with those of the rippled-pattern sebaceoma/trichoblastoma. However, neoplastic germinative cells in rippled-pattern BCC may naturally form cord-like structures in a manner similar to rippled-pattern sebaceoma/trichoblastoma.

  2. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  3. Basal terraces on melting ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers, and individual glaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine Island Glacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries, including kilometer-wide, hundreds-of-meter high channels oriented along and across the direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt. New meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes. Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wide flat terraces separated by 5-50 m high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by the geometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatly enhanced on the ~45° inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneous and likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challenging current models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

  4. Basal Terraces on Melting Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrieux, P.; Stewart, C.; Jenkins, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Corr, H. F. J.; Rignot, E. J.; Steffen, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers and individualglaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on thespatial distribution of melt. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine IslandGlacier (West Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) have similar geometries,including kilometers-wide, hundreds-of-meter-high channels oriented along and acrossthe direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic melt.New, meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes.Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wideflat terraces separated by 5-50 m-high walls. Melting is shown to be modulated by thegeometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatlyenhanced on the ~45°-inclined walls. Melting is therefore fundamentally heterogeneousand likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challengingcurrent models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.

  5. Stomatal architecture and evolution in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kevin J

    2005-10-01

    Stomatal architecture-the number, form, and arrangement of specialized epidermal cells associated with stomatal guard cells-of 46 species of basal angiosperms representing all ANITA grade families and Chloranthaceae was investigated. Leaf clearings and cuticular preparations were examined with light microscopy, and a sample of 100 stomata from each specimen was coded for stomatal type and five other characters contributing to stomatal architecture. New stomatal types were defined, and many species were examined and illustrated for the first time. Character evolution was examined in light of the ANITA hypothesis using MacClade software. Analysis of character evolution, along with other evidence from this study and evidence from the literature on fossil angiosperms and other seed plant lineages, suggests that the ancestral condition of angiosperms can be described as anomo-stephanocytic, a system in which complexes lacking subdidiaries (anomocytic) intergrade with those having weakly differentiated subsidiaries arranged in a rosette (stephanocytic). From this ancestral condition, tangential divisions of contact cells led to the profusion of different types seen in early fossil angiosperms and Amborellaceae, Austrobaileyales, and derived Chloranthaceae, while the state in Nymphaeales is little modified. Formation of new, derived types by tangential division appears to be a recurrent theme in seed plant evolution.

  6. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Simon N; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Olafsson, Jon H; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-04-09

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10(-12)), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10(-9)), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10(-12)) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10(-16)). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained.

  7. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  8. [Basal metabolism during pregnancy: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Sally, Enilce de Oliveira Fonseca; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Wahrlich, Vivian

    2013-02-01

    Gestational energy expenditure (EE) is the basis for nutritional counseling and body weight control. The objective of this study was to systematically review the behavior of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the major component of EE, during non gemelar pregnancy of healthy women. Based on the inclusion criteria, 37 articles were identified (24 cohort and 13 cross-sectional studies). Increases in BMR (between 8% and 35%) were observed in most cohort studies and it was related to the duration of follow-up and nutritional status. In the cross-sectionals, the increase in BMR varied from 8% to 28% close to delivery in comparison with the first trimester or post-partum. Lack of information on maternal age, loss of follow-up and short duration of follow-up during the pregnancy were serious limitations in the identified studies. In conclusion, BMR increases during pregnancy, and the increase is more intense after the second trimester. The most reliable data come from the few cohort studies that initiated before pregnancy.

  9. Morphologic changes in basal cells during repair of tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Z.; Evans, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Burke, A. S.; Zhu, Q.; Herndon, D. N.; Barrow, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Basal cells are differentiated with respect to junctional adhesion mechanisms and play a role in attachment of columnar epithelium to the basal lamina. Although much is known about nonciliated and ciliated cell differentiation during the repair process after injury, little is known about the basal cell. We studied the morphology of basal cells and quantitated junctional adhesion structures during repair of tracheal epithelium exposed to toxic cotton smoke. Ten adult ewes were given a smoke injury to a portion of the upper cervical trachea and were killed at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 days after injury for morphometric studies. At 4 days, there was a stratified reparative epithelium over the basal lamina, which was two to four cells in depth. The basal cells were identified by their hemidesmosome (HD) attachment to the basal lamina. Basal cells were about 69% larger than controls and flattened rather than columnar. The amount of HD attachment was 192% greater than controls. In contrast, volume density of cytokeratin filaments had decreased about 47%. Basal cells had returned to normal numbers and size and a columnar shape by day 18. The amount of desmosome (D) and HD attachment and volume density of cytokeratins had also reached control levels by day 18. These data indicate that morphology of basal cells changes during the initial stages of reparative regeneration but returns to normal by 18 days. Morphologic changes appear to reflect changes in size of the cell associated with cell division rather than differentiation of recently divided basal cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1381564

  10. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  11. Supplements for exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  12. Hypermedia as medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dede, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.

  13. Holographic recording medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  14. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-04-06

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  15. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti, Tienen, Belgium) into a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In the present study, weanling pigs (5 or 6-wk old) were f...

  16. Anaphora in Basal Reader Selections: How Frequently Do They Occur?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, James F.

    To determine how frequently various forms of anaphora appear in materials written for children, 1,000-word excerpts were analyzed from the second, fourth, and sixth grade texts of four basal reader series. The basal programs consisted of the "Ginn Reading Program," the "Houghton Mifflin Reading Program,""Scott, Foresman…

  17. Working together: basal ganglia pathways in action selection

    PubMed Central

    Friend, DM; Kravitz, AV

    2014-01-01

    Jin, Tecuapetla, and Costa combined in vivo electrophysiology with optogenetic-identification to examine firing in multiple basal ganglia nuclei during rapid motor sequences. Their results support a model of basal ganglia function in which co-activation of the direct and indirect pathways facilitate appropriate, while inhibiting competing, motor programs. PMID:24816402

  18. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis. PMID:27757356

  19. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    PubMed

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  20. How Basals Teach Strategies To Derive Word Meaning from Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; And Others

    A study examined the nature and extent of the instruction, application, and practice in deriving word meanings from context in a variety of basal reading series. Seven major basal reading series at the fourth-grade level (published between 1986 and 1989 and readily available) were analyzed. Results indicated that: (1) the series differed…

  1. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  2. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

  3. Tachykinin regulation of basal synovial blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, W R; Lockhart, J C; Karimian, S M

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of endogenously released tachykinins in the regulation of blood flow to the rat knee joint. Synovial perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging, which permitted spatial measurement of relative changes in perfusion from control (pre drug administration), expressed as the percentage change. Most experiments were performed on the exposed medial aspect of the knee joint capsule.Neither the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, FK888, nor the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, SR48968, significantly influenced synovial blood flow at doses of 10−12, 10−10 and 10−8 mol. However, topical co-administration of these agents produced significant dose-dependent reductions in basal synovial perfusion of 6.3±4.6, 12.0±3.4 and 19.9±2.6%, respectively; n=29. The non-selective tachykinin NK1/NK2 receptor antagonist, FK224, also produced significant (at 10−10 and 10−8 mol), but less potent, reductions in perfusion of 5.3±4.0, 8.4±2.2 and 5.9±2.8%, respectively; n=25.Topical administration of the α1-, α2-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine elicited a 31.3±6.2% increase in blood flow which was substantially reduced to 10.4±3.8% by co-administration of the FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol; n=8–13), suggesting that normally there is sympathetic vasoconstrictor ‘tone' which is opposed by the vasodilator action of endogenous tachykinins.One week after surgical interruption of the nerve supply to the knee joint, co-administration of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol) now produced slight vasodilatation (6.7±4.6%; n=9) which did not differ significantly from vehicle treatment. Depletion of tachykinins from sensory nerve fibres by systemic capsaicin administration also resulted in abolition of the vasoconstrictor effect of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol), with these agents only producing a slight vasodilatation (2.5±5.3%; n=6).By use of a near infra

  4. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  5. Basal Ganglia Mechanisms Underlying Precision Grip Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force. PMID:19428499

  6. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Knowledge About Vitamins More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  7. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

  8. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  9. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.

  10. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  11. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  12. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  13. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  14. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of immature osteoblasts: Interplay of cell culture media and supplements.

    PubMed

    Brauer, A; Pohlemann, T; Metzger, W

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of immature osteoblasts to mature osteoblasts in vitro initially was induced by supplementing the medium with β-gylcerophosphate and dexamethasone. Later, ascorbic acid, vitamin D3, vitamin K3 and TGFβ1 were used in varying concentrations as supplements to generate a mature osteoblast phenotype. We tested the effects of several combinations of cell culture media, seeding protocols and osteogenic supplements on osteogenic differentiation of human primary osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation was analyzed by staining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-phosphate/nitro blue tetrazolium (BCIP/NBT) and by von Kossa staining of deposited calcium phosphate. The combinations of culture media and supplements significantly influenced osteogenic differentiation, but the seeding protocol did not. Staining of ALP and calcium phosphate could be achieved only if our own mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium or if a commercial mix of osteogenic supplements was used in combination with osteoblast growth medium. Especially for von Kossa, we observed great variations in the staining intensity. Because osteogenic differentiation is a complex process, the origin of the osteoblasts, cell culture media and osteogenic supplements should be established by preliminary experiments to achieve optimal differentiation. Staining of ALP or deposited calcium phosphate should be supplemented with qRT-PCR studies to learn more about the influence of specific supplements on osteogenic markers.

  16. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  17. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  18. Caffeine supplementation during IVM improves frequencies of nuclear maturation and preimplantation development of dromedary camel oocytes following IVF.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Mohamed; Seida, Adel A; Sobhy, Refaat R; Darwish, Gamal M; Badr, Magdy R; Moawad, Adel R

    2014-06-01

    Caffeine supplementation during oocyte IVM has been reported to improve preimplantation embryo development and the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts in a range of species; but no studies have been done in camels. The present study investigated the effect of caffeine supplementation during dromedary camel oocyte IVM on nuclear maturation rates, IVF events, and subsequent preimplantation development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained at slaughter were matured in vitro in caffeine supplemented medium either for 30 hours (caffeine 30 hours) or in the medium without caffeine supplement for 24 hours and then transferred to freshly prepared IVM medium supplemented with 10 mM caffeine for another 6 hours (caffeine 6 hours). Cumulus-oocyte complexes matured for 30 hours in the medium without caffeine supplement were used as a control. Matured oocytes were fertilized in vitro by epididymal spermatozoa of mature male camels collected from a local slaughterhouse. Eighteen hours after insemination, presumptive zygotes were cultured in modified KSOMaa medium for 7 days. Maturation and fertilization rates were significantly higher in the caffeine 6-hour group compared with the control group (P < 0.05), whereas IVM of oocytes in caffeine-supplemented medium for 30 hours did not affect these parameters (P > 0.05). Interestingly, IVM of oocytes in caffeine supplemented medium for 6 hours significantly (P < 0.05) increased the frequencies of blastocyst development by more than two-fold when compared with control (27.78% vs. 11.76%). In conclusion, culturing dromedary camel oocytes in maturation medium without caffeine for 24 hours and then in the medium supplemented with 10 mM caffeine for 6 hours during 30-hour IVM can significantly improve frequencies of nuclear maturation, fertilization rate, and subsequent preimplantation development.

  19. The basal ganglia-circa 1982. A review and commentary.

    PubMed

    Mehler, W R

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's [88] proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's [72] more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  20. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the short-term basal area growth response to a single application of 224 kg N ha-1 as urea was associated with reduced stable carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in a 20-yr-old plantation of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Increment cores were measured to estimate earlywood, latewood, and total basal area increment over a time series from 1997 to 2015. Stable carbon isotope discrimination and iWUE were estimated using earlywood and latewood stable carbon isotope concentrations in tree-ring holocellulose starting seven years before fertilization in early 2009 and ending seven years after treatment. A highly significant interaction effect between fertilization treatment and year was found for total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment. Fertilized trees showed significant total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment in the first (2009) and second (2010) growing seasons after fertilization in 2009. A marginally significant fertilization effect was found for latewood basal area increment only in the first growing season after treatment. A significant i

  1. Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated. PMID:20941324

  2. The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Jose A; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P; Burn, David J

    2014-08-09

    The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made.

  3. The basal ganglia-circa 1982 - A review and commentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent studies which utilize new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods in order to improve knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and to clarify their sites of origin. These studies have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and have revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Also examined are the many new histochemical techniques that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in or interconnecting with the basal ganglia.

  4. Black-backed woodpecker habitat suitability mapping using conifer snag basal area estimated from airborne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Planes, Á.; Garcia, M.; Siegel, R.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Occupancy and habitat suitability models for snag-dependent wildlife species are commonly defined as a function of snag basal area. Although critical for predicting or assessing habitat suitability, spatially distributed estimates of snag basal area are not generally available across landscapes at spatial scales relevant for conservation planning. This study evaluates the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) to 1) identify individual conifer snags and map their basal area across a recently burned forest, and 2) map habitat suitability for a wildlife species known to be dependent on snag basal area, specifically the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). This study focuses on the Rim Fire, a megafire that took place in 2013 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, creating large patches of medium- and high-severity burned forest. We use forest inventory plots, single-tree ALS-derived metrics and Gaussian processes classification and regression to identify conifer snags and estimate their stem diameter and basal area. Then, we use the results to map habitat suitability for the black-backed woodpecker using thresholds for conifer basal area from a previously published habitat suitability model. Local maxima detection and watershed segmentation algorithms resulted in 75% detection of trees with stem diameter larger than 30 cm. Snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 91.8 % and conifer snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 84.8 %. Finally, Gaussian process regression reliably estimated stem diameter (R2 = 0.8) using height and crown area. This work provides a fast and efficient methodology to characterize the extent of a burned forest at the tree level and a critical tool for early wildlife assessment in post-fire forest management and biodiversity conservation.

  5. Effects of supplementation with green tea by-products on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation in goats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S T; Lee, J-W; Mun, H-S; Yang, C-J

    2015-12-01

    Forty-eight castrated male goats were used to determine the effects of feeding green tea by-products (GTB) on growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation. Experimental treatments consisted of basal diets supplemented with four levels of GTB (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0%). Four replicate pens were assigned to each treatment with three goats per replicate. Increasing dietary GTB tended to linearly increase the overall average weight gain and feed intake (p = 0.09). Water holding capacity, pH and sensory attributes of meat were not affected by GTB supplementation, while cooking loss was reduced both linearly and quadratically (p < 0.01). The redness (linear; p = 0.02, quadratic; p < 0.01) and yellowness (quadratic; p < 0.01) values of goat meat were improved by GTB supplementation. Increasing dietary GTB quadratically increased protein and decreased crude fat (p < 0.05), while linearly decreased cholesterol (p = 0.03) content of goat meat. The proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-6 PUFA increased linearly (p < 0.01) and n-3 PUFA increased quadratically (p < 0.05) as GTB increased in diets. Increasing dietary GTB linearly increased the PUFA/SFA (saturated fatty acid) and tended to linearly and quadratically increase (p ≤ 0.10) the n-6/n-3 ratio. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values of meat were lower in the 2.0% GTB-supplemented group in all storage periods (p < 0.05). Dietary GTB linearly decreased plasma glucose and cholesterol (p < 0.01) and quadratically decreased urea nitrogen concentrations (p = 0.001). The growth of spleen cells incubated in concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides medium increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to GTB supplementation. Our results suggest that GTB may positively affect the growth performance, meat quality, blood metabolites and immune cell proliferation when supplemented as a feed additive in goat diet.

  6. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Staging Tests for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers Most skin cancers are brought to a ... non-cancerous) without the need for a biopsy. Skin biopsy If the doctor thinks that a suspicious ...

  7. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christopher H.; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E.; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat which remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. Here we show in mice that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway. Under physiological conditions this short latency pathway is capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition this pathway relays aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  8. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    MedlinePlus

    ... in regulating phosphate levels within the body (phosphate homeostasis) by transporting phosphate across cell membranes. The SLC20A2 ... link familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification with phosphate homeostasis. Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 12;44(3):254- ...

  10. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype.

  11. Can subglacial processes reset the luminescence of basal sediment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Darrel; Bateman, Mark; Piotrowski, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of the natural luminescence of basal sediment from Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland (Swift et al., under revision) has revived speculation that erosion and/or sediment transport in the subglacial environment may constitute effective luminescence resetting mechanisms. The plausibility of these resetting mechanisms rests on the presumption that luminescence signals can be reset if sediment grains are exposed to sufficient stress. The ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems and the shear zones of active fault systems have been cited as environments where shearing has the potential to reset luminescence; however, laboratory studies that have investigated the effects of shearing on luminescence have produced conflicting results. We present the first results from a laboratory-based project that aims to determine the efficacy of resetting in the subglacial environment by shearing sediment under conditions representative of the ice-bedrock contact zone of active glacial systems. Preliminary luminescence data will be shown from an initial experiment that aims to quantify the effect of shearing on the luminescence of quartz. Homogenous medium-sand was obtained for the experiment from relict dune systems that possess substantial natural luminescence (we anticipate that glacial sediments with a wider range of grain sizes will be used in later experiments). Shearing was conducted using a state-of-the-art ring-shear apparatus using an imposed normal stress of 50 kPa at a shearing rate of 1 mm per minute for a distance of ~ 1200 mm, with samples for luminescence analyses taken from the shearing zone at pre-defined intervals. It is anticipated that further experiments using a range of imposed normal stresses and further analyses of changes in the luminescence and surface microtexture of grains in specific grain-size fractions will elucidate and quantify the specific nature of the resetting mechanism. Swift, D.A., Sanderson, D.C.W., Nienow, P.W., Bingham, R

  12. [An improved differential medium, CA medium, for differentiating Shigella].

    PubMed

    Tokoro, M; Nagano, I; Goto, K; Nakamura, A

    1990-07-01

    We devised a Citrate-Acetate (CA) medium for rapidly differentiating Shigella. The medium consisted of 3.0 g of sodium citrate, 2.0 g of sodium acetate, 0.2 g of glucose, 1.0 g of dipotassium phosphate, 1.0 g of mono ammonium phosphate, 0.2 g of magnesium sulfate, 5.0 g of sodium chloride, 0.08 g of brom thymol blue, 15.0 g of agar, and 1000 ml of distilled water. An evaluation was made of the CA medium, for the rapid differentiation of 23 Shigella strains, 129 Escherichia coli strains and 130 isolates, that formed colourless colonies suspected to be Shigella on SS agar plate, from feces of healthy people. The results obtained were as follows 1) On the CA medium, all Shigella strains did not grow and there was no change in colour. 2) Positive growth rates of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, sodium acetate medium (Acet) and Christensen citrate medium (C-Cit) were 96.0%, 95.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rate of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on C-Cit medium. 3) Positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, Acet medium and C-Cit medium were 95.4%, 83.1% and 71.5%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on Acet medium and C-Cit medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  14. Disruption of automatic speech following a right basal ganglia lesion.

    PubMed

    Speedie, L J; Wertman, E; Ta'ir, J; Heilman, K M

    1993-09-01

    Following a right basal ganglia lesion, a right-handed man, age 75, was unable to recite familiar verses. Serial automatic speech, singing, recitation of rhymes, and swearing were impaired, and only idioms and social greetings were preserved. Speech no longer contained overused phrases and he could comprehend automatic speech. In contrast, propositional speech was preserved in both French and Hebrew. Right basal ganglia lesions may impair production but not comprehension of automatic speech.

  15. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development.

    PubMed

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  16. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Braun-Benjamin, Orit; Melillo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute a complete motor act, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact human subjects and electrophysiologic and tracer studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

  17. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  18. An MRI atlas of the mouse basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Paxinos, George; Reutens, David C

    2014-07-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subpallial nuclei that play an important role in motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Morphological changes and disrupted afferent/efferent connections in the basal ganglia have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including psychiatric and movement disorders. While high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize changes in brain structure in mouse models of these disorders, no systematic method for segmentation of the C57BL/6 J mouse basal ganglia exists. In this study we have used high-resolution MR images of ex vivo C57BL/6 J mouse brain to create a detailed protocol for segmenting the basal ganglia. We created a three-dimensional minimum deformation atlas, which includes the segmentation of 35 striatal, pallidal, and basal ganglia-related structures. In addition, we provide mean volumes, mean T2 contrast intensities and mean FA and ADC values for each structure. This MR atlas is available for download, and enables researchers to perform automated segmentation in genetic models of basal ganglia disorders.

  19. The ABC Model and its Applicability to Basal Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Soltis, Douglas E.; Chanderbali, André S.; Kim, Sangtae; Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the flower is the central feature of the angiosperms, little is known of its origin and subsequent diversification. The ABC model has long been the unifying paradigm for floral developmental genetics, but it is based on phylogenetically derived eudicot models. Synergistic research involving phylogenetics, classical developmental studies, genomics and developmental genetics has afforded valuable new insights into floral evolution in general, and the early flower in particular. Scope and Conclusions Genomic studies indicate that basal angiosperms, and by inference the earliest angiosperms, had a rich tool kit of floral genes. Homologues of the ABCE floral organ identity genes are also present in basal angiosperm lineages; however, C-, E- and particularly B-function genes are more broadly expressed in basal lineages. There is no single model of floral organ identity that applies to all angiosperms; there are multiple models that apply depending on the phylogenetic position and floral structure of the group in question. The classic ABC (or ABCE) model may work well for most eudicots. However, modifications are needed for basal eudicots and, the focus of this paper, basal angiosperms. We offer ‘fading borders’ as a testable hypothesis for the basal-most angiosperms and, by inference, perhaps some of the earliest (now extinct) angiosperms. PMID:17616563

  20. The survival of human skin stored by refrigeration at 4 degrees C in McCoy's 5A medium: does oxygenation of the medium improve storage time?

    PubMed

    DeBono, R; Rao, G S; Berry, R B

    1998-07-01

    To establish the viable storage time of human skin stored by refrigeration at 4 degrees C in McCoy's 5A medium and to establish whether oxygenating the medium improves the viable storage time, the following experiment was conducted. Eighty discs of human split-thickness skin graft, each 3 mm in diameter, were stored in 40 sterile sealable containers under four different conditions: in 0.9% saline, in McCoy's 5A medium, in oxygenated McCoy's 5A medium, and in carbon dioxide supplemented McCoy's 5A medium. Skin graft viability was assessed using tissue culture. Skin stored in saline was viable for only 1 week, whereas skin stored in McCoy's 5A medium and in oxygenated McCoy's 5A medium was viable for 4 weeks. Skin stored in carbon dioxide supplemented McCoy's 5A solution did not even survive the first week. These findings show that McCoy's 5A medium allows at least 4 weeks of viable human skin storage by refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Furthermore, oxygenating the medium does not seem to improve the viable storage time, and carbon dioxide supplementation is detrimental. The advantages of skin storage by refrigeration and the implications of the above findings are discussed. A clinical case in which split-thickness skin was stored for approximately 5 weeks and still resulted in good graft take is quoted as an example of our experience with the use of McCoy's 5A medium.

  1. Untangling Basal Ganglia Network Dynamics and Function: Role of Dopamine Depletion and Inhibition Investigated in a Spiking Network Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The basal ganglia are a crucial brain system for behavioral selection, and their function is disturbed in Parkinson’s disease (PD), where neurons exhibit inappropriate synchronization and oscillations. We present a spiking neural model of basal ganglia including plausible details on synaptic dynamics, connectivity patterns, neuron behavior, and dopamine effects. Recordings of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and Type A (TA; arkypallidal) and Type I (TI; prototypical) neurons in globus pallidus externa were used to validate the model. Simulation experiments predict that both local inhibition in striatum and the existence of an indirect pathway are important for basal ganglia to function properly over a large range of cortical drives. The dopamine depletion–induced increase of AMPA efficacy in corticostriatal synapses to medium spiny neurons (MSNs) with dopamine receptor D2 synapses (CTX-MSN D2) and the reduction of MSN lateral connectivity (MSN–MSN) were found to contribute significantly to the enhanced synchrony and oscillations seen in PD. Additionally, reversing the dopamine depletion–induced changes to CTX–MSN D1, CTX–MSN D2, TA–MSN, and MSN–MSN couplings could improve or restore basal ganglia action selection ability. In summary, we found multiple changes of parameters for synaptic efficacy and neural excitability that could improve action selection ability and at the same time reduce oscillations. Identification of such targets could potentially generate ideas for treatments of PD and increase our understanding of the relation between network dynamics and network function. PMID:28101525

  2. Anaesthetic agents inhibit gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release from rat stomach ECL cells.

    PubMed

    Norlén, P; Kitano, M; Lindström, E; Håkanson, R

    2000-06-01

    By mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin, the ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa play a key role in the control of the parietal cells and hence of gastric acid secretion. General anaesthesia suppresses basal and gastrin- and histamine-stimulated acid secretion. The present study examines if the effect of anaesthesia on basal and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion is associated with suppressed ECL-cell histamine secretion. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the submucosa of the ventral aspect of the acid-producing part of the stomach (32 rats). Three days later, ECL-cell histamine mobilization was monitored 2 h before and 4 h after the start of intravenous infusion of gastrin (5 nmol kg(-1) h(-1)). The rats were either conscious or anaesthetized. Four commonly used anaesthetic agents were given 1 h before the start of the experiments by intraperitoneal injection: chloral hydrate (300 mg kg(-1)), pentobarbitone (40 mg kg(-1)), urethane (1.5 g kg(-1)) and a mixture of fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam (15/0.5/7.5 mg kg(-1)). In a parallel series of experiments, basal- and gastrin-induced acid secretion was monitored in six conscious and 25 anaesthetized (see above) chronic gastric fistula rats. All anaesthetic agents lowered gastrin-stimulated acid secretion; also the basal acid output was reduced (fluanisone/fentanyl/midazolam was an exception). Anaesthesia reduced gastrin-stimulated but not basal histamine release by 55 - 80%. The reduction in gastrin-induced acid response (70 - 95%) was strongly correlated to the reduction in gastrin-induced histamine mobilization. The correlation is in line with the view that the reduced acid response to gastrin reflects impaired histamine mobilization. Rat stomach ECL cells were purified by counter-flow elutriation. Gastrin-evoked histamine mobilization from the isolated ECL cells was determined in the absence or presence of anaesthetic agents in the medium. With the exception of urethane, they inhibited gastrin

  3. Effect of supplementation of yeast with bacteriocin and Lactobacillus culture on growth performance, cecal fermentation, microbiota composition, and blood characteristics in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C. Y.; Chen, S. W.; Wang, H. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin and Lactobacillus cultures (mixture of Lactobacillus agilis BCRC 10436 and Lactobacillus reuteri BCRC 17476) supplements, alone or in combination, on broiler chicken performance. Methods A total of 300, 1-d-old healthy broiler chickens were randomly divided into five treatment groups: i) basal diet (control), ii) basal diet+0.25% yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (YC), iii) basal diet+0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (BA), iv) basal diet+Lactobacillus cultures (LAB), and v) basal diet +0.25% yeast with bacteriocin+Lactobacillus cultures (BA+LAB). Growth performance, cecal microbiota, cecal fermentation products, and blood biochemistry parameters were determined when chickens were 21 and 35 d old. Results The supplementation of YC, BA, and BA+LAB resulted in a significantly better feed conversion rate (FCR) than that of the control group during 1 to 21 d (p<0.05). The LAB supplementation had a significant effect on the presence of Lactobacillus in the ceca at 35 d. None of the supplements had an effect on relative numbers of L. agilis and L. reuter at 21 d, but the BA supplementation resulted in the decrease of both Lactobacillus strains at 35 d. The BA+LAB supplementation resulted in higher short chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the ceca, but LAB supplementation significantly decreased the SCFA at 35 d (p<0.05). All treatments tended to decrease ammonia concentration in the ceca at 21 d, especially in the LAB treatment group. The BA supplementation alone decreased the triacylglycerol (TG) concentration significantly at 21 d (p<0.05), but the synergistic effect of BA and LAB supplementation was required to reduce the TG concentration at 35 d. The YC supplementation tended to increase the plasma cholesterol at 21 d and 35 d. However, the BA supplementation significantly decreased the cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level at 35 d. In conclusion, the BA

  4. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  5. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  6. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  7. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is absorbed by the body.Supplement: Saw PalmettoPossible drug-supplement interaction with:Birth control pills. Can decrease effects of estrogen in the body, which can reduce the effectiveness of birth control ...

  8. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  9. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  10. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  11. Moesin expression is a marker of basal breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Monville, Florence; Bertucci, François; Esterni, Benjamin; Ginestier, Christophe; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Geneix, Jeannine; Hassanein, Mohamed; Rabayrol, Laetitia; Sobol, Hagay; Taranger-Charpin, Colette; Xerri, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Jacquemier, Jocelyne

    2007-10-15

    Basal breast cancers (BBCs) have a high risk of metastasis, recurrence and death. Formal subtype definition relies on gene expression but can be approximated by protein expression. New markers are needed to help in the management of the basal subtype of breast cancer. In a previous transcriptional analysis of breast cell lines we found that Moesin expression was a potential basal marker. We show here that Moesin protein expression is a basal marker in breast tumors. In a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 547 sporadic breast cancers, of which 108 were profiled for gene expression, Moesin was expressed in 31% of all tumors and in 82% of the basal tumors. To confirm that Moesin expression remained associated with the basal phenotype in specific types of BBCs, we analyzed Moesin expression in 2 other TMAs containing 40 medullary breast cancers (MBCs) and 27 BRCA1-associated breast cancers (BRCA1-BCs), respectively. Moesin was strongly expressed in MBCs (87%; p = 2.4 x 10(-5)) and in BRCA1-BCs (58%; p = 1.3 x 10(-5)) as compared with non-MBCs and sporadic cases. Moesin-expressing tumors display features of BBCs, such as high proliferation rate, hormone receptors negativity, expression of putative basal/myoepithelial markers (CAV1, CD10, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, P53, P-cadherin and SMA). Survival analysis showed a reduced specific survival and metastasis-free survival in Moesin-expressing tumors by log-rank test (p(SS) = 0.014 and p(MFS) = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, Moesin expression was nearly an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome as shown by Cox proportional hazard model in patients without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.052, HR = 2.38, CI 95[0.99-5.69]).

  12. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  13. GlutaMAX prolongs the shelf life of the culture medium for porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2016-02-01

    In vitro porcine embryo production systems have been established and well characterized. However, the efficiency of embryo development during IVC is still very low. In the present study, we have investigated the development of parthenogenetic porcine embryos in the well-known PZM-5 medium for porcine embryos, which was modified by replacing glutamine with the GlutaMAX supplement. We revealed that blastocyst apoptosis was significantly lower in the presence of GlutaMAX, which reduced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis genes was significantly lower during GlutaMAX treatment (P < 0.05). The modified medium was also examined for the eventual loss of its efficacy in the presence of GlutaMAX. Three, 6, and 12 months after medium preparation, blastocyst formation in the GlutaMAX-supplemented medium was significantly higher than the number of blastocysts in the medium containing glutamine. After a long period of storage, ammonia concentration was significantly increased in the glutamine medium, whereas it was not statistically different in the GlutaMAX medium. Elevated ammonia concentrations reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of blastocysts in the glutamine medium. These results demonstrate that GlutaMAX can reduce blastocyst apoptosis via inhibition of the cytochrome c pathway and significantly extend the shelf life of the culture medium to at least 1 year.

  14. Basal ganglia output reflects internally-specified movements

    PubMed Central

    Lintz, Mario J; Felsen, Gidon

    2016-01-01

    How movements are selected is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the sensorimotor transformations underlying stimulus-guided movements, less is known about how internal goals – critical drivers of goal-directed behavior – guide movements. The basal ganglia are known to bias movement selection according to value, one form of internal goal. Here, we examine whether other internal goals, in addition to value, also influence movements via the basal ganglia. We designed a novel task for mice that dissociated equally rewarded internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements, allowing us to test how each engaged the basal ganglia. We found that activity in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, a basal ganglia output, predictably differed preceding internally-specified and stimulus-guided movements. Incorporating these results into a simple model suggests that internally-specified movements may be facilitated relative to stimulus-guided movements by basal ganglia processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13833.001 PMID:27377356

  15. Current diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mareike; Hillen, Uwe; Leiter, Ulrike; Sachse, Michael; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma represents is most common tumor in fair-skinned individuals. In Germany, age-standardized incidence rates are 63 (women) and 80 (men) per 100,000 population per year. Early lesions may be difficult to diagnose merely on clinical grounds. Here, noninvasive diagnostic tools such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy may be helpful. The clinical diagnosis is usually confirmed by histology. Standard therapy consists of complete excision with thorough histological examination, either by means of micrographic surgery or, depending on tumor size and location as well as infiltration, using surgical margins of 3-5 mm or more. In particular, multiple basal cell carcinomas (such as in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome) and locally advanced as well as rarely also metastatic basal cell carcinoma may pose a therapeutic challenge. In superficial basal cell carcinoma, nonsurgical therapies such as photodynamic therapy or topical agents may be considered. In case of locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, an interdisciplinary tumor board should issue therapeutic recommendations. These include radiation therapy as well as systemic therapy with a hedgehog inhibitor.

  16. A basal ganglia circuit for evaluating action outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Yu, Kai; Ahrens, Sandra; Tucciarone, Jason M; van Huijstee, Aile N; Mejia, Luis A; Penzo, Mario A; Tai, Lung-Hao; Wilbrecht, Linda; Li, Bo

    2016-11-10

    The basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei, play a crucial role in decision-making by selecting actions and evaluating their outcomes. While much is known about the function of the basal ganglia circuitry in selection, how these nuclei contribute to outcome evaluation is less clear. Here we show that neurons in the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) in mice are essential for evaluating action outcomes and are regulated by a specific set of inputs from the basal ganglia. We find in a classical conditioning task that individual mouse GPh neurons bidirectionally encode whether an outcome is better or worse than expected. Mimicking these evaluation signals with optogenetic inhibition or excitation is sufficient to reinforce or discourage actions in a decision-making task. Moreover, cell-type-specific synaptic manipulations reveal that the inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the GPh are necessary for mice to appropriately evaluate positive and negative feedback, respectively. Finally, using rabies-virus-assisted monosynaptic tracing, we show that the GPh is embedded in a basal ganglia circuit wherein it receives inhibitory input from both striosomal and matrix compartments of the striatum, and excitatory input from the 'limbic' regions of the subthalamic nucleus. Our results provide evidence that information about the selection and evaluation of actions is channelled through distinct sets of basal ganglia circuits, with the GPh representing a key locus in which information of opposing valence is integrated to determine whether action outcomes are better or worse than expected.

  17. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  18. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  19. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  20. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  1. In vitro effects of tetraiodothyroacetic acid combined with X-irradiation on basal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Leith, John T; Davis, Paul J; Mousa, Shaker A; Hercbergs, Aleck A

    2017-02-16

    We investigated radiosensitization in an untreated basal cell carcinoma (TE.354.T) cell line and post-pretreatment with tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) X 1 h at 37°C, 0.2 and 2.0 µM tetrac. Radioresistant TE.354.T cells were grown in modified medium containing fibroblast growth factor-2, stem cell factor-1 and a reduced calcium level. We also added reproductively inactivated (30 Gy) "feeder cells" to the medium. The in vitro doubling time was 34.1 h, and the colony forming efficiency was 5.09 percent. These results were therefore suitable for clonogenic radiation survival assessment. The 250 kVp X-ray survival curve of control TE.354.T cells showed linear-quadratic survival parameters of αX-ray = 0.201 Gy(-1) and βX-ray = 0.125 Gy(-2). Tetrac concentrations of either 0.2 or 2.0 µM produced αX-ray and βX-ray parameters of 2.010 and 0.282 Gy(-1) and 2.050 and 0.837 Gy(-2), respectively. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) for control cells was 0.581, while values for 0.2 and 2.0 µM tetrac were 0.281 and 0.024. The SF2 data show that tetrac concentrations of 0.2 and 2.0 µM sensitize otherwise radioresistant TE.354.T cells by factors of 2.1 and 24.0, respectively. Thus, radioresistant basal cell carcinoma cells may be radiosensitized pharmacologically by exposure to tetrac.

  2. In vitro effects of tetraiodothyroacetic acid combined with X-irradiation on basal cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Leith, John T.; Davis, Paul J.; Mousa, Shaker A.; Hercbergs, Aleck A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated radiosensitization in an untreated basal cell carcinoma (TE.354.T) cell line and post-pretreatment with tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) X 1 h at 37°C, 0.2 and 2.0 µM tetrac. Radioresistant TE.354.T cells were grown in modified medium containing fibroblast growth factor-2, stem cell factor-1 and a reduced calcium level. We also added reproductively inactivated (30 Gy) “feeder cells” to the medium. The in vitro doubling time was 34.1 h, and the colony forming efficiency was 5.09 percent. These results were therefore suitable for clonogenic radiation survival assessment. The 250 kVp X-ray survival curve of control TE.354.T cells showed linear-quadratic survival parameters of αX-ray = 0.201 Gy−1 and βX-ray = 0.125 Gy−2. Tetrac concentrations of either 0.2 or 2.0 µM produced αX-ray and βX-ray parameters of 2.010 and 0.282 Gy−1 and 2.050 and 0.837 Gy−2, respectively. The surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) for control cells was 0.581, while values for 0.2 and 2.0 µM tetrac were 0.281 and 0.024. The SF2 data show that tetrac concentrations of 0.2 and 2.0 µM sensitize otherwise radioresistant TE.354.T cells by factors of 2.1 and 24.0, respectively. Thus, radioresistant basal cell carcinoma cells may be radiosensitized pharmacologically by exposure to tetrac. PMID:28113001

  3. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds on cryo-plates.

    PubMed

    Niino, T; Yamamoto, S I; Fukui, K; Castillo Martinez, C R; Arizaga, M V; Matsumoto, T; Engelmann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two cryopreservation procedures using aluminium cryo-plates, termed V-Cryo-plate and D-Cryo-plate, were successfully developed for in vitro mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds. Multiple stems induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 μM BA by roller culture were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for 1 week at 25 degree C. Clumps that had produced many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degree C for 1-2 months. The buds with basal stems were dissected from small clumps and precultured overnight at 25 degree C on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Precultured buds were placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in calcium alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in loading solution (2 M glycerol + 1.0 M sucrose). In the D-Cryo-plate procedure, the buds were dehydrated to 27-25% moisture content (fresh weight) by placing the cryo-plates in the air current of a laminar flow cabinet for 2 to 3 h. In the V-Cryo-plate procedure, buds were dehydrated by immersing the cryo-plates in PVS2 vitrification solution for 40 min at 25 degree C. In both procedures, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, cryo-plates were immersed in medium with 1.0 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Regrowth of cryopreserved buds of line 'Kitakei 2' using D-Cryo-plate and V-Cryo-plate procedures, was 90% and 80%, respectively. The two procedures were applied to 20 additional mat rush lines. Using the V-Cryo-plate procedure resulted in regrowth ranging between 13.3 and 86.7%, with an average of 52.5%. The D-Cryo-plate led to regrowth ranging between 73.3 and 96.7%, with an average of 86.3%. The D-Cryo-plate procedure will facilitate cryostorage of mat rush germplasm.

  4. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unconscious, automatic, and insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. We critically evaluate for each of these how it has been defined, its utility for research in both humans and non-human animals, and the evidence that it serves as an accurate description of basal ganglia function. In conclusion, we propose a multi-faceted approach to habit learning and its relationship to the basal ganglia, emphasizing the need for formal definitions that will provide directions for future research. PMID:21909324

  5. Basal Ganglion Hemorrhage as Delayed Complication of Diethylene Glycol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneesh; Diaz, Francisco J; Lal, Anita; Sung, Lokman; Aaron, Cynthia K

    2017-03-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG), an organic compound (HOCH2CH2)2O is a commonly used solvent. Mass poisoning outbreaks have been reported because of frequent contaminations. A PubMed search for diethylene resulted in 795 publications with 151 specifically discussing the toxicity. Of the 151 reported toxicity reviews/case reports, only 6 publications discussed the long-term neurological effects of diethylene toxicity. We report a fatal case of oral ingestion of DEG with complications from delayed toxicity. She died 7 days after the second admission. Autopsy disclosed a right basal ganglia hemorrhage within the brain and microscopic deposits of polarizable crystals into small cerebral blood vessels. Both kidneys illustrate tubular necrosis with scattered tubular deposition of polarizable calcium oxalate crystals. PubMed search leads to only 2 reported cases of basal ganglia hemorrhage (based on radiological findings) after ethylene glycol intoxication. Our case is the first reportable case of basal ganglia hemorrhage after DEG ingestion.

  6. Oscillations and the basal ganglia: Motor control and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, John-Stuart; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oscillations form a ubiquitous feature of the central nervous system. Evidence is accruing from cortical and sub-cortical recordings that these rhythms may be functionally important, although the precise details of their roles remain unclear. The basal ganglia share this predilection for rhythmic activity which, as we see in Parkinson’s disease, becomes further enhanced in the dopamine depleted state. While certain cortical rhythms appear to penetrate the basal ganglia, others are transformed or blocked. Here, we discuss the functional association of oscillations in the basal ganglia and their relationship with cortical activity. We further explore the neural underpinnings of such oscillatory activity, including the important balance to be struck between facilitating information transmission and limiting information coding capacity. Finally, we introduce the notion that synchronised oscillatory activity can be broadly categorised as immutability promoting rhythms that reinforce incumbent processes, and mutability promoting rhythms that favour novel processing. PMID:23711535

  7. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  8. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    PubMed

    Lin, W; Fung, B; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-04-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the region around the basal bodies of ciliated cat tracheal cells. Thus, we have found an antigen that is common to a variety of cell types from many different animal sources and is specifically associated with both centrioles and basal bodies. The possible role of the antigen in differentiation is discussed.

  9. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, W; Fung, B; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-01-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the region around the basal bodies of ciliated cat tracheal cells. Thus, we have found an antigen that is common to a variety of cell types from many different animal sources and is specifically associated with both centrioles and basal bodies. The possible role of the antigen in differentiation is discussed. Images PMID:6166008

  10. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, P E; Bronis, M; Charismiadou, M A; Mountzouris, K C; Deligeorgis, S G

    2014-09-01

    A trial was conducted to examine the effect of cinnamon essential oil supplementation on lamb growth performance and meat quality. Sixteen male lambs were randomly assigned to two groups. The first group served as control and was given a basal diet, and the second group was given the same diet supplemented with cinnamon oil (1 ml/kg of concentrated feed) for 35 days. Incorporation of cinnamon oil did not affect growth performance (P>0.05). Meat pH, colour, water-holding capacity, shear force, intramuscular fat and lipid oxidation values of longissimus thoracis muscle were not significantly influenced by cinnamon oil supplementation (P>0.05). The post-inoculation counts of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on raw meat during refrigerated storage for 6 days did not differ (P>0.05) between the two groups. The results show that cinnamon oil supplementation may not have the potential to improve lamb growth performance and meat quality characteristics.

  11. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Gates, J R; Butler, J V; Pollett, L M; Dietrich, S J; Lutz, R D

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training habits, and race performance were investigated. In general, no significant associations were found between supplement use and the aforementioned variables. Use of supplements, especially vitamins C and E, calcium, and zinc, increased with age (p less than .05). Daily use of at least one type of supplement was reported by 29% of the runners; 48% reported use of at least one type of supplement within the 3-day period.

  12. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-05-20

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance.

  13. Cell cycle of globose basal cells in rat olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huard, J M; Schwob, J E

    1995-05-01

    The olfactory epithelium of adult mammals has the unique property of generating olfactory sensory neurons throughout life. Cells of the basal compartment, which include horizontal and globose basal cells, are responsible for the ongoing process of neurogenesis in this system. We report here that the globose basal cells in olfactory epithelium of rats, as in mice, are the predominant type of proliferating cell, and account for 97.6% of the actively dividing cells in the basal compartment of the normal epithelium. Globose basal cells have not been fully characterized in terms of their proliferative properties, and the dynamic aspects of neurogenesis are not well understood. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether cell kinetic properties are under any regulation that could affect the rate of neurogenesis. To address this gap in our knowledge, we have determined the duration of both the synthesis phase (S-phase) and the full cell cycle of globose basal cells in adult rats. The duration of the S-phase was found to be 9 hr in experiments utilizing sequential injections of either IdU followed by BrdU or 3H-thy followed by BrdU. The duration of the cell cycle was determined by varying the time interval between the injections of 3H-thy and BrdU and tracking the set of cells that exit S shortly after the first injection. With this paradigm, the interval required for these cells to traverse G2, M, G1, and a second S-phase, is equivalent to the duration of one mitotic cycle and equals 17 hr. These observations serve as the foundation to assess whether the cell cycle duration is subject to regulation in response to experimental injury, and whether such regulation is partly responsible for changes in the rate of neurogenesis in such settings.

  14. Soluble adenylyl cyclase accounts for high basal cCMP and cUMP concentrations in HEK293 and B103 cells.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alan; Danker, Kerstin Y; Wolter, Sabine; Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Seifert, Roland

    2014-05-30

    Intact HEK293 cells and B103 neuroblastoma cells possess high basal concentrations of the established second messengers cAMP and cGMP and of the emerging second messengers cCMP and cUMP. We asked the question which nucleotidyl cyclase accounts for the high basal cNMP concentrations. Activators and inhibitors of soluble guanylyl cyclase had no major effects on cNMPs, and the activator of membranous adenylyl cyclase forskolin increased only cAMP. Addition of bicarbonate to medium increased, whereas removal of bicarbonate decreased levels of all four cNMPs. The inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase, 2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-ylthio)-N'-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) propanehydrazide (KH7), reduced bicarbonate-stimulated cNMPs. In conclusion, bicarbonate-stimulated soluble adenylyl cyclase plays an important role in the regulation of basal cellular cNMP levels, most notably cCMP and cUMP.

  15. Production of Basal Bodies in bulk for dense multicilia formation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiumin; Zhao, Huijie; Zhu, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Centriole number is normally under tight control and is directly linked to ciliogenesis. In cells that use centrosomes as mitotic spindle poles, one pre-existing mother centriole is allowed to duplicate only one daughter centriole per cell cycle. In multiciliated cells, however, many centrioles are generated to serve as basal bodies of the cilia. Although deuterosomes were observed more than 40 years ago using electron microscopy and are believed to produce most of the basal bodies in a mother centriole-independent manner, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown until recently. From these findings arise more questions and a call for clarifications that will require multidisciplinary efforts. PMID:27408696

  16. Radiation enhanced basal plane dislocation glide in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Eugene B.; Vergeles, Pavel S.; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Lee, In-Hwan; Pearton, Stephen J.

    2016-05-01

    A movement of basal plane segments of dislocations in GaN films grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth under low energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI) was studied by the electron beam induced current (EBIC) method. Only a small fraction of the basal plane dislocation segments were susceptible to irradiation and the movement was limited to relatively short distances. The effect is explained by the radiation enhanced dislocation glide (REDG) in the structure with strong pinning. A dislocation velocity under LEEBI with a beam current lower than 1 nA was estimated as about 10 nm/s. The results assuming the REDG for prismatic plane dislocations were presented.

  17. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian

  18. Conditions for growing Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum in a serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, G; Sotomayor, P

    1990-07-01

    Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum were cultured in a serum-free medium containing bovine serum albumin, cholesterol, oleic acid, and palmitic acid in order to avoid the addition of horse serum. Growth was detected by measurement of A640 and by colony formation. The level of growth attained in this medium was less than that obtained in the horse serum-supplemented media, but colonies retained their distinctive morphology.

  19. Conditions for growing Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum in a serum-free medium.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, G; Sotomayor, P

    1990-01-01

    Mycoplasma canadense and Mycoplasma verecundum were cultured in a serum-free medium containing bovine serum albumin, cholesterol, oleic acid, and palmitic acid in order to avoid the addition of horse serum. Growth was detected by measurement of A640 and by colony formation. The level of growth attained in this medium was less than that obtained in the horse serum-supplemented media, but colonies retained their distinctive morphology. Images PMID:2202260

  20. Effects of dietary marigold extract supplementation on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuhao; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Cong, Jiahui; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with marigold extract on growth performance, pigmentation, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. Methods A total of 320 one-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups with 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The chickens of control group were fed with basal diet and other experimental groups were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.60% marigold extract respectively (the corresponding concentrations of lutein were 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg). Results The results showed that marigold extract supplementation increased the yellowness values of shank, beak, skin and muscle and the redness (a*) value of thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity, and the activities of superoxide dismutase in liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01) and significantly decreased the malondialdehyde contents of liver and thigh muscle (linear, p<0.01). Marigold extract supplementation significantly decreased the drip loss and shear force of thigh muscles (linear, p<0.01). There was no significant effect on growth performance with marigold extract supplementation. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation of marigold extract significantly increased the yellowness values of carcass, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens. PMID:27282969

  1. Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

    2012-04-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at

  2. Iron supplementation for the control of iron deficiency in populations at risk.

    PubMed

    Viteri, F E

    1997-06-01

    Iron supplementation, mostly with a therapeutic orientation, has been a key strategy for the short-term control of iron deficiency and ferropenic anemia. It has been used almost exclusively in antenatal clinics, but in spite of its confirmed efficacy in supervised trials, it has proven ineffective in practice in most developing countries. Poor effectiveness has been attributed to various factors including insufficient dose and time of supplementation and poor adherence. These problems have led to the administration of high iron doses, which have proven equally ineffective in practice. This paper introduces four concepts: (1) that iron supplementation targeted to pregnant women should cover the full reproductive cycle, from prepregnancy to at least the end of lactation instead of only the pregnant women; (2) that entering pregnancy with iron deficiency contributes to the failure of antenatal iron supplementation and that prepregnancy iron reserves increase the effectiveness of antenatal supplementation; (3) that medium- to long-term weekly ingestion of proper iron-folate supplements, with a preventive aim and directed to all risk groups, should be community based rather than health service based but supervised by the latter (in this sense, preventive supplementation is equal to targeted iron fortification); and (4) that preventive supplementation, based on weekly dosing, has proven efficacious. Problem-oriented research to evaluate the sustainability and medium- to long-term efficacy of these concepts is called for. The bases for the concepts and suggestions are summarized in this paper.

  3. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model.

  4. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  5. New medium licensed for campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A medium, “Campy-Cefex”, has been licensed by the ARS Office of Technology Transfer with Becton Dickinson (No. 1412-002) and Neogen (No. 1412-001) based on patent No. 5,891,709, “Campy-Cefex Selective and Differential Medium for Campylobacter” by Dr. Norman Stern of the Poultry Microbiological Safet...

  6. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G. P.; Mishra, S. K.; Pradhan, C. R.; Behura, N. C.; Das, A.; Behera, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers. PMID:27047208

  7. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Li, Chunyan; Fu, Chunyan; Li, Fuchang

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32) were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control) or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin). The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p<0.05), but significantly decreased the hepatic fatty acid synthase activity and adiponectin receptor 2, insulin receptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA levels (p<0.05). Plasma insulin had a decreasing tendency in the niacin treatment group compared with control (p = 0.067). Plasma very low density lipoproteins, leptin levels and the hepatic adiponectin receptor 1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 genes expression were not significantly altered with niacin addition to the diet (p>0.05). However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. PMID:27004817

  8. Metacomprehension during Basal Reader Instruction: Do Teachers Promote It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Baumann, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes elementary teachers' interactions with students during guided reading of basal reader selections to determine the extent to which the interactions promote students' metacomprehension abilities. Finds that teachers assumed most of the responsibility for students' comprehension themselves rather than conducting the lessons in a manner that…

  9. Linguistic Development of Children and the Syntax of Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David L.; Briggs, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that while many publishers may simplify the sentence structure in the basal reader to facilitate the process of learning to read, this practice may result in texts with stylistic features and text formats that are unnatural and uncharacteristic of written English or the language development level of the children. (FL)

  10. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  12. "Basal" palmar skin potentials and body fluid potassium.

    PubMed

    Christie, M J

    1976-01-01

    When palmar eccrine sweat glands are inactive the potential difference between palmar skin and a prepared forearm site is a function of the ratio of external (electrode electrolyte) and internal (tissue fluid) potassium concentrations. Evidence indicates that this "basal" palmar skin potential changes systematically with changes in ECF K+, and may be used to monitor such shifts, as, for example, in stress.

  13. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  14. Trichoplax adhaerens, an enigmatic basal metazoan with potential.

    PubMed

    Heyland, Andreas; Croll, Roger; Goodall, Sophie; Kranyak, Jeff; Wyeth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Trichoplax adhaerens is an enigmatic basal animal with an extraordinarily simple morphological organization and surprisingly complex behaviors. Basic morphological, molecular and behavioral work is essential to better understand the unique and curious life style of these organisms. We provide basic instructions on how Trichoplax can be cultured and studied in the laboratory emphasizing behavioral and cellular aspects.

  15. [Successful therapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib].

    PubMed

    Zutt, M; Mazur, F; Bergmann, M; Lemke, A J; Kaune, K M

    2014-11-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with giant basal cell carcinoma on the abdomen which had metastasized. He was treated with oral vismodegib. Both the primary ulcerated tumor on the abdomen and the metastases responded. Vismodegib was well tolerated without significant side effects. The tumor recurred promptly after vismodegib was discontinued, and then was resistant to therapy when vismodegib was re-administered.

  16. Multidimensional Sequence Learning in Patients with Focal Basal Ganglia Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, J.C.; Aparicio, P.; Ivry, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's patients have been found to be impaired in learning movement sequences. In the current study, patients with unilateral basal ganglia lesions due to stroke were tested on a serial reaction time task in which responses were based on the spatial location of each stimulus. The spatial locations either followed a fixed sequence or were…

  17. Follicular atrophoderma with multiple basal cell carcinomas (Bazex).

    PubMed

    Gould, D J; Barker, D J

    1978-10-01

    Five patients from a single family are reported who have an inherited condition of which the main features are follicular atrophoderma, abnormalities of scalp hair and multiple basal cell carcinomas. Thes abnormalities are consistent with the syndrome described by Bazex et al. (1964). The pattern of inheritance of this condition is discussed.

  18. Terahertz pulse imaging of ex vivo basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Ruth M; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Cole, Bryan E; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Terahertz pulse imaging has been used for the first time to study basal cell carcinoma ex vivo, the most common form of skin cancer. This noninvasive technique uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0.1-2.7 THz. A total of 21 samples were imaged; the study was performed blind and results were compared to histology. Each image consisted of possible diseased tissue and normal tissue from the same patient. The diseased tissue showed an increase in absorption compared to normal tissue, which is attributed to either an increase in the interstitial water within the diseased tissue or a change in the vibrational modes of water molecules with other functional groups. Seventeen of the images showed a significant difference between the normal and the diseased tissue. These were confirmed by histology to be basal cell carcinomas. Of the remaining four cases, three showed no contrast and were confirmed as blind controls of normal tissue; the fourth case was a suspected basal cell carcinoma but showed no contrast, and histology showed no tumor. Cross-sections of the terahertz images, showing the terahertz absorption, were compared to histology. Regions of increased terahertz absorption agreed well with the location of the tumor sites. Resolutions at 1 THz of 350 microm laterally and 40 microm axially in skin were attainable with our system. These results demonstrate the ability of terahertz pulse imaging to distinguish basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue, and this macroscopic technique may, in the future, help plan surgery.

  19. Familial papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer.

    PubMed

    Brena, Michela; Besagni, Francesca; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tadini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS), a novel keratinocytic nevus, has recently been described as a mosaic condition with varying presentations. We herein describe typical PENS lesions, which usually occur sporadically, affecting two members of the same family. The concept of paradominant inheritance is proposed to explain the paradox of occasional transmission of normally sporadically occurring traits.

  20. Long-term in vitro culture of bovine preantral follicles: Effect of base medium and medium replacement methods.

    PubMed

    Araújo, V R; Gastal, M O; Wischral, A; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2015-10-01

    Two culture media and replacement methods were compared during long-term in vitro culture of secondary follicles of cattle using α-MEM(+) or TCM-199(+) as base media. The medium replacement methods were: Conventional - removal and subsequent addition of the same amount (60μl) in a 100μl aliquot (MEM-C and TCM-C), and Small Supplementation - addition of 5μl of fresh medium to an initial small aliquot (50μl), resulting in a final volume of 125μl on the last day of culture (MEM-S and TCM-S). A total of 207 secondary follicles were cultured individually for 32 days at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 and medium replacement was performed every other day. The MEM-S treatment resulted in a larger (P<0.01) follicular diameter, greater (P<0.02) growth rate, greater (P<0.02) antrum formation, as well as greater (P<0.0001) estradiol concentrations when compared with the MEM-C treatment. The medium change methods did not affect (P>0.05) the follicular and estradiol end points for TCM-199(+). The expression of the FSHR gene was greater (P<0.03) with the TCM-C than TCM-S treatment, while the relative amounts of mRNA for IGF1 was greater (P<0.02) with MEM-S than TCM-S treatments and for VEGF was greater (P<0.02) with MEM-C than TCM-C treatment. In conclusion, the type of base medium and the effect of periodic addition of medium differentially affected follicle development, estradiol production, and gene expression. Furthermore, α-MEM(+) can be used to replace TCM-199(+) for culture of preantral follicles of cattle if progressive addition of medium is used for medium change.

  1. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  2. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  3. Supplementing managed competition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  4. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  5. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  6. Basal ganglia-cortical structural connectivity in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Novak, Marianne J U; Seunarine, Kiran K; Gibbard, Clare R; McColgan, Peter; Draganski, Bogdan; Friston, Karl; Clark, Chris A; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-05-01

    Huntington's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by inheritance of an expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) trinucleotide repeat within the Huntingtin gene. Extensive volume loss and altered diffusion metrics in the basal ganglia, cortex and white matter are seen when patients with Huntington's disease (HD) undergo structural imaging, suggesting that changes in basal ganglia-cortical structural connectivity occur. The aims of this study were to characterise altered patterns of basal ganglia-cortical structural connectivity with high anatomical precision in premanifest and early manifest HD, and to identify associations between structural connectivity and genetic or clinical markers of HD. 3-Tesla diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images were acquired from 14 early manifest HD subjects, 17 premanifest HD subjects and 18 controls. Voxel-based analyses of probabilistic tractography were used to quantify basal ganglia-cortical structural connections. Canonical variate analysis was used to demonstrate disease-associated patterns of altered connectivity and to test for associations between connectivity and genetic and clinical markers of HD; this is the first study in which such analyses have been used. Widespread changes were seen in basal ganglia-cortical structural connectivity in early manifest HD subjects; this has relevance for development of therapies targeting the striatum. Premanifest HD subjects had a pattern of connectivity more similar to that of controls, suggesting progressive change in connections over time. Associations between structural connectivity patterns and motor and cognitive markers of disease severity were present in early manifest subjects. Our data suggest the clinical phenotype in manifest HD may be at least partly a result of altered connectivity.

  7. A basal ganglia circuit for evaluating action outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Yu, Kai; Ahrens, Sandra; Tucciarone, Jason M.; van Huijstee, Aile N.; Mejia, Luis A.; Penzo, Mario A.; Tai, Lung-Hao; Wilbrecht, Linda; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei, play a crucial role in decision making by selecting actions and evaluating their outcomes1,2. While much is known about the function of the basal ganglia circuitry in selection1,3,4, how these nuclei contribute to outcome evaluation is less clear. Here we show that neurons in the habenula-projecting globus pallidus (GPh) are essential for evaluating action outcomes and are regulated by a specific set of inputs from the basal ganglia. We found in a classical conditioning task that individual mouse GPh neurons bidirectionally encode whether an outcome is better or worse than expected. Mimicking these evaluation signals with optogenetic inhibition or excitation is sufficient to reinforce or discourage actions in a decision making task. Moreover, cell-type-specific synaptic manipulations revealed that the inhibitory and excitatory inputs to the GPh are necessary for mice to appropriately evaluate positive and negative feedback, respectively. Finally, using rabies virus-assisted monosynaptic tracing5, we discovered that the GPh is embedded in a basal ganglia circuit wherein it receives inhibitory input from both striosomal and matrix compartments of the striatum, and excitatory input from the “limbic” regions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Our results provide the first direct evidence that information about the selection and evaluation of actions is channelled through distinct sets of basal ganglia circuits, with the GPh representing a key locus where information of opposing valence is integrated to determine whether action outcomes are better or worse than expected. PMID:27652894

  8. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  10. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  11. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  12. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  13. The effects of organic selenium supplementation on the rumen ciliate population in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mihaliková, K; Gresáková, L; Boldizárová, K; Faix, S; Leng, L; Kisidayová, S

    2005-01-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on the rumen protozoan population of sheep was demonstrated. Both the total and generic counts of rumen ciliates in sheep fed a diet with basal Se content (70 microg/kg dry matter) were compared to those of animals given feed supplemented with inorganic (disodium selenite) or organic Se (selenized yeast) (310 microg/kg dry matter). The genera of Entodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Ophryoscolex, Diploplastron and Polyplastron occurred in all sheep except for the control, in which Ophryoscolex was not observed. The population of Ophryoscolex caudatus f. tricoronatus was significantly higher in sheep supplemented with organic Se than in animals given inorganic Se (by 160 %). Supplementation of feed with selenized yeast induced significant growth in the Diploplastron population (by 63 %) while no change occurred in sheep given selenite. The populations of Dasytricha ruminantium and Polyplastron multivesiculatum were higher than control in both Se-supplemented groups. The ciliate population of Entodinium spp. was not influenced by Se supplements. Our results suggest a protective effect of Se feed supplementation on the development of some rumen ciliate species in young ruminants.

  14. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  15. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  16. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  17. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  18. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  19. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  20. Effects of supplementation with two sources and two levels of copper on meat lipid oxidation, meat colour and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Correa, Lísia Bertonha; Zanetti, Marcus Antonio; Del Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro; de Paiva, Fernanda Alves; da Luz e Silva, Saulo; Netto, Arlindo Saran

    2014-10-28

    In the present study, thirty-five Nellore bulls were used to determine the effects of two levels and two sources (organic and inorganic) of Cu supplementation on the oxidative stability of lipids, measured by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) test, meat colour and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities. The following treatments were used: (1) control (C) - basal diet without supplementation of Cu (7 mg Cu/kg DM); (2) I10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate (inorganic form); (3) I40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper sulphate; (4) O10 - basal diet supplemented with 10 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate (organic form); (5) O40 - basal diet supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM in the form of copper proteinate. Lipid oxidation was determined in meat samples exposed to display, modified atmosphere (MA) and vacuum packaging (VC) conditions and in liver samples using the TBARS test. These samples were also evaluated for meat discolouration after exposure to air. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes were determined in liver samples. In display, MA and VC conditions, the TBARS values of samples from animals supplemented with 40 mg Cu/kg DM were lower than those of samples from control animals. There was no effect of treatment on the colour variables (L*, a*, b*). There was also no significant effect of treatment on hepatic TBARS concentrations and GSH-Px activity. Supplementation with Cu at 40 mg/kg, regardless of the source, induced higher hepatic SOD activity compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, Cu supplementation improved the oxidative stability of lipids in samples exposed to display, MA and VC conditions, demonstrating the antioxidant effect of this mineral.

  1. Docosahexanoic acid diet supplementation attenuates the peripheral mononuclear cell inflammatory response to exercise following LPS activation.

    PubMed

    Capó, X; Martorell, M; Llompart, I; Sureda, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2014-10-01

    Exercise induces changes in circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on the plasma cytokine levels and on the peripheral mononuclear (PBMCs) cells cytokine production after a training season or an acute bout of exercise. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA, whereas the placebo group consumed the same beverage without DHA. Three blood samples were taken: in basal conditions at the beginning of the nutritional intervention and after eight weeks of training season in basal and post-exercise conditions. The DHA content increased in erythrocytes after 8weeks of training and supplementation. Neither diet supplementation with DHA nor training season altered the basal plasma cytokines and growth factors. Only acute exercise significantly increased plasma IL6 in experimental and placebo groups. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation induced the inflammatory response in PBMCs, with a significant production rate of TNFα, IL6 and IL8 mainly after acute exercise. DHA supplementation significantly reduced the rate of TNFα and IL6 production by stimulated PBMCs. Acute exercise increased the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels in PBMCs, although the increase was only statistically significant in the placebo group. In conclusion, a training season does not induce significant changes in the circulating cytokine profile in well-trained soccer players. Exercise increases the PBMCs cell capabilities to produce cytokines after TLR4 stimulation with LPS and this rate of cytokine production is attenuated by diet DHA supplementation.

  2. Centrality of Striatal Cholinergic Transmission in Basal Ganglia Function

    PubMed Central

    Bonsi, Paola; Cuomo, Dario; Martella, Giuseppina; Madeo, Graziella; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Puglisi, Francesca; Ponterio, Giulia; Pisani, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction. Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders. PMID:21344017

  3. Basal ganglia circuits for reward value-guided behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F.; Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are equipped with inhibitory and disinhibitory mechanisms that enable to choose valuable objects and actions. Notably, a value can be determined flexibly by recent experience or stably by prolonged experience. Recent studies have revealed that the head and tail of the caudate nucleus selectively and differentially process flexible and stable values of visual objects. These signals are sent to the superior colliculus through different parts of the substantia nigra, so that the animal looks preferentially at high-valued objects, but in different manners. Relying on short-term value memories, the caudate head circuit allows gaze to move expectantly to recently valued objects. Relying on long-term value memories, the caudate tail circuit allows gaze to move automatically to previously valued objects. The basal ganglia also contain an equivalent parallel mechanism for action values. Such flexible-stable parallel mechanisms for object and action values create a highly adaptable system for decision making. PMID:25032497

  4. Basal ganglia function, stuttering, sequencing, and repair in adult songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kubikova, Lubica; Bosikova, Eva; Cvikova, Martina; Lukacova, Kristina; Scharff, Constance; Jarvis, Erich D

    2014-10-13

    A pallial-basal-ganglia-thalamic-pallial loop in songbirds is involved in vocal motor learning. Damage to its basal ganglia part, Area X, in adult zebra finches has been noted to have no strong effects on song and its function is unclear. Here we report that neurotoxic damage to adult Area X induced changes in singing tempo and global syllable sequencing in all animals, and considerably increased syllable repetition in birds whose song motifs ended with minor repetitions before lesioning. This stuttering-like behavior started at one month, and improved over six months. Unexpectedly, the lesioned region showed considerable recovery, including immigration of newly generated or repaired neurons that became active during singing. The timing of the recovery and stuttering suggest that immature recovering activity of the circuit might be associated with stuttering. These findings indicate that even after juvenile learning is complete, the adult striatum plays a role in higher level organization of learned vocalizations.

  5. Advances in the management of basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carucci, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a malignant neoplasm derived from non-keratinizing cells that originate in the basal layer of the epidermis, is the most common cancer in humans. Several factors such as anatomic location, histologic features, primary or recurrent tumors, and patient characteristics influence the choice of treatment modality for BCC. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) facilitates optimal margin control and conservation of normal tissue for the management of BCC; however, other treatment modalities may also be implemented in the correct clinical scenario. Other treatment modalities that will be reviewed include simple excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, topical immunotherapy and chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiation therapy. In addition, targeted molecular therapeutic options for the treatment of advanced or metastatic BCC will be discussed in this informal review based on recent literature obtained by using PubMed with relevant search terms. PMID:26097726

  6. Basal Insulin Use With GLP-1 Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Trujillo, Jennifer M

    2016-08-01

    IN BRIEF The combination of basal insulin and a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is becoming increasingly common and offers several potential benefits to patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have demonstrated improved glycemic control and low risks of hypoglycemia and weight gain with the combination, which provides a safe and effective alternative to basal-bolus insulin with less treatment burden. Fixed-ratio combination products that administer both agents in a single injection are in the pipeline and will offer additional options for clinicians and patients. This review focuses on the rationale for, clinical evidence on, and implications of using this combination of therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  8. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  9. Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Extract Supplementation Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Modulates Serum Amino Acids Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Martínez, Yordan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract (SCCWE) on growth performance, oxidative stress, intestinal morphology, and serum amino acid concentration in weaned piglets. Utilizing a completely randomized design, 40 healthy piglets weaned at 21 d were grouped into 4 experimental treatments with 10 pigs per treatment group. Treatments consisted of a basal diet (T0), a basal diet with a 0.05% SCCWE (T1), a basal diet with a 0.10% SCCWE (T2), and a basal diet with a 0.15% SCCWE (T3). SCCWE supplementation increased the average daily gain and final body weight compared with T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE in T2 and T3 improved the average daily feed intake and decreased the feed/gain ratio compared with T1 and T2 (P < 0.05). SCCWE decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly compared to T0 (P < 0.05). SCCWE increased the concentration of Ile compared to T0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentrations of Leu, Phe, and Arg were higher in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate beneficial effects of SCCWE supplementation on growth performance, the concentration of some essential amino acids, and alleviation of oxidative stress in weaned piglets. PMID:28386308

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Sole: An Easily Missed Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hone, Natalie L.; Grandhi, Radhika; Ingraffea, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection. PMID:27920679

  11. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  12. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  13. Subconjunctival "ring" recurrence of Basal cell carcinoma of the globe.

    PubMed

    Lee, Scott; Cnaan, Ran Ben; Paramanathan, Nirosha; Davies, Michael; Benger, Ross; Ghabrial, Raf

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common indication for orbital exenteration. The recurrence rate of BCC removed with microscopically controlled histology sections is up to 6%. The authors describe the recurrence of a lower eyelid BCC resected with microscopic control that did not manifest itself until 15 years later as a subconjunctival lesion, encircling the globe, and without apparent skin involvement. BCC can present in any manner following surgery, and therefore, judicious follow-up is necessary even after microscopically controlled resection.

  14. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  15. Numerical modeling of frontal and basal accretion at collisional margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selzer, Cornelia; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the deformation of orogenic wedges that form in the early stages of continent-continent collisions using a two-dimensional numerical model limited to the upper lithosphere. Our models show that deformation at the plate margins is influenced by rheology, surface processes, and the balance between inward mass flux and outward subduction flux, as controlled by the subduction load (which represents the effects of slab pull and resistive forces) and flexural downbending. We find three characteristic deformation modes: (1) near-pure subduction with little or no accretion; (2) frontal accretion with development of an accretionary wedge built up by offscraping of the sediment layer at shallow depth; and (3) independent frontal and basal accretion where a retrothrust allows stacking of basement nappes at crustal to mantle depths. Near-pure subduction is enabled for "ordinary-rheology" materials, characterized by brittle and viscous material behavior (approximating a "Christmas tree-type" depth profile), and almost zero friction along the subduction shear zone. Frontal accretion occurs when slightly increased friction along the subduction shear zone allows offscraping of the sediment layer from the subducting plate. Independent frontal and basal accretion develops in strong-rheology models with an almost fully brittle material behavior. Major surface erosion or a reduction of the subduction load promote the development of large basement nappes. Frontal accretion is favored by major sedimentation during convergence, a large backstop, and in the case of a lateral transition from a "strong-rheology" to an "ordinary-rheology" subducting plate. Our numerical models develop first-order characteristics as observed in natural orogenic wedges, for example upper crustal nappe stacks, frontal and basal accretion, or extension in the core of an orogen. Frontal and basal accretion are interdependent, and tend to stabilize the subduction system.

  16. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract.

  17. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    PubMed

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  18. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Ornithischia (the ‘bird-hipped’ dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  19. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  20. Choosing sides – asymmetric centriole and basal body assembly

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Chad G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) are microtubule-rich cylindrical structures that nucleate and organize centrosomes and cilia, respectively. Despite their apparent ninefold rotational symmetry, the nine sets of triplet microtubules in CBBs possess asymmetries in their morphology and in the structures that associate with them. These asymmetries define the position of nascent CBB assembly, the orientation of ciliary beating, the orientation of spindle poles and the maintenance of cellular geometry. For some of these functions, the orientation of CBBs is first established during new CBB biogenesis when the daughter structure is positioned adjacent to the mother. The mother CBB organizes the surrounding environment that nascent CBBs are born into, thereby providing a nest for the new CBB to develop. Protists, including ciliates and algae, highlight the importance of this environment with the formation of asymmetrically placed scaffolds onto which new basal bodies assemble and are positioned. Recent studies illuminate the positioning of nascent centrioles relative to a modular pericentriolar material (PCM) environment and suggest that, like ciliates, centrosomes organize an immediate environment surrounding centrioles for their biogenesis and positioning. In this Commentary, I will explore the positioning of nascent CBB assembly as the first event in building cellular asymmetries and describe how the environment surrounding both basal bodies and centrioles may define asymmetric assembly. PMID:24895399

  1. Basal lamina reduplication in malignant epithelioid pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Di Muzio, M; Spoletini, L; Strizzi, L; Procopio, A; Tassi, G; Casalini, A; Modesti, A

    1998-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is divided in three morphological variants: epithelioid, sarcomatous, and biphasic. Histological similarities between epithelioid malignant mesothelioma (EMM) and lung adenocarcinoma are responsible for the difficult differential diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies are useful for distinguishing the two neoplasms through immunohistochemical phenotyping, although many cases require ultrastructural characterization for definitive diagnosis. In this study, transmission electron microscopic observations of EMM were compared with those of peripheral adenocarcinoma of the lung (PAL). More specifically, the morphology of the basal lamina is described in 23 cases of EMM and 12 cases of PAL. Reduplication of the basal lamina (RBL) was found in 11 cases (48%) of EMM and in none of the PAL cases. The same cases were immunostained for type IV collagen and the localization of this basement membrane component corresponded to the areas where basal lamina was observed. Since RBL has been associated with neoplastic differentiation in other tumors, this novel feature in EMM needs to be evaluated in future prognostic studies in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. Moreover, RBL expression in EMM may be an additional ultrastructural parameter used in the differential diagnosis between EMM and adenocarcinoma.

  2. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  3. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  4. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dominique Xavier; Butler, Emma Louise; Evans, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. PMID:24363554

  5. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinse

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest. PMID:27240808

  6. Expression of ZNF396 in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juncheng; Kito, Yusuke; Okubo, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Tomoko; Takeuchi, Tamotsu

    2014-05-01

    Zfp191 represses differentiation and keeps various cells in the stem/progenitor stage. Here, we report that a Zfp191 homolog protein, ZNF396, is expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and possibly represses the expression of a Notch system effector molecule, Hes1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1), and prevents BCC cells from undergoing Notch-mediated squamous cell differentiation. ZNF396 immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus of 35 of 38 cutaneous BCC and 4 of 74 squamous cell carcinoma tissue specimens. In non-tumorous epidermal tissues, ZNF396 immunoreactivity was restricted in basal cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 induced the expression of Notch2, Hes1, and involucrin in cultured BCC cells. Finally, we found that siRNA-mediated silencing of ZNF396 gene inhibited the proliferation of TE354.T basal cell carcinoma cells. ZNF396 might repress Notch-Hes1 signaling axis and prevent tumor cells from undergoing squamous differentiation in BCC.

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin's Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    PubMed

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings

  9. Creative cognition and the brain: dissociations between frontal, parietal-temporal and basal ganglia groups.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Beudt, Susan; Ott, Derek V M; Yves von Cramon, D

    2012-10-30

    The objective of the study was to investigate creativity in relation to brain function by assessing creative thinking in various neurological populations. Several measures were employed to assess different facets of creative thinking in clinical groups with frontal lobe, basal ganglia or parietal-temporal lesions relative to matched healthy control participants. The frontal group was subdivided into frontolateral, frontopolar and frontal-extensive groups. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to assess the significance levels associated with the effects after accounting for IQ differences between the groups. Findings were only considered noteworthy if they at least suggested the presence of a strong trend and were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. The parietal-temporal and frontolateral groups revealed poorer overall performance with the former demonstrating problems with fluency related measures, whereas the latter were also less proficient at producing original responses. In contrast, the basal ganglia and frontopolar groups demonstrated superior performance in the ability to overcome the constraints imposed by salient semantic distractors when generating creative responses. In summary, the dissociations in the findings reveal the selective involvement of different brain regions in diverse aspects of creativity. Lesion location posed selective limitations on the ability to generate original responses in different contexts, but not on the ability to generate relevant responses, which was compromised in most patient groups. The noteworthy findings from this exploratory study of enhanced performance in specific aspects of creative cognition following brain damage are discussed with reference to the generic idea that superior creative ability can result from altered brain function.

  10. Medium for presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Weagant, S D

    1983-02-01

    A medium, lysine-arginine-iron agar, was developed for the presumptive identification of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates. This medium was a modification of lysine-iron agar and allowed for the testing of five biochemical characteristics in a single tube medium. The reactions of Y. enterocolitica on this medium were reliable and distinctive. The medium significantly simplified the identification of Y. enterocolitica isolates.

  11. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  12. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  13. Use of Dorset egg medium for maintenance and transport of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed

    Wasas, A D; Huebner, R E; Klugman, K P

    1999-06-01

    Studies of bacterial meningitis are hampered by the inability to maintain the viability of etiological agents during transport to reference laboratories. The long-term survival rate of 20 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) on Dorset egg medium, supplemented Columbia agar base medium, chocolate agar, and Amies medium was compared with that on 70% GC agar (chocolate) transport medium. N. meningitidis isolates were also inoculated onto 5% horse blood agar, and Hib was inoculated onto Haemophilus test medium. All of the N. meningitidis isolates remained viable on Dorset egg medium for 21 days; viability on the other media was poor after only 7 days. Recovery rates of Hib isolates were similar on Dorset egg and Haemophilus test media (100% after 21 days) and significantly better than on the other media. Dorset egg medium is inexpensive and easy to make and may be invaluable for studies of bacterial meningitis in developing countries.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  15. Hemolytic Activities of the Candida Species in Liquid Medium

    PubMed Central

    Malcok, Hilal Kuzucu; Aktas, Esin; Ayyildiz, Ahmet; Yigit, Nimet; Yazgi, Halil

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemolytic activities of 107 Candida strains isolated from different clinical samples in liquid medium, and to examine the impact of glucose on this activity. Materials and Methods A total of 107 Candida isolates representing seven species (C. albicans, n=28; C. glabrata, n=23; C. tropicalis, n=17; C. parapsilosis, n=16; C. kefyr, n=14; C. krusei, n=5; C. guilliermondii, n=4) were included in the study. The hemolytic activities of the strains were tested on two different Sabouraud dextrose liquid media (SDB) containing 7% defibrinated human blood, one of which is supplemented with 3% glucose and the other without glucose. Cultures were evaluated at the end of a 48-hour incubation. The hemolysis in the media was detected spectrophotometrically by measuring the amount of released hemoglobin and compared with a standard hemolysate which was prepared prior to testing. The degree of hemolysis (percentage value) by an individual strain was calculated according to the following formula below: (Absorbance of supernatant media at 540 nm / Absorbance of standard hemolysate at 540 nm X 100). Results In the liquid medium without glucose, strains generally produced hemolysis at low levels. The degree of hemolysis produced by all species increased noticeably in the liquid medium with glucose. Strains of C. albicans and C.kefyr had demonstrated significant hemolytic activity, whereas others had lower activity. C. parapsilosis exerted very little hemolytic activity in the medium with glucose and showed no activity in the medium without glucose. Conclusion The hemolytic activities of most Candida species was found to be higher in the human blood-enriched SDB medium containing 3% additive glucose than in the one free from additives. This result indicates that increased blood glucose concentration may contribute to increased hemolytic activity in Candida species, and it suggests a parallel with possible pathogenesis of

  16. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer What’s New in Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  17. Effect of intermittent supplementation with selenate on selenium status of rats fed selenium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2005-12-01

    To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, < 0.01 microg/g) for 28 d. During the experimental period, the diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status.

  18. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Jaoua, Samir; Zouari, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L(-1) starch, 30 g L(-1) soya bean and 9 g L(-1) sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch) when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch). Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  19. Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Lowell

    1987-01-01

    Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

  20. Properties of the nuclear medium.

    PubMed

    Baldo, M; Burgio, G F

    2012-02-01

    We review our knowledge on the properties of the nuclear medium that have been studied, over many years, on the basis of many-body theory, laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations. Throughout the presentation particular emphasis is placed on the possible relationship and links between the nuclear medium and the structure of nuclei, including the limitations of such an approach. First we consider the realm of phenomenological laboratory data and astrophysical observations and the hints they can give on the characteristics that the nuclear medium should possess. The analysis is based on phenomenological models, that however have a strong basis on physical intuition and an impressive success. More microscopic models are also considered, and it is shown that they are able to give invaluable information on the nuclear medium, in particular on its equation of state. The interplay between laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations is particularly stressed, and it is shown how their complementarity enormously enriches our insights into the structure of the nuclear medium. We then introduce the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the microscopic many-body theory of nuclear matter, with a critical discussion about the different approaches and their results. The Landau-Fermi liquid theory is introduced and briefly discussed, and it is shown how fruitful it can be in discussing the macroscopic and low-energy properties of the nuclear medium. As an illustrative example, we discuss neutron matter at very low density, and it is shown how it can be treated within the many-body theory. The general bulk properties of the nuclear medium are reviewed to indicate at which stage of our knowledge we stand, taking into account the most recent developments both in theory and experiments. A section is dedicated to the pairing problem. The connection with nuclear structure is then discussed, on the basis of the energy density functional method. The possibility of linking

  1. Supplementing Vitamin E to the Ration of Beef Cattle Increased the Utilization Efficiency of Dietary Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chen; Lin, Shixin; Wu, Jinlong; Zhao, Guangyong; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Wensi

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on nutrient digestion, nitrogen (N) retention and plasma parameters of beef cattle in feedlot. Four growing Simmental bulls, fed with a total mixed ration composed of corn silage and concentrate mixture as basal ration, were used as the experimental animals. Four levels of VE product, i.e. 0, 150, 300, 600 mg/head/d (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, 300 IU VE/head/d), were supplemented to the basal ration (VE content 38 IU/kg dry matter) in a 4×4 Latin square design as experimental treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pretreatment and the last 3 days for sampling. The results showed that supplementing VE did not affect the nutrient digestibility (p>0.05) whereas decreased the urinary N excretion (p<0.01), increased the N retention (p<0.05) and tended to increase the microbial N supply estimated based on the total urinary purine derivatives (p = 0.057). Supplementing VE increased the plasma concentrations of VE, glucose and triglycerol (TG) (p<0.05) and tended to increase the plasma concentration of total protein (p = 0.096) whereas did not affect the plasma antioxidant indices and other parameters (p>0.05). It was concluded that supplementing VE up to 300 IU/head/d did not affect the nutrient digestibility whereas supplementing VE at 150 or 300 IU/head/d increased the N retention and the plasma concentrations of VE and TG (p<0.05) of beef cattle. PMID:26950868

  2. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, meat quality and colour stability of broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Wang, L K; Wen, A Y; Wang, L X; Jin, G M

    2009-05-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation on growth performance, carcase characteristics and meat quality in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 240 35-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (three replicates of 20 birds per cage). The broilers were kept in a temperature-controlled room at either 23 degrees C (no-stress groups, NS) or 28 degrees C (heat stress groups, HS). The broilers were fed either on a basal diet (control, NS) or on the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5 or 1.0% Gln (HS). 3. Compared with the NS, the HS (0% Gln) group gained less weight and consumed less feed, had lower final body weight, gain-to-feed ratio, and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat in HS (0% Gln) had lower pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), a* value, ether extract (EE) content and crude protein (CP) content, and had higher shear force (SF) and L* value. 4. Linear increase were found in groups supplemented with Gln (0, 0.5% and 1.0%) for final body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, gain-to-feed ratio and abdominal fat yield. Supplementation with Gln improved breast meat pH, WHC, SF, L* value, a* value, EE content and CP content in broilers exposed to heat stress. No significant difference was observed in all the indices determined between the HS (1% Gln) and the NS. 5. Heat stress caused obvious breast meat discoloration in L*, a* and b* values. However, dietary supplementation with Gln gave a better colour stability. 6. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with Gln may alleviate heat stress-caused deterioration in growth performance, carcase characteristics, meat quality and meat colour stability of broilers.

  3. Effect of dietary oligochitosan supplementation on ileal digestibility of nutrients and performance in broilers.

    PubMed

    Huang, R L; Yin, Y L; Wu, G Y; Zhang, Y G; Li, T J; Li, L L; Li, M X; Tang, Z R; Zhang, J; Wang, B; He, J H; Nie, X Z

    2005-09-01

    The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance.

  4. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  5. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  6. Association of P16-RBSP3 inactivation with phosphorylated RB1 overexpression in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervix unchanged during CACX development.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Chandraditya; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Samadder, Sudip; Roy, Anup; Mandal, Ranajit Kumar; Basu, Partha; Roychoudhury, Susanta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of RB1 phosphorylation in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervix and during cervical cancer (CACX) development, we analyzed the alterations (expression/methylation/deletion/mutation) of RB1/phosphorylated RB1 (p-RB1) (ser807/811 and ser567) and two RB1 phosphorylation inhibitors, P16 and RBSP3, in disease-free normal cervical epithelium (n = 9), adjacent normal cervical epithelium of tumors (n = 70), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 28), CACX (n = 102) samples and two CACX cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high/medium expression of RB1/p-RB1 (ser807/811 and ser567) and low expression of P16 and RBSP3 in proliferating basal-parabasal layers of majority of normal cervical epitheliums, irrespective of HPV16 infection. Interestingly, 35-52% samples showed high/medium expression of P16 in basal-parabasal layers of normal and had significant association with deleterious non-synonimous SNPs of P16. Methylation of P16 and RBSP3 in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervix (32 and 62%, respectively) showed concordance with their respective expressions in basal-parabasal layers. The methylation frequency of P16 and RBSP3 in basal-parabasal layers of normal did not change significantly in CIN and CACX. The deletion frequency of P16 and RB1 increased significantly with CACX progression. While, deletion of RBSP3 was high in CIN and comparable during CACX progression. P16 showed scattered and infrequent mutation in CACX. The alteration of P16 and RBSP3 was synergistic and showed association with overexpression of p-RB1 in tumors and associated with poor prognosis of patients. Thus, our data suggest that overexpression of p-RB1 in basal-parabasal layers of normal cervical epithelium was due to methylation/low functional-linked non-synonimous SNPs of P16 and RBSP3. This pattern was maintained during cervical carcinogenesis by additional deletion/mutation.

  7. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  8. To Supplement or Not to Supplement: A Metabolic Network Framework for Human Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher D.; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  9. How different are luminal A and basal breast cancers?

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Buttarelli, Max; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Chaffanet, Max; Maraninchi, Dominique; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2009-03-15

    Heterogeneity of breast cancer makes its evolution difficult to predict, and its treatment far from being optimal. At least 5 main molecular subtypes exist. Two major subtypes are luminal A and basal subtypes, which have opposite features, notably survival. To characterize these 2 subtypes better, with the hope of better understanding their different biology and clinical outcome, we have profiled a series of 138 tumours (80 luminal A and 58 basal) using Affymetrix whole-genome DNA microarrays. We have identified 5,621 probe sets as differentially expressed between the 2 subtypes in our series. These differences were validated in 6 independent public series (more than 600 tumours) profiled using different DNA microarrays platforms. Analysis of functions and pathways related to these probe sets, and the extent of the observed differences, confirmed that the 2 subtypes represent very distinct entities. Genes associated with proliferation, cell cycle, cell motility, angiogenesis, and NFkB signalling were overexpressed in basal tumours. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, TGFB signalling, and oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling were overexpressed in luminal A samples. Half of the genes overexpressed in luminal tumours contained ER-binding sites. The number of differentially expressed genes was as high as the set of genes discriminating 2 cancers of different anatomical origin (breast and colon) or discriminating acute myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia. We provide a comprehensive list of genes/pathways that define potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets for these 2 subtypes, which should be treated differently given the profound differences observed at the molecular level.

  10. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  11. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  12. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  13. Basal Salivary Cortisol Secretion and Susceptibility to Upper Respiratory Infection

    PubMed Central

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B.; Doyle, William J.

    2016-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  14. The basal ganglia: an overview of circuits and function.

    PubMed

    Utter, Amy A; Basso, Michele A

    2008-01-01

    The technique of electrical stimulation of brain tissue-known clinically as deep brain stimulation (DBS)-is at the fore of treatment of human neurological disease. Here we provide a general overview highlighting the anatomy and circuitry of the basal ganglia (BG). We introduce common disease states associated with BG dysfunction and current hypotheses of BG function. Throughout this introductory review we direct the reader to other reviews in this special issue of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews highlighting the interaction between basic science and clinical investigation to more fully understand the BG in both health and disease.

  15. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  16. Development of a semidefined growth medium for Pedobacter cryoconitis BG5 using statistical experimental design.

    PubMed

    Ong, Magdalena; Ongkudon, Clarence M; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling

    2016-10-02

    Pedobacter cryoconitis BG5 are psychrophiles isolated from the cold environment and capable of proliferating and growing well at low temperature regime. Their cellular products have found a broad spectrum of applications, including in food, medicine, and bioremediation. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a high-cell density cultivation strategy coupled with optimized growth medium for P. cryoconitis BG5. To date, there has been no published report on the design and optimization of growth medium for P. cryoconitis, hence the objective of this research project. A preliminary screening of four commercially available media, namely tryptic soy broth, R2A, Luria Bertani broth, and nutrient broth, was conducted to formulate the basal medium. Based on the preliminary screening, tryptone, glucose, NaCl, and K2HPO4 along with three additional nutrients (yeast extract, MgSO4, and NH4Cl) were identified to form the basal medium which was further analyzed by Plackett-Burman experimental design. Central composite experimental design using response surface methodology was adopted to optimize tryptone, yeast extract, and NH4Cl concentrations in the formulated growth medium. Statistical data analysis showed a high regression factor of 0.84 with a predicted optimum optical (600 nm) cell density of 7.5 using 23.7 g/L of tryptone, 8.8 g/L of yeast extract, and 0.7 g/L of NH4Cl. The optimized medium for P. cryoconitis BG5 was tested, and the observed optical density was 7.8. The cost-effectiveness of the optimized medium was determined as 6.25 unit prices per gram of cell produced in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask.

  17. Development of Culture Medium for the Isolation of Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium from Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Tomoki; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Suga, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Koji; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    An effective medium designated phosphate separately autoclaved Reasoner’s 2A supplemented with cycloheximide and tobramycin (PSR2A-C/T) has been developed for the isolation of Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium strains from the plant rhizosphere. It consists of Reasoner’s 2A agar (R2A) prepared by autoclaving phosphate and agar separately and supplementing with 50 mg L−1 cycloheximide and 1 mg L−1 tobramycin. A comparison was made among the following nine media: PSR2A-C/T, PSR2A-C/T supplemented with NaCl, R2A agar, R2A agar supplemented with cycloheximide and tobramycin, 1/4-strength tryptic soy agar (TSA), 1/10-strength TSA, soil-extract agar, Schaedler anaerobe agar (SAA), and SAA supplemented with gramicidin, for the recovery of Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium strains from the Welsh onion rhizosphere. Flavobacterium strains were only isolated on PSR2A-C/T, and the recovery rate of Chryseobacterium strains was higher from PSR2A-C/T than from the eight other media. In order to confirm the effectiveness of PSR2A-C/T, bacteria were isolated from onion rhizosphere soil with this medium. Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium strains were successfully isolated from this sample at a similar rate to that from the Welsh onion rhizosphere. PMID:27098502

  18. Enhancing Aerobic Growth of Campylobacter in Media Supplemented with Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in was determined. A fumarate-pyruvate medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, or Campylobacter jejuni. Portions of the inoculated me...

  19. Taurine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and islet function.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Everardo M; Latorraca, Marcia Q; Araujo, Eliana; Beltrá, Marta; Oliveras, Maria J; Navarro, Mónica; Berná, Genoveva; Bedoya, Francisco J; Velloso, Licio A; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz

    2009-07-01

    Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid for human that is involved in the control of glucose homeostasis; however, the mechanisms by which the amino acid affects blood glucose levels are unknown. Using an animal model, we have studied these mechanisms. Mice were supplemented with taurine for 30 d. Blood glucose homeostasis was assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT). Islet cell function was determined by insulin secretion, cytosolic Ca2+ measurements and glucose metabolism from isolated islets. Islet cell gene expression and translocation was examined via immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Insulin signaling was studied by Western blot. Islets from taurine-supplemented mice had: (i) significantly higher insulin content, (ii) increased insulin secretion at stimulatory glucose concentrations, (iii) significantly displaced the dose-response curve for glucose-induced insulin release to the left, (iv) increased glucose metabolism at 5.6 and 11.1-mmol/L concentrations; (v) slowed cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) oscillations in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; (vi) increased insulin, sulfonylurea receptor-1, glucokinase, Glut-2, proconvertase and pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1) gene expression and (vii) increased PDX-1 expression in the nucleus. Moreover, taurine supplementation significantly increased both basal and insulin stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in skeletal muscle and liver tissues. Finally, taurine supplemented mice showed an improved IPGTT. These results indicate that taurine controls glucose homeostasis by regulating the expression of genes required for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In addition, taurine enhances peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  20. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  1. Review of hadrons in medium

    SciTech Connect

    Krein, Gastão

    2016-01-22

    I review the present status in the theoretical and phenomenological understanding of hadron properties in strongly interacting matter. The topics covered are the EMC effect, nucleon structure functions in cold nuclear matter, spectral properties of light vector mesons in hot and cold nuclear matter, and in-medium properties of heavy flavored hadrons.

  2. Distribution and Intrinsic Membrane Properties of Basal Forebrain GABAergic and Parvalbumin Neurons in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, James T.; Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Winston, Stuart; Abarr, Kathleen K.; Rigby, Matthew S.; Yanagawa, Yuchio; McCarley, Robert W.; Brown, Ritchie E.

    2013-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) strongly regulates cortical activation, sleep homeostasis, and attention. Many BF neurons involved in these processes are GABAergic, including a subpopulation of projection neurons containing the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). However, technical difficulties in identification have prevented a precise mapping of the distribution of GABAergic and GABA/PV+ neurons in the mouse or a determination of their intrinsic membrane properties. Here we used mice expressing fluorescent proteins in GABAergic (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) or PV+ neurons (PV-Tomato mice) to study these neurons. Immunohistochemical staining for GABA in GAD67-GFP mice confirmed that GFP selectively labeled BF GABAergic neurons. GFP+ neurons and fibers were distributed throughout the BF, with the highest density in the magnocellular preoptic area (MCPO). Immunohistochemistry for PV indicated that the majority of PV+ neurons in the BF were large (>20 μm) or medium-sized (15–20 μm) GFP+ neurons. Most medium and large-sized BF GFP+ neurons, including those retrogradely labeled from the neocortex, were fast-firing and spontaneously active in vitro. They exhibited prominent hyperpolarization-activated inward currents and subthreshold “spikelets,” suggestive of electrical coupling. PV+ neurons recorded in PV-Tomato mice had similar properties but had significantly narrower action potentials and a higher maximal firing frequency. Another population of smaller GFP+ neurons had properties similar to striatal projection neurons. The fast firing and electrical coupling of BF GABA/PV+ neurons, together with their projections to cortical interneurons and the thalamic reticular nucleus, suggest a strong and synchronous control of the neocortical fast rhythms typical of wakefulness and REM sleep. PMID:23254904

  3. Maternal supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides improves intestinal health and immune status of suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Heim, G; O'Doherty, J V; O'Shea, C J; Doyle, D N; Egan, A M; Thornton, K; Sweeney, T

    2015-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (-SDP v. +SDP, n   20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium-glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time.

  5. Oral glutathione supplementation drastically reduces Helicobacter-induced gastric pathologies

    PubMed Central

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Ducatelle, Richard; Foss, Dennis; Sanchez, Margaret; Joosten, Myrthe; Zhang, Guangzhi; Smet, Annemieke; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter (H.) suis causes gastric pathologies in both pigs and humans. Very little is known on the metabolism of this bacterium and its impact on the host. In this study, we have revealed the importance of the glutamate-generating metabolism, as shown by a complete depletion of glutamine (Gln) in the medium during H. suis culture. Besides Gln, H. suis can also convert glutathione (GSH) to glutamate, and both reactions are catalyzed by the H. suis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Both for H. pylori and H. suis, it has been hypothesized that the degradation of Gln and GSH may lead to a deficiency for the host, possibly initiating or promoting several pathologies. Therefore the in vivo effect of oral supplementation with Gln and GSH was assessed. Oral supplementation with Gln was shown to temper H. suis induced gastritis and epithelial (hyper)proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Astonishingly, supplementation of the feed with GSH, another GGT substrate, resulted in inflammation and epithelial proliferation levels returning to baseline levels of uninfected controls. This indicates that Gln and GSH supplementation may help reducing tissue damage caused by Helicobacter infection in both humans and pigs, highlighting their potential as a supportive therapy during and after Helicobacter eradication therapy. PMID:26833404

  6. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2013-07-05

    Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  7. Assessment of a new selective chromogenic Bacillus cereus group plating medium and use of enterobacterial autoinducer of growth for cultural identification of Bacillus species.

    PubMed

    Reissbrodt, R; Rassbach, A; Burghardt, B; Rienäcker, I; Mietke, H; Schleif, J; Tschäpe, H; Lyte, M; Williams, P H

    2004-08-01

    A new chromogenic Bacillus cereus group plating medium permits differentiation of pathogenic Bacillus species by colony morphology and color. Probiotic B. cereus mutants were distinguished from wild-type strains by their susceptibilities to penicillin G or cefazolin. The enterobacterial autoinducer increased the sensitivity and the speed of enrichment of B. cereus and B. anthracis spores in serum-supplemented minimal salts medium (based on the standard American Petroleum Institute medium) and buffered peptone water.

  8. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  9. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Red Ginseng By-product on Laying Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Serum Immunoglobulin and Microbial Population in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Kang, H K; Park, S-B; Kim, C H

    2016-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of red ginseng by-product (RGB) on the laying performance, blood biochemistry, and microbial population in laying hens. A total of 120 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (75 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 4 replicates per treatment. A commercial-type basal diet was prepared, and 2 additional diets were prepared by supplementing 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg of RGB to the basal diet at the expense of corn. The diets were fed to hens on an ad libitum basis for 4 weeks. There were no differences in feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio during 4 weeks of the feeding trial. However, hen-day egg production was significantly greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatment groups than that for the basal treatment group. There were no differences in triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase during the 4-week feeding trial. However, RGB supplementation increased (p<0.05) the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM content compared with basal treatment group. The total cholesterol was lower (p<0.05) in the RGB treatments groups than that in the basal treatment group. The intestinal Lactobacillus population was greater (p<0.05) for the RGB treatments groups than that for the basal treatment group. However, the numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia coli were not different among dietary treatments. During the entire experiment, there was no significant difference in egg quality among all the treatments. In conclusion, in addition to improving hen-day production, there were positive effects of dietary RGB supplementation on serum immunoglobulin and cholesterol levels in laying hens.

  10. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  11. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs).

  12. Effect of protein supplementation on ruminal parameters and microbial community fingerprint of Nellore steers fed tropical forages.

    PubMed

    Bento, C B P; Azevedo, A C; Gomes, D I; Batista, E D; Rufino, L M A; Detmann, E; Mantovani, H C

    2016-01-01

    In tropical regions, protein supplementation is a common practice in dairy and beef farming. However, the effect of highly degradable protein in ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition has not yet been investigated in a systematic manner. In this work, we aimed to investigate the impact of casein supplementation on volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, specific activity of deamination (SAD), ammonia concentration and bacterial and archaeal community composition. The experimental design was a 4×4 Latin square balanced for residual effects, with four animals (average initial weight of 280±10 kg) and four experimental periods, each with duration of 29 days. The diet comprised Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp.) hay with an average CP content of 9.8%, on a dry matter basis. Animals received basal forage (control) or infusions of pure casein (230 g) administered direct into the rumen, abomasum or divided (50 : 50 ratio) in the rumen/abomasum. There was no differences (P>0.05) in ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration between supplemented v. non-supplemented animals. However, in steers receiving ruminal infusion of casein the SAD and ruminal ammonia concentration increased 33% and 76%, respectively, compared with the control. The total concentration of VFA increased (P0.05) in species richness and diversity of γ-proteobacteria, firmicutes and archaea between non-supplemented Nellore steers and steers receiving casein supplementation in the rumen. However, species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were lower (P<0.05) for the phylum bacteroidetes in steers supplemented with casein in the rumen compared with non-supplemented animals. Venn diagrams indicated that the number of unique bands varied considerably among individual animals and was usually higher in number for non-supplemented steers compared with supplemented animals. These results add new knowledge about the effects of ruminal and postruminal protein supplementation on metabolic activities of

  13. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  14. Management of superficial basal cell carcinoma: focus on imiquimod

    PubMed Central

    Raasch, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma comprise up to 25% of all histological sub-types. They are more likely to occur on younger persons and females and although generally more common on the trunk, also occur frequently on the exposed areas of the head and neck especially in areas of high sun exposure. In the last decade, new treatment options such as topical applications that modify the immune response have been trialed for effectiveness in treating these lesions. Imiquimod 5% cream has been shown to stimulate the innate and cell mediated immune system. The short-term success of imiquimod 5% cream in randomized controlled trials comparing different treatment regimes and dosing as a treatment for small superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) not on the face or neck is in the range of 82% for 5 times per week application. A high proportion of participants with good response rates to topical treatment (58%–92%) experience local side effects such as itching and burning, less commonly erosion and ulceration, but the proportion of participants ceasing treatment has not been high. To date one long-term study indicates a treatment success rate of 78%–81% and that initial response is a predictor of long-term outcome. Recurrences tend to occur within the first year after treatment. Future research will compare this preparation to the gold standard treatment for superficial BCC – surgical excision. PMID:21436969

  15. Immunohistochemical characteristics of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Budzik, Michał P.

    2017-01-01

    Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) occurs mainly in young patients. It is characterized by an aggressive clinical outcome, presence of distant metastases, particularly within the first five years of the disease, bad prognosis and relatively high mortality. Recently greater interest of scientists in this subtype of breast cancer has been observed. Despite such many well-known potential biomarkers of BLBC, currently there is no official international panel of antigens dedicated to diagnosis of this subtype of breast cancer. The most commonly used set in this case contains four antibodies – estrogen receptor (ER), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and cytokeratins (CK) 5/6 – although it cannot provide one hundred percent detectability of these lesions. Incorporation of additional biomarkers into a panel can increase specificity, at the potential cost of sensitivity. Many biomarkers have been associated with the basal-like phenotype, and those with high sensitivity and/or specificity could improve the performance of immunohistochemical surrogate panels. Work on detection of the best of them is constantly being performed. PMID:28239279

  16. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-04-09

    BACKGROUND Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. CASE REPORT We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a tetanic seizure, and who had a history of polyneuropathy, restless-leg syndrome, retinopathy, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, osteoporosis with consecutive hyperkyphosis, cervicalgia, lumbalgia, struma nodosa requiring thyroidectomy and consecutive hypothyroidism, adipositas, resection of a vocal chord polyp, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, atheromatosis of the aorta, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steatosis hepatis, mild renal insufficiency, long-term hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, impingement syndrome, spondylarthrosis of the lumbar spine, and hysterectomy. History and clinical presentation suggested a mitochondrial defect which also manifested as hypoparathyroidism or Fanconi syndrome resulting in BGC. After substitution of calcium, no further tetanic seizures occurred. CONCLUSIONS Patients with BGC should be investigated for a mitochondrial disorder. A mitochondrial disorder may also manifest as tetanic seizure.

  17. Treatment of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is characterized by various embryological deformities and carcinoma formation. It is caused by PTCHI gene mutations and is autosomal dominantly inherited. Some of the main symptoms of NBCCS are multiple basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the mandible, hyperkeratosis of the palmar and plantar, skeletal deformity, calcification of the falx cerebri, and facial defomity. Recurrent KCOT is the main symptom of NBCCS and is present in approximately 90% of patients. In NBCCS, KCOTs typically occur in multiples. KCOTs can be detected in patients under the age of 10, and new and recurring cysts develop until approximately the age of 30. The postoperation recurrence rate is approximately 60%. This case report presents a 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of a cyst found in the maxilla and mandible. The patient was diagnosed with NBCCS, and following treatment of marsupialization and enucleation, the clinical results were satisfactory. PMID:27847737

  18. A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression.

    PubMed

    Herman, Alexander M; Ortiz-Guzman, Joshua; Kochukov, Mikhail; Herman, Isabella; Quast, Kathleen B; Patel, Jay M; Tepe, Burak; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Ung, Kevin; Selever, Jennifer; Tong, Qingchun; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2016-10-13

    Atypical food intake is a primary cause of obesity and other eating and metabolic disorders. Insight into the neural control of feeding has previously focused mainly on signalling mechanisms associated with the hypothalamus, the major centre in the brain that regulates body weight homeostasis. However, roles of non-canonical central nervous system signalling mechanisms in regulating feeding behaviour have been largely uncharacterized. Acetylcholine has long been proposed to influence feeding owing in part to the functional similarity between acetylcholine and nicotine, a known appetite suppressant. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist for acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that endogenous cholinergic signalling may play a part in normal physiological regulation of feeding. However, it remains unclear how cholinergic neurons in the brain regulate food intake. Here we report that cholinergic neurons of the mouse basal forebrain potently influence food intake and body weight. Impairment of cholinergic signalling increases food intake and results in severe obesity, whereas enhanced cholinergic signalling decreases food consumption. We found that cholinergic circuits modulate appetite suppression on downstream targets in the hypothalamus. Together our data reveal the cholinergic basal forebrain as a major modulatory centre underlying feeding behaviour.

  19. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  20. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  1. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kirsty Y; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2016-05-17

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae.

  2. Basal shear stress of debris flow in the runout phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.

  3. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  4. Fgf genes in the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Satou, Yutaka; Imai, Kaoru S; Satoh, Nori

    2002-10-01

    In vertebrates, a number of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. However, the molecular relationships of the vertebrate FGFs are not yet completely understood, partly due to the divergence of their amino acid sequences. To solve this problem, we have identified six FGF genes in a basal chordate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. A phylogenetic analysis confidently assigned two of them to vertebrate FGF8/17/18 and FGF11/12/13/14, respectively. Based on the presence of the conserved domains within or outside of the FGF domains, we speculate that three of the other genes are orthologous to vertebrate FGF3/7/10/22, FGF4/5/6 and FGF9/16/20, respectively, although we cannot assign the sixth member to any of the vertebrate FGFs. A survey of the raw whole genome shotgun sequences of C. intestinalis demonstrated the presence of no FGF genes other than the six genes in the genome. The identification of these six FGF genes in the basal chordate gave us an insight into the diversification of specific subfamilies of vertebrate FGFs.

  5. Coordinated beating of algal flagella is mediated by basal coupling

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Kirsty Y.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior; this includes phase locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient to produce synchrony. However, the situation is more complex in unicellular organisms bearing few flagella. We show that flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies display markedly different synchronization from the wild type. We perform micromanipulation on configurations of flagella and conclude that a mechanism, internal to the cell, must provide an additional flagellar coupling. In naturally occurring species with 4, 8, or even 16 flagella, we find diverse symmetries of basal body positioning and of the flagellar apparatus that are coincident with specific gaits of flagellar actuation, suggesting that it is a competition between intracellular coupling and hydrodynamic interactions that ultimately determines the precise form of flagellar coordination in unicellular algae. PMID:27140605

  6. Basal ganglia circuits for reward value-guided behavior.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Kim, Hyoung F; Yasuda, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are equipped with inhibitory and disinhibitory mechanisms that enable a subject to choose valuable objects and actions. Notably, a value can be determined flexibly by recent experience or stably by prolonged experience. Recent studies have revealed that the head and tail of the caudate nucleus selectively and differentially process flexible and stable values of visual objects. These signals are sent to the superior colliculus through different parts of the substantia nigra so that the animal looks preferentially at high-valued objects, but in different manners. Thus, relying on short-term value memories, the caudate head circuit allows the subject's gaze to move expectantly to recently valued objects. Relying on long-term value memories, the caudate tail circuit allows the subject's gaze to move automatically to previously valued objects. The basal ganglia also contain an equivalent parallel mechanism for action values. Such flexible-stable parallel mechanisms for object and action values create a highly adaptable system for decision making.

  7. Basal Plane Affinity of an Insect Antifreeze Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertaya, N.; Gauthier, S. Y.; Davies, P. L.; Braslavsky, I.

    2007-03-01

    sbwAFP is a powerful antifreeze protein (AFP) with high thermal hysteresis activity that protects spruce budworm (sbw) from freezing during harsh winters in the spruce and fir forests of USA and Canada. Different types of antifreeze proteins have been found in many other species and have potential applications in cryomedicine and cryopreservation. When an ice crystal is cooled in the presence of AFP below the non-equilibrium freezing point the crystal will suddenly and rapidly grow in specific directions. Hyperactive antifreezes like sbwAFP expand perpendicular to the c-axis (in the plane of the a-axes), whereas moderately active AFPs, like type III from fish, grow in the direction parallel to the c-axis. It has been proposed that the basis for hyperactivity of certain AFPs is that they bind and accumulate on the basal plane to inhibit c-axial growth. By putting fluorescent tags on these two types of AFPs we have been able to directly visualize the binding of different types of AFPs to ice surfaces. We do indeed find that the insect AFP accumulates on the basal plane of an ice crystal while type III AFP does not. Supported by CIHR and BNTI.

  8. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  9. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    PubMed

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  10. RUNX2 controls human IPO8 basal transcription in Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianjun; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Ting; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Jianyun; Wu, Ping; Che, Xiangxin; Li, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) is a vital regulatory factor that controls osteoblast-specific gene expression; however, RUNX2‑regulated genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip analysis of RUNX2 in hMSCs demonstrated that importin 8 (IPO8) may be a novel target gene. The 5' flanking region of the IPO8 gene, which is ~3,300 bp in length, was cloned and inserted into the pGL3‑basic luciferase reporter vector. The results of dual luciferase reporter assays indicated that this segment possessed strong basal promoter activity. Furthermore, the RUNX2 binding site, which encompasses positions ‑496 to ‑501 bp, was required to achieve maximal IPO8 promoter activity in Saos‑2 human osteosarcoma cells. In addition, ChIP analysis indicated that RUNX2 uniquely binds to this specific IPO8 sequence motif. Cells with a knockdown in RUNX2 expression exhibited downregulated IPO8 transcription. Finally, synchronization of IPO8 and RUNX2 expression was observed in Saos‑2 cells cultured in osteoblast‑induction medium. Taken together, these results indicated that RUNX2 regulates IPO8 gene transcription, and may have a contributory role in osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation with a probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) on production performance, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in ISA brown laying hens.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Jeong, J S; Lee, S I; Kim, I H

    2016-12-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to resistance issues has urged scientists to find alternatives to antibiotics. Entercoccus faecium is one of the probiotics which have been used as an alternative to antibiotics in the livestock industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation on production performance, feed intake, egg quality, excreta microflora, ammonia emission, and nutrient utilization in laying hens. A total of 288 ISA brown laying hens were used in a 27 wk feeding experiment and randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The treatments were CON (basal diet), PB1 (basal diet + 0.005% E. faecium), and PB2 (basal diet + 0.01% E. faecium). Overall, our results demonstrated that E. faecium supplementation resulted in a significant increase in egg production, egg shell thickness, and nutrient digestibility (dry matter, nitrogen, and energy) in laying hens, and a significant reduction in fecal coliform counts as compared with CON. The shift of excreta fecal microbial composition by E. faecium supplementation was accompanied by increased nutrient retention and reduction in nutrient excretion, leading to improved nutrient digestibility and reduced excreta ammonia emission. Overall, E. faecium supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect in ISA brown laying hens and should be considered as a positive diet supplement to use in the industry.

  12. A ground-water inventory of the Waialua basal-water body, Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, Robert H.

    1978-01-01

    The Waialua basal-water body underlies an area of about 18 square miles on the north shore of the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The basal-water body is a body of fresh ground water that floats on saline ground water in a highly permeable and porous basaltic aquifer. Inflow to the basal-water body is from the deep infiltration of applied irrigation water and from leakage through a low permeability ground-water dam. Outflow from the basal-water body is from basal-water pumpage and leakage through low-permeability boundaries that separate the basal-water body from the ocean. The basal-water flux, computed as either the sum of the inflow terms or the sum of the outflow terms, is about the same value. The basal-water flux is 55 million gallons per day, (206,000 cubic meters per day), based on the sum of the outflow terms. The effective porosity was computed at 0.09 by a time-series analysis of the covariations in deep infiltration, pumpage, and basal-water head. The volume of basal water in storage is estimated to be 1.4 x 1011 gallons (5.4 x 108 cubic meters). Pumpage from the basal-water body can be increased. The most efficient development method is the skimming shaft. If shafts were used, an additional 15 million gallons per day could be pumped on a sustained basis.

  13. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

  14. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  15. Effects of Whey Powder Supplementation on Dry-Aged Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with whey powder (WP, 1g/kg feed) from weaning to slaughter (150 d) on dry-aged loin quality of pigs. Fifty-eight pigs were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (seven replications of four pigs per treatments). Basal diet with 0.1% whey powder was supplied to the WP group. Basal diet was used for the control group (CON). Diet whey protein did not appear to influence the moisture or protein contents. However, ash and fat contents were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the WP group compared to the control group. Drip loss was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the WP group than that of the control group. Increasing redness with decreasing lightness was found in the inner loin of the WP group. Calcium and iron contents in the WP group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Protein degradation was higher in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05), whereas shear force was lower in the WP group than that in the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% whey powder influence negatively the lipid oxidation of meat whereas the texture property and mineral composition of meat from whey powder fed pigs are developed. PMID:27433111

  16. A differential medium for the enumeration of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii in wine.

    PubMed

    Schuller, D; Côrte-Real, M; Leão, C

    2000-11-01

    A collection of yeasts, isolated mostly from spoiled wines, was used in order to develop a differential medium for Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The 118 selected strains of 21 species differed in their origin and resistance to preservatives and belonged to the genera Pichia, Torulaspora, Dekkera, Debaryomyces, Saccharomycodes, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Kloeckera, Lodderomyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces. The design of the culture medium was based on the different ability of the various yeast species to grow in a mineral medium with glucose and formic acid (mixed-substrate medium) as the only carbon and energy sources and supplemented with an acid-base indicator. By manipulating the concentration of the acid and the sugar it was possible to select conditions where only Z. bailii strains gave rise to alkalinization, associated with a color change of the medium (positive response). The final composition of the mixed medium was adjusted as a compromise between the percentage of recovery and selectivity for Z. bailii. This was accomplished by the use of pure or mixed cultures of the yeast strains and applying the membrane filtration methodology. The microbiological analysis of two samples of contaminated Vinho Verde showed that the new medium can be considered as a differential medium to distinguish Z. bailii from other contaminating yeasts, having potential application in the microbiological control of wines and probably other beverages and foods.

  17. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110δ promotes lumen formation through enhancement of apico-basal polarity and basal membrane organization

    PubMed Central

    Sar, Sokhavuth; Komaiha, Ola Hamze; Moyano, Romina; Rayal, Amel; Samuel, Didier; Shewan, Annette; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Mostov, Keith; Gassama-Diagne, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Signaling triggered by adhesion to the extracellular matrix plays a key role in the spatial orientation of epithelial polarity and formation of lumens in glandular tissues. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in particular is known to influence the polarization process during epithelial cell morphogenesis. Here, using Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells grown in 3D culture, we show that the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase colocalizes with focal adhesion proteins at the basal surface of polarized cells. Pharmacological, siRNA- or kinase-dead mediated inhibition of p110δ impair the early stages of lumen formation, resulting in inverted polarized cysts, with no laminin or type IV collagen assembly at cell/extracellular matrix contacts. p110δ also regulates the organization of focal adhesions and membrane localization of dystroglycan. Thus, we uncover a previously unrecognized role for p110δ in epithelial cells in the orientation of the apico-basal axis and lumen formation. PMID:25583025

  18. Medium modifications with recoil polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, J.F.J. van den; Ent, R.

    1994-04-01

    The authors show that the virtual Compton scattering process allows for a precise study of the off-shell electron-nucleon vertex. In a separable model, they show the sensitivity to new unconstrained structure functions of the nucleon, beyond the usual Dirac and Pauli form factors. In addition, they show the sensitivity to bound nucleon form factors using the reaction 4He({rvec e},e{prime},{rvec p}){sup 3}H. A nucleon embedded in a nucleus represents a complex system. Firstly, the bound nucleon is necessarily off-shell and in principle a complete understanding of the dynamical structure of the nucleon is required in order to calculate its off-shell electromagnetic interaction. Secondly, one faces the possibility of genuine medium effects, such as for example quark-exchange contributions. Furthermore, the electromagnetic coupling to the bound nucleon is dependent on the nuclear dynamics through the self-energy of the nucleon in the nuclear medium.

  19. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  20. A Novel Selective Medium for Isolation of Bacteroides fragilis from Clinical Specimens.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pak-Leung; Ho, Lok-Yan; Yau, Chong-Yee; Tong, Man-Ki; Chow, Kin-Hung

    2017-02-01

    A novel Bacteroides fragilis selective (BFS) medium, consisting of a brain heart infusion agar base supplemented with yeast extract, cysteine hydrochloride, bile salts, vitamin K, hemin, glucose, esculin, ferric ammonium citrate, bromothymol blue, gentamicin, kanamycin, and novobiocin, was evaluated. When BFS agar was tested with a collection of 303 bacteria of different genera, it allowed the growth of B. fragilis as large yellow colonies, with blackening of the medium after 48 h of anaerobic incubation, while the growth of most other anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, and aerobes was inhibited. In a prospective comparison of BFS agar with a routinely used medium (neomycin blood agar) in 1,209 clinical specimens, 60 B. fragilis bacteria were detected on BFS agar while 46 were detected on the routine agar (McNemar's test, P = 0.008). In conclusion, this novel medium may be added to improve the recovery of B. fragilis in clinical specimens and to facilitate surveillance of antimicrobial-resistant strains.

  1. Microalgae digestate effluent as a growth medium for Tetraselmis sp. in the production of biofuels.

    PubMed

    Erkelens, Mason; Ward, Andrew J; Ball, Andrew S; Lewis, David M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated an alternative nutrient source arising from anaerobically digested Tetraselmis sp. effluent (MDE) as a nutrient feed stock to form a closed loop nutrient system. To determine MDE suitability the following factors were observed: growth, lipid content, and the bacterial diversity. MDE was diluted according to the concentration of NH4(+) content (20, 40, 60, 80 mg/L) and compared against F/2 medium a standard medium for Tetraselmis sp. The growth rate on the MDE medium was not as rapid as the F/2 medium and the less diluted MDE correlated (R(2)) with lower total lipid contents (R(2), 0.927), additionally acyl carrier proteins (ACP) gene expression rates displayed lower gene expression within MDE treatments. Lastly, higher concentrations of MDE were correlated with a higher bacterial diversity throughout the investigation. The suitability of MDE as a nutrient supplement for the production of Tetraselmis sp. biomass and lipid is feasible.

  2. Effect of fat supplementation on leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin in cattle.

    PubMed

    Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; García-Tornadú, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil such that the diets were isocaloric; 18 cows received the fat-substituted diet and 18 a control diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 75 postpartum. In experiment 3, calcium salts of fatty acids were added to the basal diet of 14 feedlot steers for 80 d; another 14 steers received a control diet. The basal plasma levels of leptin were higher in the cows than in the steers. Dietary fat supplementation did not affect the leptin levels in the lactating cows but lowered the levels in the feedlot steers despite greater energy intake and body fatness (body weight) in the steers receiving the supplement than in those receiving the control diet. The levels of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin were decreased with dietary fat supplementation in the lactating cows but were unaffected in the steers, suggesting that responses to fat ingestion depend on the physiological state of the animal, including age and sex. Finally, no effects of supplementary fat on the level of growth hormone were demonstrated in any of the models.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118

  4. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A

    2001-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  5. Multivitamin supplementation and multiple births.

    PubMed

    Werler, M M; Cragan, J D; Wasserman, C R; Shaw, G M; Erickson, J D; Mitchell, A A

    1997-07-11

    It is well established that maternal multivitamin supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and evidence suggests that it may be associated with other reproductive outcomes. The present study was prompted by a report from a randomized trial in Hungary which showed a 40% increase in multiple births among periconceptional vitamin users. Retrospectively collected data on multivitamin supplementation were obtained on multiple and singleton births from three separate studies: Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study (ABDCCS) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1968-1980, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1987-1989, and Boston University Slone Epidemiology Unit Birth Defects Study (SEU-BDS) malformed infants born 1987-1994. Supplementation was divided into three mutually exclusive categories based on timing: "periconceptional" use--before through at least the third month after conception; "early" use--beginning in the first month and continuing through at least the third month after conception; and "later" use--beginning in the second or third month after conception. For periconceptional use, four of five datasets showed a 30 to 60% greater prevalence of supplementation among mothers of multiple births. In contrast, this pattern was not evident for "early" and "later" use. Overall, the study findings are tentative, due to a lack of consistency across all five datasets and they should not alter recent recommendations related to folate supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects.

  6. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A

    2000-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  7. Development of an animal-component free medium for vero cells culture.

    PubMed

    Rourou, Samia; van der Ark, Arno; van der Velden, Tiny; Kallel, Héla

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the development of an animal-component free medium (IPT-AFM) that allows an optimal growth of Vero cells, an adherent cell line used for the production of viral vaccines. Statistical experimental design was applied to identify crucial nutrients that affect cell growth. Using Medium 199 or MEM as a basal medium, a serum-free medium (SFM) referred as IPT-SFM that only enclosed transferrin as a component of animal origin was developed at first. Then, the composition of IPT-SFM was further improved to obtain an animal-component free medium named IPT-AFM. IPT-AFM contains M199 as a basal medium, plant hydrolysates, epidermal growth factor, ethanolamine, ferric citrate, and vitamin C. Among various plant hydrolysates, specific combinations of soy (Hypep 1510) and wheat gluten (Hypeps 4601 and 4605) hydrolysates, were identified to promote cell growth; whereas individual Hypeps had a minor positive effect on cell growth. Nevertheless, the removal of serum did influence cell attachment. Coating tissue-culture flasks with teleostean, a product extracted from cold water fish skin, had not only enhanced cell attachment but also improved cell growth performance in static cultures. Different non-animal proteases were also assessed as an alternative to trypsin. TrypLE Select, a recombinant trypsin, gave the best cell growth performances. Kinetics of cell growth in IPT-AFM were investigated in T-flasks, cell growth was comparable with that obtained in MEM+10% fetal calf serum (FCS). A mean cell division number equal to 2.26 +/- 0.18 and a specific growth rate micro 0.019 +/- 0.003 h(-1) were achieved in IPT-AFM.

  8. Rem2, a member of the RGK family of small GTPases, is enriched in nuclei of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Liput, Daniel J.; Lu, Van B.; Davis, Margaret I.; Puhl, Henry L.; Ikeda, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Rem2 is a member of the RGK subfamily of RAS small GTPases. Rem2 inhibits high voltage activated calcium channels, is involved in synaptogenesis, and regulates dendritic morphology. Rem2 is the primary RGK protein expressed in the nervous system, but to date, the precise expression patterns of this protein are unknown. In this study, we characterized Rem2 expression in the mouse nervous system. In the CNS, Rem2 mRNA was detected in all regions examined, but was enriched in the striatum. An antibody specific for Rem2 was validated using a Rem2 knockout mouse model and used to show abundant expression in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons but not in several interneuron populations. In the PNS, Rem2 was abundant in a subpopulation of neurons in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, but was absent in sympathetic neurons of superior cervical ganglia. Under basal conditions, Rem2 was subject to post-translational phosphorylation, likely at multiple residues. Further, Rem2 mRNA and protein expression peaked at postnatal week two, which corresponds to the period of robust neuronal maturation in rodents. This study will be useful for elucidating the functions of Rem2 in basal ganglia physiology. PMID:27118437

  9. Temperature-induced elevation of basal metabolic rate does not affect testis growth in great tits.

    PubMed

    Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-07-01

    The timing of reproduction varies from year to year in many bird species. To adjust their timing to the prevailing conditions of that year, birds use cues from their environment. However, the relative importance of these cues, such as the initial predictive (e.g. photoperiod) and the supplemental factors (e.g. temperature), on the seasonal sexual development are difficult to distinguish. In particular, the fine-tuning effect of temperature on gonadal growth is not well known. One way temperature may affect timing is via its strong effect on energy expenditure as gonadal growth is an energy-demanding process. To study the interaction of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal development, we first exposed 35 individually housed male great tits (Parus major) to mid-long days (after 6 weeks of 8 h L:16 h D at 15 degrees C, photoperiod was set to 13 h L:11 h D at 15 degrees C). Two weeks later, for half of the males the temperature was set to 8 degrees C, and for the other half to 22 degrees C. Unilateral laparotomies were performed at weeks 5 (i.e one week before the birds were transferred to mid-long days), 8 and 11 to measure testis size. Two measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were performed at the end of the experiment (weeks 11 and 12). Testis size increased significantly during the course of the experiment, but independently of the temperature treatment. BMR was significantly higher in birds exposed to the cold treatment. These results show that temperature-related elevation of BMR did not impair the long-day-induced testis growth in great tits. As a consequence, temperature may not be a crucial cue and/or constraint factor in the fine-tuning of the gonadal recrudescence in male great tits, and testis growth is not a high energy-demanding seasonal process.

  10. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Groves B.; Bay, Line K.; Matz, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  11. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  12. A basal dromaeosaurid and size evolution preceding avian flight.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alan H; Pol, Diego; Clarke, Julia A; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A

    2007-09-07

    Fossil evidence for changes in dinosaurs near the lineage leading to birds and the origin of flight has been sparse. A dinosaur from Mongolia represents the basal divergence within Dromaeosauridae. The taxon's small body size and phylogenetic position imply that extreme miniaturization was ancestral for Paraves (the clade including Avialae, Troodontidae, and Dromaeosauridae), phylogenetically earlier than where flight evolution is strongly inferred. In contrast to the sustained small body sizes among avialans throughout the Cretaceous Period, the two dinosaurian lineages most closely related to birds, dromaeosaurids and troodontids, underwent four independent events of gigantism, and in some lineages size increased by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, change in theropod body size leading to flight's origin was not unidirectional.

  13. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  14. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  15. Management of periorbital basal cell carcinoma with orbital invasion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Michelle T; Wu, Albert; Figueira, Edwin; Huilgol, Shyamala; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common eyelid malignancy; however, orbital invasion by periocular BCC is rare, and management remains challenging. Established risk factors for orbital invasion by BCC include male gender, advanced age, medial canthal location, previous recurrences, large tumor size, aggressive histologic subtype and perineural invasion. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach with orbital exenteration remaining the treatment of choice. Globe-sparing treatment may be appropriate in selected patients and radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvant therapies for advanced or inoperable cases, although the evidence remains limited. We aim to summarize the presentation and treatment of BCC with orbital invasion to better guide the management of this complex condition.

  16. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  17. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  18. Dermatocosmetologic aspects of treatment of basal-cell skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geinitz, A. V.; Stranadko, Ye. F.; Yusupova, Zh. M.; Tkachenko, S. B.

    2005-08-01

    The obtained clinical findings demonstrate excellent results after surgical MSC treatment with the application of modem laser surgical technologies. All the operated patients were under oncologist"s control during 1.5-2.5 years. In 6 cases we observed topical recurrences which needed a repeated intervention. Thus, our experience of applying LPh for surgical treatment of basal-cell carcinomas of the head and neck dem- onstrate that in the analysed cases it is more reasonable to use two models of laser devices different in their physical parameters. These devices are used at different surgical stages so as to provide a precise effect in laser tumour va- porization within the borders of the healthy tissue, to make better vascular coagulation and laser smoothing of wound surface. Immediate, direct and long-term results of modern surgical lasers" application for treating skin BSC almost in all cases give good and excellent cosmetic effect after such intenventions.

  19. Vismodegib: the Proof of Concept in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Berrada, Narjiss; Lkhoyali, Siham; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer worldwide, its metastatic dissemination is exceptional. Before 2012, we had a few treatment options available for metastatic or locally advanced cases. Management of these patients was complicated due to the lack of scientific data, the deterioration of a patient’s general status, the patient’s advanced age, and the presence of multiple comorbidities. The hedgehog signaling pathway is dysregulated in BCC. The exploration of this signaling pathway yielded to a major milestone in the treatment of advanced BCC. Vismodegib (GDC-0449), an oral small-molecule agent that targets the Hedgehog signaling pathway, demonstrates high levels of activity in clinical trials. It was approved in January 2012 for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic BCC. Vismodegib confirms, once again, the interest in exploring the signal transduction pathways in cancers. PMID:24932107

  20. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on Salmonella colonization in the ceca of young broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Fasina, Y O; Bowers, J B; Hess, J B; McKee, S R

    2010-05-01

    Live poultry is an important vehicle for transmitting Salmonella Typhimurium to humans that have salmonellosis. It is therefore imperative to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium levels in the gastrointestinal tract of live chickens. Glutamine is an established immunonutrient that is capable of alleviating disease conditions in humans and rats. Thus, 2 experiments that used Ross broiler chicks were conducted to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation at 1% level of the diet on cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in young broiler chicks. Experiment 1 consisted of i) treatment 1 (control, CN), in which chicks were given an unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet without glutamine supplementation or Salmonella Typhimurium challenge; ii) treatment 2 (CST), in which chicks were given the same diet as CN but challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL at 3 d of age; and iii) treatment 3 (GST), in which chicks were given the unmedicated corn-soybean meal basal starter diet supplemented with glutamine at 1% level, and challenged with 3.6 x 10(6) cfu at 3 d of age. Experiment 2 used similar treatments (CN, CST, and GST), except that chicks in CST and GST were challenged with 7.4 x 10(7) cfu Salmonella Typhimurium/mL, and a fourth treatment was added. The fourth treatment consisted of chicks that were not challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium but given the same diet as in GST. Duration of each experiment was 14 d. Growth performance of chicks was monitored weekly, and cecal Salmonella Typhimurium concentration was microbiologically enumerated on d 4, 10, or 11 postchallenge. Results showed that glutamine supplementation improved BW and BW gain in experiment 2 (P < 0.05) but did not reduce cecal Salmonella Typhimurium levels in either experiment (P > 0.05). The optimum supplemental level of glutamine that will enhance intestinal resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium colonization should be determined.

  1. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta.

    PubMed

    Cotrufo, M; De Santo, L; Della Corte, A; Di Meglio, F; Guerra, G; Quarto, C; Vitale, S; Castaldo, C; Montagnani, S

    2005-01-01

    Basal lamina (BL) is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation. We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens. We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study. We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin alpha2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type IV is more

  2. Auditory Cortex Basal Activity Modulates Cochlear Responses in Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    León, Alex; Elgueda, Diego; Silva, María A.; Hamamé, Carlos M.; Delano, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. Methodology/Principal Findings Cochlear microphonics (CM), auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP) and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP) were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments) and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments). We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. Conclusions/Significance These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the obtained effects

  3. The Nervous Systems of Basally Branching Nemertea (Palaeonemertea)

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks. PMID:23785478

  4. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    PubMed

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  5. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Somfai, Tamas; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non-stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the holding medium with dithiothreitol (DTT) at any concentrations did not improve embryo development from stored oocytes. Although supplementation with cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly reduced apoptosis and membrane damage rates during storage, it did not improve the developmental competence of oocytes. 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis-acetoxymethyl ester and ruthenium red had no effect on oocyte apoptotic rates. Blastocyst formation rates in all stored groups remained significantly lower than that of the control. In conclusion, pyruvate and serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence.

  6. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non‐stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the holding medium with dithiothreitol (DTT) at any concentrations did not improve embryo development from stored oocytes. Although supplementation with cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly reduced apoptosis and membrane damage rates during storage, it did not improve the developmental competence of oocytes. 1,2‐bis(2‐aminophenoxy) ethane N,N,N’,N’‐tetraacetic acid tetrakis‐acetoxymethyl ester and ruthenium red had no effect on oocyte apoptotic rates. Blastocyst formation rates in all stored groups remained significantly lower than that of the control. In conclusion, pyruvate and serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence. PMID:27169667

  7. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Blood Meal and Additional Magnesium on Carnosine and Anserine Concentrations of Pig Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of blood meal as a source of L-histidine, and the addition of magnesium (Mg) as a catalyst of carnosine synthetase for the carnosine and anserine concentrations of pig muscles (longissimus dorsi, LD and vastus intermedius, VI). A total of twenty-four pigs with an average body weight of 60.2±4.2 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (eight replicates), during 56 d of the feeding trial. Dietary treatments included: (1) Basal: basal diet; (2) BM: 95% basal diet + 5% blood meal; and (3) BM+Mg: 94.8% basal diet + 5% blood meal + 0.2% MgO (60% Mg). Results indicated that drip loss in the LD was less (p<0.05) for meat with BM+Mg treatment than that with Basal treatment, but the values for BM treatment did not differ from those of the other two treatment groups. The concentrations of carnosine in the LD were increased by 10.0% in both BM and BM+Mg treatment groups over the Basal treatment group (significance not verified). The concentrations of carnosine and anserine in the VI were not affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of additional Mg in diets had no effect on carnosine and anserine concentrations in the LD and VI. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of blood meal could be a potential method of fortifying the pork with carnosine. Inclusion of additional Mg in the diets containing blood meal had no benefit on carnosine and anserine depositions in pig muscles. PMID:26760946

  8. Effects of copper and molybdenum supplements on the copper and selenium status of pregnant ewes and lambs.

    PubMed

    White, C L; Caldwalader, T K; Hoekstra, W G; Pope, A L

    1989-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether Cu, alone or in combination with Mo, reduces the Se status of sheep. Thirty-six Hampshire ewes were separated prior to mating into four treatment groups of nine sheep each. The four groups consisted of 1) basal (alfalfa hay or legume-grass low-moisture silage, corn, oats), 2) basal plus 10 mg Cu/kg diet, 3) basal plus 10 mg Mo/kg and 4) basal plus Cu and Mo (each 10 mg/kg). Copper and Mo were added to both ewe and lamb diets. Treatments continued until lambs were weaned at 10 wk postpartum. The basal ewe diet contained, in mg/kg, 5.6 Cu, .05 Se and 1.0 Mo. The basal lamb diet contained, in mg/kg, 6.1 Cu, .07 Se and less than 1.0 Mo. Sulfur concentrations in the ewe and lamb diets were .24% and .20%, respectively. Copper supplements increased, and Mo supplements decreased, the concentration of Cu in the livers of ewes and lambs (P less than .05). Despite this, there were no effects of treatment on Se concentration or glutathione peroxidase activity in blood or tissues. Selenium levels in plasma of all ewes declined throughout pregnancy and lactation, indicating that .05 mg/kg Se was insufficient for the maintenance of Se status during pregnancy in Hampshire ewes. Copper and Se levels (mg/kg fresh weight) in the liver of lambs at weaning for Treatments 1 through 4 were 48 and .13, 158 and .10, 11 and .11, and 136 and .13, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  10. Polyamines regulate cell growth and cellular methylglyoxal in high-glucose medium independently of intracellular glutathione.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Lee, Mun-Hyoung; Park, Seong-Jun; Shin, Sang-Min; Liu, Rui; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines can presumably inhibit protein glycation, when associated with the methylglyoxal inevitably produced during glycolysis. Herein, we hypothesized a nonenzymatic interaction between putrescine and methylglyoxal in putrescine-deficient or -overexpressing Dictyostelium cells in high-glucose medium, which can control methylglyoxal production. Putrescine was essentially required for growth rescue accompanying methylglyoxal detoxification when cells underwent growth defect and cell cycle G1-arrest when supplemented with high glucose. Furthermore, methylglyoxal regulation by putrescine seemed to be a parallel pathway independent of the changes in cellular glutathione content in high-glucose medium. Consequently, we suggest that Dictyostelium cells need polyamines for normal growth and cellular methylglyoxal regulation.

  11. A selective medium for recovery and enumeration of endolithic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Kaushik; Joshi, S R

    2016-10-01

    The study of lithic microbial communities, inhabiting rock substrates has been gathering momentum due to a growing attention of their wide importance as model systems in ecological studies and for their community structure. It is generally accepted that the success of cultivation-based technique is primarily based on suitable culture medium for isolation. The media available for enumeration and recovery of endolithic bacteria are mainly specific to particular type of rock which may not be suitable to isolate endolithic bacterial community from diverse lithobiontic niches. In this study, a new unoptimized medium was formulated, designated LM10 (unoptimized) for enumeration and recovery of endolithic bacteria by addition and/or omission of media components to the basal medium R2G, which was selected after experimental evaluation of five different existing media. The endolithic bacterial count in LM10 medium (unoptimized) was significantly higher than the R2G medium (t=-12.57, p<0.0001). The culture and nutritional parameters associated with unoptimized LM10 medium were optimized using statistical approach to maximize the recovery and enumeration of endolithic bacteria. The first phase of the study comprised of a Plackett-Burman (PB) design experiment conducted to screen thirteen medium components and two culture parameters as variables with effect on bacterial enumeration and recovery. Out of these, Yeast extract, Casein hydrolysate, Glucose, Starch and Sodium thiosulphate were found to be significantly affecting the bacterial count (p<0.05) based on PB design. On keeping rest of the media components and culture conditions at fixed value as per the PB design analyses (p>0.05 and coefficients), further optimization was carried out for significant factors using Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM). Optimized media components obtained by BBD were Yeast extract, Casein hydrolysate, Glucose and Starch in 0.05g/l each and Sodium thiosulphate in 0

  12. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  13. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p < .001). AIS swimmers were more likely to report dietitians (p < .001) and sports physicians (p = .017) as advisors of their supplement use. Other swimmers more frequently reported fellow athletes as a source of supplement advice (p = .03). AIS swimmers sourced a greater percentage of their supplements from an organized program (94 ± 16%) compared with Other (40 ± 32%; p < .001) who sourced a greater percentage (30 ± 30%) of their dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program.

  14. Synthesis of medium chain length fatty acid ethyl esters in engineered Escherichia coli using endogenously produced medium chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liping; Liu, Junfeng; Nie, Kaili; Liu, Luo; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2013-07-10

    Microbial biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived biofuels from renewable carbon sources has attracted significant attention in recent years. Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of micro-diesel. The expression of codon optimized two plants (Umbellularia californica and Cinnamomum camphora) medium-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase genes (ucFatB and ccFatB) in Escherichia coli resulted in a very high level of extractable medium-chain-specific hydrolytic activity and caused large accumulation of medium-chain free fatty acids. By heterologous co-expression of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, specific plant thioesterases in E. coli, with supplementation of exogenous ethanol, resulted in drastic changes in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) composition ranging from 12:0 to 18:1. Through an optimized microbial shake-flask fermentation of two modified E. coli strains, yielded FFAs and FAEEs in the concentration of approximately 500 mg L(-1)/250 mg L(-1) and 2.01 mg g(-1)/1.99 mg g(-1), respectively. The optimal ethanol level for FAEEs yield in the two recombinant strains was reached at the 3% ethanol concentration, which was about 5.4-fold and 1.93-fold higher than that of 1% ethanol concentration.

  15. Carcass and beef color characteristics of three biological types of cattle grazing cool-season forages supplemented with soyhulls.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Brown, A H; Pohlman, F W; Johnson, Z B; Onks, D O; Loveday, H D; Morrow, R E; Sandelin, B A; Coblentz, W K; Richards, C J; Pugh, R B

    2004-10-01

    Soyhull supplementation to divergent biological types of cattle on forage-based systems was studied to determine the impact on carcass and color characteristics. Weaned calves (n=107) biologically classified as large-, medium-, or small-framed and intermediate rate of maturing were allocated to three cool-season grazing systems consisting of either orchardgrass pasture or fescue pasture, each with soyhull supplementation, or fescue pasture with no supplementation as a control. Supplementing cattle with soyhulls allowed for heavier (P<0.05) live and carcass weights, larger (P<0.05) longissimus muscle area, increased (P<0.05) backfat, kidney, pelvic and heart fat (KPH), and yield grades, and improved (P<0.05) marbling scores and quality grades. Utilizing cattle biologically classified as large- or medium-framed allowed for heavier (P<0.05) carcass weights without reducing (P<0.05) marbling scores or quality grades when compared to small-framed cattle. Instrumental color analysis of lean and adipose tissue revealed improved (P<0.05) lightness (L (∗)) in lean color for supplemented carcasses as compared to the control. There were no differences (P<0.05) between dietary treatments for L (∗), a (∗) or b (∗) values of adipose tissue. These results indicate that supplementing forage-grazing cattle with soyhulls can improve carcass merit, and utilizing large- or medium-framed cattle can allow for increased carcass weights without decreasing carcass quality.

  16. Effective vitrification and warming of porcine embryos using a pH-stable, chemically defined medium

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Cristina; Martinez, Cristina A.; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A.; Martinez, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of pH-stable media would simplify embryo vitrification and the warming of porcine embryos and might facilitate the application of embryo transfer in practice. In this work, we investigated whether a pH-stable basal medium constituted of Tyrode’s lactate medium, polyvinyl alcohol, and HEPES for buffering was suitable for porcine embryo vitrification warming in place of the conventional gas-equilibrated media. A high percentage (>90%) of embryos survived vitrification and warming in this medium, achieving in vitro survival rates similar to embryos vitrified-warmed using the conventional protocol and their fresh counterparts. The pH-stable medium did not affect the in vivo developmental competence of the vitrified-warmed embryos. A farrowing rate of 71.4% (5/7) with 10.4 ± 3.1 piglets born was obtained for the embryos vitrified and warmed in this medium and transferred to selected recipients. This medium will enable the use of simple, safe and standardized protocols for the vitrification and warming of porcine embryos for optimal embryo survival and quality when applied under field conditions. This study opens new possibilities for the widespread use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:27666294

  17. Design of serum-free medium for suspension culture of CHO cells on the basis of general commercial media.

    PubMed

    Miki, Hideo; Takagi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    The design of serum-free media for suspension culture of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using general commercial media as a basis was investigated. Subcultivation using a commercial serum-free medium containing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 with or without FCS necessitated additives other than IGF-1 to compensate for the lack of FCS and improve cell growth. Suspension culture with media containing several combinations of growth factors suggested the effectiveness of addition of both IGF-1 and the lipid signaling molecule lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) for promoting cell growth. Subcultivation of CHO cells in suspension culture using the commercial serum-free medium EX-CELL™302, which contained an IGF-1 analog, supplemented with LPA resulted in gradually increasing specific growth rate comparable to the serum-containing medium and in almost the same high antibody production regardless of the number of generations. The culture with EX-CELL™302 supplemented with LPA in a jar fermentor with pH control at 6.9 showed an apparently higher cell growth rate than the cultures without pH control and with pH control at 6.8. The cell growth in the medium supplemented with aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), which was much cheaper than IGF-1, in combination with LPA was synergistically promoted similarly to that in the medium supplemented with IGF-1 and LPA. In conclusion, the serum-free medium designed on the basis of general commercial media could support the growth of CHO cells and antibody production comparable to serum-containing medium in suspension culture. Moreover, the possibility of cost reduction by the substitution of IGF-1 with ATA was also shown.

  18. Effect of dietary boron supplementation on egg production, shell quality, and calcium metabolism in aged broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Klandorf, H

    1991-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted using aged broiler breeder hens (greater than 60 wk) to investigate the effects of supplemental B on egg production (EP), shell quality, and Ca metabolism. Experiment 1 had a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) high Ca (3.5%); 2) high Ca plus B; 3) low Ca (1.5%); and 4) low Ca plus B; using 32 60-wk-old hens. The B levels were basal and 100 ppm supplemental for the first 2 wk of the experiment and reduced to 60 ppm for the remaining 3 wk. Egg production, shell thickness (ST), and egg specific gravity (SG) were recorded weekly. In Experiment 2, 40 60-wk-old hens were divided into two groups: high and low shell quality. Each group was further divided into two subgroups and fed a low-Ca basal diet with or without supplemental B. The level of B supplementation and the experimental period was the same as in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, 52 75-wk-old hens were force-molted. After molting, 36 hens were fed a commercial layer diet with the remaining 16 hens fed the control diet supplemented with 100 ppm B. Blood samples were taken during the nonlaying and laying periods, respectively. The results showed that B significantly (P less than .05) depressed EP in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Supplemental B decreased plasma Ca when hens were fed a diet containing high Ca levels (3.5%). Supplemental B did not affect SG, ST, or Ca retention, but did significantly increase tibial bone ash percentage (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Metal accumulating plants: Medium's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabier, J.; Prudent, P.; Szymanska, B.; Mevy, J.-P.

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate phytoremediation potentialities by metal accumulation in tolerant plants, trials are carried out using in vitro cultures. Organie compounds influence on metal accumulation is studied with metals supplemented media. The tested compounds on zinc and lead absorption by Brassica juncea, are chelating agents (EDTA, citric acid) and soluble organic fractions of compost. EDTA seems to enhance the transfer of lead in plant but it is the opposite in the case of zinc. Citric acid stimulates root absorption for both zinc and lead. For the aqueous extracts of compost, variable effects are obtained according to the origin of compost (green wastes and food wastes). In'all tested conditions of cultures, zinc is mainly exported towards shoot while lead is stored in root.

  20. Dietary supplement with vitamin C prevents nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Bassenge, E; Fink, N; Skatchkov, M; Fink, B

    1998-01-01

    Enhanced formation of superoxide radicals has been proposed to play a major role in the development of nitrate tolerance in humans. We tested the effects of vitamin C (Vit-C) supplementation on glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced hemodynamic effects during 3-d nonintermittent transdermal administration of GTN (0.4 mg/h) in nine healthy subjects. Tolerance development was monitored by changes in arterial pressure, dicrotic digital pulse pressure, and heart rate. Studies with GTN, Vit-C, or GTN/Vit-C were successively carried out at random in three different series in the same subjects. GTN treatment caused an immediate rise in arterial conductivity (a/b ratio of dicrotic pulse), but within 2 d of initiating GTN, the a/b ratio progressively decreased and reached basal levels. In addition, there was a progressive loss of the orthostatic decrease in blood pressure. However, coadministration of Vit-C and GTN fully maintained the GTN-induced changes in the orthostatic blood pressure, and the rise of a/b ratio was augmented by 310% for the duration of the test period. Changes in vascular tolerance in GTN-treated subjects were paralleled by upregulation of the activity of isolated platelets, which was also reversed by Vit-C administration. These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with Vit-C eliminates vascular tolerance and concomitant upregulation of ex vivo-washed platelet activity during long-term nonintermittent administration of GTN in humans. PMID:9649558

  1. Quantifying the food sources of basal vitamin d input.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Sharon L; French, Christine B; Heaney, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous synthesis and traditional food sources do not fully account for unsupplemented vitamin D status. Non-traditional food sources may be an undiscovered input. In a cohort of 780 non-supplement-taking adults with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] of 33 (±14)ng/ml we assessed the relationship between vitamin D status and selected food sources. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was adjusted for season, UVB exposures, and body size. These adjusted values were then regressed against multiple food items and combinations. Whole milk cottage cheese, eggs, red meat, and total protein were positively associated with total 25(OH)D and/or 25(OH)D3 (P<0.05 for each), whereas fish and milk intake were not. The slope of the relationship was such that for every intake of 1serving/day, serum 25(OH)D rose by about 2ng/ml for eggs and 1ng/ml for meat and total protein. For every weekly serving of whole milk cottage cheese, serum 25(OH)D rose by about 1ng/ml. While some food sources were significant predictors of vitamin D status, their ability to explain inter-individual variability was limited. Supplementation will likely remain essential to improving vitamin D status on a population level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  2. Effects of tomato pomace supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality of fattening rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Gai, F; Rotolo, L; Brugiapaglia, A; Gasco, L

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how a feeding plan characterized by different levels of tomato pomace (TP) supplementation influences the carcass characteristics, the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of rabbit meat. 144 weaned crossbred rabbits were divided into three groups of 48 each. The first group was fed a basal diet without TP, while the other two groups were fed the basal diet after replacing part of the diet with TP at 3% and 6%, respectively. There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of live and carcass weights. The meat of rabbits fed on a 6% TP diet exhibited higher yellowness (b*) and Chroma values when compared to others. The saturated fatty acid content in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat decreased significantly with increasing TP inclusion, while polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Furthermore, our results indicate that a diet integrated with 6% TP could influence positively the overall preference of cooked meat.

  3. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Methods Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. Results IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. Conclusion FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required

  4. Cryopreservation for bovine embryos in serum-free freezing medium containing silk protein sericin.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiro; Ikebata, Yoshihisa; Onitsuka, Takeshi; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Sato, Yoko; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Otoi, Takeshige

    2013-10-01

    Because the use of serum in the embryo cryopreservation increases the probability of animal health problems such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and viral infections, this study was conducted to examine the effects of sericin supplementation for serum-free freezing medium on the survival and development of bovine embryos after freezing-thawing and direct transfer to recipients. When in vitro-produced bovine embryos were frozen conventionally in the freezing medium supplemented with various concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) of sericin, the percentages of damaged zona pellucida, survival, and development of frozen-thawed embryos were similar to those of embryos frozen in freezing medium supplemented with 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (0.4BSA/20F; control). When in vivo-derived embryos were frozen with 0.4BSA/20F (control), 0.5% sericin +20% FBS (0.5S/20F) or 0.5% sericin (0.5S) and were subsequently transferred directly to recipients, the percentages of recipients with pregnancy and normal calving in the 0.5S/20F group were higher than those in the control group (47.3% vs. 40.1% and 94.6% vs. 87.3%, respectively). Moreover, the percentages of recipients with pregnancy and normal calving (42.2% and 92.4%, respectively) in the 0.5S group were similar with those of other groups. In conclusion, these results indicate that serum-free freezing medium supplemented with sericin is available for the cryopreservation of bovine embryos and that it is beneficial for the elimination of a potential source of biological contamination by serum or BSA.

  5. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-09-27

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results.

  6. Medium Effects in Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Huey-Wen Lin

    2011-12-01

    A defining experiment of high-energy physics in the 1980s was that of the EMC collaboration where it was first observed that parton distributions in nuclei are non-trivially related to those in the proton. This result implies that the presence of the nuclear medium plays an important role and an understanding of this from QCD has been an important goal ever since Here we investigate analogous, but technically simpler, effects in QCD and examine how the lowest moment of the pion parton distribution is modified by the presence of a Bose-condensed gas of pions or kaons.

  7. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Khachaturian, Zaven; Sorensen, Greg; Kuller, Lew; Raichle, Marc; Paul, Steven; Davies, Peter; Fillit, Howard; Hefti, Franz; Holtzman, Davie; Mesulam, M Marcel; Potter, William; Snyder, Peter; Schwartz, Adam; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Faber, Kelley; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Thal, Leon; Buckholtz, Neil; Albert, Marylyn; Frank, Richard; Hsiao, John; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D'Agostino, Daniel; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, AnnMarie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristine; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Finger, Elizabether; Pasternak, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Drost, Dick; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Smith, Karen Elizabeth; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Raudin, Lisa; Smith, Amanda; Fargher, Kristin; Raj, Balebail Ashok; Neylan, Thomas; Grafman, Jordan; Davis, Melissa; Morrison, Rosemary; Hayes, Jacqueline; Finley, Shannon; Friedl, Karl; Fleischman, Debra; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Olga; Massoglia, Dino; Fruehling, J. Jay; Harding, Sandra; Peskind, Elaine R.; Petrie, Eric C.; Li, Gail; Yesavage, Jerome A.; Taylor, Joy L.; Furst, Ansgar J.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received negligible support. We then integrated volumetric measures with an amyloid biomarker sensitive to pre-symptomatic AD pathology. Comparison between cognitively matched normal adult subgroups, delineated according to the amyloid biomarker, revealed abnormal degeneration in basal forebrain, but not entorhinal cortex. Abnormal degeneration in both basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex was only observed among prodromal (mildly amnestic) individuals. We provide evidence that basal forebrain pathology precedes and predicts both entorhinal pathology and memory impairment, challenging the widely held belief that AD has a cortical origin. PMID:27811848

  8. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue < 0.021) and Huang et al. (Pvalue ≤ 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate. PMID:25436144

  9. Body composition and Basal metabolic rate in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (P value < 0.021) and Huang et al. (P value ≤ 0.005) equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al's. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  10. Comparison of mupirocin-based media for selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in probiotic supplements.

    PubMed

    Bunesova, Vera; Musilova, Sarka; Geigerova, Martina; Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-02-01

    An international standard already exists for the selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in milk products. This standard uses Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS) propionate agar supplemented with mupirocin. However, no such standard method has been described for the selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in probiotic supplements, where the presence of bifidobacteria is much more variable than in milk products. Therefore, we enumerated bifidobacteria by colony count technique in 13 probiotic supplements using three media supplemented with mupirocin (Mup; 100mg/l): TOS, Bifidobacteria selective medium (BSM) and modified Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe agar with soya peptone (WSP). Moreover, the potential growth of bifidobacterial strains often used in probiotic products was performed in these media. All 13 products contained members of the genus Bifidobacterium, and tested mupirocin media were found to be fully selective for bifidobacteria. However, the type strain Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456 and collection strain B. bifidum DSM 20239 showed statistically significant lower counts on TOS Mup media, compared to BSM Mup and WSP Mup media. Therefore, the TOS Mup medium recommended by the ISO standard cannot be regarded as a fully selective and suitable medium for the genus Bifidobacterium. In contrast, the BSM Mup and WSP Mup media supported the growth of all bifidobacterial species.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple - an unusual location in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Avci, Oktay; Pabuççuoğlu, Uğur; Koçdor, M Ali; Unlü, Mehtat; Akin, Ciler; Soyal, Cüneyt; Canda, Tülay

    2008-02-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is extremely common, it only rarely occurs on the nipple. Men are affected more often than women. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple-areola complex may be more aggressive as metastases to regional lymph nodes have been reported. We report a basal cell carcinoma of the nipple with features of a fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in a man and review the literature.

  12. [Basal-cell nevomatosis associated with multifocal fetal rhabdomyoma. A case].

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Caillaud, J M; Micheau, C; Flamant, F; Schwaab, G; Avril, M F; Ponzio-Prion, A

    1988-11-26

    Nevoid basal-cell carcinoma is a hereditary syndrome. Its major features are a multiple basal-cell carcinoma which appears early in childhood, skeletal and genital abnormalities and ectopic calcifications. It may be associated with malignant schwannoma, medulloblastoma and lymphoma. We report one case of nevoid basal-cell carcinoma syndrome associated with foetal rhabdomyoma, thyroid gland polyadenoma and benign schwannoma. The first case of foetal rhabdomyoma associated with this syndrome was described in 1976.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotic on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Z; Firouzbakhsh, F; Jafarpour, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a synbiotic (Biomin IMBO) on serum parameters and feeding efficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. The fish with initial average weight of 4.59 ± 0.2 g were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments for two months. The dietary treatment (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg of diet) was supplemented with basal diet and non-supplemented basal diet was used as control. After two months, all treatments supplemented with synbiotic showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in final mean weight, weight gain percentage, specific growth rate, condition factor, food conversion efficiency and survival rate, compared to the control group. Among all supplemented treatments, the best result in terms of growth factors and survival was observed in the treatment supplemented with 1 g synbiotic per kilogram of diet. Furthermore, supplementation with symbiotic, specifically 1 and 1.5 g/kg, significantly (p < 0.05) increased the total serum protein, but there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in globulin content, albumin/globulin ratio, and triglyceride content among experimental treatments. In terms of body composition, carcass protein content of fish fed with synbiotic significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to the control. These results revealed that a feeding regime with synbiotic for two months led to a significant increase in growth performance, survival rate and feeding efficiency in rainbow trout fingerlings.

  14. Intestinal development and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Zhou, Y M; Wu, Y N; Wang, T

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  15. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity. PMID:25049877

  16. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: SIX YEARS OF DIRECT SAMPLING BY IBEX

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Schwadron, N. A. E-mail: sfuselier@swri.edu; and others

    2015-10-15

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been directly observing neutral atoms from the local interstellar medium for the last six years (2009–2014). This paper ties together the 14 studies in this Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series Special Issue, which collectively describe the IBEX interstellar neutral results from this epoch and provide a number of other relevant theoretical and observational results. Interstellar neutrals interact with each other and with the ionized portion of the interstellar population in the “pristine” interstellar medium ahead of the heliosphere. Then, in the heliosphere's close vicinity, the interstellar medium begins to interact with escaping heliospheric neutrals. In this study, we compare the results from two major analysis approaches led by IBEX groups in New Hampshire and Warsaw. We also directly address the question of the distance upstream to the pristine interstellar medium and adjust both sets of results to a common distance of ∼1000 AU. The two analysis approaches are quite different, but yield fully consistent measurements of the interstellar He flow properties, further validating our findings. While detailed error bars are given for both approaches, we recommend that for most purposes, the community use “working values” of ∼25.4 km s{sup −1}, ∼75.°7 ecliptic inflow longitude, ∼ −5.°1 ecliptic inflow latitude, and ∼7500 K temperature at ∼1000 AU upstream. Finally, we briefly address future opportunities for even better interstellar neutral observations to be provided by the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe mission, which was recommended as the next major Heliophysics mission by the NRC's 2013 Decadal Survey.

  17. The effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on taurine transporter protein and fatigue resistance in skeletal muscle from mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Deanna M; Murphy, Robyn M; Mollica, Janelle P; Hayes, Alan; Goodman, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of taurine and β-alanine supplementation on muscle function and muscle taurine transporter (TauT) protein expression in mdx mice. Wild-type (WT) and mdx mice (5 months) were supplemented with taurine or β-alanine for 4 weeks, after which in vitro contractile properties, fatigue resistance and force recovery, and the expression of the TauT protein and proteins involved in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling were examined in fast-twitch muscle. There was no difference in basal TauT protein expression or basal taurine content between mdx than WT muscle. Supplementation with taurine and β-alanine increased and reduced taurine content, respectively, in muscle from WT and mdx mice but had no effect of TauT protein. Taurine supplementation reduced body and muscle mass, and enhanced fatigue resistance and force recovery in mdx muscle. β-Alanine supplementation enhanced fatigue resistance in WT and mdx muscle. There was no difference in the basal expression of key E-C coupling proteins [ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 1 (SERCA1) or calsequestrin 1 (CSQ1)] between WT and mdx mice, and the expression of these proteins was not altered by taurine or β-alanine supplementation. These findings suggest that TauT protein expression is relatively insensitive to changes in muscle taurine content in WT and mdx mice, and that taurine and β-alanine supplementation may be viable therapeutic strategies to improve fatigue resistance of dystrophic skeletal muscle.

  18. How Does the Medium Affect the Message?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dommermuth, William P.

    1974-01-01

    This experimental comparison of the advertising effectiveness of television, movies, radio, and print finds no support for McLuhan's idea that television is a "cool" medium and movies are a "hot" medium. (RB)

  19. Effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the motility and penetrability of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa incubated in the fertilization medium.

    PubMed

    Kaedei, Y; Naito, M; Naoi, H; Sato, Y; Taniguchi, M; Tanihara, F; Kikuchi, K; Nagai, T; Otoi, T

    2012-12-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea (Camellia sinensis) and is known for its antioxidant effects. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of EGCG during in vitro fertilization (IVF) on the sperm quality and penetrability into oocytes. In the first experiment, the effects of concentration and incubation period of EGCG on the motility and penetrability of spermatozoa were examined. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa were incubated in IVF medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1, 50 and 100 μm EGCG for 1, 3 and 5 h, supplementation with 50 and 100 μm EGCG improved motility of the spermatozoa (p < 0.05), but not viability, as compared with the control group. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa were co-incubated with in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes in IVF medium supplemented with 50 and 100 μm EGCG for 5 h, supplementation of EGCG had positive effects on sperm penetration rates. In the second experiment, the effects of supplementation of EGCG in IVF medium on penetrability of sperm from different boars and development of fertilized oocytes were evaluated. When frozen-thawed spermatozoa from six boars were co-incubated with IVM oocytes in IVF medium supplemented with 50 μm EGCG, the effect of EGCG on sperm penetration and development of oocytes after fertilization was found to vary with individual boar. Our results indicate that motility and penetrability of boar spermatozoa are improved by co-incubation with 50 μm EGCG, but the effects vary with individual boars.

  20. Medium-Frequency Pseudonoise Georadar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, G. Dickey; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.; Amini, B. Jon

    2005-01-01

    Ground-probing radar systems featuring medium-frequency carrier signals phase-modulated by binary pseudonoise codes have been proposed. These systems would be used to locate and detect movements of subterranean surfaces; the primary intended application is in warning of the movement of underground water toward oil-well intake ports in time to shut down those ports to avoid pumping of water. Other potential applications include oil-well logging and monitoring of underground reservoirs. A typical prior georadar system operates at a carrier frequency of at least 50 MHz in order to provide useable range resolution. This frequency is too high for adequate penetration of many underground layers of interest. On the other hand, if the carrier frequency were to be reduced greatly to increase penetration, then bandwidth and thus range resolution would also have to be reduced, thereby rendering the system less useful. The proposed medium-frequency pseudonoise georadar systems would offer the advantage of greater penetration at lower carrier frequencies, but without the loss of resolution that would be incurred by operating typical prior georadar systems at lower frequencies.