Science.gov

Sample records for basalt sulfide saturation

  1. Controls on Highly Siderophile Element Concentrations in Martian Basalt: Sulfide Saturation and Under-Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au and the platinum group elements) in shergottites exhibit a wide range from very high, similar to the terrestrial mantle, to very low, similar to sulfide saturated mid ocean ridge basalt (e.g., [1]). This large range has been difficult to explain without good constraints on sulfide saturation or under-saturation [2]. A new model for prediction of sulfide saturation places new constraints on this problem [3]. Shergottite data: For primitive shergottites, pressure and temperature estimates are between 1.2-1.5 GPa, and 1350-1470 C [4]. The range of oxygen fugacities is from FMQ-2 to IW, where the amount of Fe2O3 is low and thus does not have a significant effect on the S saturation values. Finally, the bulk compositions of shergottites have been reported in many recent studies (e.g., [5]). All of this information will be used to test whether shergottites are sulfide saturated [3]. Modeling values and results: The database for HSE partition coefficients has been growing with many new data for silicates and oxides [6-8] to complement a large sulfide database [9- 11]. Combining these data with simple batch melting models allows HSE contents of mantle melts to be estimated for sulfide-bearing vs. sulfide-free mantle. Combining such models with fractional crystallization modeling (e.g., [12]) allows HSE contents of more evolved liquids to be modeled. Most primitive shergottites have high HSE contents (and low S contents) that can be explained by sulfide under-saturated melting of the mantle. An exception is Dhofar 019 which has high S contents and very low HSE contents suggesting sulfide saturation. Most evolved basaltic shergottites have lower S contents than saturation, and intermediate HSE contents that can be explained by olivine, pyroxene, and chromite fractionation. An exception is EET A79001 lithology B, which has very low HSE contents and S contents higher than sulfide saturation values . evidence for sulfide saturation

  2. Interpreting HSE Contents of Planetary Basalts: The Importance of Sulfide Saturation and Under-Saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.

    2000-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements provide important constraints on planetary differentiation due to their siderophile behavior. Their interpretation in terms of planetary differentiation models has so far overlooked the importance of sulfide saturation and under-saturation.

  3. Cenozoic basalts in SE China: Chalcophile element geochemistry, sulfide saturation history, and source heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Wen; Su, Ben-Xun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Qi, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Cenozoic basalts in SE China may be derived from a mixture of depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and enriched mantle 2 (EM2) sources, but whether these basalts share a common mantle source or magmatic history remains unknown. To investigate these unresolved issues, this study sampled basalts from Niutoushan and Mingxi (Fujian province), Xilong (Zhejiang province), and Penghu (Taiwan) for geochemical analysis. The basalt samples show OIB-like trace element patterns and have low PGE contents, with 0.02-0.7 ppb Ir and Pd, 0.05-1.4 ppb Ru, 0.01-0.2 ppb Rh, and 0.06-1.1 ppb Pt. All samples have high Cu/Pd ratios ranging from 69,000 to 3,500,000, and low Cu/Zr ratios ranging from 0.1 to 0.8, suggesting sulfur-saturated fractionation. Model calculations indicate that the basalts are depleted in PGE due to the retention of 0.001% to 0.1% sulfide in the mantle and the removal of up to 0.0022% sulfide during magma ascent. The crystallization of olivine and spinel, and partial melting are insufficient to account for the observed PGE variation in these basalts. Thus, the distinct PGE patterns in basalts with different ages may reflect the heterogeneity of the mantle source beneath SE China. The source heterogeneity may be due to compositional heterogeneity, particularly variations in oxygen fugacity and PGE mineral phases, or due to variable fluid/melt metasomatic agents in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. This heterogeneity is possibly related to the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  4. Sulfide Stability of Planetary Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiazza, C. M.; Righter, K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Chesley, J. T.; Ruiz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic system, 187Re 187Os, can be used to determine the role of crust and mantle in magma genesis. In order to apply the system to natural samples, we must understand variations in Re/Os concentrations. It is thought that low [Os] and [Re] in basalts can be attributed to sulfide (FeS) saturation, as Re behaves incompatibly to high degrees of evolution until sulfide saturation occurs [1]. Previous work has shown that lunar basalts are sulfide under-saturated, and mid-ocean ridge, ocean-island and Martian (shergottites) basalts are saturated [2,3]. However, little is known about arc basalts. In this study, basaltic rocks were analyzed across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

  5. Sulfur release from the Columbia River Basalts and other flood lava eruptions constrained by a model of sulfide saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S.; Self, S.; Sharma, K.; Sephton, S.

    2010-11-01

    A very likely cause of widespread environmental impacts of flood basalt eruptions is the emission of sulfur, chlorine, and possibly fluorine from the erupting magma. We present new data on the S contents of rare glass inclusions and matrix glasses preserved in quenched lava selvages from lava fields of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG; Ginkgo, Sand Hollow and Sentinel Gap flows, Wanapum Basalt Formation). We compare these results with published data from Neral and Jawar Formation lavas (Deccan Traps, India) and the Roza flow (CRBG). CRBG glass inclusions have up to 2000 ppm S and 15-16 wt.% FeO total. By contrast, the Deccan examples have about 1400 ppm S and 10 wt.% FeO total. Several of the glass inclusions are partly degassed, indicating entrapment during magma rise, and matrix glasses are typically more evolved than glass inclusions due to small amounts of in situ crystallization. Using only the highest S inclusions and taking account of the effect of in situ crystallization and degassing on the S content of the residual matrix glasses indicates S yields of about 0.07 to 0.1 wt.% from Deccan eruptions and about 0.15 wt.% from Wanapum (CRBG) eruptions. The pre-eruptive S contents of these magmas correlate with weight% FeO total in the same way as undegassed sulfide-saturated mid-ocean ridge basalts. Using oceanic basalts to define a sulfide saturation line, and data on S contents of degassed basalts, we propose an equation to estimate the weight% S yield (ΔS) from initially sulfide-saturated basalt liquid without the need to find well-preserved, rare, undegassed glass inclusions and matrix glasses: ΔS=(0.01418×FeO-0.06381)±0.02635. This compares well with independent estimates derived from the petrologic method by taking the difference in S concentration of glass inclusions and matrix glass. Applying our method to the aphyric Grande Ronde Basalts of the CRBG implies a total yield of about 1000 Gt SO 2 delivered into the Miocene atmosphere in

  6. Sulfur concentration of martian basalts at sulfide saturation at high pressures and temperatures - Implications for deep sulfur cycle on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shuo; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Tsuno, Kyusei

    2014-04-01

    To constrain sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) of martian magmas at mantle conditions, we simulated basalt-sulfide melt equilibria using two synthesized meteorite compositions, i.e., Yamato980459 and NWA2990 in both anhydrous and hydrous conditions at 1-5 GPa and 1500-1700 °C. Our experimental results show that SCSS decreases with increasing pressure and increases with increasing temperature. Based on our experimental SCSS and those from previous low-pressure experiments on high-FeO∗ martian basalts, we developed a parameterization to predict martian basalt SCSS as a function of depth, temperature, and melt composition. Our model suggests that sulfur contents as high as 3500-4300 ppm can be transferred from the martian mantle to the martian exogenic system, and sulfur-rich gases might have caused the greenhouse conditions during the late Noachian. However, modeling of the behavior of sulfur along the liquid line of descent of a primitive martian basalt suggests that a fraction of the magmatic sulfur could precipitate as sulfides in the cumulates during cooling and fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas. Furthermore, the latter case is consistent with the S concentration of martian meteorites, which reflect variable amount of trapped liquid in cumulus mineral assemblage. Furthermore, our model predicts an average S storage capacity of 5700 ppm for the martian magma ocean, whereas the same for Earth is only ∼860 ppm. Lastly, high SCSS of martian magma ocean and its inverse correlation with depth along the mantle liquidus could have triggered a sulfur pump where the post-core-formation magma ocean of Mars would gain sulfur through interaction with SO2/H2S rich nascent atmosphere.

  7. Sulfide saturation of basalt and andesite melts at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    When the sulfur content of an Fe-bearing magma exceeds the saturation limit for the bulk composition, an immiscible iron sulfide melt fraction separates. For an understanding of the geochemistry of sulfur-bearing magmatic systems, more information is needed regarding the solubility of metal sulfide in silicate melt at its source and the solubility changes as a function of changing intensive and extensive variables. In the present investigation, the sulfur saturation surface is determined for the pressure range from 12.5 to 30 kbar and the temperature range from 1300 to 1460 C for three silicate melt compositions representing a range of SiO2 and FeO compositions.

  8. Sulfur Concentration of High-FeO* Basalts at Sulfide Saturation at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Deep Sulfur Cycle on Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Ding, S.

    2013-12-01

    One of the chief influences of magma in the mantles terrestrial planets is its role in outgassing and ingassing of key volatiles and thus affecting planetary dynamics and climate over long timescales. For Mars, magmatic release of greenhouse gases has been argued to be a major factor in creating warm ancient climate. However, the responsible magmatic gas has not been unequivocally identified. SO2 or H2S could have been the main greenhouse gases, yet the magmatic outflux of S from the martian mantle is poorly constrained. Righter et al. [1] showed that the use of sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) models based on low-FeO*, high-alumina terrestrial basalts to martian basalts leads to significant error. However, experiments on high-FeO* basalts remain limited to ≤0.8 GPa [1], although the onset of melting in the martian mantle may take place at 250-400 km depth (3-5 GPa) [2]. To constrain SCSS of martian magmas at mantle conditions, we simulated basalt-sulfide melt equilibria using two synthesized meteorite compositions, i.e., Yamato980459 (FeO* ˜17 wt.%; Al2O3 ˜6 wt.%) and NWA2990 (FeO* ˜16 wt.%; Al2O3 ˜9 wt.%) in both anhydrous and hydrous conditions at 1-3 GPa and 1500-1700 °C. Experiments were conducted in graphite capsules, using an end-loaded piston cylinder device. Sulfur contents of sulfide melt-saturated experimental quenched basalts were determined using electron microprobe. Our experimental results show that SCSS decreases with increasing pressure and increases with increasing temperature and melt hydration. Based on our experimental SCSS and those from previous low-pressure experiments on high-FeO* martian basalts [2], we developed a new parameterization to predict martian basalt SCSS as a function of depth, temperature, and melt composition. Our model suggests that at the conditions of last equilibration with the sulfide-saturated mantle [2], martian basalts may contain as high as 3500-4700 ppm S and thus S-rich gases might have caused the

  9. Sulfur concentration of mare basalts at sulfide saturation at high pressures and temperatures-Implications for S in the lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Hough, T.; Dasgupta, R.

    2016-12-01

    Low estimate of S in the bulk silicate moon (BSM) [e.g., 1] suggests that sulfide in the lunar mantle is likely exhausted during melting. This agrees with estimates of HSE depletion in the BSM [2], but challenges the S-rich core proposed by previous studies [e.g., 3]. A key parameter to constrain the fate of sulfide during mantle melting is the sulfur carrying capacity of the mantle melts (SCSS). However, the SCSS of variably high-Ti lunar basalts at high P-Tare unknown. Basalt-sulfide melt equilibria experiments were run in graphite capsules using a piston cylinder at 1.0-2.5 GPa and 1400-1600 °C, on high-Ti (Apollo11, 11.1 wt.%; [4]) and intermediate-Ti (Luna16, 5 wt.%; [5]) mare basalts. At 1.5 GPa, SCSS of Apollo11 increases from 3940 ppm S to 5860 ppm, as temperature increases from 1400 °C to 1600 °C. And at 1500 °C, SCSS decreases from 5350 ppm S to 3830 ppm, as pressure increases from 1 to 2.5 GPa. SCSS of Luna16 shows a similar P-T dependence. Previous models [e.g., 6] tend to overestimate the SCSS values determined in our study, with the model overprediction increasing with increasing melt TiO2. Consequently, we derive a new SCSS parameterization for high-FeO* silicate melts of variable TiO2content. At multiple saturation points [e.g., 7], the SCSS of primary lunar melts is 3500-5500 ppm. With these values, 0.02-0.05 wt.% sulfide (70-200 ppm S) in the mantle can be consumed by 2-6% melting. In order to generate primary lunar basalts with S of 800-1000 ppm [1], sulfide in the mantle must be exhausted, and the mode of sulfide cannot exceed 0.025 wt.% (100 ppm S). This estimate corresponds with lower end values in the terrestrial mantle and further agrees with previous calculations of HSE depletion in the BSM [2]. [1] Hauri et al.,2015, EPSL; [2] Day et al.,2007, Science; [3] Jing et al., 2014, EPSL; [4] Synder et al.,1992, GCA; [5] Warren & Taylor, 2014, Treatise on Geochemistry; [6] Li & Ripley, 2009, Econ.Geol ; [7] Krawczynski & Grove, 2012, GCA.

  10. A sulfide-saturated lunar mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenan, James M.; Mungall, James E.

    2017-04-01

    Although much work has been done to understand the controls on the sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) for terrestrial melt compositions, little information exists to evaluate the SCSS for the high FeO compositions typical of lunar magmas, and at the reduced conditions of the Moon's interior. Experiments were done to measure the SCSS for a model low Ti mare basalt with 20 wt% FeO at 1400oC as a function of fO2 and pressure. Synthetic lunar basalt was encapsulated along with stoichiometric FeS in capsules made from Fe-Ir alloy. The fO2 of the experiment can be estimated by the heterogeneous equilibrium: Femetal + 1 /2 O2 = FeOsilicate Variation in the metal composition, by addition of Ir, serves to change the fO2 of the experiment. Capsule compositions spanning the range Fe25Ir75 to Fe96Ir4 (at%) were synthesized by sintering of pressed powders under reducing conditions. Fe100 capsules were fabricated from pure Fe rod. For a melt with 20 wt% FeO, this range in capsule composition spans the fO2 interval of ˜IW-1 (Fe100, Fe96Ir4) to IW+2.2 (Fe25Ir75). Experiments were done over the pressure interval of 0.1 MPa to 2 GPa. Results for experiments involving Fe100capsules indicate that the SCSS decreases from ˜2000 ppm (0.1 MPa) to 700 ppm (2 GPa). Experiments done thus far at 1 GPa, involving the range of capsule compositions indicated, show a marked decrease in SCSS as the Fe content of the capsule increases (fO2 decreases). Complementary to the decrease in SCSS is a drop in the sulfur content of the coexisting sulfide melt, from ˜50 at% at ΔIW = +2.2 to ˜20 at% at ΔIW-1. In fact, both the composition of the sulfide melt and the SCSS are essentially indistinguishable for Fe96Ir4 and Fe100 compositions. Results thus far indicate that at reduced conditions and high pressure, the SCSS for high FeO lunar compositions is low, and overlaps with Apollo 11 melt inclusion data. Importantly, such low SCSS does not require Fe metal saturation, and suggests that some

  11. Sulfide Concentration and Saturation in Natural MORB Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, P. J.; Cornell, W. C.

    2006-05-01

    The strong correlation between FeO and S in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses combined with the presence of immiscible sulfide droplets suggests that most MORB liquids are saturated with sulfide upon eruption and supports the dissolution mechanism: FeO + δ S2= FeS + δ O2 (Mathez, 1976). Experimental studies have shown the strong dependence of the sulfide concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) on temperature and pressure (Mavrogenes and O'Neill, 1999) and composition (O'Neill et al, 2002; Holzheid and Grove, 2002). We have obtained high-precision data for Sulfur dissolved in natural basalt glass for >400 MORB from >15 suites from around the earth. The scatter for the data set as a whole in FeO vs. S space is significantly greater than analytical uncertainties. Different suites display offset, subparallel trends. Almost all trends have intercepts around 0-1% FeO(total) at 0 ppm S. Correlations are better for more localized suites, especially when a suite displays a tight liquid line of descent (LLD) for major elements. Deviations to lower Sulfur within local suites, or for entire basalt suites, suggests that some basaltic magmas may not be saturated upon eruption, possibly because of rapid ascent from higher pressure. Alternatively, all basalts are saturated and there are additional compositional controls that result in a lower SCSS. For the natural data, we define a 'delta S': the deviation of Sulfur content from an ideal FeO vs S trend. After adjustment for different temperatures at constant FeO, there is a rough negative correlation (both within and between suites) between delta S and the crystallization pressure as defined by 3-phase saturation of olivine + plagioclase + clinopyroxene. The slope is -25 - -35 ppm S per kbar, similar to experimental data. The data suggest that many MORB are actually slightly undersaturated because of increasing solubility with decreasing pressure. Low Sulfur is associated with focused upwelling and robust segments

  12. Elastic laboratory measurements and modeling of saturated basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Ludmila; Otheim, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the elastic behavior of basalt is important to seismically monitor volcanoes, subsea basalts, and carbon sequestration in basalt. We estimate the elastic properties of basalt samples from the Snake River Plain, Idaho, at ultrasonic (0.8 MHz) and seismic (2-300 Hz) frequencies. To test the sensitivity of seismic waves to the fluid content in the pore structure, measurements are performed at three saturation conditions: saturated with liquid CO2, water, and dry. When CO2 replaces water, the P-wave velocity drops, on average, by 10%. Vesicles and cracks, observed in the rock microstructure, control the relaxation of pore-fluid pressures in the rock as a wave propagates. The bulk and shear moduli of basalts saturated with liquid CO2 are not frequency dependent, suggesting that fluid pore pressures are in equilibrium between 2 Hz and 0.8 MHz. However, when samples are water saturated, the bulk modulus of the rock is frequency dependent. Modeling with Gassmann's equations predicts the measured saturated rock bulk modulus for all fluids for frequencies below 20 Hz but underpredicts the water-saturated basalt bulk modulus for frequencies greater than 20 Hz. The most likely reason is that the pore-fluid pressures are unrelaxed. Instead, the ultrasonic frequency rock moduli are modeled with high-frequency elastic theories of squirt flow and Kuster-Toksöz (KT). Although KT's model is based on idealized pore shapes, a combination of spheres (vesicles) and penny-shaped cracks (fractures) interpreted and quantified from petrographical data predicts the ultrasonic dry and saturated rock moduli for the measured basalts.

  13. Nickeliferous sulfides in xenoliths, olivine megacrysts and basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, Michael E.; Stone, William E.

    1990-11-01

    The composition of olivine and nickeliferous sulfide inclusions from a selection of mafic and ultramafre rocks, xenoliths and megacrysts, including picritic basalts from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, kimberlite from Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and megacrysts from Mount Shasta, California are compared with the mean experimental value of the distribution coefficient for Ni/Fe exchange (KD3=32). Only nine of the forty five olivipe/bulk-sulfide pairs investigated have compositions consistent with equilibration at high temperature, yielding calculated KD3 values in the range 22 to 41. The remaining pairs have calculated KD3 values which range from 0 to 19. Bulk-sulfides in disequilibrated assem-blages are consistently depleted in nickel and within both indivudual associations and individual petrographic sections they exhibit a wide variation in NiS content. The bulk copper contents of olivine-and groundmass-hosted sulfides from Kilauea Volcano range from 0.5 to 43 at%, and samples from the Kilauea Iki lava lake are more Fe-and Cu-rich and generally have lower KD3 values than those from the eruption itself. As with magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, most nickeliferous sulfide inclusions in mantle-related rocks and xenoliths and in volcanic rocks do not have pristine early-magmatic bulk compositions, and it would seem to be premature to attribute these sulfides solely to either a mantle or an early-magnatic origin.

  14. Sulfide Undersaturated Basalts from Mid-Ocean Ridges and Oceanic Plateaus; Implications for Mantle Melting and Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, P. J.; Natland, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) almost always erupt saturated with sulfide melt, as shown by the immiscible sulfide blebs they contain and their linear trend on a plot of FeO versus S [1]. Submarine MORB glasses are better for judging S undersaturation because they are rapidly-quenched liquids that erupted under hydrostatic pressures sufficiently high to preserve magmatic S without degassing. Here, using FeO-versus S relationships and Cu contents in glasses, we show for the first time that certain MORB and oceanic plateau basalts were sulfide undersaturated when erupted. In some cases they may have exhausted mantle sulfide during melting. The S-undersaturated basalts are MORB from Kolbeinsey Ridge and Indian Ocean ridges and have low Na8.0. Also, low-Na tholeiites from Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) and environs. All have formed by large extents of melting. Additional S-undersaturated MORB from the Indian Ocean that have formed by smaller extents of melting suggest that the mantle source is regionally depleted in S compared to other areas. Sulfide undersaturation there might correlate with an Indian Ocean isotopic signature, pointing to a peculiar makeup of the source. We consider the behavior of S, Cu and PGEs in terms of a column melting model [2] and the negative pressure dependence, the positive temperature (T) dependence and the compositional dependences of the S content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) [3,4]. Most magmas should reach crustal levels undersaturated with sulfide [3], but rapidly become saturated as T decreases and they evolve by olivine crystallization. Unlike [3] we feel that changes in T and composition are sufficient to bring about sulfide saturation: assimilation is not required. Differences in extent of melting should affect S saturation history. Average MORB that form by moderate extents of melting at relatively shallow depths will not be too far removed from sulfide saturation, and can rapidly attain saturation as T decreases and 10-20% olivine

  15. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  16. Sulfides from Martian and Lunar Basalts: Comparative Chemistry for Ni Co Cu and Se

    SciTech Connect

    J Papike; P Burger; C Shearer; S Sutton; M Newville; Y Choi; A Lanzirotti

    2011-12-31

    Here Mars and Moon are used as 'natural laboratories' with Moon displaying lower oxygen fugacities ({approx}IW-1) than Mars ({approx}IW to FMQ). Moon has lower concentrations of Ni and Co in basaltic melts than does Mars. The major sulfides are troilite (FeS) in lunar basalts and pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) in martian basalts. This study focuses on the concentrations of Ni, Co, Cu, and Se. We chose these elements because of their geochemical importance and the feasibility of analyzing them with a combination of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and electron microprobe (EPMA) techniques. The selenium concentrations could only be analyzed, at high precision, with SXRF techniques as they are <150 ppm, similar to concentrations seen in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Nickel and Co are in higher concentrations in martian sulfides than lunar and are higher in martian olivine-bearing lithologies than olivine-free varieties. The sulfides in individual samples show very large ranges in concentration (e.g., Ni ranges from 50 000 ppm to <5 ppm). These large ranges are mainly due to compositional heterogeneities within individual grains due to diffusion and phase separation. Electron microprobe wavelength-dispersive (WDS) mapping of Ni, Co, and Cu show the diffusion trajectories. Nickel and Co have almost identical diffusion trajectories leading to the likely nucleation of pentlandite (Ni,Co,Fe){sub 9}S{sub 8}, and copper diffuses along separate pathways likely toward chalcopyrite nucleation sites (CuFeS{sub 2}). The systematics of Ni and Co in lunar and martian sulfides clearly distinguish the two parent bodies, with martian sulfides displaced to higher Ni and Co values.

  17. Partitioning of palladium, iridium, and platinum between sulfide liquid and basalt melt: Effects of melt composition, concentration, and oxygen fugacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, M. E.; Stone, W. E.; Crocket, J. H.

    1991-09-01

    The partitioning of Pd, Ir, and Pt between immiscible (Fe, Ni)-monosulfide liquid and basalt melt has been investigated at 1300°C and at low pressure over the concentration range 40 to 20,000 ppm platinum-group element(s) (PGE) in the sulfide liquid and at oxygen fugacities from the C-CO-CO2 to the wüstite-magnetite buffers. The experiments used sealed silica-glass tubes with internal oxygen buffers: PGE in glass were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). Partition coefficients (D) vary markedly with compositions of the sulfide liquid and silicate melt, increasing with decrease in oxygen fugacity, S, Fe, and possibly Ni, and with increase in total concentration of PGE. For 5 ppb PGE in the silicate melt and the iron-silica phase-fayalite (IQF) buffer, D(Pd) and D(Pt) are about 2 × 103, and D(Ir) is about 3 × 103; whereas, at the maximum concentration of PGE investigated, D(Pd) and D(Pt) are about 2 × 104, and D(Ir) is about 3 × 104. A single experiment confirms the marked fractionation of Pt from Pd predicted for partitioning with alloy in S-bearing and S-saturated silicate melts. The experimental D(PGE) values for low concentration of PGE are similar to D(PGE) calculated for many sulfide ore deposits, but are several orders of magnitude lower than calculated values for concordant sulfide PGE deposits in layered complexes.

  18. Chalcophile element geochemistry of the Baima layered intrusion, Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China: implications for sulfur saturation history and genetic relationship with high-Ti basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Song, Xie-Yan; Chen, Lie-Meng; Yu, Song-Yue; Xie, Wei; Deng, Yufeng; Zhang, Jia-Fei; Gui, Shu-Guang

    2013-07-01

    The Permian Baima mafic layered intrusion, believed to be related to the S-undersaturated Emeishan high-Ti basalts, hosts a giant Fe-Ti-V oxide deposit in the lower part of the intrusion. Uniformly high Cu/Pd (1.9 × 106-6.1 × 104) and low Pd/Zr (<0.1) indicate that the Baima parental magma experienced prior sulfide segregation. Mantle-liked δ34S values and low S/Se values indicate negligible external sulfur addition. Primitive mantle-normalized PGE patterns and MELTS calculations indicate that extensive fractional crystallization (~59 %) of chromite, olivine and pyroxene at depth drove the primitive picritic magma to S saturation. Strong positive correlation between IPGE and PPGE and between PGE and V, Cr and S suggest that magmatic sulfide is the dominant mineral controlling the distribution of PGE in the Baima intrusion. A positive correlation between S and Cr, FeOT + TiO2 and V content, together with MELTS calculations, indicate that the parental magma of the Baima intrusion reached a second stage of S saturation in the shallower Baima magma chamber, which was likely triggered by decreasing Fe2+ accompanying magnetite precipitation. Primitive mantle-normalized PGE patterns for Baima intrusion rocks display similar trends to high-Ti basalts inside the Panxi area, suggesting that they are comagmatic, and following a similar differentiation trend. However, the lavas erupted before they reached sulfide saturation. The more evolved nature of high-Ti basalts outside the Panxi area indicate that they experienced more extensive pre-eruption fractional crystallization. Further fractional crystallization process led these lavas show more PGE fractionated feature.

  19. Earth science: role of fO2 on fluid saturation in oceanic basalt.

    PubMed

    Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel

    2004-07-29

    Assessing the conditions under which magmas become fluid-saturated has important bearings on the geochemical modelling of magmas because volatile exsolution may profoundly alter the behaviour of certain trace elements that are strongly partitioned in the coexisting fluid. Saal et al. report primitive melt inclusions from dredged oceanic basalts of the Siqueiros transform fault, from which they derive volatile abundances of the depleted mantle, based on the demonstration that magmas are not fluid-saturated at their eruption depth and so preserve the mantle signature in terms of their volatile contents. However, in their analysis, Saal et al. consider only fluid-melt equilibria, and do not take into account the homogeneous equilibria between fluid species, which, as we show here, may lead to a significant underestimation of the pressure depth of fluid saturation.

  20. Rhenium - osmium heterogeneity of enriched mantle basalts explained by composition and behaviour of mantle-derived sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Dale, C. W.; Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Analyses of enriched mantle (EM) -basalts, using lithophile element-based isotope systems have long provided evidence for discrete, but variable mantle reservoirs [1]. Upon partial melting, the isotopic fingerprint of each reservoir is imparted upon the partial melt produced. However, recent work involving the Re-Os isotope systematics of EM-basalts [2] suggests that it may not be so simple to delimit these previously well defined mantle reservoirs; the “mantle zoo” [3] may contain more reservoirs than previously envisaged. However, a simple model, with varying contributions from two populations of compositionally distinct mantle sulfides can readily account for the observed heterogeneities in Re-Os isotope systematics of such basalts without additional mantle reservoirs. Rhenium-osmium elemental and isotopic analyses of individual sulfide grains separated from spinel lherzolites from Kilbourne Hole, NM, USA demonstrate that two discrete populations of mantle sulfide exist in terms of both Re-Os systematics and textural relationship with co-existing silicates. One population, with a rounded morphology, is preserved in silicate grains and typically possesses high [Os], low [Re] with unradiogenic, typically sub-chondritic, 187Os/188Os attributable to long term isolation in a low-Re environment. By contrast, irregular-shaped sulfides, preserved along silicate grain boundaries, possess low [Os], higher [Re] and a wider range of, but generally supra-chondritic, 187Os/188Os ([Os] typically ≤ 1-2 ppm, 187Os/188Os ≤ 0.3729; this study). This population is thought to represent metasomatic sulfide (e.g. [4,5]). Uncontaminated silicate phases contain negligible Os (<100 ppt) therefore the Os elemental and isotope composition of basalts is dominated by volumetrically insignificant sulfide ([Os] ≤ 37 ppm, this study). During the early stages of partial melting, supra-chondritic interstitial sulfides are mobilized and incorporated into the melt, adding their radiogenic

  1. Platinum-alloy and sulfur saturation in an arc-related basalt to rhyolite suite: Evidence from the Pual Ridge lavas, the Eastern Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Arculus, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the platinum group element (PGE) and Re concentrations of arc-type lavas from the Pual Ridge and the surrounding area in the Eastern Manus Basin. These magmas followed an Fe-enrichment trend to produce a wide range of compositions with MgO varying between 8 and 0.1 wt.%. We found distinct differences in the PGE geochemistry of the high (>3 wt.% MgO) and the low-Mg lavas (<3 wt.% MgO). During the early stages of fractionation, the concentrations of Pd, Cu, Au and Re increase whereas Ir, Ru, Rh and Pt decrease. Co-variations of Ir, Ru and Rh with Pt in the high-Mg lavas suggest that the depletion of these elements is due to Pt-rich alloy saturation. This is consistent with the high Pt contents in the high-Mg lavas, which is close to the solubility of Pt in the basaltic melt at similar conditions. In contrast, the concentrations of all PGE and Re drop rapidly in the low-Mg lavas (except for Ru and Ir), with the PGE concentrations falling at a rate that is appreciably faster than Cu, which we attribute to sulfide saturation. As a consequence, there is a marked decline in Pd/Cu in the low-Mg lavas and we suggest that this ratio is the best indicator of sulfide saturation in an evolving magmatic system. A feature of the data is that duplicate analyses of the same sample often do not agree within error. We attribute this scatter to the nugget effect, with nuggets of a Pt-rich alloy in the high-Mg lavas and sulfide blebs in the low-Mg lavas. The PGE concentrations of phenocryst-bearing high-Mg lavas are higher than in the associated glassy lavas, and scatter on MgO variation diagrams is significantly reduced if only glassy lavas are considered, which indicates that the micron scale Pt-rich alloy grains are intimately associated with the phenocrysts. Our results provide strong evidence that Pt-rich alloys can crystallize from a basaltic-andesitic magma, along with the silicate minerals, and fractionate Pt from Pd during magmatic differentiation. As a

  2. The effect of anhydrite saturation on the fate of sulfur during fluid-present melting of subducting basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jego, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    The apparent sulfur enrichment of sub-arc mantle is thought to derive from an oxidized downgoing slab, and it has been suggested that the slab-derived sulfate species is responsible for oxidizing the mantle wedge [1]. However, the conditions and extent of sulfur transfer from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge are poorly understood. In particular, the relative mobility of sulfur as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2) is unconstrained at sub-arc depths. To add to our recent study on sulfur mobility during fluid-present melting of a sulfide-bearing basaltic crust [2], here we constrain the fate of sulfur during similar melting at relatively oxidizing conditions, i.e., at sulfate saturation. Experiments were performed using a piston cylinder device at P = 2-3 GPa, T = 950-1050 °C. A synthetic MORB + 6.8 wt.% H2O doped with 1 wt% S (added as pyrite) was contained in AuPd inner capsules and hematite-magnetite (HM: ~FMQ+3.9 to +4.6) mixture used as fO2 buffer was housed in Pt outer capsules, following the recently proposed design of ref. [3]. Sulfur concentration in quenched silicate glasses, the major element phase compositions, and fO2 of the experiments based on dissolved Fe contents in AuPd and added Pt sensor [4, 5], were determined using EPMA. All experiments contain silicate melt, cpx, garnet, anhydrite, rutile and/or Ti-magnetite, and are fluid saturated. The partial melt compositions are rhyolitic to rhyodacitic with increasing T and melting degree. Sulfur contents in the melt range from ~700 to 3000 ppm, and increase with increasing P and T, in agreement with published SCAS models [6, 7]. Mass balance calculations show that the proportion of sulfur dissolved in silicate melt can be >13% of the bulk sulfur at 1050 °C. However, at slab surface (<900 °C), the major part of the bulk sulfur present in the slab is dissolved in the aqueous fluid phase, the rest being stored as anhydrite crystals. Moreover, our results suggest that sulfur partition coefficient

  3. Experimental determination of Pb partitioning between sulfide melt and basalt melt as a function of P, T and X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Stanley R.; Gaetani, Glenn A.

    2016-07-01

    We have measured the partition coefficient of Pb (KdPb) between FeS melt and basalt melt at temperatures of 1250-1523 °C, pressures of 1.0-3.5 GPa and oxygen fugacities at iron-wustite and wustite-magnetite. The total observed range of KdPb is 4.0-66.6, with a strong negative dependence on pressure and a strong negative dependence on FeO of the silicate melt (Fe+2 only). The FeO control was constrained over a wide range of FeO (4.2-39.5%). We found that the effect of oxygen fugacity can be subsumed under the FeO control parameter. Prior work has established the lack of a significant effect of temperature (Kiseeva and Wood, 2015; Li and Audétat, 2015). Our data are parameterized as: KdPb = 4.8 + (512 - 119*P in GPa)*(1/FeO - 0.021). We also measured a single value of KdPb between clinopyroxene and basalt melt at 2.0 GPa of 0.020 ± 0.001. This experimental data supports the "natural" partitioning of Pb measured on sulfide globules in MORB (Patten et al., 2013), but not the low KdPb of ∼3 inferred from sulfides in abyssal peridotites by Warren and Shirey (2012). It also quantitatively affirms the modeling of Hart and Gaetani (2006) with respect to using sulfide to buffer the canonical Nd/Pb ratio for MORB and OIB (Hofmann, 2003). For the low FeO and pressure of segregation typical of MORB, KdPb ∼ 45, and the Nd/Pb ratio of erupted basalts will be the same as the Nd/Pb ratio of the mantle source. The remaining puzzle is why MORB and OIB have the same Nd/Pb when they clearly have different FeO and pressure of melt segregation.

  4. Mineralogical studies of sulfide samples and volatile concentrations of basalt glasses from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brett, Robin; Evans, Howard T., Jr.; Wandless, M. V.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Hedenquist, Jeffrey W.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfide samples obtained from Alvin dives on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge were examined, showing the presence of two previously undiscovered minerals, both formed at low temperatures. The first detection of lizardite, starkeyite, and anatase in such an environment is also reported. Sulfide geothermometry involving the Cu-Fe-S system shows a vent temperature of less than 328 C for one sample. Ice-melting temperatures on inclusions from this sample are about -2.8 C, and fluid inclusion studies on crystals near this sample show pressure-corrected homogenization temperatures of 268 and 285 C. Volatile concentrations from vesicle-free basalt glass from the vent field are found to be about 0.0013 wt pct CO2 and 0.16 wt pct H2O.

  5. Basalt Reactivity in the Presence of H2O-Saturated Supercritical CO2 Containing Gaseous Sulfur Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, H. T.; McGrail, P.; Owen, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Future impacts of climate change may be minimized by capture of emissions, primarily CO2 from fossil-fueled electric generating stations and subsequent sequestration in deep geologic formations. Injection of dry liquid CO2 into porous geologic reservoirs for long term storage is expected to eventually form a buoyant water-saturated bubble of supercritical fluid. Depending on purification processes and underground injection control regulations, the injected CO2 also could contain trace compounds associated with flue gas streams (SO2, N2, and O2). Once injected, the scCO2 will absorb water (1500 to 3000 ppmw) until becoming immobilized by reservoir trapping mechanisms. Reactivity of the water-bearing scCO2 with silicate minerals is relatively unknown and could have impacts on long term reservoir seal integrity and trapping by mineralization. To examine the reactivity of H2O-saturated scCO2, basalt experiments were conducted at pressures and temperatures relevant to geologic sequestration. Reaction products differed considerably depending on the gas mixtures used and type of basalt. In the presence of H2O-saturated CO2, the Newark Basin basalt reacted to produce secondary mineralization with needle-like morphologies and chemistries similar to aragonite. Exposing the same basalt to a CO2-H2S mixture (H2O saturated) produced two types of reaction products: carbonates in the form of small discrete nodules or needles and metallic-like circular areas similar in chemistry to pyrite and marcarsite. Tests conducted in the presence of CO2-SO2 produced the most extensive surface reaction products observed during the experiments. Some basalts were completely coated in white precipitate identified as a mixture of gypsum, sulfate bearing minerals (rozenite and melanterite), and a magnesium sulfate compound (MgSO4 ●5H2O). Hawaiian flow top basalts contained extensive reaction products including magnesium sulfate (MgSO4●6H2O), which formed on the large olivine crystals present

  6. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes in basalts and sulfides from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Hegner, E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1987-10-10

    Pb, Sr, Nd isotopes of seven basalt glasses collected by the submersible Alvin from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (SJFR) are almost identical (/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pbapprox.18.45, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pbapprox.15.47, /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pbapprox.37.81, /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Srapprox.0.70249, /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Ndapprox.0.51315). Whereas all basalts appear cogenetic, four of the samples have uniform abundances of U, Th, Rb, Nd, Sm, Pb, and Sr, indicating that they are also comagmatic. Two basalt glasses dredged previously at the SJFR have similar isotopic compositions but higher concentrations of U, Th, and Pb. The /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios are intermediate between generally less radiogenic ridge basalts from south of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) and often more radiogenic basalts from the northern JFR and NE Pacific seamounts. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions closely resemble data of other ridge basalts from the northernmost East Pacific Rise and are intermediate between isotopically more diverse seamount basalts produced nearby.

  7. Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle-crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, James E.; Brenan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au between sulfide melt and silicate melt (i.e., DPGEsul) exerts a critical control on the PGE composition of the Earth’s crust and mantle, but previous estimates have been plagued by experimental uncertainties and vary through several orders of magnitude. Here we present direct experimental measurements of DPGEsul, based on in situ microanalysis of the sulfide and silicate melt, with values ranging from ∼4 × 105 (Ru) to ∼2-3 × 106 (Ir, Pt). Our measurements of DPGEsul are >100 times larger than previous results but smaller than anticipated based on comparison of alloy solubilities in sulfide melts and S-free silicate melts. The presence of S in the silicate melt greatly increases alloy solubility. We use our new set of partition coefficients to develop a fully constrained model of PGE behavior during melting which accurately predicts the abundances of PGE in mantle-derived magmas and their restites, including mid-ocean ridge basalts, continental picrites, and the parental magmas of the Bushveld Complex of South Africa. Our model constrains mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) to be the products of pooled low and high degree fractional melts. Within-plate picrites are pooled products of larger degrees of fractional melting in columnar melting regimes. A significant control on PGE fractionation in mantle-derived magmas is exerted by residual alloy or platinum group minerals in their source. At low pressures (e.g., MORB genesis) the mantle residual to partial melting retains primitive mantle inter-element ratios and abundances of PGE until sulfide has been completely dissolved but then evolves to extremely high Pt/Pd and low Pd/Ir because Pt and Ir alloys form in the restite. During melting at high pressure to form picrites or komatiites Ir alloy appears as a restite phase but Pt alloy is not stable due to the large effect of pressure on fS2, and of temperature on fO2 along an internal

  8. Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopes in basalts and sulfides from the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegner, E.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1987-01-01

    Isotopic Pb, Sr, and Nd data were collected by the Alvin submersible from seven basalt glasses in the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR), giving similar ratios for Pb-206/Pb-204 of about 18.45, for Pb-207/Pb-204 of about 15.47, for Pb-208/Pb-204 of about 37.81, for Sr-87/Sr-86 of about 0.70249, and for Nd-143/Nd-144 of about 0.51315. Data suggest that the basalts are all cogenetic, and that four of the samples are also comagmatic. It is concluded that isotopic data for the JFR and seamount basalts provide additional support for the mantle blob cluster model (Allegre et al., 1984), suggesting the involvement of multiple components in the genesis of ridge basalts, and including an unusual end-member that has nonradiogenic Sr and variable Pb-206/Pb-204 isotopic compositions.

  9. Sulfur Concentration of Martian Magmas at Sulfide Saturation at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Martian Magma Ocean and Magmatic Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfur is critical for a wide range of processes of terrestrial planets including thermal evolution of core and atmosphere and geochemistry of mantle and crust. For Mars, sulfur is particularly important because it may be abundant in the core [1] while SO 2 and H2 S might have exerted a strong greenhouse climate in the past [2]. A critical parameter that affects sulfur distribution during differentiation is the sulfur carrying capacity of mantle melts. However, most experiments constraining sulfur content at sulfide saturation (SCSS) are conducted on FeO poor (~5-12 wt.%) basalts [3] and recent experiments on high-FeO (~16-22 wt.%, [4]) Martian basalts are restricted to ≤0.8 GPa [5]. To constrain SCSS of Martian magmas at mantle conditions, we simulated basalt-sulfide melt equilibria (S added as 15-30 wt.% FeS) in Gr capsules using a piston cylinder at 1-3 GPa and 1500-1700 °C. Two starting compositions, equivalent to olivine-phyric shergottites Yamato980459 (Y98; ~17.53 wt.% FeO) and NWA 2990 (NWA; ~16.42 wt.% FeO) and thought to be primary magma [6] were used. A composition Y98+1.4 wt.% H2O was also explored to constrain the effect of water on SCSS. All experiments produced quenched sulfide and silicate melts ± opx . FeS species in the NWA glasses was confirmed from peaks at 300-400 cm-1 in Raman spectra [7]. At 1600 °C, SCSS, measured using EPMA, decreases with pressure, 4800 to 3500 ppm from 1 to 2.5 GPa for Y98, ~5440 to 4380 ppm from 1 to 2 GPa for Y98+1.4 wt.% H2O, and 5000 to 3000 ppm from 1 to 3 GPa for NWA. At 2 GPa, SCSS of NWA increases with temperature, 3300 to 4600 ppm from 1500 to 1700 °C. Combining new and previous experiments on Martian basalts [5] (a total of 28 SCSS data with FeO* of 9.3-32.78 wt.%), a preliminary equation of the form LnS (ppm) = a + b.P + c/T +d.XSiO2 + e.XAl2O3 + f.LnXFeO was fitted, where P is in GPa, T in K, and X represents mole fraction of a given oxide. Our study suggests that at conditions of final melt

  10. Sulfide saturation history of the Stillwater Complex, Montana: chemostratigraphic variation in platinum group elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keays, Reid R.; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Hamlyn, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    A platinum group element (PGE) investigation of a 5.3 km-thick stratigraphic section of the Stillwater Complex, Montana was undertaken to refine and test a geochemical technique to explore for platiniferous horizons in layered mafic/ultramafic complexes. PGE, Au, major, and trace elements were determined in 92 samples from outcrops along traverses in the Chrome Mountain and Contact Mountain areas in the western part of the Stillwater Complex where the J-M reef occurs ˜1,460 m above the floor of the intrusion. A further 29 samples from a drill hole cored in the immediate vicinity of the J-M reef were analyzed to detail compositional variations directly above and below the J-M reef. Below the J-M reef, background concentrations of Pt (10 ppb) and Pd (7 ppb) are features of peridotites with intermediate S concentrations (mostly 100-200 ppm) and rocks from the Bronzitite, Norite I, and Gabbronorite I zones (mostly <100 ppm S). A sustained increase in S abundance commences at the J-M reef and continues to increase and peaks in the center of the 600 m-thick middle banded series. Over this same interval, Pt, Pd, and Au are initially elevated and then decrease in the order Pd > Pt > Au. Within the middle and upper banded series, S abundances fluctuate considerably, but exhibit an overall upward increase. The behavior of these elements records periodic sulfide saturation during deposition of the Peridotite zone, followed by crystallization under sulfide-undersaturated conditions until saturation is achieved at the base of the J-M reef. Following formation of the reef, sulfide-saturated conditions persisted throughout the deposition of most of the remaining Lower Layered Series. This resulted in a pronounced impoverishment in PGE abundance in the remaining magma, a condition that continued throughout deposition of the remainder of a succession, which is characterized by very low Pt (1.5 ppb) and Pd (0.7 ppb) abundances. Because only unmineralized rock was selected for study

  11. Solubility of Csbnd Osbnd H volatiles in graphite-saturated martian basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Ben D.; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Withers, Anthony C.

    2014-03-01

    To determine the speciation and concentrations of dissolved Csbnd Osbnd H volatiles in graphite-saturated martian primitive magmas, we conducted piston-cylinder experiments on graphite-encapsulated synthetic melt of Adirondack-class Humphrey basaltic composition. Experiments were performed over three orders of magnitude in oxygen fugacity (IW+2.3 to IW-0.8), and at pressures (1-3.2 GPa) and temperatures (1340-1617 °C) similar to those of possible martian source regions. Oxygen fugacities were determined from compositions of coexisting silicate melt + FePt alloy, olivine + pyroxene + FePt alloy, or melt + Fesbnd C liquid. Infrared spectra of quenched glasses all show carbonate absorptions at 1430 and 1520 cm-1, with CO2 concentrations diminishing under more reduced conditions, from 0.50 wt% down to 26 ppm. Carbon contents of silicate glasses and Fesbnd C liquids were measured using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) yielding 36-716 ppm and 6.71-7.03 wt%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and SIMS analysis produced similar H2O contents of 0.26-0.85 and 0.29-0.40 wt%, respectively. Raman spectra of glasses reveal evidence for OH- ions, but no indication of methane-related species. FTIR-measured concentrations of dissolved carbonate diminish linearly with oxygen fugacity, but more reduced conditions yield greater dissolved carbonate concentrations than would be expected based on oxidized conditions in previous work. C contents of silicate glasses determined by SIMS are consistently higher than C as carbonate determined by FTIR. Their difference, termed non-carbonate C, correlates well with additional IR absorptions found in reduced glasses (f < IW+0.4) at 1615, 2205, and 3370 cm-1. These absorption bands are not seen in more oxidized glasses, except B441 (IW+1.7), presumably because they represent reduced C-bearing complexes. The 2205 cm-1 peak is attributed to a Cdbnd O complex, possibly an Fe-carbonyl ion. The 1615 cm-1 peak does not correlate with

  12. Mineralogical studies of sulfide samples and volatile concentrations of basalt glasses from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    PubMed

    Brett, R; Evans, H T; Gibson, E K; Hedenquist, J W; Wandless, M V; Sommer, M A

    1987-10-10

    Sulfide samples obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey's DSRV Alvin dives on the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge closely resemble those from the same area described by Koski et al. (1984). Major minerals include sphalerite, wurtzite, pyrite, marcasite, isocubanite, anhydrite, and chalcopyrite. Equilibrium, if attained at all, during deposition of most sulfides was a transient event over a few tens of micrometers at most and was perturbed by rapid temperature and compositional changes of the circulating fluid. Two new minerals were found: one, a hydrated Zn, Fe hydroxy-chlorosulfate, and the other, a (Mn, Mg, Fe) hydroxide or hydroxy-hydrate. Both were formed at relatively low temperatures. Lizardite, starkeyite, and anatase were found for the first time in such an environment. Sulfide geothermometry involving the system Cu-Fe-S indicates a vent temperature of <328 degrees C for one sample. Fluid inclusion studies on crystals from the same vicinity of the same sample give pressure-corrected homogenization temperatures of 268 degrees and 285 degrees C. Ice-melting temperatures on inclusions from the same sample are about -2.8 degrees C, indicating that the equivalent salinity of the trapped fluid is about 50% greater than that of seawater. Volatile concentrations from vesicle-free basalt glass from the vent field are about 0.013 wt% CO2 and 0.16 wt% H2O, CO2 contents in these samples yield an entrapment depth of 2200 m of seawater, which is the depth from which the samples were collected.

  13. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-15

    Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

  14. Metal-saturated sulfide assemblages in NWA 2737: Evidence for impact-related sulfur devolatilization in Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Chevrier, Vincent; Sautter, Violaine; Pont, Sylvain

    2012-11-01

    Abstract-NWA 2737, a Martian meteorite from the Chassignite subclass, contains minute amounts (0.010 ± 0.005 vol%) of metal-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. These latter bear evidence of the strong shock effects documented by abundant Fe nanoparticles and planar defects in Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 olivine. A Ni-poor troilite (Fe/S = 1.0 ± 0.01), sometimes Cr-bearing (up to 1 wt%), coexists with micrometer-sized taenite/tetrataenite-type native Ni-Fe alloys (Ni/Fe = 1) and Fe-Os-Ir-(Ru) alloys a few hundreds of nanometers across. The troilite has exsolved flame-like pentlandite (Fe/Fe + Ni = 0.5-0.6). Chalcopyrite is almost lacking, and no pyrite has been found. As a hot desert find, NWA 2737 shows astonishingly fresh <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The composition of troilite coexisting with Ni-Fe alloys is completely at odds with Chassigny and Nahkla <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (pyrite + metal-deficient monoclinic-type pyrrhotite). It indicates strongly reducing crystallization conditions (close to IW), several log units below the fO2 conditions inferred from chromites compositions and accepted for Chassignites (FMQ-1 log unit). It is proposed that reduction in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> into base and precious metal alloys is operated via sulfur degassing, which is supported by the highly resorbed and denticulated shape of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs and their spongy textures. Shock-related S degassing may be responsible for considerable damages in magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> structures and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> assemblages, with concomitant loss of magnetic properties as documented in some other Martian meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039408&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dluna','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039408&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dluna"><span>Crystallization kinetics in a multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma - An experimental study of Luna 24 ferrobasalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Grove, T. L.; Bence, A. E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The paper deals with the effects of kinetics on mineral/melt partitioning and on fractional crystallization for a Luna-24 ferrobasalt. The composition is nearly multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> under lunar surface conditions, making it possible to study the response of several mineral phases to kinetic factors during cooling. The differential suppression of the temperature of appearance of olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase causes changes in the liquid line of descent. The course of liquid line of descent is mapped as a function of the cooling rate, and the partitioning of elements between pyroxene/liquid and olivine/liquid is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1179/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1179/"><span>Magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich nickel-copper deposits related to picrite and (or) tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dike-sill complexes-A preliminary deposit model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schulz, Klaus J.; Chandler, Val W.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Zientek, Michael L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (?) platinum-group elements (PGEs), account for approximately 60 percent of the world's Ni production and are active exploration targets in the United States and elsewhere. On the basis of their principal metal production, magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in mafic rocks can be divided into two major types: those that are <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich, typically with 10 to 90 percent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals, and have economic value primarily because of their Ni and Cu contents; and those that are <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-poor, typically with 0.5 to 5 percent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals, and are exploited principally for PGE. Because the purpose of this deposit model is to facilitate the assessment for undiscovered, potentially economic magmatic Ni-Cu?PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in the United States, it addresses only those deposits of economic significance that are likely to occur in the United States on the basis of known geology. Thus, this model focuses on deposits hosted by small- to medium-sized mafic and (or) ultramafic dikes and sills that are related to picrite and tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmatic systems generally emplaced in continental settings as a component of large igneous provinces (LIPs). World-class examples (those containing greater than 1 million tons Ni) of this deposit type include deposits at Noril'sk-Talnakh (Russia), Jinchuan (China), Pechenga (Russia), Voisey's Bay (Canada), and Kabanga (Tanzania). In the United States, this deposit type is represented by the Eagle deposit in northern Michigan, currently under development by Kennecott Minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P23A1918S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P23A1918S"><span>Solubility of C-O-H volatiles in graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> martian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and application to martian atmospheric evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanley, B. D.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> than CO2 contents determined by FTIR. This difference, termed excess C, is attributed to the presence of other reduced C-species, such as carbonyls and amides (which have C=O and N-H bonds), detected using FTIR in reduced graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> martian <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. An atmosphere produced by degassing of magmas similar to this study would be richer in C-O-H species than previously modeled using only CO2 and could create a much warmer climate that stabilizes liquid water on the ancient martian surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979485','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/979485"><span>Carbonate Mineralization of Volcanic Province <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.</p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p> precipitates suggest changes in fluid chemistry unique to the dissolution behavior of each <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sample reacted with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> water. The Karoo <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from South Africa appeared the least reactive, with very limited mineralization occurring during the testing with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> water. The relative reactivity of different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples were unexpectedly different in the experiments conducted using aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures versus those reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 mixtures. For example, the Karoo <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was highly reactive in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S, as evident by small nodules of carbonate coating the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> grains after 181 days of testing. However the most reactive <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in CO2-H2O, Newark Basin, formed limited amounts of carbonate precipitates in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixture. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> reactivity in CO2-H2O mixtures appears to be controlled by the composition of the glassy mesostasis, which is the most reactive component in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock. With the addition of H2S to the CO2-H2O system, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> reactivity appears to be controlled by precipitation of coatings of insoluble Fe <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.466..115D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.466..115D"><span>Experimental determination of CO2 content at graphite <span class="hlt">saturation</span> along a natural <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-peridotite melt join: Implications for the fate of carbon in terrestrial magma oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duncan, Megan S.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Tsuno, Kyusei</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the carbon carrying capacity of peridotite melt at reducing conditions is critical to constrain the mantle budget and planet-scale distribution of carbon set at early stage of differentiation. Yet, neither measurements of CO2 content in reduced peridotite melt nor a reliable model to extrapolate the known solubility of CO2 in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> (mafic) melt to solubility in peridotitic (ultramafic) melt exist. There are several reasons for this gap; one reason is due to the unknown relative contributions of individual network modifying cations, such as Ca2+ versus Mg2+, on carbonate dissolution particularly at reducing conditions. Here we conducted high pressure, temperature experiments to estimate the CO2 contents in silicate melts at graphite <span class="hlt">saturation</span> over a compositional range from natural <span class="hlt">basalts</span> toward peridotite at a fixed pressure (P) of 1.0 GPa, temperature (T) of 1600 °C, and oxygen fugacity (log ⁡ fO2 ∼ IW + 1.6). We also conducted experiments to determine the relative effects of variable Ca and Mg contents in mafic compositions on the dissolution of carbonate. Carbon in quenched glasses was measured and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy and was found to be dissolved as carbonate (CO32-). The FTIR spectra showed CO32- doublets that shifted systematically with the MgO and CaO content of silicate melts. Using our data and previous work we constructed a new composition-based model to determine the CO2 content of ultramafic (peridotitic) melt representative of an early Earth, magma ocean composition at graphite <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Our data and model suggest that the dissolved CO2 content of reduced, peridotite melt is significantly higher than that of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt at shallow magma ocean conditions; however, the difference in C content between the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and peridotitic melts may diminish with depth as the more depolymerized peridotite melt is more compressible. Using our model of CO2 content at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1490J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.1490J"><span>The competing effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> versus degassing on the behavior of the chalcophile elements during the differentiation of hydrous melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenner, Frances E.; Hauri, Erik H.; Bullock, Emma S.; König, Stephan; Arculus, Richard J.; Mavrogenes, John A.; Mikkelson, Nicole; Goddard, Charlotte</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>There is a lack of consensus regarding the roles of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> versus volatile degassing on the partitioning of Cu and Ag during differentiation and eruption of convergent margin magmas. Because of their oxidized character, volatile-rich magmas from the Eastern Manus Back-arc Basin (EMBB) only reach <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> following magnetite-driven reduction of the melt: the so-called "magnetite crisis." If <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> typically precedes volatile <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, the magnetite crisis will limit the proportion of Cu and Ag that can partition from the melt into an exsolving volatile-rich phase, which may contribute to the sporadic occurrence of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits at convergent margins. However, it is unclear whether the magnetite crisis is a common or rare event during differentiation of volatile-rich magmas. We report major and trace element data for submarine volcanic glasses from the Tonga arc-proximal Valu Fa Ridge (VFR; SW Pacific). Cu-Se-Ag systematics of samples erupting at the southern VFR suggest magnetite fractionation-triggered <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The similarity in chalcophile element systematics of the southern VFR and EMBB samples is unlikely to be coincidental, and may indicate that the magnetite crisis is a common event during differentiation of hydrous melts. However, unlike many convergent margin magmas, it is unlikely that the evolving VFR and EMBB were <span class="hlt">saturated</span> in a S-bearing volatile phase prior to magnetite fractionation. Hence, the metal-depleting magnetite crisis may be restricted to back-arc basin magmas that do not degas volatiles prior to magnetite fractionation and potentially convergent margin magmas fractionating at high pressures in the continental crust.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654458"><span>Impact of Redox Reactions on Colloid Transport in <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Porous Media: An Example of Ferrihydrite Colloids Transport in the Presence of <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, Peng; Yuan, Songhu; Wang, Dengjun</p> <p>2016-10-18</p> <p>Transport of colloids in the subsurface is an important environmental process with most research interests centered on the transport in chemically stable conditions. While colloids can be formed under dynamic redox conditions, the impact of redox reactions on their transport is largely overlooked. Taking the redox reactions between ferrihydrite colloids and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as an example, we investigated how and to what extent the redox reactions modulated the transport of ferrihydrite colloids in anoxic sand columns over a range of environmentally relevant conditions. Our results reveal that the presence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (7.8-46.9 μM) significantly decreased the breakthrough of ferrihydrite colloids in the sand column. The estimated travel distance of ferrihydrite colloids in the absence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was nearly 7-fold larger than that in the presence of 46.9 μM <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The reduced breakthrough was primarily attributed to the reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite colloids by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in parallel with formation of elemental sulfur (S(0)) particles from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation. Reductive dissolution decreased the total mass of ferrihydrite colloids, while the negatively charged S(0) decreased the overall zeta potential of ferrihydrite colloids by attaching onto their surfaces and thus enhanced their retention in the sand. Our findings provide novel insights into the critical role of redox reactions on the transport of redox-sensitive colloids in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> porous media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014782','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014782"><span>Mineralogical studies of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> samples and volatile concentrations of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brett, R.; Evans, H.T.; Gibson, E.K.; Hedenquist, J.W.; Wandless, M.-V.; Sommer, M.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Specifically considers unusual minerals and geothermometric relations not previously covered. Equilibrium, if attained at all, during deposition of most <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> was a transient event over a few tens of micrometers at most and was perturbed by rapid temperature and compositional changes of the circulating fluid. Two new minerals were found: one, a hydrated Zn, Fe hydroxy-chlorosulfate, and the other, a (Mn, Mg, Fe) hydroxide or hydroxy-hydrate. Both were formed at relatively low temperatures. Lizardite, starkeyite, and anatase were found for the first time in such an environment.-from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47...23L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MinDe..47...23L"><span>S <span class="hlt">saturation</span> history of Nain Plutonic Suite mafic intrusions: origin of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Labrador, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lightfoot, Peter C.; Keays, Reid R.; Evans-Lamswood, Dawn; Wheeler, Robert</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p> ores have higher Ni and Pd tenor than the Eastern Deeps massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>; this is consistent with both a higher R factor and greater degree of silicate parental magma evolution in the Ovoid than the Eastern Deeps. The disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> surrounding the Eastern Deeps deposit have some of the highest Ni and Pd tenors at Voisey's Bay, which are indicative of not only more primitive magmas but also higher R factors than the Ovoid or the Eastern Deeps. VTT and normal-textured troctolite of the Eastern Deeps that contain trace <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> have 0.1-3 ppb Pt and 0.1-3 ppb Pd, whereas weakly to heavily mineralized variable troctolites in the same unit have one to two orders of magnitude higher abundances of Pt and Pd. Troctolites and olivine gabbros from other parts of the Voisey's Bay Intrusion and other Nain Plutonic Suite Intrusions, including the Kiglapait, Newark Bay, Barth Island, Mushua, and Nain Bay South Intrusion, also have low platinum group element abundances. Although it is possible that this is a signature of a widespread <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> event that pre-dated ore formation at Voisey's Bay, it is more likely that platinum group element (PGE) depletion is a product of the source melting process where low degrees of melting resulted in the retention of PGE in the mantle source. If so, this indicates that PGE depletion should be used with caution as an exploration tool in the Nain Plutonic Suite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B11B0366M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B11B0366M"><span>Aqueous Iron-<span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Clusters in Variably <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Soil Systems: Implications for Iron Cycling and Fluid Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Iron and sulfur cycling is an important control on contaminant fate and transport, the availability of micronutrients and the physics of water flow. This study explores the effects of soil structure (i.e. layers, lenses, macropores, or fractures) on linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes involving Fe and S cycling in the vadose zone using packed soil columns. Three laboratory soil columns were constructed: a homogenized medium-grained sand, homogenized organic-rich loam, and a sand-over-loam layered column. Both upward and downward infiltration of water was evaluated during experiments to simulate rising water table and rainfall events respectively. Water samples extracted by lysimeter were analyzed for reduced species (including total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, Fe(II), and FeSaq) voltammetrically using a mercury drop electrode. In addition to other reduced species, aqueous FeS clusters (FeSaq) were observed in two of the columns, with the greatest concentrations of FeSaq occurring in close proximity to the soil interface in the layered column. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of aqueous FeS clusters in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sediments. The aqueous nature of FeSaq allows it to be transported instead of precipitating and suggests that current conceptual models of iron-sulfur cycling may need to be adapted to account for an aqueous phase. The presence of iron-rich soil aggregates near the soil interface may indicate that FeS clusters played a critical role in the formation of soil aggregates that subsequently caused up to an order of magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.258..163Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.258..163Z"><span>Using chalcophile elements to constrain crustal contamination and xenolith-magma interaction in Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of eastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeng, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Li-Hui; Xu, Xi-Sheng</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Continental <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have complicated petrogenetic processes, and their chemical compositions can be affected by multi-staged geological evolution. Compared to lithophile elements, chalcophile elements including Ni, platinum-group elements (PGEs) and Cu are sensitive to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation and fractional crystallization during the evolution of mantle-derived magmas and can provide constraints on the genesis of continental <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Cenozoic intra-continental alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the Nanjing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> field, eastern China, include high-Ca and low-Ca varieties. All these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have poor PGE contents with Ir ranging from 0.016 ppb to 0.288 ppb and high Cu/Pd ratios from 0.7 × 105 to 4.7 × 105 (5.7 × 103 for DMM), indicating that they were derived from <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> mantle sources with variable amounts of residual <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during melting or might undergo an early-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation in the mantle. Relatively high Cu/Pd ratios along with high Pd concentrations for the high-Ca alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicate an additional removal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during magma ascent. Because these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have high, variable Pd/Ir ratios (2.8-16.8) with low Ce/Pb (9.9-19.7) ratios and εNd values (+ 3.6-+6.4), crustal contamination is proposed to be a potential process to induce the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and removal. Significantly increased Pd/Ir ratios for few high-Ca <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can be explained by the fractionation of laurite or Ru-Os-Ir alloys with olivine or chromite. For low-Ca alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, their PGE contents are well correlated with the MgO, Sc contents, incompatible element ratios (Lu/Hf, Na/Ti and Ca/Al) and Hf isotopes. Good correlations are also observed between Pd/Ir (or Rh/Ir) and Na/Ti (or Ca/Al) ratios. Variations of these elemental ratios and Hf isotopes is previously documented to be induced by the mixing of peridotite xenolith-released melts during ascent. Therefore, we suggest that such xenolith-magma interaction are also responsible for the variable PGE compositions of low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinDe.tmp...42C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinDe.tmp...42C"><span>Triggers on <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in Fe-Ti oxide-bearing, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions in the Tarim large igneous province, NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Jun; Wang, Christina Yan; Xu, Yi-Gang; Xing, Chang-Ming; Ren, Ming-Hao</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Three Fe-Ti oxide-bearing layered intrusions (Mazaertag, Wajilitag, and Piqiang) in the Tarim large igneous province (NW China) have been investigated for understanding the relationship of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, Platinum-group element (PGE) enrichment, and Fe-Ti oxide accumulation in layered intrusions. These mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions have low PGE concentrations (<0.4 ppb Os, <0.7 ppb Ir, <1 ppb Ru, <0.2 ppb Rh, <5 ppb Pt, and <8 ppb Pd) and elevated Cu/Pd (2.2 × 104 to 3.3 × 106). The low PGE concentrations of the rocks are mainly attributed to PGE-depleted, parental magma that was produced by low degrees of partial melting of the mantle. The least contaminated rocks of the Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have slightly enriched Os isotopic compositions with γOs(t = 280 Ma) values ranging from +13 to +23, indicating that the primitive magma may have been generated from a convecting mantle, without appreciable input of lithospheric mantle. The Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have near-chondritic γOs(t) values (+13 to +60) against restricted ɛ Nd(t) values (-0.4 to +2.8), indicating insignificant crustal contamination. Rocks of the Piqiang intrusion have relatively low ɛ Nd(t) values of -3.1 to +1.0, consistent with ˜15 to 25 % assimilation of the upper crust. The rocks of the Mazaertag and Wajilitag intrusions have positive correlation of PGE and S, pointing to the control of PGE by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Poor correlation of PGE and S for the Piqiang intrusion is attributed to the involvement of multiple <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-stage liquids with different PGE compositions or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-oxide reequilibration on cooling. These three layered intrusions have little potential of reef-type PGE mineralization. Four criteria are summarized in this study to help discriminate between PGE-mineralized and PGE-unmineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MinDe..44..303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MinDe..44..303S"><span>Geochemistry of the Kalatongke Ni-Cu-(PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, NW China: implications for the formation of magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in a postcollisional environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Xie-Yan; Li, Xiang-Ren</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Kalatongke (also spelt as Karatungk) Ni-Cu-(platinum-group element, PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, containing 33 Mt <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore with a grade of 0.8 wt.% Ni and 1.3 wt.% Cu, is located in the Eastern Junggar terrane, Northern Xinjiang, NW China. The largest <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore body, which occupies more than 50 vol.% of the intrusion Y1, is dominantly comprised of disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with a massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inner zone. Economic disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> also occur at the base of the intrusions Y2 and Y3. The main host rock types are norite in the lower part and diorite in the upper part of each intrusion. Enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and depletion in heavy rare earth elements relative to mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> indicate that the mafic intrusions were produced from magmas derived from a metasomatized garnet lherzolite mantle. The average grades of the disseminated ores are 0.6 wt.% Ni and 1.1 wt.% Cu, whereas those of the massive ores are 2 wt.% Ni and 8 wt.% Cu. The PGE contents of the disseminated ores (14-69 ppb Pt and 78-162 ppb Pd) are lower than those of the massive ores (120-505 ppb Pt and 30-827 ppb Pd). However, on the basis of 100% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, PGE contents of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are lower than those of the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Very high Cu/Pd ratios (>4.5 × 104) indicate that the Kalatongke <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> segregated from PGE-depleted magma produced by prior <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and separation. A negative correlation between the Cu/Pd ratio and the Pd content in 100% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> indicates that the PGE content of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is controlled by both the PGE concentrations in the parental silicate magma and the ratio of the amount of silicate to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> magma. The negative correlations between Ir and Pd indicate that the massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> experienced fractionation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.2433S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.2433S"><span>Solubility of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in pure water and in NaCl solutions, from 20 to 320°C and at <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suleimenov, O. M.; Krupp, R. E.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>The solubility of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in pure water and in NaCl solutions has been studied experimentally from 20 to 320°C and at <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressures. Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> solutions in equilibrium with their vapor phase were contained in a pressurized titanium bellows of known total volume. The bellows transmitted inside-vapor pressures via a thermally stable oil (pressure medium) to a high-precision pressure sensor. Temperatures were measured by a sheathed thermocouple immersed into the oil surrounding the bellows. Values for the Henry constants were derived from measurements of equilibrium vapor pressure, volume, temperature, and bulk composition. The Henry constants agree well with previously published data up to about 200°C, but then deviate towards lower values (higher solubilities) at higher temperatures. Henry constants from 20 to 320°C and at <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressures may be obtained from the correlation log kH( T, Psat,1 ) = +0.6342702616 e + 3 + 0.2709284796 e + 0 · T - 0.1 113202904 e - 3 · T2 - 0.1671907660 e + 5/ T -0.2619219571 e + 3 · logT, where khis in units of bar/molality and T in Kelvin. The experimental Henry constants have been fitted to a scaled particle theory model and have been tested by a recently proposed linearization procedure. The salting-out effect of NaCl on H 2S solubility is nearly independent of temperature up to about 250°C, but then increases sharply as temperatures approach the critical point of water. Skeleton tables to 365°C and for ionic strengths μ = 0, 1, 2, 3 have been prepared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoMP..172...12E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoMP..172...12E"><span>CO2 content of andesitic melts at graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> upper mantle conditions with implications for redox state of oceanic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source regions and remobilization of reduced carbon from subducted eclogite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eguchi, James; Dasgupta, Rajdeep</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We have performed experiments to determine the effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity on the CO2 contents in nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The andesite composition was specifically chosen to match a low-degree partial melt composition that is generated from MORB-like eclogite in the convective, oceanic upper mantle. Experiments were performed at 1-3 GPa, 1375-1550 °C, and fO2 of FMQ -3.2 to FMQ -2.3 and the resulting experimental glasses were analyzed for CO2 and H2O contents using FTIR and SIMS. Experimental results were used to develop a thermodynamic model to predict CO2 content of nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Fitting of experimental data returned thermodynamic parameters for dissolution of CO2 as molecular CO2: ln( K 0) = -21.79 ± 0.04, Δ V 0 = 32.91 ± 0.65 cm3mol-1, Δ H 0 = 107 ± 21 kJ mol-1, and dissolution of CO2 as CO3 2-: ln (K 0 ) = -21.38 ± 0.08, Δ V 0 = 30.66 ± 1.33 cm3 mol-1, Δ H 0 = 42 ± 37 kJ mol-1, where K 0 is the equilibrium constant at some reference pressure and temperature, Δ V 0 is the volume change of reaction, and Δ H 0 is the enthalpy change of reaction. The thermodynamic model was used along with trace element partition coefficients to calculate the CO2 contents and CO2/Nb ratios resulting from the mixing of a depleted MORB and the partial melt of a graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> eclogite. Comparison with natural MORB and OIB data suggests that the CO2 contents and CO2/Nb ratios of CO2-enriched oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> cannot be produced by mixing with partial melts of graphite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> eclogite. Instead, they must be produced by melting of a source containing carbonate. This result places a lower bound on the oxygen fugacity for the source region of these CO2-enriched <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and suggests that fO2 measurements made on cratonic xenoliths may not be applicable to the convecting upper mantle. CO2-depleted <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, on the other hand, are consistent with mixing between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V32F..08J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V32F..08J"><span>Generation of Sulfur-rich, Sulfur-undersaturated <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melts in Oxidized Arc Sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jugo, P. J.; Luth, R. W.; Richards, J. P.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Although sulfur is a minor element in the Earth, it has a disproportionate impact because it commonly occurs as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> largely control the behavior of chalcophile (e.g., Cu, Ni) and highly siderophile elements (Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) that are of interest because either they are economically important or because they provide valuable information about geochemical processes. Island arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are more oxidized than <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from other tectonic settings and therefore, in these settings, sulfur maybe present not as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> but as sulfate. In addition to the impact on the behavior of chalcophile and siderophile elements, sulfur speciation as sulfate may have a role on the occurrence of sulfur-rich explosive volcanism, which has been linked to significant short-term variations in global climate. However, little is known about the range in oxygen fugacity for the transition from solubility as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to solubility as sulfate. We used experimental data on the solubility of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with either <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or sulfate at different oxygen fugacities to model this transition. Our model shows that the ten-fold increase in the solubility of sulfur (from 0.14 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%) observed experimentally occurs at oxygen fugacities between ˜FMQ+1 and ˜FMQ+2, conditions under which many arc magmas are thought to be generated. The increase in the solubility of sulfur with increasing oxygen fugacity implies that in oxidized arc sources very low degrees of partial melting are sufficient to generate <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts that are simultaneously sulfur-rich and sulfur-undersaturated. In the absence of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, oxides and metallic alloys may influence the behavior of some (but not all) the highly siderophile elements whereas the chalcophile and some siderophile elements become incompatible. As a consequence, melting of oxidized sources in which <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are not stable would favor incorporation of metals such as Cu, Ni, Au and Pd in the melts and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51E1530P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H51E1530P"><span>Understanding the roles of ligand promoted dissolution, water column <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and hydrological properties on intense <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering using reactive transport and watershed-scale hydrologic modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perez Fodich, A.; Walter, M. T.; Derry, L. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The interaction of rocks with rainwater generates physical and chemical changes, which ultimately culminates in soil development. The addition of catalyzers such as plants, atmospheric gases and hydrological properties will result in more intense and/or faster weathering transformations. The intensity of weathering across the Island of Hawaii is strongly correlated with exposure age and time-integrated precipitation. Intense weathering has resulted from interaction between a thermodynamically unstable lithology, high water/rock ratios, atmospheric gases (O2, CO2) and biota as an organic acid and CO2 producer. To further investigate the role of different weathering agents we have developed 1-D reactive transport models (RTM) to understand mineralogical and fluid chemistry changes in the initially <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> porous media. The initial meso-scale heterogeneity of porosity makes it difficult for RTMs to capture changes in runoff/groundwater partitioning. Therefore, hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and aquifer depth) are modeled as a watershed parameter appropriate for this system where sub-surface hydraulic data is scarce(1). Initial results agree with field data in a broad sense: different rainfall regimes and timescales show depletion of mobile cations, increasingly low pH, congruent dissolution of olivine and pyroxene, incongruent dissolution of plagioclase and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass, precipitation of non-crystalline allophane and ferrihydrite, and porosity changes due to dissolution and precipitation of minerals; ultimately Al and Fe are also exported from the system. RTM is used to examine the roles of unsaturation in the soil profile, ligand promoted dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing phases, and Fe-oxide precipitation at the outcrop scale. Also, we aim to test the use of recession flow analysis to model watershed-scale hydrological properties to extrapolate changes in the runoff/groundwater partitioning. The coupling between weathering processes and hydrologic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V41C..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V41C..02P"><span>Sulfur in Hydrous, Oxidized <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Magmas: Phase Equilibria and Melt Solubilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pichavant, M.; Scaillet, B.; di Carlo, I.; Rotolo, S.; Metrich, N.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, sulphides were found to coexist with anhydrite in a fO2 range as high as NNO+3.0. Melts at equilibrium with anhydrite have S concentrations, measured by electron microprobe, of 2070 ppm (<span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite), 5600 ppm (K <span class="hlt">basalt</span>) and 6500-6550 ppm (picritic <span class="hlt">basalt</span>). These values reach concentrations similar to found previously for hydrous oxidized trachyandesite melts at 1000 ° C but are significantly less than recent determinations for dry <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with sulfate at 1300 ° C. Two anhydrite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> glasses, investigated by XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge, show S to be present only as sulfate species. At lower fO2, between NNO and NNO+1, S concentrations in melts synthesized in AuPd capsules strongly decrease because most of the S present is sequestered in the Pd-rich phases. When Au capsules are used (<span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite experiments), there is no marked effect of fO2 on S solubility in this fO2 range: 2250 ppm S (NNO+1.3, <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span>) vs. 2070 ppm S (NNO+4.1, anhydrite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span>). This is consistent with the predominance of sulfate species at NNO+1.3 although <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species were also detected by XANES. Comparison between near-liquidus experiments with and without S shows no large influence of S on silicate phase equilibria. However, anhydrite crystallization removes a significant amount of Ca from the melt. This strongly affects melt chemistry, and induces major changes in the nature of liquidus silicate phases and in their composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeCoA..72..926R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008GeCoA..72..926R"><span>Re and Os concentrations in arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: The roles of volatility and source region fO 2 variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Righter, K.; Chesley, J. T.; Caiazza, C. M.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Ruiz, J.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Olivine and spinel compositions, major elements (including ferric and ferrous iron), S, Re and Os contents have been measured for a suite of primitive (most >6 wt% MgO) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), including the western Mexican volcanic belt, the Michoacan-Guanajuato Volcanic Field, Sierra Chichinautzin, Pico de Orizaba region, Palma Sola, San Martin Tuxtlas, and the eastern alkaline province (EAP). Sulfur contents at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> were calculated to determine whether the measured S contents are representative of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span> liquids. Most of the samples have S contents much lower than expected for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. A few have higher contents than calculated perhaps due to the presence of sulfate in the measured total sulfur (i.e., more oxidized samples). Comparison of the TMVB samples along with previously analyzed MORB, OIB, BABB and arc samples reveals a continuum of Re and Os contents that is best explained by variation in oxygen fugacity—and thus <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> stability—in the source region. High Re and Os magmatic suites are best explained by derivation by melting of oxidized mantle, where <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is no longer stable and Re and Os behave incompatibly, whereas low Re and Os magmatic suites are derived from melting of relatively reduced mantle where <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is stable, and Re and Os behave compatibly. Intermediate examples abound, and arc magmas span a wide range of Re and Os concentrations due to variation of fO 2 in the source during genesis of arc magmas. Low Re magmatic suites are furthermore potentially affected by volatility which can lower Re by a factor of 3-5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019780','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019780"><span>Geodynamics of magmatic Cu-Ni-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits: new insights from the Re-Os isotope system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lambert, D.D.; Foster, J.G.; Frick, L.R.; Ripley, E.M.; Zientek, M.L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we reassess crustal contamination and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore-forming processes in some of the largest magmatic ore deposits, using published Re-Os isotope data and a modeling methodology that incorporates the R factor, defined as the effective mass of silicate magma with which a given mass of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> magma has equilibrated, in an Re-Os isotope mixing equation. We show that there is less disparity between conclusions based on Re-Os isotope data compared to other isotopic systems if the R factor is considered, Komatiite-associated Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore systems typically have high Os concentrations, low Re/Os ratios, and near-chondritic initial Os isotope compositions. For magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores that are interpreted to have experienced relatively low R factors (2,000). <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in these ore systems may, therefore, have been achieved via changes in intensive parameters of the komatiite lavas (cooling or decompression) or changes in compositional parameters transparent to the Re-Os isotope system (e.g., fo2/fs2/fH2O)- <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-gabbro-associated Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore systems at Duluth, Sudbury, and Stillwater are quite distinct from those at Kambalda by having comparatively low Os concentrations, high Re/Os ratios, and high initial Os isotope compositions, These chemical and isotopic characteristics are indicative of significant interactions between their parental <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas and old crust because there are no known mantle reservoirs with such extreme geocheinical characteristics. Our modeling suggests that for Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores at Duluth, Sudbury, and Stillwater to maintain the observed high initial Os isotope compositions inherited from a crustal contaminant, R factors for these systems must have been low (< 10,000), consistent with their low metal concentrations. Thus, we interpret this style of base metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization to be derived from crustally contaminated but less dynamic magmatic systems that did not permit extensive equilibration of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> magma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V31C..07Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V31C..07Z"><span>Kinetic and dynamic control for magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits form by the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and separation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid from silicate liquid due to immiscibility. As a silicate melt cools and fractionates under reducing conditions, S concentration increases and S solubility decreases. Hence, at some point, S may become supersaturated, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt droplets would nucleate and grow. The droplets would sink through silicate melt due to higher density of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt, and accumulate at the bottom of the magma body, possibly with other crystallizing and settling dense minerals such as olivine and chromite. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> layer, if preserved, constitutes the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. Hence, the critical condition for magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit formation is for the droplets to settle enough distance to and accumulate at the bottom of a magma body. Otherwise, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets would be dispersed in the rock and would not form ores. Because the settling velocity is related to the size of the droplets, the growth kinetics and settling dynamics therefore control the formation of such deposits. In this report, a parametric study of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplet growth and settling as a magma body cools is carried out using our convective growth and settling models. Single stage exponential cooling with a given time scale is adopted. Because no reliable nucleation theory is available, nucleation is roughly treated by assuming one single nucleation event leading to N critical nuclei once the degree of supersaturation reaches x (both N and x are parameters to be varied). Crystal fractionation that can alter melt composition and viscosity is ignored. Growth starts from the critical nucleus radius. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> droplets are assumed to behave as rigid spheres similar to bubbles. A settling distance of 1 km is assigned as the critical condition for the formation of a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore deposit. The final result is expressed as the initial S concentration necessary for settling this distance. If cooling time scale is 1000 yr, N = 10000 per cubic meter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010231','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010231"><span>Reduction of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by sulfur loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brett, R.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Metallic Fe content and S abundance are inversely correlated in mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Either S volatilization from the melt results in reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 or else high S content decreases Fe0 activity in the melt, thus explaining the correlation. All considerations favor the model that metallic iron in mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is due to sulfur loss. The Apollo 11 and 17 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melts were probably <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with S at the time of eruption; the Apollo 12 and 15 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were probably not <span class="hlt">saturated</span>. Non-mare rocks show a positive correlation of S abundance with metallic Fe content; it is proposed that this is due to the addition of meteoritic material having a fairly constant Fe0/S ratio. If true, metallic Fe content or S abundance in non-mare rocks provides a measure of degree of meteoritic contamination. ?? 1976.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4685C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005GeCoA..69.4685C"><span>Platinum-group element constraints on source composition and magma evolution of the Kerguelen Plateau using <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from ODP Leg 183</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chazey, William J.; Neal, Clive R.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Seventeen <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 183 to the Kerguelen Plateau (KP) were analyzed for the platinum-group elements (PGEs: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd), and 15 were analyzed for trace elements. Relative concentrations of the PGEs ranged from ˜0.1 (Ir, Ru) to ˜5 (Pt) times primitive mantle. These relatively high PGE abundances and fractionated patterns are not accounted for by the presence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals; there are only trace <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> present in thin-section. Sulfur <span class="hlt">saturation</span> models applied to the KP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggest that the parental magmas may have never reached <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, despite large degrees of partial melting (˜30%) and fractional crystallization (˜45%). First order approximations of the fractionation required to produce the KP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from an ˜30% partial melt of a spinel peridotite were determined using the PELE program. The model was adapted to better fit the physical and chemical observations from the KP <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and requires an initial crystal fractionation stage of at least 30% olivine plus Cr-spinel (49:1), followed by magma replenishment and fractional crystallization (RFC) that included clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and titanomagnetite (15:9:1). The low Pd values ([Pd/Pt] pm < 1.7) for these samples are not predicted by currently available K d values. These Pd values are lowest in samples with relatively higher degrees of alteration as indicated by petrographic observations. Positive anomalies are a function of the behavior of the PGEs; they can be reproduced by Cr-spinel, and titanomagnetite crystallization, followed by titanomagnetite resorption during the final stages of crystallization. Our modeling shows that it is difficult to reproduce the PGE abundances by either depleted upper or even primitive mantle sources. Crustal contamination, while indicated at certain sites by the isotopic compositions of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, appears to have had a minimal affect on the PGEs. The PGE abundances measured in the Kerguelen Plateau</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Litho..18..151B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Litho..18..151B"><span>Vapor deposition in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682258.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682258.html"><span>Selenium <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.248....1L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.248....1L"><span>The significance of PGE variations with Sr-Nd isotopes and lithophile elements in the Emeishan flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province from SW China to northern Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Tao, Yan; Hu, Ruizhong</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>New analyses of siderophile-lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes in the Permian <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and picrites from northern Vietnam, the southernmost occurrence of the Emeishan flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province, together with previously published data, are used to address the question of whether any meaningful correlation between these elements and isotopes exists at a province scale. The available data show that negative correlations between εNd, (87Sr/86Sr)i and mantle-normalized (Nb/Th)n are present in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> but not in the associated picrites. This indicates that crustal contamination is negligible in the picrites but significant in some of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The picrites and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the entire province show negative correlations between (Rh/Ru)n, (Pt/Ru)n, (Pd/Ru)n and Mg-number. This indicates that Ru behaves compatibly whereas Rh, Pt and Pd behave incompatibly during magma differentiation. The incompatible behavior of Rh in natural <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> systems is also supported by the fact that (Pt/Rh)n remains constant with decreasing Mg-number in the lavas. Depletions of Pd and Pt, and to a lesser degree Cu, in some <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples characterized by relatively low εNd and (Nb/Th)n support the notion that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in the magmas was triggered by a combination of siliceous crustal contamination and addition of external sulfur. Within the entire flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province only the picrites from Song Da, northern Vietnam show clear depletion in Ir relative to Ru. These picrites are also characterized higher Al2O3/TiO2 and lower mantle-normalized La/Yb (0.2-2.4) than those from elsewhere in the province, possibly due to the involvement of an Ir-depleted, fertile mantle component in magma generation at this location.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039881&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039881&hterms=ocean+floor&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bfloor"><span>Concentrations and isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Ueda, A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Moore, J. G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Ocean floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> studied from the Galapagos Ridge, FAMOUS area, Cayman Trough and Kilauea east rift contain 20-200 ppm carbon and 0.3-2.8 ppn nitrogen as sums of the vesicle-filling gases CO2 and N2 and dissolved species. The wide range of carbon contents found is due partly to the different extent of outgassing of vesicle-filling gases and partly to depth dependency of dissolved CO2 in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Sulfate commonly exists with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in these <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratio increases with increasing water content, perhaps reflecting the higher oxidation potential in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt of the higher water content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039881&hterms=nitrogen+ocean&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnitrogen%2Bocean','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850039881&hterms=nitrogen+ocean&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnitrogen%2Bocean"><span>Concentrations and isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Ueda, A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Moore, J. G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Ocean floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> studied from the Galapagos Ridge, FAMOUS area, Cayman Trough and Kilauea east rift contain 20-200 ppm carbon and 0.3-2.8 ppn nitrogen as sums of the vesicle-filling gases CO2 and N2 and dissolved species. The wide range of carbon contents found is due partly to the different extent of outgassing of vesicle-filling gases and partly to depth dependency of dissolved CO2 in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Sulfate commonly exists with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in these <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratio increases with increasing water content, perhaps reflecting the higher oxidation potential in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt of the higher water content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V74B..02Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V74B..02Z"><span>Bubble Growth in Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459..183D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459..183D"><span>The fate of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during decompression melting of peridotite - implications for sulfur inventory of the MORB-source depleted upper mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, Shuo; Dasgupta, Rajdeep</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Magmatism at mid ocean ridges is one of the main pathways of S outflux from deep Earth to the surface reservoirs and is a critical step in the global sulfur cycle, yet our understanding of the behavior of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during decompression melting of the upper mantle is incomplete. In order to constrain the sulfur budget of the mantle and reconcile the sulfur and chalcophile element budget of mantle partial melts parental to primitive mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORBs), here we developed a model to describe the behavior of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and Cu during decompression melting by combining the pMELTS thermodynamic model and empirical sulfur contents at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration (SCSS) models, taking into account the effect of the presence of Ni and Cu in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on SCSS of mantle-derived melts. Calculation of SCSS along melting adiabat at mantle potential temperature of 1380 °C with variable initial S content in the mantle indicates that the complete consumption or partial survival of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the melting residue depends on initial S content and degree of melting. Primitive MORBs (Mg# > 60) with S and Cu mostly concentrated in 800-1000 ppm and 80-120 ppm are likely mixture of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> undersaturated high degree melts and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span> low degree melts derived from depleted peridotite containing 100-200 ppm S. Model calculations to capture the effects of variable mantle potential temperatures (1280-1420 °C) indicate that for a given abundance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the mantle, hotter mantle consumes <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> more efficiently than colder mantle owing to the effect of temperature in enhancing <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> solubility in silicate melt, and higher mantle temperature stabilizing partial melt with higher FeO* and lower SiO2 and Al2O3, all of which generally enhance <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> solubility. However, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can still be exhausted by ∼ 10- 15% melting with bulk S of 100-150 ppm in the mantle when TP is as low as 1300 °C. We also show that although variation of DCuperidotite/ melt and initial Cu in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Litho.212...16T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Litho.212...16T"><span>Petrogenesis of the Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing Tamarack Intrusive Complex, Midcontinent Rift System, Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p> MRS, and are indicative of significant crustal contamination. Differences in textures, whole-rock and mineral compositions, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> distribution are consistent with the emplacement of at least two distinct <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span> magmatic pulses. Ni-enrichment in the TIC indicates that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was attained prior to the sequestration of major proportions of Ni by olivine, possibly at a deeper chamber in the magmatic system. The addition of crustal S from the Thomson Formation <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> country rocks is thought to have been the principal process which drove the early attainment of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in the magmas. The CGO Intrusion carried the greater abundance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid, but both the CGO and FGO intrusive sequences represent the accumulation of dense silicate minerals and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid in a conduit system. The genetic processes that were operative in the formation of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization in the Tamarack Intrusive Complex appear to be typical of conduit-style magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits associated with large continental <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> provinces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..524J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NatGe..10..524J"><span>Cumulate causes for the low contents of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-loving elements in the continental crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenner, Frances Elaine</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Despite the economic importance of chalcophile (<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-loving) and siderophile (metal-loving) elements (CSEs), it is unclear how they become enriched or depleted in the continental crust, compared with the oceanic crust. This is due in part to our limited understanding of the partitioning behaviour of the CSEs. Here I compile compositional data for mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and subduction-related volcanic rocks. I show that the mantle-derived melts that contribute to oceanic and continental crust formation rarely avoid <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> during cooling in the crust and, on average, subduction-zone magmas fractionate <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> at the base of the continental crust prior to ascent. Differentiation of mantle-derived melts enriches lower crustal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>- and silicate-bearing cumulates in some CSEs compared with the upper crust. This storage predisposes the cumulate-hosted compatible CSEs (such as Cu and Au) to be recycled back into the mantle during subduction and delamination, resulting in their low contents in the bulk continental crust and potentially contributing to the scarcity of ore deposits in the upper continental crust. By contrast, differentiation causes the upper oceanic and continental crust to become enriched in incompatible CSEs (such as W) compared with the lower oceanic and continental crust. Consequently, incompatible CSEs are predisposed to become enriched in subduction-zone magmas that contribute to continental crust formation and are less susceptible to removal from the continental crust via delamination compared with the compatible CSEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Litho..47..127F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999Litho..47..127F"><span>Laboratory partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold with application to magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> PGE deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleet, M. E.; Crocket, J. H.; Liu, Menghua; Stone, W. E.</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>Apparent diversity in laboratory partitioning of platinum-group elements (PGE)-Au between (Fe,Ni)-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid and S-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt is resolved by recognizing the marked control exerted by variation in metal/S ratio of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid. Partition coefficients ( D) increase markedly for Os, Ir and Pd and somewhat for Pt with increase in S content. In addition, the partitioning is markedly dependent on concentration of PGE-Au in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fraction, for all precious metals in metal-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, and for Ru, Pt and Pd in relatively S-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Reversal of partitioning of PGE-Au is presently demonstrated for experiments with metal-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids. Erratic partitioning behaviour, with anomalously high D(PGE-Au) values, is minimised by degassing starting materials. Summary D(PGE-Au) values for metal-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids and near-natural PGE-Au abundances are: Os(2.2), Ir(1.8), Ru(2.4), Pt(1.4), Pd(2.9), Au(0.9) (×10 3) for the CCO oxygen buffer and molar Ni/(Fe+Ni)=0.02, and Os(3.7), Ir(3.2), Ru(4.4), Pt(4.6), Pd(5.0), Au(3.0) (×10 3) for the IQF buffer and Ni/(Fe+Ni)=0.12. Thus, PGE-Au would not be extensively fractionated for equilibrium between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and deep mantle melts. For more S-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids (WM oxygen buffer) and 100-1000 ppm in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, D(PGE-Au) values are: Os(30), Ir(26), Ru(6.4), Pt(10), Pd(17) (×10 3) at Ni/(Fe+Ni)=0.36, and Os(10), Ir(51), Ru(3.5), Pt(13), Pd(25), Au (1.2) (×10 3) at Ni/(Fe+Ni)=0.66. The laboratory partitioning is notably differential within the PGE-Au group, with relatively high Ds for Ir and Pd and low Ds for Ru and Au. Although separation of an early-magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid would result in significant concentration of some PGE (e.g., Ir and Pd), <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid immiscibility alone would not account for the high abundance of PGE-Au in the reef deposits of the Bushveld and Stillwater Complexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JVGR...34..251G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JVGR...34..251G"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt-basaltic</span> andesite mixing at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, I. Estimation of mixing conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Green, Nathan L.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>The Holocene Sulphur Creek <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite, which erupted from a small cinder cone on the southern flank of Mount Baker, locally contains 1-15 cm spheroidal to tongue-shaped inclusions of high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Textural and chemical relationships indicate that the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was mixed with and quenched within the host lava, but that there was little or no homogenization of the two magmas. Both Sulphur Creek liquids had temperatures in excess of 1000°C, and mixing probably occurred at temperatures less than 1150°C at a pressure betweeen 0.5 and 2.0 kbar. Available evidence suggests that mixing of the two magmas did not result from simultaneous flow within the Sulphur Creek conduit, but rather occurred within a density-stratified magma chamber. The initial density contrast between <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite liquids was determined by the thermal and compositional contrast across their interface, and the oxidation state, water content, and crystallinity of the two magma columns. The bulk density of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was probably only slightly greater than that of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite due to the high crystal content of the more-differentiated liquid. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> would not have had to reach water-<span class="hlt">saturation</span> in order for the densities of the two liquids to become equal. Overturning of the magma chamber could have occurred without the requirement of volatile exsolution in the lower mafic layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V53B3080L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V53B3080L"><span>Magma Ascent Timescales in <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Explosive Eruptions: Constraints from Decompression Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Gall, N.; Pichavant, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We performed high pressure and temperature decompression experiments to constrain the conditions of ascent and degassing of volatile-bearing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts prepared from Stromboli pumice. Experiments were conducted in an internally heated pressure vessel between NNO-1.4 and +4.3, and so different amounts of Fe-Ti oxides were present. Melts with volatile (H2O, CO2, S) contents in the range of Stromboli melt inclusions were synthesized at 1200°C and 200 MPa, continuously decompressed between 200 and 25 MPa at 39 and 78 kPa/s (or 1.5 and 3 m/s), and rapidly quenched. Run products were characterized both texturally (by X-ray microtomography and scanning electron microscopy) and chemically (by IR spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis), and then compared with Stromboli pumice products. In CO2-bearing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts, bubbles start to nucleate heterogeneously on Fe <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and Fe-Ti oxides for supersaturation pressures ΔPHeN ≤ 1-100 MPa and to nucleate homogeneously for ΔPHoN ≤ 50-100 MPa (ΔPHeN and ΔPHoN are the difference between the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressure and the pressure at which heterogeneous and homogeneous bubble nucleation are observed, respectively). Limited bubble growth, coalescence and outgassing occur in addition to continuous bubble nucleation, which is driven by the generation of CO2 supersaturated melts. The results demonstrate that heterogeneous bubble nucleation is limited in common <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts and that bubble nucleation should be for the most part homogeneous. Additionally, they have implications for the interpretation of textural (bubble number densities, shapes, sizes, and distributions) and chemical data (residual volatile concentrations, volcanic gases) on explosive <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanoes. This has allowed to estimate ascent timescales from 43 to 128 min for the Stromboli magmas emitted as pumices during paroxysms, corresponding to ascent rates of 1-3 m/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V71B1272C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.V71B1272C"><span>What Factors Control Platinum-Group Element (PGE) Abundances in <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> From the Ontong Java Plateau?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chazey, W. J.; Neal, C. R.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Eleven samples encompassing four sites drilled by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 192 to the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) were analyzed for major, trace and platinum-group (PGEs: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) elements. Based on major and trace element chemistry, these are divided into two groups: a primitive group, which was newly discovered on Leg 192, and Kwaimbaita-type <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, which are ubiquitous on the OJP (cf. Tejada et al., 2002, J. Pet. 43:449). The primitive group is relatively enriched in MgO, Ni, and Cr and relatively depleted in incompatible elements compared to the Kwaimbaita-type <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Petrography indicates that the fractionating phases during emplacement of both types of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were olivine and Cr-spinel +/- plagioclase +/- cpx. Normalized PGE profiles are fractionated, but exhibit a flattening between Ru and Ir and occasionally an enrichment in Ir. It has been shown that chromite can preferentially incorporate Os and Ru (Kd ?150) over Ir (Kd ?100), which may account for the Ir and Ru systematics. We do not consider <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to be a factor in fractionating the PGEs because it is either absent or present as a trace phase in these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the OJP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are sulfur undersaturated (Michael and Cornell, 1996, EOS 77:714). Additionally, the primitive samples from the OJP also have Cu/Pd ratios (4500-8000) that are roughly similar to primitive mantle (7300), and have a generally flat transition from Pd to Y on a primitive mantle-normalized plot. It is unlikely that these samples reached sulfur <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The Kwaimbaita-type <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have slightly elevated Cu/Pd ratios (9000-14000). While there are subtle differences between the PGE profiles of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Leg 192 drill cores compared to OJP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from subaerial outcrops in the Solomon Islands (e.g., the former have general lower Pt/Rh and higher Rh/Ru ratios), it is apparent that silicate and oxide phases are controlling the PGE profiles and abundances. For example, the six samples analyzed from Site</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR41A1982O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMMR41A1982O"><span>CO2 sequestration in <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: laboratory measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three <span class="hlt">basalt</span> core samples for different <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our <span class="hlt">basalts</span> ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water <span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U51A..09C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.U51A..09C"><span>The biological consequences of flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clapham, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions are among the largest environmental perturbations of the Phanerozoic. The rapid release of CO2 from a large igneous province would have triggered a chain of events that can include climate warming, ocean acidification, reduced seawater carbonate <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, and expanded oceanic anoxia. Those stressors have widely negative impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcified taxa, by affecting their respiratory physiology and reducing energy available for growth and reproduction. Many Phanerozoic extinctions, most notably the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, coincided with flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions and shared distinctive patterns of taxonomic and ecological selectivity. In these extinctions, highly active organisms were more likely to survive because they possess physiological adaptations for maintaining internal pH during activity, which also proves useful when buffering pH against ocean acidification. In contrast, species that did not move and had low metabolic rates, such as brachiopods and sponges, suffered considerable losses during these extinctions. Heavily-calcified organisms, especially corals, were particularly vulnerable; as a result, ocean acidification and <span class="hlt">saturation</span> state changes from flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions often triggered crises in reef ecosystems. This characteristic pattern of selectivity during "physiological" extinctions that closely coincided with flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> provides a template for assessing the causes of other extinction events. Because these crises also provide deep time analogues for the ongoing anthropogenic crisis of warming, ocean acidification, and expanded anoxia, the selectivity patterns can also help constrain "winners" and "losers" over upcoming decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23647923"><span>Linking geology, fluid chemistry, and microbial activity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>- and ultramafic-hosted deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perner, M; Hansen, M; Seifert, R; Strauss, H; Koschinsky, A; Petersen, S</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal fluids passing through <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks along mid-ocean ridges are known to be enriched in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, while those circulating through ultramafic mantle rocks are typically elevated in hydrogen. Therefore, it has been estimated that the maximum energy in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted systems is available through <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation and in ultramafic-hosted systems through hydrogen oxidation. Furthermore, thermodynamic models suggest that the greatest biomass potential arises from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted and from hydrogen oxidation in ultramafic-hosted systems. We tested these predictions by measuring biological <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and hydrogen removal and subsequent autotrophic CO2 fixation in chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids from <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted and ultramafic-hosted vents. We found a large potential of microbial hydrogen oxidation in naturally hydrogen-rich (ultramafic-hosted) but also in naturally hydrogen-poor (<span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted) hydrothermal fluids. Moreover, hydrogen oxidation-based primary production proved to be highly attractive under our incubation conditions regardless whether hydrothermal fluids from ultramafic-hosted or <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted sites were used. Site-specific hydrogen and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> availability alone did not appear to determine whether hydrogen or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation provides the energy for primary production by the free-living microbes in the tested hydrothermal fluids. This suggests that more complex features (e.g., a combination of oxygen, temperature, biological interactions) may play a role for determining which energy source is preferably used in chemically distinct hydrothermal vent biotopes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011692"><span>Chemistry and isotope ratios of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and volcanic gases at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Casadevall, T.J.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Eighteen <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and some volcanic gases from the submarine and subaerial parts of Kilauea volcano were analyzed for the concentration and isotope ratios of sulfur. By means of a newly developed technique, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate sulfur in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were separately but simultaneously determined. The submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has 700 ?? 100 ppm total sulfur with ??34S??s of 0.7 ?? 0.1 ???. The sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> molar ratio ranges from 0.15 to 0.56 and the fractionation factor between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is +7.5 ?? 1.5???. On the other hand, the concentration and ??34S??s values of the total sulfur in the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are reduced to 150 ?? 50 ppm and -0.8 ?? 0.2???, respectively. The sulfate to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratio and the fractionation factor between them are also smaller, 0.01 to 0.25 and +3.0???, respectively. Chemical and isotopic evidence strongly suggests that sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are in chemical and isotopic equilibria with each other at magmatic conditions. Their relative abundance and the isotope fractionation factors may be used to estimate the f{hook}o2 and temperature of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> at the time of their extrusion onto the sea floor. The observed change in sulfur chemistry and isotopic ratios from the submarine to subaerial <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can be interpreted as degassing of the SO2 from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thereby depleting sulfate and 34S in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The volcanic sulfur gases, predominantly SO2, from the 1971 and 1974 fissures in Kilauea Crater have ??34S values of 0.8 to 0.9%., slightly heavier than the total sulfur in the submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and definitely heavier than the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, in accord with the above model. However, the ??34S value of sulfur gases (largely SO2) from Sulfur Bank is 8.0%., implying a secondary origin of the sulfur. The ??34S values of native sulfur deposits at various sites of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanos, sulfate ions of four deep wells and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from a geothermal well along the east rift zone are also reported. The high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900061702&hterms=chromite+ore&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchromite%2Bore','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900061702&hterms=chromite+ore&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchromite%2Bore"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>It has been previously suggested, on the basis of compositional and petrographic similarities noted between komatites, SNC meteorites, and the silicate portion of the Martian regolith fines, that iron-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore deposites may exist on Mars. This paper examines the possible locations of Archean-type <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and related ore deposits on Mars, their evolution, and the emplacement mechanisms for the ore deposit. The clues to these questions are deduced by applying to Mars the temporal patterns of ore distribution on earth and the experimental observations on sulfur solubility in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=458','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=458"><span>Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Selenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; CASRN 7446 - 34 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=617','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=617"><span>Carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; CASRN 463 - 58 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=61','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=61"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>EPA / 635 / R - 03 / 005 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN <span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> ( CAS No . 7783 - 06 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039391&hterms=la&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dla','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039391&hterms=la&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dla"><span>Apollo 12 feldspathic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 12031, 12038 and 12072 - Petrology, comparison and interpretations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L.; Baldridge, W. S.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents the petrology of Apollo 12 feldspathic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Modal and chemical data indicate that <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 12072, 12038, and 12031 cannot be related to the other Apollo rock types; 12072 contains phenocrysts of olivine and pigeonite, 12038 is a multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> equigranular <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and 12031 is a coarse-grained rock with granular to graphic intergrowths of pyroxene and plagioclase. The bulk compositions indicate that these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> could not have been derived from the Apollo 12 olivine or ilmenite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by crystal-liquid fractionation, and their petrologic similarities suggest that they were produced in the same or similar source regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011998','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70011998"><span>Seawater sulfate reduction and sulfur isotope fractionation in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> systems: interaction of seawater with fayalite and magnetite at 200–350°C</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shanks, Wayne C.; Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Systematics of sulfur isotopes in the 250 and 350°C experiments indicate that isotopic equilibrium is reached, and can be modeled as a Rayleigh distillation process. Isotopic composition of hydrothermally produced H2S in natural systems is strongly dependent upon the seawater/<span class="hlt">basalt</span> ratio in the geothermal system, which controls the relative <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> contributions from the two important sulfur sources, seawater sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Anhydrite precipitation during geothermal heating severely limits sulfate ingress into high temperature interaction zones. Quantitative sulfate reduction can thus be accomplished without producing strongly oxidized rocks and resultant <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sulfur isotope values represent a mixture of seawater and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sulfur.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014023','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014023"><span>Concentrations and isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sakai, H.; Marais, D.J.D.; Ueda, A.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Fresh submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses from Galapagos Ridge, FAMOUS area, Cayman Trough and Kilauea east rift contain 22 to 160 ppm carbon and 0.3 to 2.8 ppm nitrogen, respectively, as the sums of dissolved species and vesicle-filling gases (CO2 and N2). The large range of variation in carbon content is due to combined effect of depth-dependency of the solubility of carbon in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt and varying extents of vapour loss during magma emplacement as well as in sample crushing. The isotopic ratios of indigenous carbon and nitrogen are in very narrow ranges,-6.2 ?? 0.2% relative to PDB and +0.2 ?? 0.6 %. relative to atmospheric nitrogen, respectively. In <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from Juan de Fuca Ridge, however, isotopically light carbon (??13C = around -24%.) predominates over the indigenous carbon; no indigenous heavy carbon was found. Except for Galapagos Ridge samples, these ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain 670 to 1100 ppm sulfur, averaging 810 ppm, in the form of both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate, whereas <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Galapagos Ridge are higher in both sulfur (1490 and 1570 ppm) and iron (11.08% total iron as FeO). The ??34S values average +0.3 ?? 0.5%. with average fractionation factor between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> of +7.4 ?? 1.6%.. The sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratios tend to increase with increasing water content of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, probably because the oxygen fugacity increases with increasing water content in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt. ?? 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540821"><span>Concentrations and isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakai, H; Des Marais, D J; Ueda, A; Moore, J G</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Fresh submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses from Galapagos Ridge, FAMOUS area, Cayman Trough and Kilauea east rift contain 22 to 160 ppm carbon and 0.3 to 2.8 ppm nitrogen, respectively, as the sums of dissolved species and vesicle-filling gases (CO2 and N2). The large range of variation in carbon content is due to combined effect of depth-dependency of the solubility of carbon in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt and varying extents of vapour loss during magma emplacement as well as in sample crushing. The isotopic ratios of indigenous carbon and nitrogen are in very narrow ranges, -6.2 +/- 0.2% relative to PDB and +0.2 +/- 0.6% relative to atmospheric nitrogen, respectively. In <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from Juan de Fuca Ridge, however, isotopically light carbon (delta 13 C = around -24%) predominates over the indigenous carbon; no indigenous heavy carbon was found. Except for Galapagos Ridge samples, these ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain 670 to 1100 ppm sulfur, averaging 810 ppm in the form of both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate, whereas <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Galapagos Ridge are higher in both sulfur (1490 and 1570 ppm) and iron (11.08% total iron as FeO). the delta 34S values average +0.3 +/- 0.5% with average fractionation factor between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> of +7.4 +/- 1.6%. The sulfate/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ratios tend to increase with increasing water content of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, probably because the oxygen fugacity increases with increasing water content in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V41C1454D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V41C1454D"><span>Origin of the Grande Ronde <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>, Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Durand, S. R.; Sen, G.; Reidel, S. P.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p> at 0.2, 1.0 and 1.5 GPa. Because of the pressure limits with the COMAGMAT software, we could not model this composition at higher pressures. Therefore, we searched for pressures at which our calculated mantle-equilibrated melt would be multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with mantle minerals using the MELTS software. The best fit forward model converges with the best plausible inverse model in that both indicate that most primitive parent melts related to GR could have been multiply <span class="hlt">saturated</span> at ~1.5-2.0 GPa. We interpret this result to indicate that the parental melts last equilibrated with a peridotitic mantle at 1.5-2.0 GPa and such partial melts rose to 0.2 GPa where they underwent efficient mixing and fractionation before erupting. Our models suggest that the source rock was not eclogitic but a typical upper mantle peridotite, and that the melts had ~0.5% water. We suggest that the plume that generated the GR <span class="hlt">basalts</span> intruded and displaced much of the lower lithosphere at ~16.5 Ma, perhaps aided by back-arc extension due to subduction of the Farallon plate. Although the plume may have begun melting at a deeper level, the bulk of the melting (which perhaps overwhelmed the earlier melts) did not occur until the plume reached ~60-45 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006E%26PSL.245..190S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006E%26PSL.245..190S"><span>Understanding cratonic flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silver, Paul G.; Behn, Mark D.; Kelley, Katherine; Schmitz, Mark; Savage, Brian</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The origin of continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> has been debated for decades. These eruptions often produce millions of cubic kilometers of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> on timescales of only a million years. Although flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are found in a variety of settings, no locale is more puzzling than cratonic areas such as southern Africa or the Siberian craton, where strong, thick lithosphere is breached by these large <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> outpourings. Conventionally, flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have been interpreted as melting events produced by one of two processes: 1) elevated temperatures associated with mantle plumes and/or 2) adiabatic-decompression melting associated with lithospheric thinning. In southern Africa, however, there are severe problems with both of these mechanisms. First, the rifting circumstances of several well-known <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> outpourings clearly reflect lithospheric control rather than the influence of a deep-seated plume. Specifically, rift timing and magmatism are correlated with stress perturbations to the lithosphere associated with the formation of collisional rifts. Second, the substantial lithospheric thinning required for adiabatic decompression melting is inconsistent with xenolith evidence for the continued survival of thick lithosphere beneath flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> domains. As an alternative to these models, we propose a new two-stage model that interprets cratonic flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> not as melting events, but as short-duration drainage events that tap previously created sublithospheric reservoirs of molten <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formed over a longer time scale. Reservoir creation/existence (Stage I) requires long-term (e.g. ≫ 1 Ma) supersolidus conditions in the sublithospheric mantle that could be maintained by an elevated equilibrium geotherm (appropriate for the Archean), a slow thermal perturbation (e.g. thermal blanketing or large-scale mantle upwelling), or a subduction-related increase in volatile content. The drainage event (Stage II) occurs in response to an abrupt stress change in the lithosphere, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.210....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.210....1B"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the fractionation of highly siderophile and chalcophile elements during the formation of martian shergottite meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgartner, Raphael J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Baratoux, David; Zaccarini, Federica; Ferrière, Ludovic; Prašek, Marko K.; Sener, Kerim</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The shergottite meteorites are ultramafic to mafic igneous rocks whose parental magmas formed from partial melting of the martian mantle. This study reports in-situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses for siderophile and chalcophile major and trace elements (i.e., Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Ag, Sb, Te, Pb, Bi, and the highly siderophile platinum-group elements, PGE: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd) of magmatic Fe-Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> assemblages from four shergottite meteorites. They include three geochemically similar incompatible trace element- (ITE-) depleted olivine-phyric shergottites (Yamato-980459, Dar al Gani 476 and Dhofar 019) that presumably formed from similar mantle and magma sources, and one distinctively ITE-enriched <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottite (Zagami). The <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the shergottites have been variably modified by alteration on Earth and Mars, as well as by impact shock-shock related melting/volatilization during meteorite ejection. However, they inherit and retain their magmatic PGE signatures. The CI chondrite-normalized PGE concentration patterns of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> reproduce the whole-rock signatures determined in previous studies. These similarities indicate that <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> exerted a major control on the PGE during shergottite petrogenesis. However, depletions of Pt (and Ir) in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> relative to the other PGE suggest that additional phases such discrete Pt-Fe-Ir alloys have played an important role in the concentration of these elements. These alloys are expected to have enhanced stability in reduced and FeO-rich shergottite magmas, and could be a common feature in martian igneous systems. A Pt-rich PGM was found to occur in a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> assemblage in Dhofar 019. However, its origin may be related to impact shock-related <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melting and volatilisation during meteorite ejection. In the ITE-depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, positive relationships exist between petrogenetic indicators (e.g., whole-rock Mg-number) and most moderately to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApCM..tmp...54D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApCM..tmp...54D"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Fibre Composites for Marine Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, P.; Verbouwe, W.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> fibres offer potential for use in marine structures, but few data exist to evaluate the influence of seawater immersion on their mechanical behaviour. This paper provides the results from a study in which <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibre reinforced epoxy composites were aged in natural seawater at different temperatures. Tests were performed under quasi-static and cyclic loading, first in the as-received state then after <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in natural seawater. Results are compared to those for an E-glass reinforced composite with the same epoxy matrix. They indicate similar mechanical performance for both materials after seawater <span class="hlt">saturation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI21A4272D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI21A4272D"><span>The Fate of Sulfur during Decompression Melting of Peridotite and Crystallization of <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of MORB and the Earth's Upper Mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, S.; Dasgupta, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Magmatism in mid-ocean ridges is the main pathway of sulfur (S) from the Earth's mantle to the surficial reservoir. MORB is generally considered <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span> due to the positive correlation between S and FeOT concentration (e.g., [1]). However, most MORBs are differentiated, and both S content and sulfur concentration at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> (SCSS) change with P, T, and magma composition (e.g., [2]). Therefore, it remains uncertain, from the MORB chemistry alone, whether mantle melts parental to MORB are <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span>. In this study, we modeled the behavior of S during isentropic partial melting of a fertile peridotite using pMELTS [3] and an SCSS parameterization [4]. Our results show that during decompression melting, at a fixed mantle potential temperature, TP (e.g., 1300 °C), SCSS of aggregate melt first slightly increases then decreases at shallower depth with total variation <200 ppm. However, an increase of TP results in a significant increase of SCSS of primitive melts. Our model shows that at 15% melting (F), <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the residue is exhausted for a mantle with <200 ppm S. The resulted <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-undersaturated partial melts contain <1000 ppm S and are 4-6 times enriched in Cu compared to the source. In order to compare our modeled results directly to the differentiated <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, isobaric crystallization calculation was performed on 5, 10, and 15% aggregate melts. SCSS changes along liquid line of descent with a decrease in T and increase in FeOT. Comparison of S contents between the model results and MORB glasses [5] reveals that many MORBs derive from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> undersaturated melts. Further, for a TP of 1300-1350 °C and F of 10-15 wt.%, reproduction of self-consistent S, and Cu budget of many MORB glasses requires that S of their mantle source be ~25-200 ppm. We will discuss the interplay of TP, average F, and the conditions of differentiation to bracket the S geochemistry of MORB and MORB source mantle and develop similar systematics for OIBs and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V42B..06P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V42B..06P"><span>The Augustine <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plank, T.; Zimmer, M. M.; Hauri, E. H.; Nye, C. J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>In order to constrain the composition of the parental magma feeding the Mt. Augustine volcanic system, we present whole rock and melt inclusion (MI) chemistry, including volatiles, on samples from the only mafic unit on the volcano, a fragmental hyaloclastite containing bombs of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite, and rhyolite. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> whole rocks may have accumulated phenocrysts, but glassy MI trapped within olivine provide mafic endmember liquid compositions for an otherwise evolved volcano (37 inclusions with 46-50 wt% SiO2, 8.0-4.6 wt% MgO, corrected to be in equilibrium with olivine hosts). <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> whole rocks and MIs show light rare earth and large ion lithophile element enrichment, and high field strength element depletion, typical of both Augustine and convergent margins in general. However, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> whole rocks and MIs display different trace element ratios than the rest of the volcano, e.g. Ba/La is ~20 (<span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mafic MIs) vs. ~40 (rest of volcano), and Th/Nb is ~1.1 (<span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mafic MIs) vs. ~0.6 (rest of volcano). The mafic MIs from Augustine are extraordinarily volatile rich, with up to 7.5 wt% H2O, 6600 ppm sulfur, and 6500 ppm Cl -- among the highest concentrations in the world for mafic compositions. H2O-CO2 solubility places MI entrapment at 2-5 kbar, or 8-20 km deep. There is no relationship between major elements and volatiles which would indicate continuous MI entrapment during magmatic evolution, suggesting the mafic MI were trapped in a single episode. This is further supported by Fo contents of MI-bearing olivines, 85% of which are within a relatively uniform range of Fo80-83, despite a wide range of olivines within the mafic samples as a whole (Fo76-90). The range of Fo contents of most olivines is consistent with closed system crystallization, as the whole rock is in equilibrium with Fo87-89 olivine (for Fe3+ of 0-15%), and the groundmass is in equilibrium with Fo80-82 olivine. Based on thickness of resorption rims of phenocrysts in <span class="hlt">basalts</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5691381','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5691381"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> island sand provenance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5533801','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5533801"><span><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gregurech, S.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">saturation</span> meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5444956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5444956"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burns, R.G.; Fisher, D.S. )</p> <p>1990-08-30</p> <p>The presence of komatiitic igneous rocks on Marks, based on geochemical evidence from SNC meteorites and Viking X ray fluorescence analyses of the regolith, suggests that massive and disseminated iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization occurs near the Martian surface. Analogies are drawn between possible ultramafic Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on Mars and terrestrial pyrrhotite-pentlandite ore deposits associated with Archean komatiites formed during early crustal development on Earth. Partial melting of the mantle as a result of high radiogenic heat production then, extrusion of turbulent high-temperature ultramafic lavas, segregation of immiscible FeS melts during cooling, gravitational settling and fractional crystallization of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals in magma chambers or lava flows produced massive and disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization associated with terrestrial komatiites. Comparable processes probably occurred on Mars where, on account of the inferred higher Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio of the X ray mantle (estimated to contain {approximately}4.5 wt % S), iron-rich <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas were produced by partial melting at depths and temperatures exceeding 165 km and 1,400{degree}C, respectively. Adiabatic diapiric emplacement of these iron-rich, very low viscosity <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts transported significant concentrations of dissolved sulfur as S{sup 2{minus}} and HS{sup {minus}} from the mantle. Ensuing <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization may have been either thinly disseminated within ultramafic lavas erupting over large areas of Mars or concentrated locally at the base of structural depressions. Cumulate ore deposits several meters thick may occur at the base of intrusions or in near-surface magma chambers. The evidence for insignificant plate tectonic activity on Mars and minimal interactions of Martian mantle with crust, hydrosphere and atmosphere has restricted the evolution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore deposits there.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/897684"><span>Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> pore water with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V23G..05N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V23G..05N"><span>Volatiles in Submarine HIMU <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the Austral Islands, South Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nichols, A. R.; Hanyu, T.; Shimizu, K.; Dosso, L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have been collected from the slopes of Rurutu and Tubuai in the Austral Islands, South Pacific with the manned submersible Shinkai 6500. Previous work on the bulk radiogenic isotope and trace element chemistry of these samples suggests that the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were generated from a HIMU reservoir derived from an ancient subducted slab that was entrained and mixed with the depleted asthenospheric mantle. Olivines and glasses from the submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show lower 3He/4He than MORB, similar to subaerial <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from these islands. Sixteen glass chips from the same submarine samples have now undergone in-situ analysis for major elements (including S and Cl) by EPMA, trace elements by LA-ICP-MS, H2O and CO2 by FTIR, and bulk volatile analysis (S, Cl, F) by ion chromatography combined with pyrohydrolysis. H2O ranges from 0.62-2.44 wt%, while CO2 is below detection (<20 ppm). S measured by EPMA ranges from 612-1889 ppm and by bulk analysis from 582-1301 ppm and, with the exception of one sample, concentrations agree well. Cl measured by EPMA ranges from 151-538 ppm, and by bulk analysis from 188-980 ppm. The higher values suggest that the bulk samples may be contaminated by seawater; otherwise Cl correlates strongly with incompatible elements. F measured in the bulk samples ranges from 221-1243 ppm. S correlates positively with FeO and Cu, but not with incompatible elements, suggesting <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. While the highest H2O contents may reflect late-stage hydration and are oversaturated at the depth of collection, the low H2O contents (11 samples with 0.62-0.96 wt%) are undersaturated, and there is a positive correlation between the H2O contents of all chips and their incompatible element concentrations. This suggests that H2O/Ce and Cl/Ce filtered for shallow level processes may reflect source compositions, providing constraints on volatiles in the sources of Rurutu and Tubuai, and indications about the efficiency of subduction-related volatile-loss in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7148124','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7148124"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.</p> <p>1985-11-26</p> <p>A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865685','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865685"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A method of chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..279Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..279Z"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization associated with arc magmatism in the Qilian Block, western China: zircon U-Pb age and Sr-Nd-Os-S isotope constraints from the Yulonggou and Yaqu gabbroic intrusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhao-Wei; Li, Wen-Yuan; Gao, Yong-Bao; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Kamo, Sandra</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing Yulonggou and Yaqu mafic intrusions are located in the southern margin of the Qilian Block, Qinghai Province, western China. They are small dike-like bodies mainly composed of gabbros and diorites. Disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite) are present as concordant lenses within the intrusions. Precise CA-ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb dating yields the crystallization ages of 443.39 ± 0.42 and 440.74 ± 0.33 Ma for the Yulonggou and Yaqu intrusions, respectively. Whole rock samples from both intrusions show light rare earth element (REE) enrichments relative to heavy REE and pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies relative to Th and La, which are consistent with the products of arc <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmatism. The Yulonggou intrusion has negative ɛ Nd values from -5.7 to -7.7 and elevated (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios from 0.711 to 0.714. In contrast, the Yaqu intrusion has higher ɛ Nd values from -4.1 to +8.4 and lower (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios from 0.705 to 0.710. The δ34S values of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> separates from the Yulonggou and Yaqu deposits vary from 0.8 to 2.4 ‰ and from 2 to 4.3 ‰, respectively. The γ Os values of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> separates from the Yulonggou and Yaqu deposits vary between 80 and 123 and between 963 and 1,191, respectively. Higher γ Os values coupled with higher δ34S values for the Yaqu deposit relative to the Yulonggou deposit indicate that external sulfur played a bigger role in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization in the Yaqu intrusion than in the Yulonggou intrusion. Mixing calculations using Sr-Nd isotope data show that contamination with siliceous crustal materials is more pronounced in the Yulonggou intrusion (up to 20 wt%) than in the Yaqu intrusion (<15 wt%). The distribution of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in both intrusions is consistent with multiple emplacements of <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> magmas from depth. The Yulonggou and Yaqu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits are not economically valuable under current market condition due to small sizes and low Ni grades, which can be explained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5147918','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5147918"><span>Massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Janecky, D.R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> samples from the seafloor and massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit minerals and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in feeder zones is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6195775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6195775"><span>Evidence for thermal erosion of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and hybridization of komatiite at Kambalda, Western Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lesher, C.M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Archean komatiite-associated Ni-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores in Western Australia are hosted by cumulate metakomatiites and are localized in footwall embayments. Structural, stratigraphical, and volcanological studies of the type-examples of these deposits at Kambalda, Western Australia suggest i) that the host units represent linear lava conduits and ii) that the embayments are volcanic features, modified by deformation. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore are interpreted to have formed by assimilation of <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span>, cherty sediments beneath the thermally-active lava conduits. Transgressive magmatic contacts between massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and pillowed metabasalt provide unequivocal evidence for erosion of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> by highly thermally conductive massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Evidence for thermal erosion of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> by komatiite is more equivocal as contacts between the two lithologies are normally recrystallized and marked by chloritic metasomatic reaction zones. Thermal erosion channels produced experimentally by Huppert et al. (1984) are morphologically similar to the embayments at Kambalda, but it is unlikely that the embayments in these deposits have been generated by thermal erosion, for several reason: 1) Some embayments contain uneroded metasediments and predate emplacement of the ores and host units. 2) Some embayments appear to be broadly stratigraphically conformable within the footwall metabasalt sequence. 3) Some embayments are elliptical in outline and could not have formed by thermal erosion beneath a lava conduit. The embayments probably represent volcanic-topographic irregularities in the surface of the footwall <span class="hlt">basalt</span> that have been variably modified by thermal erosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.179..257Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.179..257Y"><span>Kinetics of anorthite dissolution in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Yi; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Yang; Xu, Zhengjiu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report convection-free anorthite dissolution experiments in a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt at 1280-1500 °C and 0.5 GPa on two different crystallographic surfaces, (1 2 1 bar) and (3 bar 0 2) to investigate dissolution kinetics. The anisotropy of the anorthite dissolution rate along these two surfaces is negligible. Time series experiments at ∼1280 °C show that anorthite dissolution is mainly controlled by diffusion in the melt within experimental uncertainty. Analytical solutions were used to model the dissolution and diffusion processes, and to obtain the diffusivities and the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> concentrations of the equilibrium-determining component (Al2O3) for anorthite dissolution into the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt. For the first time, we are able to show the physical and chemical characteristics of quench growth effect on the near-interface melt using high spatial resolution (0.3 μm) EDS analyses. For anorthite (An# ⩾ 90) <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in a melt with 39-53 wt% SiO2 and ⩽0.4 wt% H2O, the concentration of Al2O3 in wt% depends on temperature as follows:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.451..196L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.451..196L"><span>Negligible sulfur isotope fractionation during partial melting: Evidence from Garrett transform fault <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, implications for the late-veneer and the hadean matte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labidi, J.; Cartigny, P.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We report the quadruple sulfur isotope compositions, sulfur contents and speciation major and trace elements (including copper and chlorine abundances) of eleven <span class="hlt">basalts</span> collected in the Garrett transform fault. We combine these data to discuss the absence of S isotopic fractionation along both partial melting and low-pressure fractional crystallization. The variations of K2O/TiO2 and La/SmN-ratios (respectively between 0.017 and 0.067, and between 0.31 and 0.59) suggest a range of depletion in Garrett lavas that includes ultra depleted samples (K2O/TiO2 < 0.03). The remarkable level of incompatible element depletion is consistent with re-melting of a depleted source. Contrasting with incompatible element depletion, all samples display similar S and Cu abundance (at a given major-element composition) to mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB). This indicates that Garrett Intra Transform Lavas (ITL) are <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturated</span> as MORB are. Copper content for Garrett parental melts (MgO >8%) are ∼80 ppm, indistinguishable from MORBs. This requires their mantle sources, variably depleted in incompatible element, to host residual <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> buffering the Cu content of all erupted melts. We calculate a minimum S content for the source of ultra-depleted Garrett lavas of 100 ± 40ppmS, i.e. roughly a factor of 2 below the MORB mantle source. After exclusion of a single sample with Cl/K ratio >0.1 that likely experienced hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> assimilation, Garrett ITLs display homogeneous δ34 S, Δ33 S and Δ36 S values with averages of - 0.68 ± 0.08 ‰, + 0.010 ± 0.005 ‰ and - 0.04 ± 0.04 ‰, respectively (all 1σ, n = 10). The δ34 S values display no relationship with either K2O/TiO2 variations or extent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fractionation. From these observations, we derive a 34S/32S fractionation factor between exsolved <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> dissolved in silicate melts of 1.0000 ± 0.0003. The S isotopic fractionation during partial melting can thus be considered as negligible, and both</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNS21C..05C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNS21C..05C"><span>Aquifers and Their Tectonic Connectivity in Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Using AEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chandra, S.; Auken, E.; Sonkamble, S.; Maurya, P. K.; Ahmed, S.; Clausen, O. R.; Verma, S. K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Aquifers, the major freshwater storage providing water for human consumption, agriculture, industry and groundwater-dependent ecosystems, are subjected to increasing stress resulting into drying up of large number of wells in major parts of world. The climate change with erratic rainfall pattern and increasing temperature enhances the rate of evapotranspiration causing reduction in groundwater recharge as well as enhancement in the groundwater withdrawal. Not only the wells, but also springs, ponds and non glacial rivers, mostly fed by base flow during non-monsoon periods, also go dry during droughts. Water crisis is very severe in the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and hard rock areas in India where the weathered zone, principal aquifer, has almost dried up and the water is mostly confined within the underlying vesicular and weathered-fractured <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and occasionally within green bole beds. The paper presents results from <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> hard rock terrains in India based on integrated geophysical surveys including airborne electromagnetic (AEM) and airborne magnetic methods. Due to good resistivity contrasts, AEM results showed strong signatures of multiple <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flows, their alterations and associated major intertrappeans. In combination with ground geophysics, geological and borehole information, AEM was found to be very effective in mapping the multiple flows, Gondwana and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> interface, and inter- and infra-trappeans (Figure 1). In addition to the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flows, we could map the tectonic groundwater pathways, which is a completely new knowledge. The tectonic pathways connect different aquifers (water <span class="hlt">saturated</span> vesicular <span class="hlt">basalt</span>) located in various flows. The results demonstrate that the AEM is very effective for groundwater prospecting in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and in delineating suitable recharge zones to create strategic groundwater reserves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V53A4840F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V53A4840F"><span>Origin of Magnetic High at <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Ultramafic Hosted Hydrothermal Vent Field in the Central Indian Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fujii, M.; Okino, K.; Sato, T.; Sato, H.; Nakamura, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal alteration processes can change crustal magnetization by destruction and creation of magnetic minerals. In the Yokoniwa hydrothermal vent field (YHVF), located at the NTO-massif in the Central Indian Ridge, a high magnetization zone (with ~12 A/m in ~200 m-scale) was discovered by previous deepsea AUV survey. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and ultramafic rocks were found around the YHVF, however the origin of magnetic high and its relationship with hydrothermal activity are remains to be investigated. Therefore, we conducted additional magnetic field measurement, rock sampling, and geological observation using submersible Shinkai 6500 during the YK09-13 and YK13-03 cruises. Vector geomagnetic field were obtained along the dive tracks at an altitude of ~ 10 m. The crustal absolute magnetization is estimated using the 2D and 3D forward modeling technique. The values of magnetization show ~10 A/m just around the YHVF. This value is consistent with that of equivalent magnetization deduced from AUV data. Rock magnetic characters were measured for 8 <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, 4 dolerites, 5 <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and 30 serpentinized peridotites (SPs). The measurements of NRM, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic hysteresis, low (6-300K) and high (50-700°C) temperature magnetization curves were performed. The estimated magnetization values are 0.1-6 A/m in <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, 0.2-0.6 A/m in dolerites, and <0.1 A/m in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The SPs show strong magnetization of 0.4-11 A/m. The magnetic grain sizes ranges over single domain to pseudo-single domain. The temperature-magnetization curves clearly show the Verway transition and Currie temperature of 580 °C, therefore magnetic carrier of SPs is supposed as pure magnetite, which is created during serpentinization process. Serpentinization degree (Sd) was also estimated by grain density measurement based on empirical formula from Oufi et al., 2002. Amount of magnetite was also estimated from <span class="hlt">saturation</span> magnetization. The results show that the values of Sd vary in a range from 17</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868376','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868376"><span>Cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.</p> <p>1992-07-07</p> <p>A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868034','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868034"><span>Cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.</p> <p>1991-10-22</p> <p>A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75417&keyword=Sedimentary+AND+rocks&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91082627&CFTOKEN=74740484','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75417&keyword=Sedimentary+AND+rocks&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91082627&CFTOKEN=74740484"><span><span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The formation processes of metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in sediments, especially iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75417&keyword=rocks&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=75417&keyword=rocks&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> MINERALS IN SEDIMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The formation processes of metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in sediments, especially iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, have been the subjects of intense scientific research because of linkages to the global biogeochemical cycles of iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen. Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (e.g., NiS, CuS, ZnS, Cd...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035314&hterms=Potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPotassium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035314&hterms=Potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DPotassium"><span>Very high potassium (VHK) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> - Complications in mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK <span class="hlt">basalts</span> formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035314&hterms=potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpotassium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035314&hterms=potassium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dpotassium"><span>Very high potassium (VHK) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> - Complications in mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shervais, J. W.; Taylor, L. A.; Laul, J. C.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The first comprehensive report on the petrology and geochemistry of Apollo 14 VHK (Very High Potassium) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and their implications for lunar evolution is presented. The reported data are most consistent with the hypothesis that VHK <span class="hlt">basalts</span> formed through the partial assimilation of granite by a normal low-Ti, high-Al mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma. Assimilation was preceded by the diffusion-controlled exchange of alkalis and Ba between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma and the low-temperature melt fraction of the granite. Hypotheses involving volatile/nonvolatile fractionations or long-term enrichment of the source regions in K are inconsistent with the suprachondritic Ba/La ratios and low initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of VHK <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. An important implication of this conclusion is that granite should be a significant component of the lunar crust at the Apollo 14 site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017995','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070017995"><span>Distributed <span class="hlt">Saturation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Ming-Ying; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Siminiceanu, Radu I.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> algorithm for symbolic state-space generation, has been a recent break-through in the exhaustive veri cation of complex systems, in particular globally-asyn- chronous/locally-synchronous systems. The algorithm uses a very compact Multiway Decision Diagram (MDD) encoding for states and the fastest symbolic exploration algo- rithm to date. The distributed version of <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> uses the overall memory available on a network of workstations (NOW) to efficiently spread the memory load during the highly irregular exploration. A crucial factor in limiting the memory consumption during the symbolic state-space generation is the ability to perform garbage collection to free up the memory occupied by dead nodes. However, garbage collection over a NOW requires a nontrivial communication overhead. In addition, operation cache policies become critical while analyzing large-scale systems using the symbolic approach. In this technical report, we develop a garbage collection scheme and several operation cache policies to help on solving extremely complex systems. Experiments show that our schemes improve the performance of the original distributed implementation, SmArTNow, in terms of time and memory efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5100291','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5100291"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> nuclear-waste repository remote sensing using electromagnetic techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Daily, W.D.; Buettner, H.M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, from the Near Surface Test Facility of the <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Waste Isolation Project at Hanford, Washington, have been measured in the laboratory as a function of water content at frequencies from 25 MHz to 1000 MHz. Both the permittivity and the attenuation rate are strongly related to water content of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in this frequency range. Completely dehydrated, the rock has a frequency-independent relative permittivity of about 8 and attenuation rates (inverse skin depths) of 0.04 m/sup -1/ and 3.2 m/sup -1/ at 25 MHz and 1000 MHz, respectively. When completely <span class="hlt">saturated</span> by tap water to 6% by volume, the relative permittivity ranges from 16.5 to 10.0 and the attenuation ranges from 0.3 m/sup -1/ to 5.5 m/sup -1/ between 25 MHz and 1000 MHz. The data indicate that high-frequency electromagnetic remote sensing techniques, such as those used in radar, cross-borehole tomography, and borehole logging, may be useful in characterizing proposed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> repositories and monitoring established waste repositories. Electromagnetic methods are particularly suited to delineating water content of the rock and, when completely <span class="hlt">saturated</span>, crack and pore porosity of the rock mass within a repository. 7 references, 3 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550724"><span>Why Hexagonal <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Columns?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hofmann, Martin; Anderssohn, Robert; Bahr, Hans-Achim; Weiß, Hans-Jürgen; Nellesen, Jens</p> <p>2015-10-09</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> columns with their preferably hexagonal cross sections are a fascinating example of pattern formation by crack propagation. Junctions of three propagating crack faces rearrange such that the initial right angles between them tend to approach 120°, which enables the cracks to form a pattern of regular hexagons. To promote understanding of the path on which the ideal configuration can be reached, two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate. They describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. This is done analytically and by means of three-dimensional finite element simulation. The latter technique reproduces the curved crack path involved in this transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001705','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001705"><span>Chlorine in Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Franchi, I. A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs, and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, [1]), given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO (e.g., [2]). When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks (e.g., [3-4]), lunar samples often display heavy chlorine isotope compositions [5-9]. Boyce et al. [8] found a correlation between delta Cl-37 (sub Ap) and bulk-rock incompatible trace elements (ITEs) in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and used this to propose that early degassing of Cl (likely as metal chlorides) from the LMO led to progressive enrichment in remaining LMO melt in Cl-37over Cl-35- the early degassing model. Barnes et al. [9] suggested that relatively late degassing of chlorine from urKREEP (to yield delta Cl-37 (sub urKREEP greater than +25 per mille) followed by variable mixing between KREEPy melts and mantle cumulates (characterized by delta Cl-370 per mille) could explain the majority of Cl isotope data from igneous lunar samples. In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed an in situ study of chlorine isotopes and abundances of volatiles in lunar apatite from a diverse suite of lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> spanning a range of geochemical types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/977337','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/977337"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-CO2-H2O Interactions and Variability in Carbonate Mineralization Rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are receiving increasing attention as possible host formations for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, with studies underway in the U.S., India, Iceland, and Canada. Our previous laboratory studies with Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalts</span> showed relative quick precipitation of carbonate minerals compared to other siliclastic rocks when batch reacted with water and supercritical CO2. In this study, our prior work with Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was extended to tests with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the eastern U.S., India, and Africa. The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are all similar in bulk chemistry and share common minerals such as plagioclase, augite, and a glassy mesostasis. Single pass flow through dissolution experiments under dilute solution and mildly acidic conditions indicate similar cation release behavior among the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples tested. Despite similar bulk chemistry and apparent dissolution kinetics, long-term static experiments with CO2 <span class="hlt">saturated</span> water show significant differences in rates of mineralization as well as precipitate chemistry and morphology. For example, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the Newark Basin in the U.S. is by far the most reactive of any <span class="hlt">basalt</span> tested to date. Carbonate reaction products for the Newark Basin <span class="hlt">basalt</span> were globular in form and contained significantly more Fe than the secondary carbonates that precipitated on the other <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. Calcite grains with classic “dogtooth spar” morphology and trace cation substitution (Mg and Mn) were observed in post-reacted samples associated with the Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Other <span class="hlt">basalts</span> produced solid precipitates with compositions that varied chemically throughout the entire testing period. Polished cross sections of the reacted grains show precipitate overgrowths with irregular regions outlined by dark and bright layers indicative of zonations of different compositions. For example, SEM-EDX analysis across carbonate precipitates, which resulted from 854 days of reaction of the Central Atlantic Mafic Province (CAMP</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014380','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014380"><span>Mineralization, alteration, and hydrothermal metamorphism of the ophiolite-hosted Turner-Albright <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, southwestern Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zierenberg, R.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Seyfried, W.E.; Koski, R.A.; Strickler, M.D.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Turner-Albright <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, part of the Josephine ophiolite, formed on and below the seafloor during Late Jurassic volcanism at a back arc spreading center. Ore fluids were probably localized by faults which were active on the seafloor at the time of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposition. The uppermost massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> formed on the seafloor at hydrothermal vents. The bulk of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization formed below the seafloor within olivine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> hyaloclastite erupted near the time of mineralization. Infiltration of hydrothermal fluid into the hyaloclastite altered the rock. The fluid responsible for the hydrothermal alteration was evolved seawater with low pH and Mg and high Fe. The average value of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and the difference between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and contemporaneous seawater sulfate values are similar to ophiolite-hosted <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in Cyprus. Mudstone and clinopyroxene <span class="hlt">basalt</span> above the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> horizons were not altered by the ore-transporting hydrothermal fluid, but these rocks were hydrothermally metamorphosed by altered seawater heated by deep circulation into hot oceanic crust. This subseafloor metamorphism produced a mineral assemblage typical of prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism. Exchange with altered seawater increased the whole-rock ??18O of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to values of 9.4-11.2%. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Geo....28..131T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Geo....28..131T"><span>Contrasting behavior of noble-metal elements during magmatic differentiation in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Cook Islands, Polynesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Oguri, Kiwamu; Shimoda, Gen; Kogiso, Tetsu; Barsczus, Hans G.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Concentrations of noble metals (Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, and Au) in ocean-island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Cook Islands, Polynesia, were determined by improved fire-assay and tellurium coprecipitation techniques with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometer. Isotope, major element, and trace element compositions of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicate that the present samples include distinctive HIMU (high μ = high 238U/204Pb) and normal non-HIMU <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Examination based on Ni-Mg-Fe partitioning between olivine and liquid suggests an only minor effect of accumulation of phenocrysts in governing the compositional variations of the present samples. The fractionation trends obtained show monotonic decrease and increase in noble-metal elements with decreasing MgO content in HIMU and non-HIMU <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, respectively. These characteristic trends indicate that HIMU magmas are differentiated by fractional crystallization and have higher <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/silicate ratios than non-HIMU <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0675G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC43A0675G"><span>H2S Injection and Sequestration into <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - The SulFix Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The formation of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240°C) and both fresh and altered <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh <span class="hlt">basalt</span> but the precipiation in altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and other secondary minerals and (3) the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003704','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920003704"><span>Relationships among <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lunar meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lindstrom, Marilyn M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>During the past two years four meteorites of dominantly mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition were identified in the Japanese and US Antarctic collections. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> represent a much higher proportion of the lunar meteorites than is expected from photogeologic mapping of mare and highland regions. Also, the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lunar meteorites are all described as VLT mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, which is a relatively uncommon type among returned lunar samples. The significance of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> meteorites to the understanding of the lunar crust depends on the evaluation of possible relationships among the individual meteorites. None of the specimens are paired meteorites. They differ from each other in petrography and composition. It is important to determine whether they might be paired ejecta which were ejected from the same mare region by the same impact. The question of paired ejecta must be addressed using a combination of exposure histories and petrographic/compositional characteristics. It is possible that the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lunar meteorites are paired ejecta from the same region of the Moon. However, the relationships among them are more complicated than the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> breccias being simply brecciated mare gabbros.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049067"><span>Thermoluminescence behavior of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks collected in southeastern region of Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toktamış, Dilek; Toktamış, Hüseyin; Yazıcı, A Necmeddin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> is well known as an extrusive igneous rock erupts on land by volcanic eruption. It is darker, denser and finer grained compared to the familiar granite of the continents. The study reveals the thermoluminescence properties (TL) of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks which collected in southeastern region of Turkey. With this study, the variations of glow curve of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> at the different grain sizes, different annealing temperature and different annealing time have been investigated. This study also includes, dose response and heating rate experiments. As a result, the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sample shows thermoluminescence properties with a wide peak about 200°C. The best TL sensitivity was observed at samples whose grain size is ~100µm. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sample has a wide TL glow curve. A linearity for the values up to 155Gy and supralinearity between 155Gy and 615Gy in dose response are observed and it reaches to <span class="hlt">saturation</span> beyond 615Gy. Thermal treatments at higher temperatures decrease the TL sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5718010','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5718010"><span>Limitations in determining redox chemistry in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwaters at the Hanford site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dill, J.A.; Jones, T.E.; Marcy, A.D.; West, M.H.</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>The oxidation-reduction (redox) chemistry of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater system will be an important factor governing both the design and performance of a high-level nuclear waste repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Although the redox state of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater system is inherently difficult to measure, there are a number of types of measurements that provide valuable information on this subject. These measurements include concentrations of dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, ferrous iron, electrode redox potential, and groundwater reducing capacity. These measurements have been made on a limited basis in a number of different repository test horizons. Taken collectively, the results of these measurements suggest that both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and ferrous iron play an important role in the establishment of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater redox condition. Thermodynamic calculations of redox potential (E/sub h/) based on these measurements are indicative of an E/sub h/ of -0.4 V. Additional measurements are proposed that will provide a more complete understanding of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> groundwater redox conditions. The proposed measurements include a more in-depth analysis of redox active species as well as quantification of dissolved gas species such as oxygen and methane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JVGR...32...35M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JVGR...32...35M"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> geochemistry and tectonic discrimination within continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> provinces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marsh, Julian S.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are usually regarded as a single tectonomagmatic entity but frequently quoted examples exhibit a variety of tectonic settings. In one well-studied, classic, flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province, the Mesozoic Karoo province of southern Africa, magmatism occurred in the following tectonic settings: (a) continental rifting leading to ocean-floor spreading in the South Atlantic Ocean (Etendeka suite of Namibia); (b) stretched continental lithosphere and rifting not leading directly to ocean-floor formation (Lebombo suite of southeastern Africa); and (c) an a-tectonic, within-plate, continental setting characterized by an absence of faulting or warping (Lesotho highlands and Karoo dolerites of South Africa). By means of spidergrams of the elements Rb, Ba, Th, Nb, K, La, Ce, Sr, Nd, P, Hf, Zr, Sm, Ti, Tb, Y, V, Ni and Cr, uncontaminated tholeiites from (c) above [i.e. the Lesotho-type continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (LTCFB)] are compared with mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB), ocean-island tholeiites (OIT), and tholeiites and calc-alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from subduction environments. The comparison reveals the LTCFBs are geochemically distinct. The differences are reflected in relative enrichments or depletions of the more incompatible elements (Rb-Ce) to less incompatible elements (Ce-Y), i.e. the overall slope of the spidergrams, and in anomalous enrichments or depletions of one or more of the elements Th, K, Nb, Sr, Ti, Hf, and Zr. The distinctive geochemical character of the Lesotho LTCFBs is interpreted in terms of a lithospheric mantle source for the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. This is supported by isotopic data. There are no major geochemical differences between Lesotho CFBs and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the rift-related Etendeka and Lebombo suites, although the latter are somewhat enriched in Rb, Ba and K. However, unlike the Lesotho <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, the Lebombo and Etendeka <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are associated with voluminous silicic volcanics or intrusive centres and late-stage dolerites having MORB/OIT (i</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V33F..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V33F..06C"><span>Sulfate <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal ore deposits associated with arc magmatism represent important sulfur anomalies. During degassing of magmatic systems the volatile may transport metals and sulfur and produce deposits. The ultimate origin of the magma-derived sulfur is still uncertain. The Yanacocha high-<span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> epithermal Au deposit, Peru, is hosted by a Miocene volcanic succession (ca. 16 to 8 Ma). Magmatic rocks are highly oxidized >NNO+2 and show a range of composition from andesite to dacite. Two populations of amphibole occur in the Yanacocha dacitic ignimbrite deposits (~7 and 12 wt% Al2O3). Low Al amphiboles crystallized at ~ 1.5-2 kbar and 800°C (Plag-Hb thermobarometry) in equilibrium with plagioclase and pyroxene. High Al amphiboles only contain inclusions of anhydrite associated with apatite (up to 1.2 wt% SO3), and have a higher Cr2O3 content (up to 1000 ppm). We estimate these amphiboles form near the magma's liquidus at P(H2O)> 3kbar and 950 to 1000°C of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span>, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite ascending magma. Low Al amphibole presents an REE pattern with negative anomalies in Sr, Ti and Eu, characteristic of plagioclase and titanite fractionation in the magma. High Al amphiboles are less enriched in REE and have no Sr, Ti, or Eu anomaly. Rare crystals of high Al amphibole display a low Al rim marked by higher REE contents compared to the core and a negative Eu anomaly. Magmatic sulfate occurrences have been discovered through the 8 m.y. volcanic sequence. Rounded anhydrite crystals are found included within clinopyroxene and both high and low Al amphibole. The rare high Al amphiboles (from the sample RC6) contain up to ~10 vol.%, ~5-80 micrometer-long anhydrite as irregularly shaped (amoeboid) blebs that do not show crystallographic forms and do not follow host cleavages. Extremely rare <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inclusions are found in plagioclase (Brennecka, 2006). The major and trace element contents of Yanacocha magmatic anhydrite have been analyzed by electron microprobe and LA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4082E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMEP...23.4082E"><span>-<span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 <span class="hlt">saturated</span> solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientimages/000307.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientimages/000307.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fat (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fats. Vegetable sources of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ... <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fats. Vegetable sources of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02762.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02762.html"><span>Anaglyph: <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-07-13</p> <p>This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, shows <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6637288','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6637288"><span>Hanford <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow mineralogy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ames, L.L.</p> <p>1980-09-01</p> <p>Mineralogy of the core samples from five core wells was examined in some detail. The primary mineralogy study included an optical examination of polished mounts, photomicrographs, chemical analyses of feldspars, pyroxenes, metallic oxides and microcrystalline groundmasses and determination from the chemical analyses of the varieties of feldspars, pyroxenes and metallic oxides. From the primary mineralogy data, a firm understanding of the average Hanford <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow primary mineralogy emerged. The average primary feldspar was a laboradorite, the average pyroxene was an augite and the average metallic oxide was a solid solution of ilmenite and magnetite. Secondary mineralization consisted of vug filling and joint coating, chiefly with a nontronite-beidellite clay, several zeolites, quartz, calcite, and opal. Specific flow units also were examined to determine the possibility of using the mineralogy to trace flows between core wells. These included units of the Pomona, the Umatilla and a high chromium flow just below the Huntzinger. In the Umatilla, or high barium flow, the compositional variation of the feldspars was unique in range. The pyroxenes in the Pomona were relatively highly zoned and accumulated chromium. The high chromium flow contained chromium spinels that graded in chromium content into simple magnetites very low in chromium content. A study of the statistical relationships of flow unit chemical constituents showed that flow unit constituents could be roughly correlated between wells. The probable cause of the correlation was on-going physical-chemical changes in the source magma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC33C1128S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC33C1128S"><span>Carbonatization effect on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass and silicate minerals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stockmann, G. J.; Wolff-Boenisch, D.; Gislason, S.; Oelkers, E. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Combined silicate dissolution and carbonatization experiments were conducted on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass and five different silicate minerals (augite, diopside, enstatite, labradorite, olivine) using mixed-flow reactors at 25 and 70°C. The aim of the study was to see if a) dissolving silicates acting as the Ca-source lead to calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of a carbonate-bearing aqueous solution, b) whether different crystallographical properties of the silicates play a role for how much calcite is precipitating, and finally c) whether carbonate coatings affect the silicate dissolution rates. All experiments were conducted within the context of ';CarbFix', an international CO2 sequestration project in Iceland with the aim to trap CO2 through mineral carbonatization in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks. A substantial part of the Icelandic lithology comprises <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass. This glass is rich in divalent cations and easily dissolved compared to <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> silicate minerals, which makes it interesting for CO2 mineralization efforts. In the crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, the dominant minerals are plagioclase (labradorite), clinopyroxene (augite), and Mg-rich olivine, which were therefore chosen for this study. Diopside (cpx) and enstatite (opx) were included because more literature data are available for these pyroxenes than for augite. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> glass proved viable as a Ca-source to form calcium carbonates at pH 8-10 at both 25 and 70°C. However, at 70°C the formation of zeolites competed with the carbonates for the Ca. Both calcite and aragonite were forming and co-existing in the case of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass. In all other experiments, calcite was the only carbonate phase found. To maximize the effect of carbonate coatings, a mixed-reactor with two inlets was developed; a Ca-bearing and a CO3-bearing. In two different sets of experiments at 25°C the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> index of calcite in the mixed inlet solution was 1) 0.6 and 2) ~1.8, respectively. The high-<span class="hlt">saturation</span> experiments 2) were tested on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019930','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790019930"><span>Thickness of western mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dehon, R. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>An isopach map of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011989"><span>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mass extinctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morgan, W. Jason</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>There appears to be a correlation between the times of flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mass-extinction events. There is a correlation of flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and hotspot tracks--flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> appear to mark the beginning of a new hotspot. Perhaps there is an initial instability in the mantle that bursts forth as a flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> but then becomes a steady trickle that persists for many tens of millions of years. Suppose that flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and not impacts cause the environmental changes that lead to mass-extinctions. This is a very testable hypothesis: it predicts that the ages of the flows should agree exactly with the times of extinctions. The Deccan and K-T ages agree with this hypothesis; An iridium anomaly at extinction boundaries apparently can be explained by a scaled-up eruption of the Hawaiian type; the occurrence of shocked-quartz is more of a problem. However if the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are all well dated and their ages indeed agree with extinction times, then surely some mechanism to appropriately produce shocked-quartz will be found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V51C4775T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V51C4775T"><span>Decompression-Induced Crystallization of Hydrous <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teasdale, R.; Brooker, R. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Decompression-induced crystallization of hydrous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> during magma ascent from 1.5 kb (150 MPa) is quantified using isothermal decompression TZM experiments. The starting composition is a synthetic glass based on the 1921 Kilauea <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, with 1% H2O added. In all cases, the liquidus phase is aluminous spinel, followed by clinopyroxene, then plagioclase. The plagioclase liquidus temperatures for isobaric (equilibrium) experiments range from 1175°C (at 1.5 kb) to 1217°C (at 200b), which are 35-75°C hotter than predicted by MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack 1995). Experiments were decompressed at 1kb/hr and quenched at 800, 400, 200, or 100b for three temperatures (1160°, 1150°, and 1140°C). Plagioclase crystals formed during decompression have long axes that range from less than 1 micron to 20 microns. Increasing decompression yields larger plagioclase crystal sizes and aspect ratios for experiments at equal temperatures. However, the number of crystals does not vary systematically, indicating that crystallization is dominated by growth rather than nucleation during decompression. Plagioclase compositions for experiments were measured with University of Bristol's Electron Microprobe and the Hyperprobe with Field Emission Gun. Plagioclase compositions from equilibrium experiments (An60-An80) span the range of those from decompression experiments (An60-An73). Equilibrium experiments generated higher An compositions at lower pressures (500b) than at higher pressure (1.5kb) but do not systematically vary with temperature. Variations in plagioclase compositions are minimal above H2O <span class="hlt">saturation</span> (100-200°C, based on Papale et al., 2006). Below H2O <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, An content decreases slightly, by approximately 4% An. One application of this work is better characterization of groundmass crystallization in hydrous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> as it traverses the conduit during eruption. This work also provides a means of distinguishing groundmass plagioclase related to decompression from crystals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V31D..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V31D..01C"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Lava Channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p> or channel bends that exposes more core lava to cooling than simply that of the shear zones. Thus the channel geometry plays a major role in the thermal history of a flow. As lava flows rarely flow through pre-existing channels of prescribed geometry, we have performed an additional set of analog laboratory experiments to determine the relationship between flow rate, slope, and channel formation in solidifying flows. All flows develop stable uniform channels within solidified levees except when the flow rate is sufficiently low to permit flow front solidification, inflation, and tube formation. On constant slopes, increasing flow rates result in increases in both the rate of flow advance rate and the channel width, and a decrease in levee width. At constant flow rates, both channel width and levee width decrease with increasing slope while flow advance rate increases. Limited data on the geometry of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava channels indicate that experimental data are consistent with field observations, however, both additional field data and scaling relationships are required to fully utilize the laboratory experiments to predict channel development in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7049377','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7049377"><span>Geology, mineralogy, and chemistry of sediment-hosted clastic massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in shallow cores, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goodfellow, W.D.; Franklin, J.M. )</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>Middle Valley is a sediment-covered rift near the northern end of Juan de Fuca Ridge. Hydrothermal fluids are presently being discharged at two vent fields about 3 km apart, Bent Hill and the area of active venting. The hydrothermally active chimneys at both Bent Hill and the area of active venting consist of anhydrite and Mg-rich silicates with minor pyrite, Cu-Fe <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, sphalerite, and galena. Hydrothermal discharge in these areas appears to be focused along extensional faults. At the Bent Hill massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, clastic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> layers are interbedded with hydrothermally altered and unaltered hemipelagic and turbiditic sediment along the flanks of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mound. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> textures and mineralogy suggest that the Bent Hill <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mound formed by the build-up and collapse of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys, the resedimentation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> debris and the formation of clastic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> layers, and the infilling and replacement of clastic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> by hydrothermal fluids near vents. Sulfur isotope values that are consistently more positive than <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sulfur support the addition of seawater sulfur. Pb isotope values for the Bent Hill deposit that are transitional between midocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (MORB) and Middle Valley sediments indicate that the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> probably formed from fluids which originated in the oceanic crust but which have been modified by reaction with lower temperature (<274 C) fluids generated in the sedimentary pile, similar to those now venting in Middle Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23J..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B23J..02P"><span>Energy and Carbon Flow: Comparing ultramafic- and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perner, M.; Bach, W.; Seifert, R.; Strauss, H.; Laroche, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In deep-sea vent habitats hydrothermal fluids provide the grounds for life by supplying reduced inorganic compounds (e.g. H2, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>). Chemolithoautotrophs can oxidize these substrates hereby yielding energy, which can then be used to fuel autotrophic CO2 fixation. Depending on the type of host rocks (and the degree of admixed ambient seawater) the availability of inorganic electron donors can vary considerably. While in ultramafic-hosted vents H2 levels are high and H2-oxidizing metabolisms are thought to dominate, in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents, H2 is much lower and microbial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation is considered to prevail [1, 2]. We have investigated the effect of H2 and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> availability on the microbial community of distinct H2-rich and H2-poor vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Hydrothermally influenced samples were collected from the H2-rich ultramafic-hosted Logatchev field (15°N) and the comparatively H2-poor <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted vents from 5°S and 9°S. We conducted catabolic energy calculations to estimate the potential of various electron donors to function as microbial energy sources. We performed incubation experiments with hydrothermal fluids amended with H2 or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and radioactively labelled bicarbonate and determined H2 and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> consumption and carbon incorporation rates. We constructed metagenomic libraries for sequence-based screening of genes encoding key enzymes for H2 uptake (NiFe uptake hydrogenases, group 1), <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation (<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> quinone oxidoreductase, sqr) and CO2 fixation pathways (RubisCOs of the Calvin cycle [CBB] and beta-subunit of the ATP citrate lyase of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle [rTCA]). We evaluated parts of the metagenomes from <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted sites by pyrosequencing. Based on our incubation experiments - under the conditions applied - we could not confirm that generally H2 consumption rates and biomass syntheses in fluids derived from ultramafic-hosted locations are significantly enhanced over those from <span class="hlt">basalt</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7177372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7177372"><span>Pb isotopes in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>LeHuray, A.P.; Church, S.E.; Koski, R.A.; Bouse, R.M.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>The authors report Pb isotope ratios of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> deposited at seven recently active mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal vents. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> from three sediment-starved sites on the Juan de Fuca Ridge contain Pb with isotope ratios identical to their local <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sources. Lead in two deposits from the sediment-covered Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge, is derived from the sediments and does not appear to contain any <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> component. There is a range of isotope ratios in a Guaymas Basin deposit, consistent with a mixture of sediment and MOR <span class="hlt">basalt</span> Pb. Lead in a Galapagos deposit differs slightly from known Galapagos <span class="hlt">basalt</span> Pb isotope values. The faithful record of Pb isotope signatures of local sources in MOR <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> indicates that isotope ratios from ancient analogues ca be used as accurate reflections of ancient oceanic crustal values in ophiolite-hosted deposits and continental crustal averages in sediment-hosted deposits. The preservation of primary ophiolitic or continental crustal Pb isotope signatures in ancient MOR <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> provides a powerful tool for investigation of crustal evolution and for fingerprinting ancient terranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoOD..54..155G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoOD..54..155G"><span>Sources and formation conditions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-silicate magmas in the Noril'sk district</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorbachev, N. S.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p> subformation, whereas intrusions of the Upper Noril'sk type are comagmatic to the lavas of the mr-mk formations. Geochemical similarity with volcanic rocks provides evidence for the composition of the initial magma and the time of intrusion emplacement. The ore-bearing intrusions of the Upper Noril'sk type were formed at the onset of the third stage, when the primitive low-Ti magma similar to the lavas of mr-mk formations in composition was emplaced. When intruding, this melt captured and transported ore-bearing cumulus (drops of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt, early olivine and chromite grains) into the magma chamber. Separate portions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid were involved into movement as a self-dependent intrusive subphase during formation of the Talnakh and Kharaelakh intrusions. An extremal effect of pressure on sulfur concentration in fluid-bearing and <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> mafic magmas has been established in experiments to be P = 1-2 GPa. In this interval of pressure, the S concentration in <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> magmas increases in the following sequence: dry magma ≤(H2O + CO2)-bearing magma <H2O-bearing magma. In the regions of low (<0.3 GPa) and high (>2.5 GPa) pressures, the S contents (0.1-0.2 wt %) are commensurable. The extremal baric relationship of S concentration in fluid-bearing and <span class="hlt">sulfide-saturated</span> mafic magmas may be important for the formation of ore-bearing magmas. The calculation results show that the amount of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the known deposits does not exceed 2% of geological resources of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> separated from the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Therefore, the chance of discovery of new deposits remains rather high. Proceeding from the conditions of ore-bearing magma formation and geological setting of the known deposits, criteria for recognition of potentially ore-bearing areas are proposed and such areas are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..112D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EOSTr..88..112D"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Mineralogy and Geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dilles, John</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1178502-injection-monitoring-wallula-basalt-pilot-project','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1178502-injection-monitoring-wallula-basalt-pilot-project"><span>Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Pilot Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; ...</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> pore water with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> supercritical CO2 show thatmore » mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178502"><span>Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Pilot Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> pore water with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> supercritical CO2 show that mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18218894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18218894"><span>Enriched Pt-Re-Os isotope systematics in plume lavas explained by metasomatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luguet, Ambre; Graham Pearson, D; Nowell, Geoff M; Dreher, Scott T; Coggon, Judith A; Spetsius, Zdislav V; Parman, Stephen W</p> <p>2008-01-25</p> <p>To explain the elevated osmium isotope (186Os-187Os) signatures in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, the possibility of material flux from the metallic core into the crust has been invoked. This hypothesis conflicts with theoretical constraints on Earth's thermal and dynamic history. To test the veracity and uniqueness of elevated 186Os-187Os in tracing core-mantle exchange, we present highly siderophile element analyses of pyroxenites, eclogites plus their <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and new 186Os/188Os measurements on pyroxenites and platinum-rich alloys. Modeling shows that involvement in the mantle source of either bulk pyroxenite or, more likely, metasomatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> derived from either pyroxenite or peridotite melts can explain the 186Os-187Os signatures of oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. This removes the requirement for core-mantle exchange and provides an effective mechanism for generating Os isotope diversity in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770068498&hterms=projects+planets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dprojects%2Bplanets','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770068498&hterms=projects+planets&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dprojects%2Bplanets"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> volcanism in terrestrial planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A prescription is presented of a 3-year experimental project designed to encourage a selected group of earth scientists to think on a Solar System scale rather than a terrestrial, lunar, or martian scale. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> volcanism was the process selected because it manifests itself widely in the inner Solar System and because it seemed more cleanly separable from other geological problems than other processes considered. Studies in ten areas are to illuminate all aspects of the mechanics and chronology of the generation and eruption of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas in the terrestrial planets. Attention is given to individual team reports related to the various areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047892&hterms=Rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DRutherford','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850047892&hterms=Rutherford&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DRutherford"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> and sulfate <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in hydrous silicate melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, M. R.; Rutherford, M. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A series of hydrothermal experiments was performed over a wide range of pressures, temperatures, oxygen fugacities, and melt FeO content, in order to examine the effects of physical changes on sulfur solubility in fractionated hydrous silicate melts. On the basis of the experimental results, it is concluded that upper crustal oxidation-reduction reactions and crystal fractionation processes may exert considerable influence on the amount of sulfur contained in magmas erupted at the surface. The application of the experimental results to investigations of volatile transport and volcanic degassing processes on the earth, Venus, and Mars is discussed</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21540841"><span>Melt migration in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> columns driven by crystallization-induced pressure gradients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mattsson, Hannes B; Caricchi, Luca; Almqvist, Bjarne S G; Caddick, Mark J; Bosshard, Sonja A; Hetényi, György; Hirt, Ann M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The structure of columnar-jointed lava flows and intrusions has fascinated people for centuries and numerous hypotheses on the mechanisms of formation of columnar jointing have been proposed. In cross-section, weakly developed semicircular internal structures are a near ubiquitous feature of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> columns. Here we propose a melt-migration model, driven by crystallization and a coeval specific volume decrease inside cooling and solidifying columns, which can explain the observed macroscopic features in columnar-jointed <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. We study <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Hrepphólar (Iceland), combining macroscopic observations, detailed petrography, thermodynamic and rheological modelling of crystallization sequences, and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of late crystallizing phases (that is, titanomagnetite). These are all consistent with our proposed model, which also suggests that melt-migration features are more likely to develop in certain evolved <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava flows (with early <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of titanomagnetite), and that the redistribution of melt within individual columns can modify cooling processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22933408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22933408"><span>Radiation shielding concrete made of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> aggregates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alhajali, S; Yousef, S; Kanbour, M; Naoum, B</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In spite of the fact that <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> is a widespread type of rock, there is very little available information on using it as aggregates for concrete radiation shielding. This paper investigates the possibility of using <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> for the aforementioned purpose. The results have shown that <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> could be used successfully for preparing radiation shielding concrete, but some attention should be paid to the choice of the suitable types of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> and for the neutron activation problem that could arise in the concrete shield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.443...59L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.443...59L"><span>Temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720057605&hterms=SOURCES+HYDROGEN+SULFIDE&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSOURCES%2BHYDROGEN%2BSULFIDE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720057605&hterms=SOURCES+HYDROGEN+SULFIDE&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DSOURCES%2BHYDROGEN%2BSULFIDE"><span>Interstellar hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720057605&hterms=hydrogen+sulfide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhydrogen%2Bsulfide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720057605&hterms=hydrogen+sulfide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhydrogen%2Bsulfide"><span>Interstellar hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009928"><span>Shock Experiments on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - Ferric Sulfate Mixes at 21 GPa & 49 GPa and their Relevance to Martian Meteorite Impact Glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. N.; Ross, D. K.; See, T. H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Sutton, S.; Asimow, P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Large abundance of Martian atmospheric gases and neutron-induced isotopic excesses as well as Rb-Sr isotopic variations determined in some impact glasses in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites (e.g., Shergotty #DBS, Zagami #H1 and EET79001 #27, #8 and #104) provide definitive evidence for the occurrence of a Martian regolith component in their constituent mineral assemblages. Some of these glass-es, known as gas-rich impact-melts (GRIM), contain numerous micron-sized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs along with minor amounts of iron sulfate particulates. As these GRIM glasses contain a Martian regolith component and as iron sulfates (but not <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>) are found to occur abundantly on the Mars surface, we suggested that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs in GRIMs were likely generated by shock-reduction of the parental iron sulfate bearing regolith material that had been incorporated into the cavities/crevices of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> host rock prior to the impact event on Mars. To test whether the sulfates could be reduced to <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> by impact shock, we carried out laboratory shock experiments on a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> plus ferric sulfate mixture at 49 GPa at the Caltech Shock Wave Laboratory and at 21 GPa at Johnson Space Center (JSC) Experimental Impact Laboratory. The experimental details and the preliminary results for the Caltech 49 GPa experiment were presented at LPSC last year. Here, we report the results for the 21 GPa experiment at JSC and compare these results to obtain further insight into the mechanism of the bleb formation in the GRIM glasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.286..206Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.286..206Z"><span>Copper isotope fractionation during <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> formed at later</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780040890&hterms=ocean+chemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bchemistry','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780040890&hterms=ocean+chemistry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Docean%2Bchemistry"><span>Trace elements in ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kay, R. W.; Hubbard, N. J.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>A study is made of the trace elements found in ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. General assumptions regarding melting behavior, trace element fractionation, and alteration effects are presented. Data on the trace elements are grouped according to refractory lithophile elements, refractory siderophile elements, and volatile metals. Variations in ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> chemistry are noted both for regional and temporal characteristics. Ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are compared to other terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, such as those having La/Yb ratios greater than those of chondrites, and those having La/Yb ratios less than those of chondrites. It is found that (1) as compared to solar or chondrite ratios, ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have low ratios of large, highly-charged elements to smaller less highly-charged elements, (2) ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> exhibit low ratios of volatile to nonvolatile elements, and (3) the transition metals Cr through Zn in ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are not fractionated more than a factor of 2 or 3 from the chondritic abundance ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7369540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7369540"><span>Resistivity logging of fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent <m> is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1095/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1095/report.pdf"><span>Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>May, Rodd James</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067226&hterms=eruption+effusive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Deruption%2Beffusive','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067226&hterms=eruption+effusive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Deruption%2Beffusive"><span>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and extinction events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stothers, Richard B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009psrd.reptE.133T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009psrd.reptE.133T"><span>Mars Crust: Made of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, G. J.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>By combining data from several sources, Harry Y. (Hap) McSween (University of Tennessee), G. Jeffrey Taylor (University of Hawaii) and Michael B. Wyatt (Brown University) show that the surface of Mars is composed mostly of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> not unlike those that make up the Earth's oceanic crust. McSween and his colleagues used data from Martian meteorites, analyses of soils and rocks at robotic landing sites, and chemical and mineralogical information from orbiting spacecraft. The data show that Mars is composed mostly of rocks similar to terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalts</span> called tholeiites, which make up most oceanic islands, mid-ocean ridges, and the seafloor beneath sediments. The Martian samples differ in some respects that reflect differences in the compositions of the Martian and terrestrial interiors, but in general are a lot like Earth <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Cosmochemistst have used the compositions of Martian meteorites to discriminate bulk properties of Mars and Earth, but McSween and coworkers' synthesis shows that the meteorites differ from most of the Martian crust (the meteorites have lower aluminum, for example), calling into question how diagnostic the meteorites are for understanding the Martian interior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067226&hterms=Mesozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMesozoic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067226&hterms=Mesozoic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DMesozoic"><span>Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and extinction events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stothers, Richard B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009916','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009916"><span>CO2-filled vesicles in mid-ocean <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.; Batchelder, J.N.; Cunningham, C.G.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Volatile-filled vesicles are present in minor amounts in all samples of mid-ocean <span class="hlt">basalt</span> yet collected (and presumably erupted) down to depths of 4.8 km. When such vesicles are pierced in liquid under standard conditions, the volume expansion of the gas is 0.2 ?? 0.05 times the eruption pressure in bars or 20 ?? 5 times the eruption depth in km. Such expansion could be used as a measure of eruption depth. A variety of techniques: (1) vacuum crushing and gas chromatographic, freezing separation, and mass spectrographic analyses; (2) measurements of phase changes on a freezing microscope stage; (3) microscopic chemical and solubility observations; and (4) volume change measurements, all indicate that CO2 comprises more than 95% by volume of the vesicle gas in several submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from the Atlantic and Pacific. The CO2 held in vesicles is present in quantities about equal to or greater than that presumed to be dissolved in the glass (melt) and amounts to 400-900 ppm of the rock. The rigid temperature of the glass is 800-1000??C and increases for shallower samples. A sulfur gas was originally present in subordinate amounts in the vesicles, but has largely reacted with iron in the vesicle walls to produce <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> spherules. ?? 1977.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B11E0416L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B11E0416L"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> of silver nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Brown, G. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Rapid development of nanotechnologies that exploit the properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) raises questions concerning the impact of Ag on the environment. Ag-NPs are currently among the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and the amount released into the environment is expected to increase along with production (1). When present in geochemical systems, Ag-NPs may undergo a variety of changes due to varying redox, pH, and chemical conditions. Expected changes range from surface modification (e.g., oxidation, <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span>, chloridation etc.) to complete dissolution and re-precipitation. In this context, the focus of our work is on understanding the behavior of synthetic Ag-NPs with different particle sizes under varying conditions relevant to the environment. <span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> of Ag-NPs is of particular interest since it among the processes most likely to occur in aqueous systems, in particular under reducing conditions. Three sizes of Ag-NPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were produced using the polyol process (2) (7 ±1; 20 ±4, and 40 ±9 nm). Batch solutions containing the different Ag-NPs were subsequently reacted with Na2S solutions of different concentrations. The <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> process was followed step-wise for 24 hours and the corrosion products formed were characterized by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface charge (pHPZC) of the products formed during this process was also measured, as were changes in solubility and reactivity. Based on experimental observations we infer that the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> process is the result of dissolution-precipitation and find that: (i) acanthite (Ag2S) is formed as a corrosion product; (ii) Ag-NPs aggregation increased with <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> rate; (iii) pHPZC increases with the rate of <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span>; and (iv) the solubility of the corrosion products formed from <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> appears lower than that of non-<span class="hlt">sulfidated</span> Ag-NPs. We observe size-dependent differences in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP42B..01H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP42B..01H"><span>Flood <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Neoproterozoic Glaciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halverson, G. P.; Cox, G. M.; Kunzmann, M.; Strauss, J. V.; Macdonald, F. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Large igneous provinces (LIPs), which are commonly associated with supercontinental break-up, are the product of the emplacement of >106 km3 of mafic rocks in less than a few million years. LIP magmatism, in particular continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (CFB) volcanism, perturbs global climate on shorter time scales through the radiative effects of degassed SO2 and CO2. On longer time scales, CFBs alter climate through the effect of the high weatherabilty of mafic rocks (5-10 times greater than average continental crust) on global silicate weathering. A link between flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering, Rodinia break-up, and Neoproterozoic snowball glaciation has been postulated. Here we present a new compilation of Nd isotope data on Neoproterozoic mudstones from Laurentia, Australia, and South China along with a new seawater strontium isotope record from well preserved carbonates that support this hypothesis. These datasets are consistent with an outsized role of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering on the global silicate weathering budget during the second half of the Tonian period (~850 to 725 Ma). Along with Os isotope data, they also suggest that an additional pulse of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering at the end of the Tonian may have initiated the Sturtian snowball glaciation. CFBs have relatively high concentrations of phosphorous. Hence, the drawdown in atmospheric CO2 required to trigger the Sturtian snowball Earth was likely accomplished through a combination of increased silicate weathering rates and enhanced biological productivity driven by greater nutrient supply to the oceans. CFBs were also the likely source of the iron in Neoproterozoic iron formation (IF), all significant occurrences of which are restricted to Sturtian-aged glacial successions. Dramatic declines in ɛNd following the Cryogenian snowball glaciations are mirrored by stepwise increases in 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting the scouring of the continents by global ice sheets. This continental resurfacing removed the extensive <span class="hlt">basalt</span> carapace as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4750033','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4750033"><span>Characterization of a newly isolated strain Pseudomonas sp. C27 for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation: Reaction kinetics and stoichiometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Xi-Jun; Chen, Chuan; Guo, Hong-liang; Wang, Ai-jie; Ren, Nan-qi; Lee, Duu-Jong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> biooxidation by the novel <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-oxidizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. C27, which could perform autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification in mixotrophic medium, was studied in batch and continuous systems. Pseudomonas sp. C27 was able to oxidize <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> at concentrations as high as 17.66 mM. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> biooxidation occurred in two distinct stages, one resulting in the formation of sulfur with nitrate reduction to nitrite, followed by thiosulfate formation with nitrite reduction to N2. The composition of end-products was greatly impacted by the ratio of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to nitrate initial concentrations. At a ratio of 0.23, thiosulfate represented 100% of the reaction products, while only 30% with a ratio of 1.17. In the continuous bioreactor, complete removal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was observed at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration as high as 9.38 mM. Overall <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal efficiency decreased continuously upon further increases in influent <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations. Based on the experimental data kinetic parameter values were determined. The value of maximum specific growth rate, half <span class="hlt">saturation</span> constant, decay coefficient, maintenance coefficient and yield were to be 0.11 h−1, 0.68 mM <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, 0.11 h−1, 0.21 mg <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/mg biomass h and 0.43 mg biomass/mg <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, respectively, which were close to or comparable with those reported in literature by other researches. PMID:26864216</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4329797','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4329797"><span><span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Duffield, R.B.</p> <p>1958-08-12</p> <p>A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoMP..168.1027F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CoMP..168.1027F"><span>Effect of chlorine on near-liquidus phase equilibria of an Fe-Mg-rich tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filiberto, Justin; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The importance of Cl in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis has been recognized, yet constraints on its effect on liquidus crystallization of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are scarce. In order to quantify the role of Cl in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> systems, we have experimentally determined near-liquidus phase relations of a synthetic Fe-Mg-rich <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, doped with 0.0-2.5 wt% dissolved Cl, at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 GPa. Results have been parameterized and compared with previous data from literature. The effect of Cl on mineral chemistry and liquidus depression is dependent on the starting <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> composition. The liquidus depression measured for a SiO2-rich, Al2O3-poor <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is smaller than that observed for a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt depleted in silica and enriched in FeOT and Al2O3. The effect of Cl on depression of the olivine-orthopyroxene-liquid multiple <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressure does not seem to vary with the starting composition of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquid. This suggests that Cl may significantly promote the generation of silica-poor, Fe-Al-rich magmas in the Earth, Mars, and the Moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19513.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19513.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fats (image)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fats.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T21B0422R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T21B0422R"><span>What lies below the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reidel, S.; Kauffman, J.; Garwood, D.; Bush, J.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>More than 200,000 sq km of the Pacific Northwest are covered by the Miocene Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRB). The lavas were erupted onto a complex structural setting dominated by cratonic rocks, and accreted terranes at a convergent plate margin. Few boreholes penetrate the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> so the sub-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> structure must be deduced from geophysical data, the surrounding area and structures within the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. In Oregon (OR) and Idaho (ID) the eastern edge of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> follows the boundary between the craton and accreted terranes but the suture zone becomes lost beneath the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in eastern WA. In northern OR and Washington (WA), a thick <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequence in the western part of the province overlies an early Tertiary basin with kms of sediment fill which, in turn, overlies accreted terranes. In eastern WA and western ID, a much thinner <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequence overlies cratonic and accreted terrane rocks without thick intervening Tertiary sediments. This basin began in the Eocene and continued into the present; the sediment now controls the location of the Yakima fold belt (YFB). Prior to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions, a rugged mountainous terrane existed in eastern WA and ID that probably extended to the west. NW faults and folds (e.g. the Orofino fault zone ID, and Chiwaukum graben and White River-Naches River fault zone, Cascade Range) dominate the prebasalt rocks and must extend under the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Remanents of this NW trend are present in YFB (e.g. Rattlesnake-Wallula fault zone) but these are less prominent than the large <span class="hlt">basalt</span> anticlinal folds that are decoupled from the basement. CRB dikes have a NW to N trend and are thought to reflect a basement structural weakness. In the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province many folds and faults follow this dike trend. Major NE trending faults in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> do not have major counterparts beyond the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. One fault, the Hite Fault, must form a significant sub-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> boundary. Dikes to the east of the Hite fault trend N-N20W whereas dikes to the west trend N40-50W</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoMP..162..153L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011CoMP..162..153L"><span>The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: an experimental study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lesne, Priscille; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Beny, Jean-Michel</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted to determine CO2 solubilities in alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Vesuvius, Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. The <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts were equilibrated with nearly pure CO2 at 1,200°C under oxidizing conditions and at pressures ranging from 269 to 2,060 bars. CO2 solubility was determined by FTIR measurements. The results show that alkalis have a strong effect on the CO2 solubility and confirm and refine the relationship between the compositional parameter Π devised by Dixon (Am Mineral 82:368-378, 1997) and the CO2 solubility. A general thermodynamic model for CO2 solubility in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts is defined for pressures up to 2 kbars. Based on the assumption that O2- and CO{3/2-} mix ideally, we have: begin{gathered} K(P,T) = {{X_{{{{CO}}3^{2 - } }}m (P,T)}/{X_{{{{O}^{2 - } }}m × f_{{{{CO}}2 }} (P,T)}}} \\ K(P,T) = {{X_{{{{CO}}3^{2 - } }}m (P,T)} {/ {{{X_{{{{CO}}3^{2 - } }}m (P,T)} {( {X_{{{{O}}^{2 - } }}m × f_{{{{CO}}2 }} (P,T)} ).}}} . kern-νlldelimiterspace} {( {X_{{{{O}}^{2 - } }}m × f_{{{{CO}}2 }} (P,T)} ).}} \\ Then, from the thermodynamic model, we obtain ln K 0 = 0.893 Π - 15.247. The new CO2 solubility model yields <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressures lower by as much as 50% relative to some existing models when applied to volatile-rich alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032178','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032178"><span>S-33 constraints on the seawater sulfate contribution in modern seafloor hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ono, Shuhei; Shanks, Wayne C.; Rouxel, O.J.; Rumble, D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> sulfur in mid-oceanic ridge hydrothermal vents is derived from leaching of <span class="hlt">basaltic-sulfide</span> and seawater-derived sulfate that is reduced during high temperature water rock interaction. Conventional sulfur isotope studies, however, are inconclusive about the mass-balance between the two sources because 34S/32S ratios of vent fluid H2S and chimney <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals may reflect not only the mixing ratio but also isotope exchange between sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Here, we show that high-precision analysis of S-33 can provide a unique constraint because isotope mixing and isotope exchange result in different ??33S (?????33S-0.515 ??34S) values of up to 0.04??? even if ??34S values are identical. Detection of such small ??33S differences is technically feasible by using the SF6 dual-inlet mass-spectrometry protocol that has been improved to achieve a precision as good as 0.006??? (2??). <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> minerals (marcasite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite) and vent H2S collected from four active seafloor hydrothermal vent sites, East Pacific Rise (EPR) 9-10??N, 13??N, and 21??S and Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) 37??N yield ??33S values ranging from -0.002 to 0.033 and ??34S from -0.5??? to 5.3???. The combined ??34S and ??33S systematics reveal that 73 to 89% of vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are derived from leaching from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and only 11 to 27% from seawater-derived sulfate. Pyrite from EPR 13??N and marcasite from MAR 37??N are in isotope disequilibrium not only in ??34S but also in ??33S with respect to associated sphalerite and chalcopyrite, suggesting non-equilibrium sulfur isotope exchange between seawater sulfate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during pyrite precipitation. Seafloor hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are characterized by low ??33S values compared with biogenic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, suggesting little or no contribution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from microbial sulfate reduction into hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> at sediment-free mid-oceanic ridge systems. We conclude that 33S is an effective new tracer for interplay among</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800031127&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dluna','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800031127&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dluna"><span>Petrogenesis of Luna 16 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.; Nielsen, R. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Bulk compositions, petrology and mineralogy of Luna 16 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> particles of less than 0.5 mm are described. The data rule out any close genetic relationships between Luna 16 and other major types of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Compared to high-Ti mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, the Luna 16 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain lower TiO2 and Ta and higher Al2O3 and REE abundances, suggesting that the Luna 16 source rocks crystallized later than (i.e. stratigraphically above) the ilmenite-bearing high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cumulate source rocks. The REE pattern for the Luna 16 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> requires that the source material from which they were derived crystallized from a light REE enriched magma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeCoA..75.4728G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeCoA..75.4728G"><span>CO 2-water-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> interaction. Numerical simulation of low temperature CO 2 sequestration into <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gysi, Alexander P.; Stefánsson, Andri</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The interaction between CO 2-rich waters and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass was studied using reaction path modeling in order to get insight into the water-rock reaction process including secondary mineral composition, water chemistry and mass transfer as a function of CO 2 concentration and reaction progress ( ξ). The calculations were carried out at 25-90 °C and pCO 2 to 30 bars and the results were compared to recent experimental observations and natural systems. A thermodynamic dataset was compiled from 25 to 300 °C in order to simulate mineral <span class="hlt">saturations</span> relevant to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration in CO 2-rich environment including revised key aqueous species for mineral dissolution reactions and apparent Gibbs energies for clay and carbonate solid solutions observed to form in nature. The dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass in CO 2-rich waters was found to be incongruent with the overall water composition and secondary mineral formation depending on reaction progress and pH. Under mildly acid conditions in CO 2 enriched waters (pH <6.5), SiO 2 and simple Al-Si minerals, Ca-Mg-Fe smectites and Ca-Mg-Fe carbonates predominated. Iron, Al and Si were immobile whereas the Mg and Ca mobility depended on the mass of carbonate formed and water pH. Upon quantitative CO 2 mineralization, the pH increased to >8 resulting in Ca-Mg-Fe smectite, zeolites and calcite formation, reducing the mobility of most dissolved elements. The dominant factor determining the reaction path of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> alteration and the associated element mobility was the pH of the water. In turn, the pH value was determined by the concentration of CO 2 and extent of reaction. The composition of the carbonates depended on the mobility of Ca, Mg and Fe. At pH <6.5, Fe was in the ferrous oxidation state resulting in the formation of Fe-rich carbonates with the incorporation of Ca and Mg. At pH >8, the mobility of Fe and Mg was limited due to the formation of clays whereas Ca was incorporated into calcite, zeolites and clays. Competing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24678586"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> kinetics of silver nanoparticles reacted with metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf</p> <p>2014-05-06</p> <p>Recent studies have documented that the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP), possibly released to the environment from consumer products, occurs in anoxic zones of urban wastewater systems and that <span class="hlt">sulfidized</span> Ag-NP exhibit dramatically reduced toxic effects. However, whether Ag-NP <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> also occurs under oxic conditions in the absence of bisulfide has not been addressed, yet. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> that are more resistant toward oxidation than free <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, could enable the <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of Ag-NP under oxic conditions. We reacted citrate-stabilized Ag-NP of different sizes (10-100 nm) with freshly precipitated and crystalline CuS and ZnS in oxygenated aqueous suspensions at pH 7.5. The extent of Ag-NP <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> was derived from the increase in dissolved Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) over time and linked with results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of selected samples. The <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of Ag-NP followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate coefficients increasing with decreasing Ag-NP diameter and increasing metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration and depending on the type (CuS and ZnS) and crystallinity of the reacting metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Results from analytical electron microscopy revealed the formation of complex <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> patterns that seemed to follow preexisting subgrain boundaries in the pristine Ag-NP. The kinetics of Ag-NP <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> observed in this study in combination with reported ZnS and CuS concentrations and predicted Ag-NP concentrations in wastewater and urban surface waters indicate that even under oxic conditions and in the absence of free <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, Ag-NP can be transformed into Ag2S within a few hours to days by reaction with metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864945','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/864945"><span>Zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquefaction catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Garg, Diwakar</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22293456"><span>The Use of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>, <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gulik, V.I.; Biland, A.B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-based materials, including <span class="hlt">basalt</span> roving chopped <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber strands, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> roving, chopped <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber strands and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6149929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6149929"><span>Mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma source region and mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma genesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Binder, A.B.</p> <p>1982-11-15</p> <p>Given the available data, we find that the wide range of mare <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> material characteristics can be explained by a model in which: (1) The mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magma source region lies between the crust-mantle boundary and a maximum depth of 200 km and consists of a relatively uniform peridotite containing 73--80% olivine, 11--14% pyroxene, 4--8% plagioclase, 0.2--9% ilmenite and 1--1.5% chromite. (2) The source region consists of two or more density-graded rhythmic bands, whose compositions grade from that of the very low TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (0.2% ilmenite) to that of the very high TiO/sub 2/ magma source regions (9% ilmenite). These density-graded bands are proposed to have formed as co-crystallizing olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, ilmenite, and chromite settled out of a convecting magma (which was also parental to the crust) in which these crystals were suspended. Since the settling rates of the different minerals were governed by Stoke's law, the heavier minerals settled out more rapidly and therefore earlier than the lighter minerals. Thus the crystal assemblages deposited nearest the descending side of each convection cell were enriched in heavy ilmenite and chromite with respect to lighter olivine and pyroxene and very much lighter plagioclase. The reverse being the case for those units deposited near the ascending sides of the convection cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13C0477I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13C0477I"><span>Subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as fungal habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V22B..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V22B..05S"><span>Inferring Mantle From <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stracke, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Isotope ratios in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, first reported by Gast and co-workers 50 years ago, are unique tracers of mantle composition, because they are expected to mirror the composition of their mantle sources. While the latter is certainly true for homogeneous sources, the plethora of studies over the last 50 years have shown that mantle sources are isotopically heterogeneous on different length scales. Isotopic differences exist between <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from different ocean basins, volcanoes of individual ocean islands, lava flows of a single volcano, and even in μm sized melt inclusions in a single mineral grain. Diffusion, which acts to homogenize isotopic heterogeneity over Gyr timescales, limits the length scale of isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle to anywhere between several mm to 10s of meters. Melting regions, however, are typically several 100 km wide and up to 100 km deep. The scale of melting is thus generally orders of magnitude larger than the scale of isotopic heterogeneity. How partial melts mix during melting, melt transport, and melt storage then inevitably influences how isotopic heterogeneity is conveyed from source to melt. The isotopic composition of oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> hence provides an integrated signal of isotopically diverse melts. Recent mixing models and observed isotopic differences between source (abyssal peridotites) and melts (MORB) show that the range of isotopic heterogeneity of erupted melts need NOT directly reflect that of their source(s), nor need observed isotopic endmembers in source and melts be congruent. Many geochemical models, however, implicitly assume equivalence of source and melt composition. Especially when attempting to infer spatial patterns of isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle from those observed in erupted melts, or for linking isotopic diversity to geophysical structures in the mantle requires a more profound understanding to what extent erupted melts represent the isotopic composition of their mantle sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815664S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815664S"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composition on the solubility of sulfur in coexisting silicate melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smythe, Duane; Wood, Bernard; Kiseeva, Ekaterina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The extent to which sulfur dissolves in silicate melts <span class="hlt">saturated</span> in an immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase is a fundamental question in igneous petrology and plays a primary role in the generation of magmatic ore deposits, volcanic degassing and planetary differentiation. Terrestrial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts often contain over 20 weight percent Ni + Cu, however, most experimental studies investigating sulfur solubility in silicate melt have been primarily concerned with the effects of silicate melt composition, and pure FeS has been use as the immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt (O'Neill and Mavrogenes, 2002; Li and Ripley, 2005). To investigation of the effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composition, in addition to those of temperature, pressure and silicate melt composition, on sulfur solubility in silicate melts, we have carried out a series of experiments done at pressures between 1.5 and 3 GPa and temperatures from 1400 to 1800C over a range of compositions of both the silicate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt. We find that the solubility of sulfur in silicate melts drops significantly with the substitution of Ni and Cu for Fe in the immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt, decreasing by approximately 40% at mole fractions of NiS + Cu2S of 0.4. Combining our results with those from the previous studies investigating sulfur solubility in silicate melts we have also found that solubility increases with increasing temperature and decreases pressure. These results show that without considering the composition of the immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase the sulfur content of silicate melts can be significantly overestimated. This may serve to explain the relatively low sulfur concentrations in MORB melts, which previous models predict to be undersaturated in a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phase despite showing chemical and textural evidence for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Li, C. & Ripley, E. M. (2005). Empirical equations to predict the sulfur content of mafic magmas at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and applications to magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. Mineralium Deposita 40, 218-230. O'Neill, H. S. C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U53B0056F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U53B0056F"><span>Modeling Central American <span class="hlt">basalts</span> using the Arc <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We have used the Arc <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Simulator (ABS), developed by JI Kimura, to explore the conditions and components of melting beneath the Central American volcanic front. ABS is a comprehensive forward model that incorporates slab dehydration and melting and mantle wedge fluxing and melting using realistic P-T conditions and experimentally determined phase relations. We have applied ABS versions 3 and 4 to model representative magma types in Nicaragua, which span a broad geochemical range including proximal high- and low-Ti lavas in Nicaragua. Sr-Nd-Pb data require appropriate selection of previously identified sources, including: separate carbonate and hemipelagic sediments, DMM, an enriched mantle isotopically similar to the alkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Yojoa, a Himu-influenced mantle derived from Galapagos material and altered oceanic crust (AOC) derived from both MORB and Galapagos seamounts. Following the dry solidus, the dominant arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, exemplified by Cerro Negro lavas, can be generated at about 80-90 km where lawsonite and zoisite break down, releasing LILEs into a hydrous fluid that travels into the wedge. The fluid-triggered melting occurs just above the garnet stability field in the wedge to fit the HREEs. Below 90 Km, slab melting begins and the AOC component dominates, generating a fluid with little or no HFSE depletions, consistent with the unusual high-Ti lavas found in Nicaragua. However, the isotopic data require a much lower sediment input for the high-Ti lavas (consistent with 10Be results on the high-Ti lavas) and an enriched component for the AOC and/or mantle wedge. Following the wet solidus, fits to the Cerro Negro magma only occur in the absence of phengite in the AOC and with the presence of HFSE attracting minerals, rutile, zircon and allanite. The depth of the best fit is 135 km, consistent with current best estimates of the depth to the seismic zone beneath Cerro Negro. Below 150 km, the high-Ti lavas can be generated if the HFSE retaining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6016296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6016296"><span>Electrochemical behavior of silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drouven, B.U.E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The electrochemical behavior of silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in sulfuric acid as well as in nitric acid was studied using electrodes made from synthetic silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The primary techniques used were potentiostatic, potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and corrosion cell experiments. The cathodic reaction of silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produces silver and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. This reaction mechanism is a sequential two step charge transfer involving a single electron in each step. Silver ions are produced from silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> upon applying an anodic potential. The dissolution rate of silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can be so high that the formation of silver sulfate occurs which partially covers the silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> surface and inhibits a further rate increase. The sulfur from the silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> will be oxidized at low overpotentials to elemental sulfur; at high overpotentials, the oxidation to sulfate or bisulfate is observed. The results suggest that the catalysis of chalcopyrite by the addition of silver ions is caused by the formation and subsequent dissolution of silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> leaving a porous layer behind. The understanding of the reaction mechanism of silver <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> dissolution and its optimization will significantly improve the economic evaluation of industrial processes using the catalyzed leaching of chalcopyrite. The present knowledge of the catalysis indicates that other ions may be substituted for silver ions which would increase the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25747485"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> detoxification in plant mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Birke, Hannah; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In contrast to animals, which release the signal molecule <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in small amounts from cysteine and its derivates, phototrophic eukaryotes generate <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as an essential intermediate of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Additionally, iron-sulfur cluster turnover and cyanide detoxification might contribute to the release of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in mitochondria. However, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria. Thus, efficient <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detoxification mechanisms are required in mitochondria to ensure adequate energy production and consequently survival of the plant cell. Two enzymes have been recently described to catalyze <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> detoxification in mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana, O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase C (OAS-TL C), and the sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) ethylmalonic encephalopathy protein 1 (ETHE1). Biochemical characterization of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> producing and consuming enzymes in mitochondria of plants is fundamental to understand the regulatory network that enables mitochondrial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> homeostasis under nonstressed and stressed conditions. In this chapter, we provide established protocols to determine the activity of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> releasing enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase as well as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-consuming enzymes OAS-TL and SDO. Additionally, we describe a reliable and efficient method to purify OAS-TL proteins from plant material. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA240862','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA240862"><span>Global Isotopic Signatures of Oceanic Island <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-08-01</p> <p>Appendix). Samples in the data set are mainly <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. with some gabbros and trachybasalts, trachytes and other silica-rich rocks relative to <span class="hlt">basalt</span>...Hart (1984) contoured world maps of OIB isotope data for his three DUPAL anomaly criteria [ASr> 40; A7/4 > 3; A8/4 > 401. These maps show a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5206946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5206946"><span>Volcanogenic trace element volatiles in <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>Br, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Zn, and Cu were measured in samples of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. To assess sea-water effects glassy rinds and crystalline interiors of pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were measured as was subaerial glass from Kilauea volcano. Preliminary results are reported. 6 references, 3 figures. (ACR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6388569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6388569"><span>Geothermal hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Urban, P.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377194','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/377194"><span>Biotreatment of refinery spent <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> caustics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sublette, K.L.; Rajganesh, B.; Woolsey, M.; Plato, A.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Caustics are used in petroleum refinering to remove hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> from various hydrocarbon streams. Spent <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> caustics from two Conoco refineries have been successfully biotreated on bench and pilot scale, resulting in neutralization and removal of active <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> were completely oxidized to sulfate by Thiobacillus denitrificans. Microbial oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produced acid, which at least partially neutralized the caustic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21116345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21116345"><span>The electronic structure and catalytic properties of molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the coal hydrogenation process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>A.M. Gyul'maliev; M.A. Gyul'malieva; A.S. Maloletnev; M.Ya. Shpirt</p> <p>2008-08-15</p> <p>Comparative analysis of the electronic structure of molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and their catalytic activity in hydrogenation reactions was performed from the results of Hartree-Fock ab initio quantum-chemical calculations using the STO 3-21G and 6-311G basis sets with geometry optimization. The model reactions of hydrogenation of aromatic and <span class="hlt">saturated</span> hydrocarbons with hydrogen and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> were studied. It was shown that the hydrogenation reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons with hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> must occur at a higher rate (with lower activation energy) as compared to those with molecular hydrogen.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057748&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780057748&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"><span>Shock metamorphism of lunar and terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Lonar Crater (India) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 75035 were shock loaded under controlled laboratory conditions up to 1000 kbar, generally in a CO/CO2 (1:1) environment evacuated to 10 to the minus seventh power torr. The Kieffer et al. (1976) classification scheme of progressive shock metamorphism is found to apply to lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The major shock features of the five classes that span the range 0 to 1000 kbar are described. Only three out of 152 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> specimens show shock effects in their natural state as severe as Class 2 features. The scarcity of shocked <span class="hlt">basalt</span> hand samples in contrast to the abundance of shock-produced agglutinates and homogeneous glass spheres in the lunar regolith indicates the dominant role of micrometeorite impact in the evolution of the lunar regolith. The overall glass content in asteroidal and Mercurian regoliths is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574866"><span>Suicide with hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sams, Ralph Newton; Carver, H Wayne; Catanese, Charles; Gilson, Thomas</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>This presentation will address the recent rise of suicide deaths resulting from the asphyxiation by hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) gas.Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> poisoning has been an infrequently encountered cause of death in medical examiner practice. Most H2S deaths that have been reported occurred in association with industrial exposure.More recently, H2S has been seen in the commission of suicide, particularly in Japan. Scattered reports of this phenomenon have also appeared in the United States.We have recently observed 2 intentional asphyxial deaths in association with H2S. In both cases, the decedents committed suicide in their automobiles. They generated H2S by combining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-containing tree spray with toilet bowl cleaner (with an active ingredient of hydrogen chloride acid). Both death scenes prompted hazardous materials team responses because of notes attached to the victims' car windows indicating the presence of toxic gas. Autopsy findings included discoloration of lividity and an accentuation of the gray matter of the brain. Toxicology testing confirmed H2S exposure with the demonstration of high levels of thiosulfate in blood.In summary, suicide with H2S appears to be increasing in the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4840759','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4840759"><span>CORE <span class="hlt">SATURATION</span> BLOCKING OSCILLATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spinrad, R.J.</p> <p>1961-10-17</p> <p>A blocking oscillator which relies on core <span class="hlt">saturation</span> regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a <span class="hlt">saturable</span> portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/618157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/618157"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> isotopic compositions in shergottites and ALH84001, and possible implications for life on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenwood, J.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr.; Riciputi, L.R.</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>The shergottite and ALH84001 meteorites hold keys for understanding geologic and possibly biologic processes on Mars. Recently, it has been proposed that carbonates in ALH84001, and the Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfides</span> they contain, are products of extraterrestrial biogenic activity. Here we report ion microprobe analyses of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in shergottites and ALH84001. The sulfur isotope ratios of igneous pyrrhotites in shergottites (mean {delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT}: Shergotty = -0.4{per_thousand}, Zagami = +2.7{per_thousand}, EETA79001A = 1.9{per_thousand}, EETA79001B = -1.7{per_thousand}, LEW88516 = -1.9{per_thousand}, QUE94201 = +0.8{per_thousand}) are similar to those of terrestrial ocean-floor <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, suggesting that the sulfur isotopic composition of the Martian mantle may be similar to that of the mantle of the Earth. The sulfur isotopic systematics of ALH84001 <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are distinct from the shergottites. Measured sulfur isotope ratios of eight pyrite grains ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} = +2.0 to +7.3{per_thousand}) in crushed zones confirm previously reported analyses of isotopically heavy <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and are indistinguishable from an Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zone within a carbonate globule ({delta}{sup 34}S{sub CDT} = +6.0{per_thousand}). Analyses of synthesized, fine-grained mixtures of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, carbonate, and magnetite indicate than the measured sulfur isotope ratio is independent of the presence of carbonate and magnetite in the sputtered volume, confirming the accuracy of the analysis of the fine-grained <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the carbonate globule. Terrestrial biogenic sulfate reduction typically results in light isotopic enrichments. The similarity of {delta}{sup 34}S values of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in ALH84001 imply that the Fe-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zones within ALH84001 carbonates are probably not the result of bacterial reduction of sulfate. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.2277I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.2277I"><span>Subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as fungal habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, M.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, next to nothing is known about this deep, concealed biosphere. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (~50-200 μm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few μm:s to ∼20 μm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma, and probably still is. It is suggested that near future ocean drilling programs prioritize sampling of live species to better understand this concealed biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.3625I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGeo....9.3625I"><span>Subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as fungal habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, M.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50-200 µm in diameter) body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter) are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T51B2570D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T51B2570D"><span>Rhyolite, dacite, andesite, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite, and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism on the Alarcon Rise spreading-center, Gulf of California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dreyer, B. M.; Portner, R. A.; Clague, D. A.; Castillo, P. R.; Paduan, J. B.; Martin, J. F.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p> glasses (~56% SiO2), and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses, more typical of the rest of the ridge, occur within 100m of the dome. Flow(s) with andesite glass compositions (~62 wt % SiO2) are exposed in fault scarps ~1km SW of the dome. Minor seawater contamination in evolved lavas (> 53 wt % SiO2) is indicated by generally increasing Cl-/K2O with decreasing MgO and increasing SiO2. Three preliminary Sr-isotopic analyses indicate that crustal assimilation and assimilation of altered crustal rocks has been minimal. Major element trends, and a preliminary subset of laser-ablation ICP-MS data, are consistent with extended fractional crystallization from a multiply-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> parental liquid(s) of limited compositional range. Rare earth element abundances range from 15-150x chondritic, and patterns are coarsely described as flat with moderate LREE-depletion (LaN/CeN ~ 0.8- 0.9). Differentiated lavas have distinct negative Eu-anomalies documenting extensive crystal fractionation of plagioclase in the generation of the more evolved lavas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2241W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2241W"><span>Re-Os geochronology on <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from the Tudun Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Eastern Tianshan, and its geological significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Minfang; Wang, Wei; Gutzmer, Jens; Liu, Kun; Li, Chao; Michałak, Przemysław P.; Xia, Qinlin; Guo, Xiaonan</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The Tudun deposit is a medium-sized Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, located at the westernmost edge of the Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt in the northern part of Eastern Tianshan, NW China. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> separates including pentlandite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite from the Tudun deposit, contain Re, common Os and 187Os ranging from 40.46 to 201.2, 0.8048 to 6.246 and 0.1709 to 0.9977 ppb, respectively. They have very low 187Os/188Os ratios of 1.224-2.352. The <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> yield a Re-Os isochron age of 270.0 ± 7.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.3), consistent within uncertainty with the SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age for the Tudun mafic intrusion (gabbro) of 280.0 ± 3.0 Ma. The calculated initial 187Os/188Os ratio is 0.533 ± 0.022, and γOs values range from 283 to 307, with a mean of 297, indicating significant crustal contamination of the parent melt prior to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The Tudun deposit shares the same age and Re-Os isotopic compositions with other orthomagmatic Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in Huangshan-Jing'erquan Belt, suggesting that they have formed in Early Permian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006906','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080006906"><span>Method of epitaxially depositing cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hawrylo, Frank Z. (Inventor)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A single crystal layer of either cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or an alloy of cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and indium phosphide is epitaxially deposited on a substrate of cadmium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> by liquid phase epitaxy using indium as the solvent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.195...84P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.195...84P"><span>Magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the porphyritic chondrules of EH enstatite chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piani, Laurette; Marrocchi, Yves; Libourel, Guy; Tissandier, Laurent</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The nature and distribution of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> within 17 porphyritic chondrules of the Sahara 97096 EH3 enstatite chondrite have been studied by backscattered electron microscopy and electron microprobe in order to investigate the role of gas-melt interactions in the chondrule <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> formation. Troilite (FeS) is systematically present and is the most abundant <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> within the EH3 chondrite chondrules. It is found either poikilitically enclosed in low-Ca pyroxenes or scattered within the glassy mesostasis. Oldhamite (CaS) and niningerite [(Mg,Fe,Mn)S] are present in ≈60% of the chondrules studied. While oldhamite is preferentially present in the mesostasis, niningerite associated with silica is generally observed in contact with troilite and low-Ca pyroxene. The Sahara 97096 chondrule mesostases contain high abundances of alkali and volatile elements (average Na2O = 8.7 wt.%, K2O = 0.8 wt.%, Cl = 7100 ppm and S = 3700 ppm) as well as silica (average SiO2 = 62.8 wt.%). Our data suggest that most of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> found in EH3 chondrite chondrules are magmatic minerals that formed after the dissolution of S from a volatile-rich gaseous environment into the molten chondrules. Troilite formation occurred via sulfur solubility within Fe-poor chondrule melts followed by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, which causes an immiscible iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid to separate from the silicate melt. The FeS <span class="hlt">saturation</span> started at the same time as or prior to the crystallization of low-Ca pyroxene during the high temperature chondrule forming event(s). Protracted gas-melt interactions under high partial pressures of S and SiO led to the formation of niningerite-silica associations via destabilization of the previously formed FeS and low-Ca pyroxene. We also propose that formation of the oldhamite occurred via the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of Fe-poor chondrule melts at moderate S concentration due to the high degree of polymerization and the high Na-content of the chondrule melts, which allowed the activity of Ca</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008787','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008787"><span>The Mantle and <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other <span class="hlt">basalts</span> peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Si-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1083396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1083396"><span>Mineralization of <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> in the CO<sub>2</sub>-H<sub>2</sub>O-H<sub>2</sub>S System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.; Arey, Bruce W.</p> <p>2013-05-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> samples representing five different formations were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide containing 1% hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) at reservoir conditions (100 bar, 90°C) for up to 3.5 years. Surface coatings in the form of pyrite and metal cation substituted carbonates were identified as reaction products associated with all five <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. In some cases, high pressure tests contained excess H2S, which produced the most corroded <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and largest amount of secondary products. In comparison, tests containing limited amounts of H2S appeared least reacted with significantly less concentrations of reaction products. In all cases, pyrite appeared to precede carbonation, and in some instances, was observed in the absence of carbonation such as in cracks, fractures, and within the porous glassy mesostasis. Armoring reactions from pyrite surface coatings observed in earlier shorter duration tests were found to be temporary with carbonate mineralization observed with all the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> tested in these long duration experiments. Geochemical simulations conducted with the geochemical code EQ3/6 accurately predicted early pyrite precipitation followed by formation of carbonates. Reactivity with H2S was correlated with measured Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios in the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with more facile pyrite formation occurring with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> containing more Fe(III) phases. These experimental and modeling results confirm potential for long term sequestration of acid gas mixtures in continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039412&hterms=TiO2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTiO2','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039412&hterms=TiO2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DTiO2"><span>The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039412&hterms=solubility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolubility','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039412&hterms=solubility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsolubility"><span>The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27670770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27670770"><span>Code <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> Versus Meaning <span class="hlt">Saturation</span>: How Many Interviews Are Enough?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennink, Monique M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Marconi, Vincent C</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> is a core guiding principle to determine sample sizes in qualitative research, yet little methodological research exists on parameters that influence <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Our study compared two approaches to assessing <span class="hlt">saturation</span>: code <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and meaning <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. We examined sample sizes needed to reach <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in each approach, what <span class="hlt">saturation</span> meant, and how to assess <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Examining 25 in-depth interviews, we found that code <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was reached at nine interviews, whereby the range of thematic issues was identified. However, 16 to 24 interviews were needed to reach meaning <span class="hlt">saturation</span> where we developed a richly textured understanding of issues. Thus, code <span class="hlt">saturation</span> may indicate when researchers have "heard it all," but meaning <span class="hlt">saturation</span> is needed to "understand it all." We used our results to develop parameters that influence <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, which may be used to estimate sample sizes for qualitative research proposals or to document in publications the grounds on which <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC31B0870S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC31B0870S"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> CO2 Sequestration: Using Wireline Logs to Identify Subsurface Continental Flood <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Lithofacies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sullivan, E. C.; Finn, S.; Davis, K. N.; Segovia, A. I.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The flows of the Miocene Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRBG) of the northwest United States are an important example of reactive flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> that are attractive targets for sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Brecciated flow tops and dense flow interiors form layered regional aquifer systems in the Columbia Basin that have the potential to sequester gigatons of supercritical CO2 where they contain non-potable water and are at depths of greater than 800m. The demonstrated chemical reactivity of these continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with supercritical CO2 in laboratory experiments suggests that part of the sequestered CO2 will be permanently entombed as carbonate minerals. Here we report on the use of conventional wire-line log data, along with full waveform sonic and resistivity-based image logs to identify subsurface <span class="hlt">basalt</span> stratigraphy and lithofacies relevant to CO2 sequestration. We compare borehole data from the 2009 Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pilot well near Wallula, Washington U.S.A. with regional outcrop analogs to determine patterns for recognizing <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lithofacies in the subsurface. We examine quick-look techniques recently proposed for hydrocarbon exploration in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> terranes and show that rescaled shear and compressional sonic log curves, which reflect changes in bulk modulus, appear to provide a robust tool for the identification of subsurface CRBG <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lithofacies Resistivity-based Image Log of Vesicular <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> and Fractures From the Wallula <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Pilot Well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V51C1703M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V51C1703M"><span>Petrogenesis of Mt. Baker <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Andesites: Constraints From Mineral Chemistry and Phase Equilibria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mullen, E.; McCallum, I. S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>; however, the two methods do not give consistent results. The water content and redox state of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are inversely correlated, inconsistent with data from andesites that show the reverse correlation. Using published experimental data and the BATCH algorithm (Longhi, 2002) we constructed an array of phase diagrams in the multi-component <span class="hlt">basalt</span> system relevant to arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and andesites ranging from 0 to 3 GPa and variable water contents. Projections of Mt. Baker lava compositions (corrected for loss or gain of olivine and plag where appropriate) on these diagrams reveal: (1) with the exception of Sulphur Cr., primary <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> compositions equilibrated with depleted hydrous mantle harzburgite/lherzolite at pressures from 1 to 1.5 GPa, coincident with the crust-mantle boundary in the Mt. Baker region, (2) except for Sulphur Cr., melt fractions were >10%; Sulphur Cr. <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is alkalic and formed by smaller degrees of partial melting comparable to <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the northern Garibaldi belt, (3) evidence for shallow fractionation of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (5-10 km), (4) Mt. Baker andesites delineate a low pressure fractionation trend coincident with the 0.2 GPa, water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span>, oliv+cpx+plag and cpx+amph+plag cotectics (Sisson and Grove, 1993, Grove et al., 2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21608231"><span>Gluon <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in a <span class="hlt">saturated</span> environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan</p> <p>2011-07-15</p> <p>A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q{sub sA}{sup 2}, in AA compared with pA collisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...62S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...62S"><span>The Mineralogy of the Youngest Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Staid, M. I.; Pieters, C. M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The last stage of lunar volcanism produced spectrally distinct <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on the western nearside of the Moon, which remain unsampled by landing missions. The spectral properties of these late-stage <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are examined using high-spatial-resolution Clementine images to constrain their mineralogic composition. The young high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the western Procellarum and Imbrium Basins display a significantly stronger ferrous absorption than earlier mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, suggesting that they may be the most Fe-rich deposits on the Moon. The distinct long-wavelength shape of this ferrous absorption is found to be similar for surface soils and materials excavated from depth. The pervasive character of this absorption feature supports the interpretation of abundant olivine within these late-stage lunar deposits. Important distinctions exist between the early-stage eastern maria and the late-stage western <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, even though both appear to be Ti-rich. For example, the western maria are more radiogenic than eastern deposits. Telescopic spectra of the high-Ti western maria also exhibit a unique combination of a strong 1 micron feature and a relatively weak or attenuated 2-micron absorption. Pieters et al. concluded that the unusual strength and shape of the 1-micron absorption in western <span class="hlt">basalts</span> results from an additional absorption from abundant olivine and/or Fe-bearing glass. Either mineralogy could produce the strong long wavelength 1-micron band, but a glassy Fe-rich surface could only form by rapid cooling along the exterior surfaces of flows. Clementine UV-VIS data of late-stage <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are examined for regions in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium. The spectral properties of western regions are compared to the sampled Apollo 11 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in Mare Tranquillitatis, which contain similar albedos and UV-VIS spectral properties. For reference, the western <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are also compared to the low-Ti and Fe-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in Mare Serenitatis (mISP). Serenitatis <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have the strongest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910053092&hterms=water+bubble&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bbubble','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910053092&hterms=water+bubble&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bbubble"><span>Water diffusion in a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Youxue; Stolper, E. M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of water diffusivity in a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquid are reported. The concentration-dependent total water diffusivities in the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt at 1300-1500 C are 30-50 times as large as those in rhyolitic melts and are greater than the total CO2 diffusivity in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts, contrary to previous expectations. These results suggest that diffusive fractionation would increase the ratio of water to CO2 in growing bubbles relative to equilibrium partitioning and decrease the ratio in interface melts near an advancing anhydrous phenocryst.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02762&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA02762&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span>Anaglyph: <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Cliffs, Patagonia, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><p/> <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> cliffs along the northwest edge of the Meseta de Somuncura plateau near Sierra Colorada, Argentina show an unusual and striking pattern of erosion. Stereoscopic observation helps to clarify the landform changing processes active here. Many of the cliffs appear to be rock staircases that have the same color as the plateau's <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cap rock. Are these the edges of lower layers in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> or are they a train of slivers that are breaking off from, then sliding downslope and away from, the cap rock. They appear to be the latter. Close inspection shows that each stair step is too laterally irregular to be a continuous sheet of bedrock like the cap rock. Also, the steps are not flat but instead are little ridges, as one might expect from broken, tilted, and sliding slices of the cap rock. Stream erosion has cut some gullies into the cliffs and vegetation (appears bright in this infrared image) shows that water springs from and flows down some channels, but land sliding is clearly a major agent of erosion here.<p/>This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.<p/>Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.<p/>Elevation data used in this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinDe..51..937T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MinDe..51..937T"><span>Chalcophile element (Ni, Cu, PGE, and Au) variations in the Tamarack magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit in the Midcontinent Rift System: implications for dynamic ore-forming processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p> correlation between Pt and Pd, and between individual IPGE. At a given Pt or Pd content, however, the semi-massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores have higher IPGE contents than the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> samples. Modeling results show that the variations in PGE tenors (metals in recalculated 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>) in the Tamarack magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit are mainly controlled by variable R factors (magma/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-liquid mass ratios) during <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-liquid segregation and subsequent monosulfide solid solution (MSS) fractionation during cooling. The initial contents of Ir, Pt, and Pd in the parental magma, estimated from the metal tenors of the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, are 0.2, 2, and 1.8 ppb, respectively, which are ˜1/5 of the values for the PGE-undepleted primitive <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Midcontinent Rift System. The variations of PGE tenors in the semi-massive and massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores can be explained by MSS fractional crystallization from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids. Extreme variations in the PGE contents of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> may also in part reflect metal mobility during post-crystallization hydrothermal processes. The higher PGE tenors for the disseminated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the CGO dike relative to those in the FGO Intrusion are consistent with formation in a dynamic conduit where the early <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids left in the conduit by the FGO magma were subsequently upgraded by the subsequent surge of the CGO magma. The relatively low PGE tenors for the semi-massive and massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> can be explained by lack of such an upgrading process for the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> due to their distal locations in a migrating conduit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PCM...tmp...18G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PCM...tmp...18G"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> bonded atomic radii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The bonded radius, r b(S), of the S atom, calculated for first- and second-row non-transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals and third-row transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> molecules and crystals indicates that the radius of the sulfur atom is not fixed as traditionally assumed, but that it decreases systematically along the bond paths of the bonded atoms with decreasing bond length as observed in an earlier study of the bonded radius of the oxygen atom. When bonded to non-transition metal atoms, r b(S) decreases systematically with decreasing bond length from 1.68 Å when the S atom is bonded to the electropositive VINa atom to 1.25 Å when bonded to the more electronegative IVP atom. In the case of transition metal atoms, rb(S) likewise decreases with decreasing bond length from 1.82 Å when bonded to Cu and to 1.12 Å when bonded to Fe. As r b(S) is not fixed at a given value but varies substantially depending on the bond length and the field strength of the bonded atoms, it is apparent that sets of crystal and atomic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> atomic radii based on an assumed fixed radius for the sulfur atom are satisfactory in that they reproduce bond lengths, on the one hand, whereas on the other, they are unsatisfactory in that they fail to define the actual sizes of the bonded atoms determined in terms of the minima in the electron density between the atoms. As such, we urge that the crystal chemistry and the properties of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> be studied in terms of the bond lengths determined by adding the radii of either the atomic and crystal radii of the atoms but not in terms of existing sets of crystal and atomic radii. After all, the bond lengths were used to determine the radii that were experimentally determined, whereas the individual radii were determined on the basis of an assumed radius for the sulfur atom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PCM....44..561G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PCM....44..561G"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> bonded atomic radii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The bonded radius, r b(S), of the S atom, calculated for first- and second-row non-transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals and third-row transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> molecules and crystals indicates that the radius of the sulfur atom is not fixed as traditionally assumed, but that it decreases systematically along the bond paths of the bonded atoms with decreasing bond length as observed in an earlier study of the bonded radius of the oxygen atom. When bonded to non-transition metal atoms, r b(S) decreases systematically with decreasing bond length from 1.68 Å when the S atom is bonded to the electropositive VINa atom to 1.25 Å when bonded to the more electronegative IVP atom. In the case of transition metal atoms, rb(S) likewise decreases with decreasing bond length from 1.82 Å when bonded to Cu and to 1.12 Å when bonded to Fe. As r b(S) is not fixed at a given value but varies substantially depending on the bond length and the field strength of the bonded atoms, it is apparent that sets of crystal and atomic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> atomic radii based on an assumed fixed radius for the sulfur atom are satisfactory in that they reproduce bond lengths, on the one hand, whereas on the other, they are unsatisfactory in that they fail to define the actual sizes of the bonded atoms determined in terms of the minima in the electron density between the atoms. As such, we urge that the crystal chemistry and the properties of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> be studied in terms of the bond lengths determined by adding the radii of either the atomic and crystal radii of the atoms but not in terms of existing sets of crystal and atomic radii. After all, the bond lengths were used to determine the radii that were experimentally determined, whereas the individual radii were determined on the basis of an assumed radius for the sulfur atom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010820','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010820"><span>Composition and origin of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma of the Hawaiian Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Powers, H.A.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p>Silica-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06818&hterms=Andesite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAndesite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06818&hterms=Andesite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAndesite"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Crater in Color IR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/> Released August 6, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image near Nili Fosse in the the Isidis region of Mars. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. In many cases craters trap sand in their topographic depressions, interrupting the sand's migration across the Martian surface. This image is particularly interesting because there appears to be more than 1 type of sand in the bottom of this crater and in the hummocky terrain near the bottom of the image. The pink/magenta areas are characteristic of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> composition, but there are also orange areas that are likely caused by the presence of andesite. These two compositions, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and andesite, are some of the most common found on Mars. <p/> Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 24, Longitude 80.7 East (297.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06818&hterms=Andesite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAndesite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA06818&hterms=Andesite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAndesite"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Crater in Color IR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>[figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/> Released August 6, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image near Nili Fosse in the the Isidis region of Mars. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations. In many cases craters trap sand in their topographic depressions, interrupting the sand's migration across the Martian surface. This image is particularly interesting because there appears to be more than 1 type of sand in the bottom of this crater and in the hummocky terrain near the bottom of the image. The pink/magenta areas are characteristic of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> composition, but there are also orange areas that are likely caused by the presence of andesite. These two compositions, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and andesite, are some of the most common found on Mars. <p/> Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 24, Longitude 80.7 East (297.3 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. <p/> Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. <p/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..310..225L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JVGR..310..225L"><span>Relating <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral zonation and trace element chemistry to subsurface processes in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Libbey, R. B.; Williams-Jones, A. E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The nature and distribution of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals and their trace element chemistry in the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system was determined through the study of cuttings and core from wells that intersect different regions of the hydrothermal cell, from the near surface to depths of > 3000 m. The observed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral zonation and trace element enrichment correlate well with the present-day thermal structure of the system. Isocubanite and pyrrhotite are confined to the deep, low permeability regions, whereas an assemblage of chalcopyrite and pyrite predominates in the main convective upflow path. The presence of marcasite in the uppermost regions of the system reflects weakly acidic conditions (pH < 5) marginal to the upflow, where outflow and downward percolating fluids have dissolved deeply exsolved CO2. The presence of "chalcopyrite disease" in sphalerite may be an indication that the system is experiencing a heating trend, following the logic of "zone-refining" in volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> systems. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> sulfur at all analyzed depths in the Reykjanes geothermal system was derived from a mixture of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and reduced seawater sources. Petrographic evidence suggests that seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids have altered primary igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the host rocks, a process that has been proposed as a major control of aqueous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production in mid-ocean ridge environments. Calculations show that igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the host <span class="hlt">basalts</span> likely account for less than 5% of the total available ore metal budget in the system, however, their contribution to fluid metal budgets is probably significant because of their relatively high solubility. The processes documented by this study are likely analogous to those operating in the feeder and deep reaction zones of mid-ocean ridge seafloor hydrothermal systems. The results show that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral zonation and trace element chemistry vary as a function of physicochemical parameters that are relevant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7375E..6CZ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7375E..6CZ"><span>Experimental research on continuous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-fibers-reinforced polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xueyi; Zou, Guangping; Shen, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The interest for continuous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers and reinforced polymers has recently grown because of its low price and rich natural resource. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> fiber was one type of high performance inorganic fibers which were made from natural <span class="hlt">basalt</span> by the method of melt extraction. This paper discusses basic mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber. The other work in this paper was to conduct tensile testing of continuous <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber-reinforced polymer rod. Tensile strength and stress-strain curve were obtained in this testing. The strength of rod was fairly equal to rod of E-glass fibers and weaker than rod of carbon fibers. Surface of crack of rod was studied. An investigation of fracture mechanism between matrix and fiber was analyzed by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) method. A poor adhesion between the matrix and fibers was also shown for composites analyzing SEM photos. The promising tensile properties of the presented <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers composites have shown their great potential as alternative classical composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770054089&hterms=type+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtype%2Brocks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770054089&hterms=type+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtype%2Brocks"><span>Apollo 17 KREEPy <span class="hlt">basalt</span> - A rock type intermediate between mare and KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The Apollo 17 KREEPy <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is a unique lunar volcanic rock, observed only as clasts in the light friable breccia matrix (72275) of Boulder 1, Station 2 at Taurus-Littrow. Its status as a volcanic rock is confirmed by the absence of any meteoritic contamination, a lack of cognate inclusions or xenocrystal material, and low Ni contents in metal grains. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was extruded 4.01 + or - 0.04 b.y. ago, approximately contemporaneously with the high-alumina mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> at Fra Mauro; shortly afterwards it was disrupted, probably by the Serenitatis impact, and its fragments emplaced in the South Massif. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, which is quartz-normative and aluminous, is chemically and mineralogically intermediate between the Apollo 15 KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the high-alumina mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in most respects. It consists mainly of plagioclase and pigeonitic pyroxene in approximately equal amounts, and 10-30% of mesostatis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5213665','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5213665"><span>Field method for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilson, B L; Schwarser, R R; Chukwuenye, C O</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A simple and rapid method was developed for determining the total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration in water in the field. Direct measurements were made using a silver/<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ion selective electrode in conjunction with a double junction reference electrode connected to an Orion Model 407A/F Specific Ion Meter. The method also made use of a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anti-oxidant buffer (SAOB II) which consists of ascorbic acid, sodium hydroxide, and disodium EDTA. Preweighed sodium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals were sealed in air tight plastic volumetric flasks which were used in standardization process in the field. Field standards were prepared by adding SAOB II to the flask containing the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystals and diluting it to the mark with deionized deaerated water. Serial dilutions of the standards were used to prepare standards of lower concentrations. Concentrations as low as 6 ppB were obtained on lake samples with a reproducibility better than +- 10%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010053613&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010053613&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span>The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>,Ocean island <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010053613&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010053613&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span>The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>,Ocean island <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17802173"><span><span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engel, C G; Engel, A E</p> <p>1963-06-21</p> <p>Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850015332&hterms=flood+basalt&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dflood%2Bbasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850015332&hterms=flood+basalt&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dflood%2Bbasalt"><span>Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-plains Ridge Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Watters, T. R.; Maxwell, T. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The morphologic similarities between the Columbia Plateau ridges and ridges on the Moon, Mercury and Mars form a strong basis for the interpretation of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-plains ridges as compressional folds. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-plains ridges appear to have formed on competent flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> units deformed at the surface with essentially no confining pressure. Estimates of compressive strain for planetary ridges range from a few tenths of a percent on the Moon to up to 0.4% on Mars, to as high as 35% for Columbia Plateau folds with associated thrust faults. Such values have strong implications for both deformational mechanisms as well as for the source of stress. Deformational mechanisms that will attempt to account for the morphology, fold geometry, possible associated thrust faulting and regular spacing of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-plains ridges on the terrestrial planets are under investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010784','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010784"><span><span class="hlt">Basalts</span> dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.</p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...55R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999nvm..conf...55R"><span>Naming Lunar Mare <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>: Quo Vadimus Redux</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, G.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039538&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039538&hterms=metamorphism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmetamorphism"><span>Shock metamorphism of granulated lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schaal, R. B.; Thompson, T. D.; Hoerz, F.; Bauer, J. F.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The paper deals with an extensive series of shock-recovery experiments performed on both nonporous crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and its granulated and sieved counterpart to study the role of porosity and grain size in shock motomorphic effects under otherwise identical conditions. Shocked samples are compared with unshocked starting material in terms of textural and mineralogical modifications attributable to shock. A comparative petrographic and chemical characterization is presented of pulverized and sieved lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 75035 shocked between 6 and 75 GPa in comparison with holocrystalline disks of the same <span class="hlt">basalts</span> shocked in 10 earlier experiments. Specifically, a petrographic classification of shock features is given, along with an estimation of relative amounts of shock glasses and a chemical characterization of shock glasses in each shocked granular <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4856H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V43A4856H"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crustal material into a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma, is thought to be uncommon because <span class="hlt">basalt</span> requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, thus allowing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio < 1.7) with disequilibrium textures and low Ba/Sr ratios while Population Two is elongate (aspect ratio > 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate <span class="hlt">basaltic</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009989','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130009989"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Soil of Gale Crater: Crystalline Component Compared to Martian <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Treiman, A. H.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Schmidt, M.; Downs, R. T.; Stolper, E. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Farmer, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Morrison, S. M.; Rampe, E. B.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.; Anderosn, R. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Spanovich, N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A significant portion of the soil of the Rocknest dune is crystalline and is consistent with derivation from unweathered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Minerals and their compositions are identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from the CheMin instrument on MSL Curiosity. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> minerals in the soil include plagioclase, olivine, low- and high-calcium pyroxenes, magnetite, ilmenite, and quartz. The only minerals unlikely to have formed in an unaltered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are hematite and anhydrite. The mineral proportions and compositions of the Rocknest soil are nearly identical to those of the Adirondack-class <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Gusev Crater, Mars, inferred from their bulk composition as analyzed by the MER Spirit rover.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA348333','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA348333"><span>Geophysical Measurements of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Intraflow Structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>cliff face just downstream from the Lucky Peak Dam . Visible in outcrop at this location are well developed intraflow structures common to <span class="hlt">basalt</span>...just downstream from the Lucky Peak Dam . Visible in outcrop at this location are well developed intraflow structures common to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows throughout...Profile and cross section of the Boise River canyon near Lucky Peak Dam 8 Figure 2.3 Well field map 12 Figure 2.4 Magnetic field strength along</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054170&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054170&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites"><span>The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is found to predominate. The major <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from <span class="hlt">basalts</span> or <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054170&hterms=Hydrothermal+vents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHydrothermal%2Bvents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810054170&hterms=Hydrothermal+vents&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHydrothermal%2Bvents"><span>The mineralogy and the isotopic composition of sulfur in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/sulfate deposits on the East Pacific Rise, 21 deg N latitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Styrt, M. M.; Brackmann, A. J.; Holland, H. D.; Clark, B. C.; Pisutha-Arnond, V.; Eldridge, C. S.; Ohmoto, H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The mineralogy and isotopic composition of sulfur found in hydrothermal deposits associated with five groups of vents along the ridge axis of the East Pacific Rise near 21 deg N latitude are investigated. Solid samples of mixed <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and sulfates from mounds, chimneys and the surrounding sediment as well as fresh <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass were examined with a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and electron microprobe analysis. For the three vents of exit temperature close to 350 C, the chimneys are found to be rich in copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, while for those of temperatures around 300 C, zinc <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is found to predominate. The major <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> found in the chimneys include wurtzite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and cubanite, with anhydrite the dominant sulfate. Significant mineralogical differences are found between active and inactive vents. The isotopic composition of sulfur in anhydrites from active vents is observed to be close to that of sea water and consistent with a derivation from sea water sulfate. The isotopic composition of sulfur in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals is explained in terms of precipitation from solutions with reduced sulfur derived from <span class="hlt">basalts</span> or <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas, and sea water sulfate. Finally, the deposits are interpreted as the results of the mixing of H2S-dominated hydrothermal fluids with cold sea water near the sea floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24289348"><span>Hydrogen evolution from water through metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan</p> <p>2013-11-28</p> <p>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cluster anions M2S(X)(-) (M = Mo and W, X = 4-6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions have ground state isomers with two bridging <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4(-) isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4(-) and M2S5(-) isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (-SH) and a hydroxyl (-OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4(-) and M2S5(-) clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6(-) is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of the local bonding environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139t4301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JChPh.139t4301S"><span>Hydrogen evolution from water through metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cluster anions M2SX- (M = Mo and W, X = 4-6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions have ground state isomers with two bridging <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4- isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4- and M2S5- isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (-SH) and a hydroxyl (-OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4- and M2S5- clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6- is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of the local bonding environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1191809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1191809"><span>Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–<span class="hlt">basalt</span> caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.</p> <p>2014-08-07</p> <p>Composite Portland cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720337','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720337"><span>Petrophysical characteristics of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the vadose zone, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knutson, C.F.; Harrison, W.E.; Smith, R.P.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>We have used a core characterization system to measure bulk densities, porosities, and permeabilities of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lavas from the vadose zone at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). At the INEL, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows with intercalated alluvial, aeolian, and lacustrine sediments extend to depths of one kilometer or more. Individual lava flows are generally less than 15 meters thick and commonly have vesicular tops and bottoms with massive <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in their interiors. Petrophysical characterization is essential to an understanding of fluid movement in the vadose zone and in the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> zone. Many hundreds of closely spaced permeability/porosity/bulk density measurements have defined the variability of these parameters within and between individual <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. Based on geological logging and porosity/permeability measurements made on many hundred feet of core, we feel that a rather sophisticated and rigorous logging program is necessary to characterize these complex and highly variable <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flow units. This paper endeavors to provide a petrophysical/geological conceptual model of the Snake River Plain <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the vadose zone under the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area at the INEL. We hope that this model will aid in subsequent geotechnical logging in this portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6224477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6224477"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> glass: an analogue for the evaluation of the long-term stability of nuclear waste form borosilicate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Byers, C.D.; Jercinovic, M.J.; Ewing, R.C.; Keil, K.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The long-term stability of nuclear waste form borosilicate glasses can be evaluated by understanding the processes that effect the long-term alteration of glass and by comparing laboratory alteration of synthetic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and borosilicate glasses with the observed stability of naturally occurring <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses in diverse geologic environments. This paper presents detailed electron microprobe analyses of naturally altered <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses (with maximum ages of 10,000 to 20 million years) from low-temperature environments. These results are compared to laboratory data on the corrosion of a synthetic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass in MCC-1 tests (90/sup 0/C, a SA/V of 0.1 cm/sup -1/ and time periods up to 182 days), MCC-2 tests (190/sup 0/C, a SA/V of 0.1 cm/sup -1/ and time periods up to 210 days) and hydration tests in <span class="hlt">saturated</span> water vapor (240/sup 0/C, an estimated SA/V of approx. 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -1/ and time periods up to 63 days). Additionally, laboratory-induced hydration alteration of synthetic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and borosilicate glasses is compared. These preliminary experiments provide evidence that the alteration processes observed for natural <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses are relevant to understanding the alteration of nuclear waste glass, as both appear to react via similar processes. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894861','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/894861"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Mineral Surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosso, Kevin M.; Vaughan, David J.</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>The past twenty years or so have seen dramatic development of the experimental and theoretical tools available to study the surfaces of solids at the molecular (?atomic resolution?) scale. On the experimental side, two areas of development well illustrate these advances. The first concerns the high intensity photon sources associated with synchrotron radiation; these have both greatly improved the surface sensitivity and spatial resolution of already established surface spectroscopic and diffraction methods, and enabled the development of new methods for studying surfaces. The second centers on the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques initially developed in the 1980's with the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments. The direct 'observation' of individual atoms at surfaces made possible with these methods has truly revolutionized surface science. On the theoretical side, the availability of high performance computers coupled with advances in computational modeling has provided powerful new tools to complement the advances in experiment. Particularly important have been the quantum mechanics based computational approaches such as density functional theory (DFT), which can now be easily used to calculate the equilibrium crystal structures of solids and surfaces from first principles, and to provide insights into their electronic structure. In this chapter, we review current knowledge of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral surfaces, beginning with an overview of the principles relevant to the study of the surfaces of all crystalline solids. This includes the thermodynamics of surfaces, the atomic structure of surfaces (surface crystallography and structural stability, adjustments of atoms at the surface through relaxation or reconstruction, surface defects) and the electronic structure of surfaces. We then discuss examples where specific crystal surfaces have been studied, with the main <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals organized by structure type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970025445','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970025445"><span>Studies of Magmatic Inclusions in the <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Martian Meteorites Shergotty, Zagami, EETA 79001 and QUE 94201</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Harvey, Ralph P.; McKay, Gordon A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p> inclusions; those found within early-forming pigeonite, intermediate and late-forming Ti, Fe-oxides and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, and intermediate to late-forming phosphates. In this summer' s study we have made a detailed study of all of the various forms of inclusions found within the 4 <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> martian meteorites listed above. Glasses and minerals within the inclusions were analyzed using the Camera SX-100 Electron Microprobe in Building 31. The mineralogy and textural context of the inclusions will then be used to explore the crystallization history of these specimens, and to investigate any differences in crystallization history or parental magma compositions between these rocks. In this manner, the magmatic inclusions provide a road map backwards toward the 'parental' compositions for the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> martian meteorites and provide significant insight into the igneous processes found within the crust of Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T31A0483G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T31A0483G"><span>Endeavour <span class="hlt">basalt</span> geology and petrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gill, J. B.; Stakes, J.; Ramos, F.; Michael, P.; Stakes, D.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>We report major and trace element and isotope data from 250 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples recently collected by submersible from the axial valley and flanks of the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Off-axis volcanism is abundant on both flanks which are mirror images of one another geologically. Axial valley walls up to 1 km off axis appear to be steps of in tact but variably fractured sheet, lobate, and hackly lava flows similar to the youngest lavas seen in collapse features in the axis. Coverage by pillow terrane increases with distance off axis and coverage becomes complete after 1 km. The similarity of the two flanks suggests that the currently asymmetric axial magma chamber (van Ark et al., 2004) may be shorter-lived than the off-axis volcanism. MgO contents range from 6.0-8.5% and generally are lower on the flanks consistent with consistently cooler chamber edges there. La/Yb ratios vary 3-fold within 100 m in the axial valley, with normalized La/Sm = 0.8-2.5 in contrast to constant Sr and Nd isotopes. However, Th/U and 230Th/232Th ratios vary only slightly in the axial valley, which may enable dating of off-axis samples. H2O/Ce is less than 170, typical of values throughout much of the Pacific. Variations in depth and degree of melting, and in source composition, are implied. At times, these heterogeneities escaped homogenization in axial magma chambers. Cl concentrations and Cl/K ratios are surprisingly low considering the active hydrothermal systems in close proximity and the potential for brine incorporation into the magma chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000094538&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000094538&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span>Alteration of Rock Fragments from Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Microcosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; McKay, David S.; Stevens, Todd O.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>During an earlier study, microorganisms were grown microcosms consisting of sterilized chips of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and natural CRB ground water with its natural microflora; environmental conditions simulated a deep subsurface, anaerobic, dark environment. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM) studies revealed the presence of several types of bacteria and biofilm, some of which were mineralized. Some of these biological features are very similar to possible biogenic features found in two meteorites from Mars, ALH84001 (found in Antarctica) and Nakhla (observed to fall in Egypt). Both ALH84001 and Nakhla contain traces of low-temperature aqueous alteration of silicates, oxides, and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The goals of this study are to use high-resolution field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) to examine the CRB samples for evidence of alteration features similar to those in the martian meteorites, to determine the extent of alteration during the CRB microcosm experiments, and to determine whether effects of biological activity can be distinguished from inorganic effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000094538&hterms=anaerobic+bacterium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Danaerobic%2Bbacterium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000094538&hterms=anaerobic+bacterium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Danaerobic%2Bbacterium"><span>Alteration of Rock Fragments from Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Microcosms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; McKay, David S.; Stevens, Todd O.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>During an earlier study, microorganisms were grown microcosms consisting of sterilized chips of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and natural CRB ground water with its natural microflora; environmental conditions simulated a deep subsurface, anaerobic, dark environment. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM) studies revealed the presence of several types of bacteria and biofilm, some of which were mineralized. Some of these biological features are very similar to possible biogenic features found in two meteorites from Mars, ALH84001 (found in Antarctica) and Nakhla (observed to fall in Egypt). Both ALH84001 and Nakhla contain traces of low-temperature aqueous alteration of silicates, oxides, and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The goals of this study are to use high-resolution field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) to examine the CRB samples for evidence of alteration features similar to those in the martian meteorites, to determine the extent of alteration during the CRB microcosm experiments, and to determine whether effects of biological activity can be distinguished from inorganic effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V43B..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V43B..04L"><span>Solubility of C-H-O-S Volatiles in <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lesne, P.; Scaillet, B.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Arc volcanism is known for his dangerousness because of the high contents H2O, CO2 and S (H2S or SO2 depending on the fO2 of the system). The behaviour of the volatiles C, H, O and S in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts is poorly known, yet the knowledge of the solubility of these volatiles is critical to understand volcanic degassing. A significant amount of work has been done to define the solubility laws of H2O, CO2 an S in silicic melts. However, such data are still scarce for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquids. To remedy this gap, we are conducting experiments on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquids at 1200°C, at pressures varying between 250 and 2000 bar and at high fO2 (NNO+2). <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> compositions from Vesuvius, Etna and Stromboli are equilibrated with an H2O+S and H2O+CO2+S rich fluid phase. After rapid quench, contents of H2O and CO2 in glasses are determined by using KFT and near/mid infrared spectroscopic measurements. Major elements and sulphur contents are determined by electron microprobe analyses. Microprobe analyses show that, at near H2O <span class="hlt">saturation</span>, sulphur contents increase with pressure (from 2500 ppm at 250 bar, to 6700 ppm at 2000 bar for Etna and Stromboli compositions). The melt composition has an influence on the sulphur contents, in particular iron, as shown in previous work, and alkalies. In particular, potassium seems to have a negative role on sulphur: for similar pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and bulk S content, a difference of 3% in alkalinity induces a difference of 1000 to 2000 ppm of S contents. Results for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts equilibrated with H2O+CO2+S fluid phase will be presented at the meeting. Experimental results on H2O, CO2 and S solubilities in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquids will constitute a data base for subsequent experiments on degassing processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V23D2593C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V23D2593C"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization in magmas: Investigating the effect of re-equilibrating olivine xenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Currier, R. M.; Marsh, B. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Large amounts of entrained olivine xenocrysts are common features of many mafic magmas. It is only natural that mantle derived melts mechanically destabilize and incorporate disaggregated wall rock material during ascension and transport. Bowen noticed this in 1928 and many subsequent studies at, for example, Kilauea have noted an abundance of these 'Tramp Crystals' in proportion to the eruptive flux. These olivines are distinguished by their high, nonequilibrium magnesium contents (Fo:88-92), and, due to the very fast interdiffusion rates of iron and magnesium in olivine (~10-7-10-9 mm2/s), these crystals are often rimmed in iron-rich olivine, or, if given enough time, become completely re-equilibrated with the surrounding melt. Because this exchange occurs in a finite volume of liquid, the composition of the liquid during xenocryst re-equilibration may be strongly affected and driven from its normal course of evolution. The magnitude of this change is clearly a function of the relative amount of xenocrysts and the compositional difference between liquid and crystals. Because mantle olivine is always more forsteritic than the equilibrium olivine composition of the liquid, re-equilibration of olivine increases the magnesium content and decreases the iron content of the liquid. A possible outcome is a decrease in the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in magmas is sensitive to the concentration of iron. This is a fundamentally important consideration, given the fact that the PGE content of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> reflects the cumulative amount of magma the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> "sees," and higher temperature <span class="hlt">saturation</span> greatly increases the odds of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> existence and longevity. Presented is a model predicting <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> with varying loads of xenocrystic olivine within a solidifying body. Even at high temperatures, reasonable fractions of xenocrysts can lower the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> concentration over 200 ppm. The model is then compared to a world</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5082/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5082/"><span>Volcanogenic Massive <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Deposit Density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mosier, Dan L.; Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A mineral-deposit density model for volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits was constructed from 38 well-explored control areas from around the world. Control areas contain at least one exposed volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit. The control areas used in this study contain 150 kuroko, 14 Urals, and 25 Cyprus massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> subtypes of volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. For each control area, extent of permissive rock, number of exposed volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits, map scale, deposit age, and deposit density were determined. The frequency distribution of deposit densities in these 38 control areas provides probabilistic estimates of the number of deposits for tracts that are permissive for volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits-90 percent of the control areas have densities of 100 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers, 50 percent of the control areas have densities of 700 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers, and 10 percent of the control areas have densities of 3,700 or more deposits per 100,000 square kilometers. Both map scale and the size of the control area are shown to be predictors of deposit density. Probabilistic estimates of the number of volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits can be made by conditioning the estimates on sizes of permissive area. The model constructed for this study provides a powerful tool for estimating the number of undiscovered volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits when conducting resource assessments. The value of these deposit densities is due to the consistency of these models with the grade and tonnage and the descriptive models. Mineral-deposit density models combined with grade and tonnage models allow reasonable estimates of the number, size, and grades of volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits to be made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.162...25L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.162...25L"><span>Effects of temperature, silicate melt composition, and oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Au, Pb, and Bi between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases and silicate melt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yuan; Audétat, Andreas</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p> application of this equation to natural samples of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> to rhyolitic composition yields DMSS/SM and DSL/SM values that agree with the measured values within ±0.5 log units for most of the elements, indicating the validity of the application of this equation to natural systems. Our partitioning data imply that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in low-temperature intermediate to felsic melts causes a strong depletion in Cu, Au, Bi, and potentially Ag in the silicate melt, whereas MSS <span class="hlt">saturation</span> may cause a depletion in Cu and potentially Au. Other elements including W, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, and Pb are much less or not affected by the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid or MSS. These results place important constrains on the potential of magmas in forming porphyry-type ore deposits and the origin of the observed variability in metal ratios in porphyry-type ore deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880062107&hterms=Magnesium+sulfide&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnesium%2Bsulfide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880062107&hterms=Magnesium+sulfide&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnesium%2Bsulfide"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> and oxides in comets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Metal abundances associated with Sun-grazing P/comet Ikeya-Seki 1965f, the mineralogy of chrondritic interplanetary dust particles and cosmochemical affinities of Co, V, Cr, and Ni in extraterrestrial materials and probable vaporization data for nonsilicate minerals are used to evaluate the putative dearth of nonsilicates in short-period comets. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and oxides are common, albeit minor, constituents of these comets. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> and oxides can form in situ during perihelion passage in the nucleus of active short-period comets by <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of Mg, Fe-silicates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880062107&hterms=Fe+oxides&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFe%2Boxides','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880062107&hterms=Fe+oxides&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DFe%2Boxides"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> and oxides in comets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Metal abundances associated with Sun-grazing P/comet Ikeya-Seki 1965f, the mineralogy of chrondritic interplanetary dust particles and cosmochemical affinities of Co, V, Cr, and Ni in extraterrestrial materials and probable vaporization data for nonsilicate minerals are used to evaluate the putative dearth of nonsilicates in short-period comets. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and oxides are common, albeit minor, constituents of these comets. <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span> and oxides can form in situ during perihelion passage in the nucleus of active short-period comets by <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of Mg, Fe-silicates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V52A..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V52A..05D"><span>Experimental Partitioning of Chalcophile Elements between Mantle Silicate Minerals and <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melt at High Pressures and Temperatures - Implications for Sulfur Geochemistry of Mantle and Crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dasgupta, R.; Jego, S.; Ding, S.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The behavior of chalcophile elements during mantle melting, melt extraction, and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> differentiation is critical for formation of ore deposits and geochemical model and evolution of crust-mantle system. While chalcophile elements are strongly partitioned into <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, their behavior with different extent of melting, in particular, in the absence of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, can only be modeled with complete knowledge of the partitioning behavior of these elements between dominant mantle minerals and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt with or without dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (S2-). However, experimental data on mineral-melt partitioning are lacking for many chalcophile elements. Crystallization experiments were conducted at 3 GPa and 1450-1600 °C using a piston cylinder and synthetic silicate melt compositions similar to low-degree partial melt of peridotite. Starting silicate mixes doped with 100-300 ppm of each of various chalcophile elements were loaded into Pt/graphite double capsules. To test the effect of dissolved sulfur in silicate melt on mineral-melt partitioning of chalcophile elements, experiments were conducted on both sulfur-free and sulfur-bearing (1100-1400 ppm S in melt) systems. Experimental phases were analyzed by EPMA (for major elements and S) and LA-ICP-MS (for trace elements). All experiments produced an assemblage of cpx + melt ± garnet ± olivine ± spinel and yielded new partition coefficients (D) for Sn, Zn, Mo, Sb, Bi, Pb, and Se for cpx/melt, olivine/melt, and garnet/melt pairs. Derived Ds (mineral/<span class="hlt">basalt</span>) reveal little effect of S2- in the melt on mineral-melt partition coefficients of the measured chalcophile elements, with Ds for Zn, Mo, Bi, Pb decreasing by less than a factor of 2 from S-free to S-bearing melt systems or remaining similar, within error, between S-free and S-bearing melt systems. By combining our data with existing partitioning data between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases and silicate melt we model the fractionation of these elements during mantle melting and <span class="hlt">basalt</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2147S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJEaS.104.2147S"><span>Are flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions monogenetic or polygenetic?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sheth, Hetu C.; Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A fundamental classification of volcanoes divides them into "monogenetic" and "polygenetic." We discuss whether flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fields, the largest volcanic provinces, are monogenetic or polygenetic. A polygenetic volcano, whether a shield volcano or a stratovolcano, erupts from the same dominant conduit for millions of years (excepting volumetrically small flank eruptions). A flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province, built from different eruptive fissures dispersed over wide areas, can be considered a polygenetic volcano without any dominant vent. However, in the same characteristic, a flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province resembles a monogenetic volcanic field, with only the difference that individual eruptions in the latter are much smaller. This leads to the question how a flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> province can be two very different phenomena at the same time. Individual flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions have previously been considered monogenetic, contrasted by only their high magma output (and lava fluidity) with typical "small-volume monogenetic" volcanoes. Field data from Hawaiian shield volcanoes, Iceland, and the Deccan Traps show that whereas many feeder dykes were single magma injections, and the eruptions can be considered "large monogenetic" eruptions, multiple dykes are equally abundant. They indicate that the same dyke fissure repeatedly transported separate magma batches, feeding an eruption which was thus polygenetic by even the restricted definition (the same magma conduit). This recognition helps in understanding the volcanological, stratigraphic, and geochemical complexity of flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The need for clear concepts and terminology is, however, strong. We give reasons for replacing "monogenetic volcanic fields" with "diffuse volcanic fields" and for dropping the term "polygenetic" and describing such volcanoes simply and specifically as "shield volcanoes," "stratovolcanoes," and "flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fields."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045791&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045791&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span>Nickel and Cobalt Partitioning Between Spinel and <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melt: Applications to Planetary <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Suites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Righter, K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>New experimental spinel/melt partition coefficients for Ni and Co have been measured in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples with natural levels of Ni and Co, are lower than previous high doping experiments, and are applied to several planetary <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045791&hterms=Cobalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCobalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045791&hterms=Cobalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCobalt"><span>Nickel and Cobalt Partitioning Between Spinel and <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Melt: Applications to Planetary <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Suites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Righter, K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>New experimental spinel/melt partition coefficients for Ni and Co have been measured in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples with natural levels of Ni and Co, are lower than previous high doping experiments, and are applied to several planetary <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suites. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V31E..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V31E..02B"><span>Crystallization of oxidized, moderately hydrous arc <span class="hlt">basalt</span> at mid-to-lower crustal pressures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blatter, D. L.; Sisson, T. W.; Hankins, W. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Decades of experimental work show that dry, reduced, subalkaline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> differentiate to produce tholeiitic (high Fe/Mg) daughter liquids, however the influences of H2O and oxidation on differentiation paths are not well established. Accordingly, we performed crystallization experiments on a relatively magnesian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (8.7 wt% MgO) typical of mafic lavas erupted in the Cascades magmatic arc near Mount Rainier, Washington. Starting material was synthesized with 3 wt% H2O and run in 2.54 cm piston-cylinder vessels at 900, 700, and 400 MPa and 1200 to 925 degrees C. Samples were contained in Au75Pd25 capsules pre-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> with Fe by reaction with magnetite at controlled fO2. Oxygen fugacity was controlled during high-pressure syntheses by the double capsule method using Re-ReO2 plus H2O-CO2 vapor in the outer capsule, mixed to match the expected fH2O of the vapor-undersaturated sample. Crystallization was similar at all pressures with a high temperature interval consisting of augite + olivine + orthopyroxene + Cr-spinel (in decreasing abundance). With decreasing temperature, plagioclase crystallizes, FeTi-oxides replace spinel, olivine dissolves, and finally amphibole appears. Liquids at 900 MPa track along Miyashiro's (1974) tholeiitic vs. calc-alkaline boundary, whereas those at 700 and 400 MPa become calc-alkaline by ~57 wt% SiO2 and greater. Although these evolved liquids are similar in most respects to common calc-alkaline andesites, they differ in having low-CaO due to early and abundant crystallization of augite prior to plagioclase, with the result that they become peraluminous (ASI: Al/(Na+K+Ca)>1) by ~55 wt% SiO2, similar to liquids reported in other studies of the high-pressure crystallization of hydrous <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Müntener and Ulmer, 2006 and references therein). A compilation of >7000 analyses of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada batholith shows that ASI in arc magmas increases continuously and linearly with SiO2 from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860061866&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860061866&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay"><span>Partitioning of K, U, and Th between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and silicate liquids - Implications for radioactive heating of planetary cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Murrell, M. T.; Burnett, D. S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Experimental partitioning studies are reported of K, U, and Th between silicate and FeFeS liquids designed to test the proposal that actinide partitioning into <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids is more important then K partitioning in the radioactive heating of planetary cores. For a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquid at 1450 C and 1.5 GPa, U partitioning into FeFeS liquids is five times greater than K partitioning. A typical value for the liquid partition coefficient for U from a granitic silicate liquid at one atmosphere at 1150 C and low fO2 is about 0.02; the coefficient for Th is similar. At low fO2 and higher temperature, experiments with <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> liquids produce strong Ca and U partitioning into the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid with U coefficient greater than one. The Th coefficient is less strongly affected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7004386','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7004386"><span>Apparatus for use in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.</p> <p>1987-01-06</p> <p>A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866101','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866101"><span>Apparatus for use in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chemiluminescence detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Spurlin, Stanford R.; Yeung, Edward S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A method of chemiluminescently determining a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> which is either hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or methyl mercaptan by reacting the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780068428&hterms=Mid+ocean+ridges&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMid%2Bocean%2Bridges','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780068428&hterms=Mid+ocean+ridges&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DMid%2Bocean%2Bridges"><span>Lunar mare versus terrestrial mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> - Planetary constraints on <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Papike, J. J.; Bence, A. E.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Major differences which exist between terrestrial midocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORBs) and lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> reflect the different planetary characteristics of earth and moon. MORBs are enriched in aluminum and have higher Mg/(Mg + Fe(2+)). These features reflect a more aluminum- and magnesium-rich mantle source for MORBs. Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are depleted in sodium and potassium relative to MORBs and, consequently, mare feldspars are depleted in the albite component relative to MORB feldspars; these features are a reflection of the alkali-depleted nature of the moon relative to earth. The oxygen fugacities that obtained during MORB petrogenesis follow the quartz-magnetite-fayalite buffer curve very closely, while those of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are several orders of magnitude lower. This results in reduced valence states for Fe, Cr, and Ti in mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, which, in turn, has a significant effect on mineral-melt partitioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713768N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713768N"><span>Prevention of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich waste rock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nyström, Elsa; Alakangas, Lena</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ability to reduce <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation in waste rock after mine closure is a widely researched area, but to reduce and/or inhibit the oxidation during operation is less common. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-rich (ca 30 % sulfur) waste rock, partially oxidized, was leached during unsaturated laboratory condition. Trace elements such as As and Sb were relatively high in the waste rock while other <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-associated elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn were low compared to common <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich waste rock. Leaching of unsaturated waste rock lowered the pH, from around six down to two, resulting in continuously increasing element concentrations during the leaching period of 272 days. The concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6.9 mg/L), Sb (1.2 mg/L), Zn (149 mg/L) and S (43 g/L) were strongly elevated at the end of the leaching period. Different alkaline industrial residues such as slag, lime kiln dust and cement kiln dust were added as solid or as liquid to the waste rock in an attempt to inhibit <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation through neo-formed phases on <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> surfaces in order to decrease the mobility of metals and metalloids over longer time scale. This will result in a lower cost and efforts of measures after mine closure. Results from the experiments will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28035767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28035767"><span>Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in a microbial mat from an anoxic and <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> spring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Chennu, Arjun; Hamilton, Trinity; Lott, Christian; Macalady, Jennifer; M Klatt, Judith</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were studied with microsensors in microbial mats found at 9-10 m depth in anoxic and <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> water in Little Salt Spring (Florida, USA). The lake sediments were covered with a 1-2 mm thick red mat dominated by filamentous Cyanobacteria, below which Green Sulfur Bacteria (GSB, Chlorobiaceae) were highly abundant. Within 4 mm inside the mats, the incident radiation was attenuated to undetectable levels. In situ microsensor data showed both oxygenic photosynthesis in the red surface layer and light-induced <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> dynamics up to 1 cm depth. Anoxygenic photosynthesis occurred during all daylight hours, with complete <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> depletion around midday. Oxygenic photosynthesis was limited to 4 h per day, due to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inhibition in the early morning and late afternoon. Laboratory measurements on retrieved samples showed that oxygenic photosynthesis was fully but reversibly inhibited by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. In patches Fe(III) alleviated the inhibition of oxygenic photosynthesis by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. GSB were resistant to oxygen and showed a low affinity to <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Their light response showed <span class="hlt">saturation</span> at very low intensities. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoMP..169...59M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoMP..169...59M"><span>Trace-element fingerprints of chromite, magnetite and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from the 3.1 Ga ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Nuggihalli greenstone belt, Western Dharwar craton (India)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; González-Jiménez, José M.; Griffin, William L.; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli greenstone belt in the Western Dharwar craton is comprised of chromitite-bearing sill-like ultramafic-mafic rocks that are surrounded by metavolcanic schists (compositionally komatiitic to komatiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>) and a suite of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite gneissic rocks. The sill-like plutonic unit consists of a succession of serpentinite (after dunite)-peridotite-pyroxenite and gabbro with bands of titaniferous magnetite ore. The chromitite ore-bodies (length ≈30-500 m; width ≈2-15 m) are hosted by the serpentinite-peridotite unit. Unaltered chromites from massive chromitites (>80 % modal chromite) of the Byrapur and Bhaktarhalli chromite mines in the greenstone belt are characterized by high Cr# (100Cr/(Cr + Al)) of 78-86 and moderate Mg# (100 Mg/(Mg + Fe2+)) of 45-55. In situ trace-element analysis (LA-ICPMS) of unaltered chromites indicates that the parental magma of the chromitite ore-bodies was a komatiite lacking nickel-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization. In the Ga/Fe3+# versus Ti/Fe3+# diagram, the Byrapur chromites plot in the field of suprasubduction zone (SSZ) chromites while those from Bhaktarhalli lie in the MOR field. The above results corroborate our previous results based on major-element characteristics of the chromites, where the calculated parental melt of the Byrapur chromites was komatiitic to komatiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and the Bhaktarhalli chromite was derived from Archean high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The major-element chromite data hinted at the possibility of a SSZ environment existing in the Archean. Altered and compositionally zoned chromite grains in our study show a decrease in Ga, V, Co, Zn, Mn and enrichments of Ni and Ti in the ferritchromit rims. Trace-element heterogeneity in the altered chromites is attributed to serpentinization. The trace-element patterns of magnetite from the massive magnetite bands in the greenstone belt are similar to those from magmatic Fe-Ti-V-rich magnetite bands in layered intrusions, and magnetites from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ42010R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARJ42010R"><span><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> in coupled oscillators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roman, Ahmed; Hanna, James</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We consider a weakly nonlinear system consisting of a resonantly forced oscillator coupled to an unforced oscillator. It has long been known that, for quadratic nonlinearities and a 2:1 resonance between the oscillators, a perturbative solution of the dynamics exhibits a phenomenon known as <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. At low forcing, the forced oscillator responds, while the unforced oscillator is quiescent. Above a critical value of the forcing, the forced oscillator's steady-state amplitude reaches a plateau, while that of the unforced oscillator increases without bound. We show that, contrary to established folklore, <span class="hlt">saturation</span> is not unique to quadratically nonlinear systems. We present conditions on the form of the nonlinear couplings and resonance that lead to <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Our results elucidate a mechanism for localization or diversion of energy in systems of coupled oscillators, and suggest new approaches for the control or suppression of vibrations in engineered systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50..632T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50..632T"><span>Geochemical diversity of shergottite <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: Mixing and fractionation, and their relation to Mars surface <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Treiman, Allan H.; Filiberto, Justin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The chemical compositions of shergottite meteorites, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks from Mars, provide a broad view of the origins and differentiation of these Martian magmas. The shergottite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are subdivided based on their Al contents: high-Al <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Al > 5% wt) are distinct from low-Al <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and olivine-phyric <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (both with Al < 4.5% wt). Abundance ratios of highly incompatible elements (e.g., Th, La) are comparable in all the shergottites. Abundances of less incompatible elements (e.g., Ti, Lu, Hf) in olivine-phyric and low-Al <span class="hlt">basalts</span> correlate well with each other, but the element abundance ratios are not constant; this suggests mixing between components, both depleted and enriched. High-Al shergottites deviate from these trends consistent with silicate mineral fractionation. The "depleted" component is similar to the Yamato-980459 magma; approximately, 67% crystal fractionation of this magma would yield a melt with trace element abundances like QUE 94201. The "enriched" component is like the parent magma for NWA 1068; approximately, 30% crystal fractionation from it would yield a melt with trace element abundances like the Los Angeles shergottite. This component mixing is consistent with radiogenic isotope and oxygen fugacity data. These mixing relations are consistent with the compositions of many of the Gusev crater <span class="hlt">basalts</span> analyzed on Mars by the Spirit rover (although with only a few elements to compare). Other Mars <span class="hlt">basalts</span> fall off the mixing relations (e.g., Wishstone at Gusev, Gale crater rocks). Their compositions imply that <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source areas in Mars include significant complexities that are not present in the source areas for the shergottite <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6468248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6468248"><span>Radionuclide reactions with groundwater and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barney, G.S.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>Chemical reactions of radionuclides with geologic materials found in Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations were studied. The objective was to determine the ability of these formations to retard radionuclide migration from a radioactive waste repository located in deep <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Reactions that can influence migration are precipitation, ion-exchange, complexation, and oxidation-reduction. These reactions were studied by measuring the effects of groundwater composition and redox potential (Eh) on radionuclide sorption on fresh <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surfaces, a naturally altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and a sample of secondary minerals associated with a Columbia River <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow. In addition, radionuclide sorption isotherms were measured for these materials and reaction kinetics were determined. The radionuclides studied were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 75/Se, /sup 95m/Tc, /sup 237/Np, /sup 241/Am, /sup 226/Ra and /sup 237/Pu. The Freundlich equation accurately describes the isotherms when precipitation of radionuclides does not occur. In general, sorption increased in the order: <span class="hlt">basalt</span> < altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> < secondary minerals. This increase in sorption corresponds to increasing surface area and cation exchange capacity. The Eh of the system had a large effect on technetium, plutonium, and neptunium sorption. Technetium(VII), Pu(VI), and Np(V) are reduced to Tc(IV), Pu(IV), and Np(IV), respectively, under Eh conditions expected in deep <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations. The kinetics of radionuclide sorption and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-groundwater reactions were observed over a period of 18 weeks. Most sorption reactions stabilized after about four weeks. Groundwater composition changed the least in contact with altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Contact with secondary minerals greatly increased Ca, K, and Mg concentrations in the groundwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17796685"><span>Platinum metals magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M</p> <p>1980-06-27</p> <p>Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25444740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25444740"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in signaling pathways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olas, Beata</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>For a long time hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H₂S) was considered a toxic compound, but recently H₂S (at low concentrations) has been found to play an important function in physiological processes. Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, like other well-known compounds - nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous intracellular signal transducer. It regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis and the oxidative stress. Moreover, its functions include neuromodulation, regulation of cardiovascular system and inflammation. In this review, I focus on the metabolism of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (including enzymatic pathways of H₂S synthesis from l- and d-cysteine) and its signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system and the nervous system. I also describe how hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> may be used as therapeutic agent, i.e. in the cardiovascular diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676779"><span>Can we identify source lithology of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Zong-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Hong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The nature of source rocks of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas plays a fundamental role in understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the solid earth. However, identification of source lithology of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> remains uncertainty. Using a parameterization of multi-decadal melting experiments on a variety of peridotite and pyroxenite, we show here that a parameter called FC3MS value (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2, all in wt%) can identify most pyroxenite-derived <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The continental oceanic island <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-like volcanic rocks (MgO>7.5%) (C-OIB) in eastern China and Mongolia are too high in the FC3MS value to be derived from peridotite source. The majority of the C-OIB in phase diagrams are equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene, indicating that garnet pyroxenite is the dominant source lithology. Our results demonstrate that many reputed evolved low magnesian C-OIBs in fact represent primary pyroxenite melts, suggesting that many previous geological and petrological interpretations of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> based on the single peridotite model need to be reconsidered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CoMP..153..689B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007CoMP..153..689B"><span>Thermochemistry and melting properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouhifd, M. A.; Besson, P.; Courtial, P.; Gérardin, C.; Navrotsky, A.; Richet, P.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The heat capacities of the liquid, glassy and crystalline phases of an alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> have been determined from relative enthalpies measured between 400 and 1,800 K. Values given by available models of calculation generally agree to within 2% of these results. As derived from the new data and the enthalpy of vitrification measured at 973 K by oxide-melt drop solution calorimetry for the same sample, the enthalpy of fusion of this <span class="hlt">basalt</span> increases from 15.4 kJ/mol at 1,000 K to 33.6 kJ/mol at 1,800 K. Comparisons between the enthalpies of fusion of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and model compositions confirm the small magnitude of the enthalpy of mixing between the molten mineral components of the liquids. Minor variations in the chemical composition have only a small effect in the heat capacity and the enthalpy of melting of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The enthalpies of formation at 298 K from the oxides of the crystallized and glass phases of this alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are -112.2 and -98.5 kJ/mol, respectively, for a gram formula weight based on one mole of oxide components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006psrd.reptE.104T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006psrd.reptE.104T"><span>Finding <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Chips from Distant Maria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, G. J.</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>The Apollo 16 landing site is in the lunar highlands, over 200 kilometers away from the nearest maria. Nevertheless, the Apollo 16 regolith contains a small percentage (<1%) of tiny fragments thrown to the site from distant maria. Ryan Zeigler, his colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis: Randy Korotev, Brad Jolliff, and the late Larry Haskin, and Jeffrey Gillis-Davis (University of Hawaii) made a detailed study of the chemical composition and mineralogy of fragments (only 2-4 millimeters across) of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> vary in composition, but are similar to other types identified previously. The team matched the compositions of the fragments to compositions of mare surfaces in the Apollo 16 region using remote sensing data from the Clementine mission. This blending of cosmochemical and remote sensing analyses allowed them to make educated guesses about where each of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fragments may have originated. We now have a fuller understanding of the range of compositions of mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and, because <span class="hlt">basalts</span> record a wealth of information about planetary interiors, this research enlightens us about the diversity of rock compositions in the lunar mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655377','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3655377"><span>Can we identify source lithology of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Zong-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Hong</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The nature of source rocks of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas plays a fundamental role in understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the solid earth. However, identification of source lithology of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> remains uncertainty. Using a parameterization of multi-decadal melting experiments on a variety of peridotite and pyroxenite, we show here that a parameter called FC3MS value (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2, all in wt%) can identify most pyroxenite-derived <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The continental oceanic island <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-like volcanic rocks (MgO>7.5%) (C-OIB) in eastern China and Mongolia are too high in the FC3MS value to be derived from peridotite source. The majority of the C-OIB in phase diagrams are equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene, indicating that garnet pyroxenite is the dominant source lithology. Our results demonstrate that many reputed evolved low magnesian C-OIBs in fact represent primary pyroxenite melts, suggesting that many previous geological and petrological interpretations of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> based on the single peridotite model need to be reconsidered. PMID:23676779</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B43G0500O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B43G0500O"><span>Oxygen consumption in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orcutt, B. N.; Wheat, C. G.; Hulme, S.; Edwards, K. J.; Bach, W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Oceanic crust is the largest potential habitat for life on Earth and may contain a significant fraction of Earth's total microbial biomass, yet little is known about the form and function of life in this vast subseafloor realm that covers nearly two-thirds of the Earth's surface. A deep biosphere hosted in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> has been suggested from several lines of evidence; yet, empirical analysis of metabolic reaction rates in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust is lacking. Here we report the first measure of oxygen consumption in young (~ 8 Ma) and cool (<25 degrees C) <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust, calculated from modeling oxygen and strontium profiles in basal sediments collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 336 to 'North Pond', a sediment 'pond' on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), where vigorous fluid circulation within <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust occurs. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased towards the sediment-basement interface, indicating an upward diffusional supply from oxic fluids circulating within the crust. A parametric reaction-transport model suggests oxygen consumption rates on the order of 0.5-500 nmol per cubic centimeter fluid per day in young and cool <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust, providing sufficient energy to support a subsurface crustal biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.203..343H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.203..343H"><span>Precious metal enrichment at low-redox in terrestrial native Fe-bearing <span class="hlt">basalts</span> investigated using laser-ablation ICP-MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Day, James M. D.; Pernet-Fisher, John F.; Goodrich, Cyrena A.; Pearson, D. Graham; Luo, Yan; Ryabov, Viktor V.; Taylor, Lawrence A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Primary native Fe is a rare crystallizing phase from terrestrial <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas, requiring highly reducing conditions (fO2 <iron-wüstite buffer) in order to form. Reducing conditions in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas can be achieved through assimilation of carbonaceous crustal material, which leads to formation of an immiscible, molten, C-rich, native Fe alloy liquid. If this liquid also contains sufficient sulfur, it can undergo further division into conjugate Fe-C-rich and a Fe-S-rich immiscible melts that can effectively scavenge the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Re, Au, and the platinum group elements [PGE], Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru, Ir, Os), as well as Ni and Cu, to economic abundances. Three localities are known globally where native Fe bearing mafic rocks occur: (1) Paleocene <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of Disko Island, West Greenland; (2) a Miocene lava of the Bühl <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, Germany; and (3) mafic intrusions associated with the Late Permian Siberian flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. In this contribution, we report major- and minor-element compositions and HSE concentrations for the main alloy phases (FeNi metal and cohenite) and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, for all three known global occurrences of native Fe bearing <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Total HSE abundances in metal grains, obtained by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), are lowest in the Bühl <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, (∼0.05 ppm), intermediate in the Disko Island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (4-8 ppm), and highest the Siberian Khungtukun and Dzhaltul intrusions (10-30 ppm). These differences demonstrate that, while native Fe formation is the result of carbonaceous crustal assimilation, HSE enrichment is not ubiquitous during this process. The Siberian occurrences are characterized by Pt PGE (PPGE: Pt, Pd) enrichment relative to the Ir PGE (IPGE: Rh, Ru, Ir, Os), consistent with models of early stage fractionation of olivine, chromite and metallic IPGE in staging magma reservoirs, prior to the addition of C-rich crustal materials in the shallow crust. Relative to Noril'sk Ni-Cu-PGE <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4268Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4268Z"><span>Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Mount Etna <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Wei; Baud, Patrick; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Wong, Teng-fong</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Understanding how the strength of volcanic rocks varies with stress state, pressure, and microstructural attributes is fundamental to understanding the dynamics and tectonics of a volcanic system and also very important in applications such as geothermics or reservoir management in volcanic environments. In this study we investigated the micromechanics of deformation and failure in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, focusing on samples from Mount Etna. We performed 65 uniaxial and triaxial compression experiments on nominally dry and water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> samples covering a porosity range between 5 and 16%, at effective pressures up to 200 MPa. Dilatancy and brittle faulting were observed in all samples with porosity of 5%. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> samples were found to be significantly weaker than comparable dry samples. Shear-enhanced compaction was observed at effective pressures as low as 80 MPa in samples of 8% porosity. Microstructural data revealed the complex interplay of microcracks, pores, and phenocrysts on dilatant failure and inelastic compaction in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The micromechanics of brittle failure is controlled by wing crack propagation under triaxial compression and by pore-emanated cracking under uniaxial compression especially in the more porous samples. The mechanism of inelastic compaction in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is cataclastic pore-collapse in agreement with a recent dual-porosity model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000017&hterms=seebeck+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dseebeck%2Beffect','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000017&hterms=seebeck+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dseebeck%2Beffect"><span>Thermoelectric Properties of Lanthanum <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, C.; Lockwood, R.; Parker, J. B.; Zoltan, A.; Zoltan, L. D.; Danielson, L.; Raag, V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Report describes measurement of Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Hall effect in gamma-phase lanthanum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with composition of La3-x S4. Results of study, part of search for high-temperature thermoelectric energy-conversion materials, indicate this <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> behaves like extrinsic semiconductor over temperature range of 300 to 1,400 K, with degenerate carrier concentration controlled by stoichiometric ratio of La to S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000017&hterms=seebeck+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dseebeck%2Beffect','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870000017&hterms=seebeck+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dseebeck%2Beffect"><span>Thermoelectric Properties of Lanthanum <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, C.; Lockwood, R.; Parker, J. B.; Zoltan, A.; Zoltan, L. D.; Danielson, L.; Raag, V.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Report describes measurement of Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and Hall effect in gamma-phase lanthanum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with composition of La3-x S4. Results of study, part of search for high-temperature thermoelectric energy-conversion materials, indicate this <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> behaves like extrinsic semiconductor over temperature range of 300 to 1,400 K, with degenerate carrier concentration controlled by stoichiometric ratio of La to S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7036175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7036175"><span>Chemiluminescence determination of trace amounts of elemental and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sulfur</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bikkulova, A.T.; Antipin, V.A.; Kazakov, V.P.; Tankovenko, V.V.; Zagidullin, S.N.</p> <p>1986-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a method for the chemiluminescence determination of 10/sup -10/ to 10/sup -2/ M elemental and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sulfur in concentrated H/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ with a standard deviation no greater than 0.2.10/sup -10/ to 0.3.10/sup -10/ M. The factors influencing the correctness and reproducibility of the results of the determination of sulfur have been analyzed, and recommendations on the use of the method under industrial conditions and for monitoring the environment are given. The sample that was analyzed in this work contained elemental or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sulfur introduced into a solution of uranyl in 98-100% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with ozone. In this reaction uranyl was a sensitizer, which enhanced the intensity by the luminescence by 10-100 fold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914022L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914022L"><span>An experimental study of the fluid-melt partitioning of volatiles (H2O, CO2, S) during the degassing of ascending <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Gall, Nolwenn; Pichavant, Michel; Di Carlo, Ida; Scaillet, Bruno</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We performed decompression experiments to constrain the fluid-melt partitioning of volatiles (H2O, CO2, S) in ascending <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmas associated with violent eruptions. Experiments were conducted in an internally heated pressure vessel under oxidizing conditions (fO2: NNO+1.1) so that all sulphur occurs as sulfate (S6+) in the melt. Volatile-bearing (2.72 ± 0.02 wt% H2O, 1291 ± 85 ppm CO2, 1535 ± 369 ppm S) melts, prepared from Stromboli pumice, were synthesized at 1200°C and 200 MPa, decompressed between 150 and 25 MPa at constant rates of 39 and 78 kPa/s (or 1.5 and 3 m/s), and rapidly quenched. Run products were characterized both chemically (by IR spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis) and texturally (by scanning electron microscopy), and then compared with Stromboli pumice products (glass inclusions, volcanic gases). In H2O-CO2-S-bearing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts, bubbles start to nucleate heterogeneously on Fe <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for supersaturation pressures ΔPHeN ≤ 1 MPa and to nucleate homogeneously for ΔPHoN < 50 MPa (ΔPHeN and ΔPHoN are the difference between the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> pressure and the pressure at which heterogeneous and homogeneous bubble nucleation are observed, respectively). Bubble growth, coalescence and outgassing occur in addition to continuous bubble nucleation, which is sustained by the preservation of CO2 supersaturated melts during decompression. In addition to model the degassing behaviour of sulphur (and also of CO2 and H2O), our experiments aim to assist in the interpretation of geochemical observables. On the one hand, the volatile degassing trend recorded by Stromboli natural glasses (unsealed glass embayments) was closely experimentally simulated, with a coupled decrease of H2O and S whereas CO2 concentrations remain elevated. On the other hand, the experimental H2O/CO2 and CO2/SO2 fluid molar ratios, calculated by mass balance, both reproduced or closely approached the lower ranges of gas ratios measured at Stromboli for quiescent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23A1556M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H23A1556M"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Sequestration and Storage in Geothermal System: New Mitigation Strategy to Reduce H2S from the Atmosphere and Detect its Mineralization with Multiple Sulfur Isotopic Systematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marieni, C.; Stefansson, A.; Gudbrandsson, S.; Gunnarsson, I.; Aradottir, E. S.; Gunnarsson Robin, J.; Ono, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) is one of the major components in geothermal fluids and is commonly emitted into the atmosphere from geothermal power plants causing potential environmental problems. Among several mitigation methods proposed to reduce the H2S emissions, is H2S sequestration into geothermal systems. Reykjavík Energy is undertaking a pilot project at Hellisheidi geothermal system (SW Iceland) called Sulfix project where H2S is being injected into the geothermal reservoir for permanent sequestration into pyrite. The SulFix project started its operation in June 2014: the soluble geothermal gases are dissolved in geothermal waste water, and injected at 8 bars into the high temperature reservoir (>200˚C) at 750 m below the wellhead. The reactions involving sulfur in the geothermal reservoir may be traced using sulfur fluid chemistry and multiple sulfur isotope systematics (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S), including mixing between the reservoir geothermal fluid and the injection fluid, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization and oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to sulfate. In this study we investigated the multiple sulfur isotope systematics upon <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization under geothermal conditions. High temperature flow through experiments were carried out in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass at 200-250°C and ~5 mmol/kg H2S to study the fluid-rock interaction. The results indicate that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization occurs rapidly under geothermal conditions, highlighting the leaching rate of iron from the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass as the mineralization rate determining factor. Moreover, the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> may be traced using the δ34S-Δ33S relationship in the fluids and pyrite formation - for example to determine if non-reactive mixing between the injection fluids and reservoir fluids occurs at Hellisheidi. The experimental results have been further supported by geochemical modeling involving multiple sulfur isotope fractionation between aqueous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species and rocks upon <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dissolution and secondary pyrite formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.278...72C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Litho.278...72C"><span>Petrogenesis of Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in central-eastern China: Constraints from Re-Os and PGE geochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chu, Zhuyin; Yan, Yan; Zeng, Gang; Tian, Wei; Li, Chaofeng; Yang, Yueheng; Guo, Jinghui</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We present Re-Os and PGE (platinum group elements), together with major-, trace-element and Sr-Nd isotope data, to further constrain the petrogenesis for the Cenozoic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in central-eastern China. The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> include low-Ca alkali, high-Ca alkali and tholeiitic varieties. Most low-Ca alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have unradiogenic 187Os/188Os (mostly < 0.14), flat chondrite-normalized PGE patterns and depleted Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, indicating that they probably originated from a depleted mantle source with insignificant shallow-level crustal contamination. Minor high-Ca alkali/tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have low PGE concentrations, particularly Os (down to 0.0056 ppb), and highly suprachondritic initial 187Os/188Os ratios (up to > 0.4), indicating involvements of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/PGE-alloy segregation-AFC (assimilation-fractionation-contamination) processes. Most tholeiites and high-Ca alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have relatively high Os concentrations, highly variable and suprachondritic Os isotopic compositions, high Pd/Ir ratios and enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. Modeling results reveal that the Os isotopic variations in these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> cannot be ascribed to crustal contamination during ascent but mainly reflect source characteristics. Combined with their low CaO, low Mg#, high FC3MS values (FeOT/CaO-3 × MgO/SiO2, all in wt.%), and high Fe/Mn signatures, a large portion of pyroxenite is inferred as an enriched component in the mantle sources to account for their highly suprachondritic Os isotopic compositions. The formation of the pyroxenites was probably due to the subducted sediment-bearing Pacific oceanic crust or the recycled lower continental crust resulted from the collision between the Yangtze and North China blocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183568','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183568"><span>Lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystems in deep <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stevens, T.O.; McKinley, J.P.</p> <p>1995-10-20</p> <p>Bacterial communities were detected in deep crystalline rock aquifers within the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRB). CRB ground waters contained up to 60 {mu}M dissolved H{sub 2} and autotrophic microorganisms outnumbered heterotrophs. Stable carbon isotope measurements implied that autotrophic methanogenesis dominated this ecosystem and was coupled to the depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon. In laboratory experiments, H{sub 2} a potential energy source for bacteria, was produced by reactions between crushed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and anaerobic water. Microcosms containing only crushed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and ground water supported microbial growth. These results suggest that the CRB contains a lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem that is independent of photosynthetic primary production. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25480771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25480771"><span>Venous oxygen <span class="hlt">saturation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen <span class="hlt">saturation</span> is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen <span class="hlt">saturation</span> (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen <span class="hlt">saturation</span> (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019890"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Volcanism and Ancient Planetary Crusts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shervais, John W.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to decipher the origin of rocks which form the ancient lunar crust. Our goal is to better understand how the moon evolved chemically and, more generally, the processes involved in the chemical fractionation of terrestrial planetoids. This research has implications for other planetary bodies besides the Moon, especially smaller planetoids which evolved early in the history of the solar system and are now thermally stable. The three main areas focused on in our work (lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and plutonic rocks of the lunar highlands) provide complementary information on the lunar interior and the processes that formed it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019298','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019298"><span>Petrogenesis of the flood-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequence at Noril'sk, North Central Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fedorenko, V.A.; Lightfoot, P.C.; Naldrett, A.J.; Czamanske, G.K.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Wooden, J.L.; Ebel, D.S.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The 3500-m-thick sequence of volcanic rocks at Noril'sk, formed during a brief interval (???1 m.y.) at the Permian/Triassic time boundary (???251 Ma), represents the earliest part of the ???6500-m-thick sequence presently ascribed to the Siberian flood-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> province. It is composed of picritic and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas of both low-Ti and high-Ti parentage. Extensive geological, geochemical, and isotopic study of the lava sequence and related intrusions allows detailed reconstruction of its petrogenesis. Various crustal-related processes - fractionation, crustal contamination, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> separation, and magma mixing - participated in the formation of the lavas. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics indicative of these processes, as well as mantle-related signatures of lava compositions, are discussed. Based on these characteristics, detailed interpretations of lava genesis and evolution throughout the Noril'sk sequence are presented. Eight varieties of lavas are recognized to be primitive, similar in composition to primary mantle melts; they varied from low-Mg <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to olivine tholeiites or picrites, with normal tholeiites predominating. The primitive lavas are subdivided into four groups (magma types) on the basis of trace-element ratios (principally. Gd/Yb, Th/U, La/Yb, Ta/La, Ti/Sc, and V/Yb) and isotopic data. Three of the groups include both <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and picritic primitive lavas (with low-Mg <span class="hlt">basalts</span> present in one of them), whereas the fourth group is represented exclusively by tholeiites. Distinctions among the groups cannot be related to degree of melting, and isotopic data indicate that none of the magma types could have formed by mixing or contamination of other types. Apparently, only differences in source composition and/or depth of melting can explain the magmatic diversity. This multitude of primitive magma types may be explained by melting in different layers of the upper mantle, which is complexly layered beneath Siberia to depths of 270 km. Moreover</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CoMP..163..189T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CoMP..163..189T"><span>Cumulate xenoliths from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles Island Arc: a window into upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tollan, P. M. E.; Bindeman, I.; Blundy, J. D.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>In order to shed light on upper crustal differentiation of mantle-derived <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas in a subduction zone setting, we have determined the mineral chemistry and oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of individual cumulus minerals in plutonic blocks from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles. Plutonic rock types display great variation in mineralogy, from olivine-gabbros to troctolites and hornblendites, with a corresponding variety of cumulate textures. Mineral compositions differ from those in erupted <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas from St. Vincent and in published high-pressure (4-10 kb) experimental run products of a St. Vincent high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in having higher An plagioclase coexisting with lower Fo olivine. The oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) of cumulus olivine (4.89-5.18‰), plagioclase (5.84-6.28‰), clinopyroxene (5.17-5.47‰) and hornblende (5.48-5.61‰) and hydrogen isotope composition of hornblende (δD = -35.5 to -49.9‰) are all consistent with closed system magmatic differentiation of a mantle-derived <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt. We employed a number of modelling exercises to constrain the origin of the chemical and isotopic compositions reported. δ18OOlivine is up to 0.2‰ higher than modelled values for closed system fractional crystallisation of a primary melt. We attribute this to isotopic disequilibria between cumulus minerals crystallising at different temperatures, with equilibration retarded by slow oxygen diffusion in olivine during prolonged crustal storage. We used melt inclusion and plagioclase compositions to determine parental magmatic water contents (water <span class="hlt">saturated</span>, 4.6 ± 0.5 wt% H2O) and crystallisation pressures (173 ± 50 MPa). Applying these values to previously reported <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite lava compositions, we can reproduce the cumulus plagioclase and olivine compositions and their associated trend. We conclude that differentiation of primitive hydrous <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on St. Vincent involves crystallisation of olivine and Cr-rich spinel at depth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009042"><span>Sulfur and iron speciation in gas-rich impact-melt glasses from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites determined by microXANES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutton, S.R.; Rao, M.N.; Nyquist, L.E.</p> <p>2008-04-28</p> <p>Sulfur and iron K XANES measurements were made on GRIM glasses from EET 79001. Iron is in the ferrous state. Sulfur speciation is predominately <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> coordination but is Fe coordinated in Lith B and, most likely, Ca coordinated in Lith A. Sulfur is abundantly present as sulfate near Martian surface based on chemical and mineralogical investigations on soils and rocks in Viking, Pathfinder and MER missions. Jarosite is identified by Moessbauer studies on rocks at Meridian and Gusev, whereas MgSO{sub 4} is deduced from MgO-SO{sub 3} correlations in Pathfinder MER and Viking soils. Other sulfate minerals such as gypsum and alunogen/S-rich aluminosilicates and halides are detected only in martian meteorites such as shergottites and nakhlites using SEM/FE-SEM and EMPA techniques. Because sulfur has the capacity to occur in multiple valence states, determination of sulfur speciation (<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/sulfate) in secondary mineral assemblages in soils and rocks near Mars surface may help us understand whether the fluid-rock interactions occurred under oxidizing or reducing conditions. On Earth, volcanic rocks contain measurable quantities of sulfur present as both <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate. Carroll and Rutherford showed that oxidized forms of sulfur may comprise a significant fraction of total dissolved sulfur, if the oxidation state is higher than {approx}2 log fO{sub 2} units relative to the QFM buffer. Terrestrial samples containing sulfates up to {approx}25% in fresh <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Galapagos Rift on one hand and high <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> contents present in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on the other indicate that the relative abundance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and sulfate varies depending on the oxygen fugacity of the system. <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> shergottites (bulk) such as Shergotty, EET79001 and Zagami usually contain small amounts of sulfur ({approx}0.5%) as pyrrhotite. But, in isolated glass pockets containing secondary salts (known as GRIM glasses) in these meteorites, sulfur is present in high abundance ({approx}1-12%). To</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.129...22M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.129...22M"><span>Crustal contamination and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> immiscibility history of the Permian Huangshannan magmatic Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, East Tianshan, NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei; Feng, Hong-Ye; Xue, Sheng-Chao</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Huangshannan mafic-ultramafic intrusion is a Permian Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing intrusion in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The intrusion consists of an ultramafic unit, which is composed of lherzolite and olivine websterite, and a mafic unit, which is composed of olivine gabbronorite, gabbronorite and leuco-gabbronorite. This intrusion was formed by two separate pulses of magma: a more primitive magma for the early ultramafic unit and a more evolved magma for the late mafic unit. U-Pb isotope geochronology of zircon from the mafic unit yields an age of 278 ± 2 Ma. According to its olivine and Cr-rich spinel compositions, the estimated parental magma of lherzolite for the Huangshannan intrusion has 12.4 wt.% MgO, indicating picritic affinity. Fractional crystallization modeling results and the presence of rounded <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> inclusions in an olivine crystal (Fo 86.7) indicate that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> immiscibility was achieved at the beginning of olivine fractionation. Co-magmatic zircon crystals from gabbronorite have a δ18O value close to 6.5‰, which is 1.2‰ higher than the typical mantle value and suggests significant crustal contamination (∼20%). The positive εHf(t) values of co-magmatic zircon (which vary from +9.2 to +15.3) and positive whole rock εNd(t) values (which vary from +4.7 to +7.8) also indicate that the parental magma was derived from a depleted mantle source and contaminated by 5-20% juvenile arc crust and then by ∼5% upper crustal materials. However, modeling results of sulfur content at <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> reveal that such a large amount of crustal contamination is not sufficient to trigger <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in the parental magma, which strongly suggests that external sulfur addition, probably during contamination, has played a critical role in causing <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> immiscibility. Furthermore, the arc magmatism geochemical signatures of the Huangshannan intrusion, such as significant Nb and Ta depletion relative to La and low Ca</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2054P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GGG....17.2054P"><span>Pore water chemistry reveals gradients in mineral transformation across a model <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> hillslope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pohlmann, Michael; Dontsova, Katerina; Root, Robert; Ruiz, Joaquin; Troch, Peter; Chorover, Jon</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The extent of weathering incongruency during soil formation from rock controls local carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, as well as the evolution of hydrologic flow paths. Prior studies of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering, including those that have quantified the dynamics of well-mixed, bench-scale laboratory reactors or characterized the structure and integrated response of field systems, indicate a strong influence of system scale on weathering rate and trajectory. For example, integrated catchment response tends to produce lower weathering rates than do well mixed reactors, but the mechanisms underlying these disparities remain unclear. Here we present pore water geochemistry and physical sensor data gathered during two controlled rainfall-runoff events on a large-scale convergent model hillslope mantled with 1 m uniform depth of granular <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> porous media. The dense sampler and sensor array (1488 samplers and sensors embedded in 330 m3 of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>) showed that rainfall-induced dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass produced supersaturation of pore waters with respect to multiple secondary solids including allophane, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, birnessite and calcite. The spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> state was heterogeneous, suggesting an accumulation of solutes leading to precipitation of secondary solids along hydrologic flow paths. Rapid dissolution of primary silicates was widespread throughout the entire hillslope, irrespective of up-gradient flowpath length. However, coherent spatial variations in solution chemistry and <span class="hlt">saturation</span> indices were observed in depth profiles and between distinct topographic regions of the hillslope. Colloids (110-2000 nm) enriched in iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and phosphorus (P) were mobile in soil pore waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000WRR....36.3499F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000WRR....36.3499F"><span>Conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> vadose zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Steiger, Michael; Long, Jane C. S.; Wood, Thomas R.; Jacobsen, Janet S.; Lore, Jason; Zawislanski, Peter T.</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The infiltration tests included one 2-week test in 1996, three 2-day tests in 1997, and one 4-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/d (4.75 ×10-7 m/s) to 17.7 cm/d (2.05×10-7 m/s) and then decreased with time, presumably because of mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and esicular <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry, and ground-penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data shows evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the <span class="hlt">saturation</span>-desaturation behavior of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, in which rapid preferential flow occurs through the largest vertical fractures, followed by a gradual wetting of other fractures and the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> matrix. Fractures that are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water takes place within horizontal fracture and rubble zones, enabling development of perched water bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039392&hterms=la&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dla','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039392&hterms=la&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dla"><span>The petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baldridge, W. S.; Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A study of the petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples 12011, 12043, and 12007 is presented. In this suite, the abundances of olivine and Cr-spinel decrease with increasing grain size, while the abundances of plagioclase and ilmenite increase. The petrochemical and textural variations indicate that the pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were derived from the olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, but the compositional gap between the olivine and pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicates that they could not have crystallized together from a single, initially homogeneous magma body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039392&hterms=petrochemicals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpetrochemicals','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800039392&hterms=petrochemicals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpetrochemicals"><span>The petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> suite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baldridge, W. S.; Beaty, D. W.; Hill, S. M. R.; Albee, A. L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A study of the petrology of the Apollo 12 pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples 12011, 12043, and 12007 is presented. In this suite, the abundances of olivine and Cr-spinel decrease with increasing grain size, while the abundances of plagioclase and ilmenite increase. The petrochemical and textural variations indicate that the pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were derived from the olivine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, but the compositional gap between the olivine and pigeonite <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicates that they could not have crystallized together from a single, initially homogeneous magma body.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/783924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/783924"><span>Equilibration of Leachants with <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Rock for Repository Simulation Tests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jantzen, C.M.</p> <p>2001-07-02</p> <p>In a nuclear waste repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, the groundwater will have a low redox potential (Eh) which may affect the leach rate of SRP waste glass. Accurate laboratory simulations of conditions in a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> reposition must maintain low Eh values throughout the course of the experiment. In this report, important parameters affecting the ability of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to maintain appropriate Eh-pH conditions are examined, in particular <span class="hlt">basalt</span> type and groundwater simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000762&hterms=Gas+Storage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DGas%2BStorage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000762&hterms=Gas+Storage&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DGas%2BStorage"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Block Heat-Storage Plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sullivan, Thomas A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Concept for storage of solar heat for later use based on use of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, cast into blocks and stacked in inflatable gas-tight enclosure serving as heat-storage chamber. Heat flows to blocks from solar collector during day and from blocks to heat engine at night.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910042969&hterms=disadvantages+best+practice&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddisadvantages%2Bbest%2Bpractice','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910042969&hterms=disadvantages+best+practice&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddisadvantages%2Bbest%2Bpractice"><span>Separation of lunar ilmenite - <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> vs. regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dela'o, K. A.; Eisele, T. C.; Kasul, D. B.; Rose, W. I.; Kawatra, S. K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> or regolith as feedstock for an ilmenite extraction scheme. The ilmenite on the lunar surface is more reduced than ilmenite found on earth, hence, separation practices followed on earth cannot be used on the moon. The paper critically examines methods of ilmenite extraction on the lunar surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74....1W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74....1W"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> injections into floored silicic magma chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiebe, R. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma. These <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491390','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491390"><span>Pressure grouting of fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shaw, P.; Weidner, J.; Phillips, S.; Alexander, J.</p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>This report describes a field trial of pressure grouting in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and the results of subsequent coring and permeability measurement activities. The objective was to show that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> bedrock can be significantly reduced by pressure injection of cementitious materials. The effectiveness of the pressure grout procedure was evaluated by measuring the change in the hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. The extent of grout penetration was established by analyzing postgrout injection drilling chips for the presence of a tracer in the grout and also by examining cores of the treated <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Downhole radar mapping was used to establish major lava flow patterns and follow water movement during a surface infiltration test. A site called Box Canyon, which is located northwest of the INEL, was chosen for this study due to the similarity of this surface outcrop geology to that of the underlying bedrock fracture system found at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This study showed that hydraulic conductivity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> can be reduced through pressure grouting of cementitious material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019213','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019213"><span>Thermal models for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism on Io</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Keszthelyil, L.; McEwen, A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the thermal emissions from active <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions on Io. While our methodology shares many similarities with previous work, it is significantly different in that (1) it uses a field tested cooling model and (2) the model is more applicable to pahoehoe flows and lava lakes than fountain-fed, channelized, 'a'a flows. This model demonstrates the large effect lava porosity has on the surface cooling rate (with denser flows cooling more slowly) and provides a preliminary tool for examining some of the hot spots on Io. The model infrared signature of a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruption is largely controlled by a single parameter, ??, the average survival time for a lava surface. During an active eruption surfaces are quickly covered or otherwise destroyed and typical values of ?? for a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruption are expected to be on the order of 10 seconds to 10 minutes. Our model suggests that the Galileo SSI eclipse data are consistent with moderately active to quiescent <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lava lakes but are not diagnostic of such activity. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMDI33A1120K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMDI33A1120K"><span>Volatile (H, C, Cl, S) Concentrations in Ocean Island <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Glasses From Pitcairn and the Society Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koleszar, A. M.; Kent, A. J.; Wallace, P. J.; Woodhead, J. D.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Submarine lavas from Pitcairn and the Society Islands offer a unique opportunity to investigate volatile contents in melts derived from mantle OIB sources, and in particular to constrain the composition and origin of the EM-1 and EM-2 mantle endmembers. We present here the results of a study on volatile abundances in dredged glasses from Pitcairn and the Society Islands, two well-documented OIB localities with EM-1 and EM-2 isotopic compositions. Samples for this study consist of submarine glasses, dredged from 485-2829 m depth and representing a range of melt compositions (42.7-59.7 wt% SiO2, 1.08-11.69 wt% MgO). The EM-2 lavas of the Society Islands have H2O concentrations between 0.9-2.6 wt%, whereas Pitcairn's EM-1 lavas typically contain 0.8-1.8 wt% H2O. Both locations have CO2 abundances that range from low (<190 ppm for Society, <115 ppm for Pitcairn) to below detection, suggesting significant degassing of CO2 ± H2O. H2O/Ce ranges from 55-170 for Pitcairn lavas, and the highest H2O/Ce ratios are observed in samples with the highest CO2 concentrations (least degassed). Samples with H2O/Ce lower than typical MORB or EM sources (<100) may have volatile contents modified by magmatic degassing. Sulfur concentrations (200-1000 ppm for Society, 400-1450 ppm for Pitcairn) may be largely controlled by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. Concentrations of Cl in Society (650-1400 ppm) and Pitcairn (400-1100 ppm) <span class="hlt">basalts</span> correlate inversely with 87Sr/86Sr, and do not show evidence of Cl assimilation. Cl/K ratios vary from 0.03 to 0.07 for both sample suites, ranging from only slightly higher than enriched MORB (0.01-0.02) to within the HIMU field (0.04-0.08). Pitcairn lavas with the lowest Cl/K have the strongest EM-1 signature (lowest 206Pb/204Pb). Similarly, Society lavas with the lowest Cl/K have the strongest EM-2 signature (highest 87Sr/86Sr). We suggest that these represent primary mantle signatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.126....1Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.126....1Z"><span>Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the layered sequence. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> droplets. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92f3023H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..92f3023H"><span>Capillary <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and desaturation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hilfer, R.; Armstrong, R. T.; Berg, S.; Georgiadis, A.; Ott, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting <span class="hlt">saturation</span> defined through the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26764820"><span>Capillary <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and desaturation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hilfer, R; Armstrong, R T; Berg, S; Georgiadis, A; Ott, H</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Capillary desaturation experiments produce disconnected (trapped) ganglia of mesoscopic sizes intermediate between pore size and system size. Experimental evidence for interactions between these mesoscale clusters during desaturation is analyzed and discussed within the established microscopic and macroscopic laws of Newton, Young-Laplace, and Darcy. A theoretical expression for capillary number correlations is introduced that seems to have remained unnoticed. It expresses capillary desaturation curves in terms of stationary capillary pressures and relative permeabilities. The theoretical expression shows that the plateau <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in capillary desaturation curves may in general differ from the residual nonwetting <span class="hlt">saturation</span> defined through the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> limit of the main hysteresis loop. Hysteresis effects as well as the difference between wetting and nonwetting fluids are introduced into the analysis of capillary desaturation experiments. The article examines experiments with different desaturation protocols and discusses the existence of a mesoscopic length scale intermediate between pore scale and sample scale. The theoretical expression is derived entirely within the existing traditional theory of two-phase flow in porous media and compared to a recent experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013727','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013727"><span>Hydrogen isotope systematics of submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The D/H ratios and water contents in fresh submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the East Pacific Rise, and Hawaii indicate that the primary D/H ratios of many submarine lavas have been altered by processes including (1) outgassing, (2) addition of seawater at magmatic temperature, and (3) low-temperature hydration of glass. Decreases in ??D and H2O+ from exteriors to interiors of pillows are explained by outgassing of water whereas inverse relations between ??D and H2O+ in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Galapagos Rise and the FAMOUS Area are attributed to outgassing of CH4 and H2. A good correlation between ??D values and H2O is observed in a suite of submarine tholeiites dredged from the Kilauea East Rift Zone where seawater (added directly to the magma), affected only the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and argon. Analyses of some glassy rims indicate that the outer millimeter of the glass can undergo lowtemperature hydration by hydroxyl groups having ??D values as low as -100. ??D values vary with H2O contents of subaerial transitional <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Molokai, Hawaii, and subaerial alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Society Islands, indicating that the primary ??D values were similar to those of submarine lavas. Extrapolations to possible unaltered ??D values and H2O contents indicate that the primary ??D values of most thoteiite and alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are near -80 ?? 5: the weight percentages of water are variable, 0.15-0.35 for MOR tholeiites, about 0.25 for Hawaiian tholeiites, and up to 1.1 for alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The primary ??D values of -80 for most <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are comparable to those measured for deep-seated phlogopites. These results indicate that hydrogen, in marked contrast to other elements such as Sr, Nd, Pb, and O, has a uniform isotopic composition in the mantle. This uniformity is best explained by the presence of a homogeneous reservoir of hydrogen that has existed in the mantle since the very early history of the Earth. ?? 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031131&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBasalt','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070031131&hterms=Basalt&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBasalt"><span>Coatings on Atacama Desert <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>: A Possible Analog for Coatings on Gusev Plains <span class="hlt">Basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Amundson, R.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Ming, D. W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Surface coatings on Gusev Plains <span class="hlt">basalt</span> have been observed and may contain hematite and nanophase Fe-oxides along with enrichments in P, S, Cl, and K relative to the underlying rock. The Gusev coatings may be derived from the dissolution of adhering soil and/or parent rock along with the addition of S and Cl from outside sources. Transient water for dissolution could be sourced from melting snow during periods of high obliquity, acid fog, and/or ground water (Haskin et al., 2005). Coatings on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the hyper-arid (less than 2mm y(sup -1)) Atacama Desert may assist in understanding the chemistry, mineralogy and formation mechanisms of the Gusev <span class="hlt">basalt</span> coatings. The Atacama Desert climate is proposed to be analogous to a paleo-Mars climate that was characterized by limited aqueous activity when the Gusev coatings could have formed. The objectives of this work are to (i) determine the chemical nature and extent of surface coatings on Atacama Desert <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and (ii) assess coating formation mechanisms in the Atacama Desert. Preliminary backscattered electron imaging of Atacama <span class="hlt">basalt</span> thin-sections indicated that the coatings are as thick as 20 m. The boundary between the coating and the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> labradorite, ilmenite, and augite grains was abrupt indicating that the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> minerals underwent no chemical dissolution. The Atacama coatings have been added to the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> instead of being derived from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> chemical weathering. Semi-quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy shows the coatings to be chemically homogeneous. The coating is depleted in Ca (0.9 wt% CaO) and enriched in K (1.3 wt.% K2O) and Si (69.1 wt.% SiO2) relative to the augite and labradorite grains. A dust source enriched in Si (e.g., poorly crystalline silica) and K and depleted in Ca appears to have been added to the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surface. Unlike the Gusev coatings, no P, S, and Cl enrichment was observed. However, Fe (3.2 wt.% FeO) was present in the Atacama coatings suggesting the present of Fe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33631','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33631"><span>Scarification of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> milkvetch (Astragalus filipes) seed for improved emergence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Clinton C. Shock; Erik Feibert; Lamont D. Saunders</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> milkvetch (Astragalus nlipes) is a forb (non woody perennial) native to western North America. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> milkvetch is a legume forb species of interest for revegetating rangelands of the intermountain northwest; it can contribute high quality feed, valuable seed for wildlife, and nitrogen fixation to help maintain range productivity. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> milkvetch has a hard...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51A0924O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51A0924O"><span>Geophysical Signatures to Monitor Fluids and Mineralization for CO2 Sequestration in <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; Van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M. L.; Mcling, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide sequestration in large reservoirs can reduce emissions of this green house gas into the atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> are promising host rocks due to their volumetric extend, worldwide distribution, and recent observations that CO2-water mixtures react with <span class="hlt">basalt</span> minerals to precipitate as carbonate minerals, trapping the CO2. The chemical reaction between carbonic acid and minerals rich in calcium, magnesium and iron precipitates carbonates in the pore space. This process would increase the elastic modulus and velocity of the rock. At the same time, the higher compressibility of CO2 over water changes the elastic properties of the rock, decreasing the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> rock bulk modulus and the P-wave velocity. Reservoirs where the rock properties change as a result of fluid or pressure changes are commonly monitored with seismic methods. Here we present experiments to study the feasibility of monitoring CO2 migration in a reservoir and CO2-rock reactions for a sequestration scenario in <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Our goal is to measure the rock's elastic response to mineralization with non-contacting ultrasonic lasers, and the effect of fluid substitution at reservoir conditions at seismic and ultrasonic frequencies. For the fluid substitution experiment we observe changes in the P- and S-wave velocities when <span class="hlt">saturating</span> the sample with super-critical (sc) CO2, CO2-water mixtures and water alone for different pore and confining pressures. The bulk modulus of the rock is significantly dependent on frequency in the 2~to 106~Hz range, for CO2-water mixtures and pure water <span class="hlt">saturations</span>. Dry and pure CO2 (sc or gas) do not show a frequency dependence on the modulus. Moreover, the shear wave modulus is not dispersive for either fluid. The frequency dependence of the elastic parameters is related to the attenuation (1/Q) of the rock. We will show the correlation between frequency dependent moduli and attenuation data for the different elastic moduli of the rocks. Three other <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.170..266W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.170..266W"><span>Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manganese&pg=2&id=EJ339350','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manganese&pg=2&id=EJ339350"><span>A Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hill, William D. Jr.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes a procedure for oxygen generation by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate in presence of manganese dioxide, reacted with various <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Provides a table of sample product yields for various <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. (JM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oxygen+AND+generation&id=EJ339350','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oxygen+AND+generation&id=EJ339350"><span>A Reaction Involving Oxygen and Metal <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hill, William D. Jr.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes a procedure for oxygen generation by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate in presence of manganese dioxide, reacted with various <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Provides a table of sample product yields for various <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. (JM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4735K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.V21A4735K"><span>Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. The order of precipitation of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V31D0622L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V31D0622L"><span>Lead Isotopic Compositions of the Endeavour <span class="hlt">Sulfides</span>, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Labonte, F.; Hannington, M. D.; Cousens, B. L.; Blenkinsop, J.; Gill, J. B.; Kelley, D. S.; Lilley, M. D.; Delaney, J. R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p> reference line for the northern hemisphere mantle reservoirs in plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb, suggesting relatively little contribution from buried sediment compared to deposits at sedimented ridges. Alternatively, systematic differences in the Pb isotope compositions of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> along the length of the ridge segment could be attributed to variable leaching of previously altered <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust or interaction between hydrothermal fluids and enriched Mid-Ocean Ridge <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> (MORB) sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4420S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4420S"><span>Does the presence of bacteria effect <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass dissolution rates? 1: Dead Pseudomonas reactants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stockmann, Gabrielle J.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Benezeth, Pascale</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> glass and crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations in Iceland have been suggested for industrial CO2 storage due to their porous and permeable properties and high reactivity. Acid CO2-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> waters in contact with <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass will lead to rapid dissolution of the glass and release of divalent cations, (Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) that can react to form stable carbonates and thereby trap the CO2. However, the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations in Iceland not only contains glass and mineral assemblages, but also host microbiological communities that either by their presence or by active involvement in chemical reactions could affect the amount of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass being dissolved and CO2 being trapped. Samples of natural bacteria communities from the CO2 storage grounds in Iceland were collected, separated, and purified using agar plate technique and cultured under laboratory conditions in nutrient broth-rich media. Heterotrophic aerobic Gram-negative strain of Pseudomonas reactants was selected for a series of flow-through experiments aimed at evaluation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass dissolution rate in the presense of increasing amounts of dead bacteria and their lysis products. The experiments were carried out using mixed-flow reactors at pH 4, 6, 8 and 10 at 25 °C. Each of the four reactors contained 1 gram of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass of the size fraction 45-125 μm. This glass was dissolved in ~ 0.01 M buffer solutions (acetate, MES, bicarbonate and carbonate+bicarbonate mixture) of the desired pH. All experiments ran 2 months, keeping the flowrate and temperature stable and only changing the concentration of dead bacteria in the inlet solutions (from 0 to 430 mg/L). Experiments were performed in sterile conditions, and bacterial growth was prevented by adding NaN3 to the inlet solutions. Routine culturing of bacteria on the agar plates confirmed the sterility of experiments. Samples of outlet solutions were analyzed for major cations and trace elements by ICP-MS. Results demonstrate a slight decrease in the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042594','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100042594"><span>Effect of Fluorine on Near-Liquidus Phase Equilibria of <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Filiberto, Justin; Wood, Justin; Loan, Le; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Shimizu, Nobumichi; Treiman, Allan H.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Volatile species such as H2O, CO2, F, and Cl have significant impact in generation and differentiation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts. Thus far experimental work has primarily focused on the effect of water and carbon dioxide on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> crystallization, liquid-line of descent, and mantle melting [e.g., 1, 2] and the effects of halogens have received far less attention [3-4]. However, melts in the planetary interiors can have non-negligible chlorine and fluorine concentrations. Here, we explore the effects of fluorine on near-liquidus phase equilibria of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. We have conducted nominally anhydrous piston cylinder experiments using graphite capsules at 0.6 - 1.5 GPa on an Fe-rich model <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition. 1.75 wt% fluorine was added to the starting mix in the form of AgF2. Fluorine in the experimental glass was measured by SIMS and major elements of glass and minerals were analyzed by EPMA. Nominally volatile free experiments yield a liquidus temperature from 1330 C at 0.8GPa to 1400 at 1.6GPa and an olivine(Fo72)-pyroxene(En68)-liquid multiple <span class="hlt">saturation</span> point at 1.25 GPa and 1375 C. The F-bearing experiments yield a liquiudus temperature from 1260 C at 0.6GPa to 1305 at 1.5GPa and an ol(Fo66)-pyx(En64)-MSP at 1 GPa and 1260 C. This shows that F depresses the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> liquidus, extends the pyroxene stability field to lower pressure, and forces the liquidus phases to be more Fe-rich. KD(Fe-Mg/mineral-melt) calculated for both pyroxenes and olivines show an increase with increasing F content of the melt. Therefore, we infer that F complexes with Mg in the melt and thus increases the melt s silica activity, depressing the liquidus and changing the composition of the crystallizing minerals. Our study demonstrates that on a weight percent basis, the effect of fluorine is similar to the effect of H2O [1] and Cl [3] on freezing point depression of <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. But on an atomic fraction basis, the effect of F on liquidus depression of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is xxxx compared to the effect of H. Future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18990426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18990426"><span>Effect of initial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration on <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and phenol oxidation under denitrifying conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beristain-Cardoso, Ricardo; Texier, Anne-Claire; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Razo-Flores, Elías; Field, Jim A; Gómez, J</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the initial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration on the kinetics and metabolism of phenol and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in batch bioassays using nitrate as electron acceptor. Complete oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (20 mg L(-1) of S(2-)) and phenol (19.6 mg L(-1)) was linked to nitrate reduction when nitrate was supplemented at stoichiometric concentrations. At 32 mg L(-1) of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and phenol by the organo-lithoautotrophic microbial culture was sequential; first <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was rapidly oxidized to elemental sulfur and afterwards to sulfate; phenol oxidation started once sulfate production reached a maximum. When the initial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration was increased from 20 to 26 and finally to 32 mg L(-1), <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation was inhibited. In contrast phenol consumption by the denitrifying culture was not affected. These results indicated that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> affected strongly the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation rate and nitrate reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V41B1374H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.V41B1374H"><span>Geochemistry of Besshi-type Massive <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Deposit at Makimine in the Shimanto Belt, Southwestern Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatsuya, K.; Komuro, K.; Ogawa, Y.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Many Besshi-type deposits are known to be hosted in the accretionary complexes in southwestern Japan. Most of them occur in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt, but some are also found in other weakly or non-metamorphic accretionary belts. In order to understand the genesis of Besshi-type deposits, geochemical and mineralogical studies were carried out for the ores from Makimine in the northern Shimanto belt, southwestern Japan. The Makimine deposit occurs in the Late Cretaceous Makimine Formation, which is composed of a series of clastic piles and <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and metamorphosed up to greenschist facies. Around the deposit, chert is absent and the clastic piles around the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were thermally altered. The evidence indicates that the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in the formation had been in situ formed in the clastic piles. The massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores of lenticular, podiform and rod-shaped are associated closely with the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The orebodies are consisting of pyrite, phrrohotite and chalcopyrite with minor amounts of sphalerite and quartz. The ores are enriched mainly in the chalcophile elements such as Cu, Fe, Cd, Ag, Bi, Zn, In, Te, Co, Mo, Pb, As, Tl and Sb, and depleted in the lithophile elements compared with the average shale. They have higher Cu/Zn and Cu/Pb ratios; lower Ba contents in comparison with those of other massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by negative Ce anomaly, positive Eu anomaly and depletion of heavy-REE. The chemical properties of the ores are similar to the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from modern hydrothermal ore deposits at mid-ocean ridge such as East Pacific Rise and Mid-Atlantic Ridge, especially of the Cu-rich types. These results suggest that the Makimine deposit was formed by deep sea hydrothermal activity in the clastic piles of subduction zone, which is associated with <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formation of Kula-Pacific ridge. Their unique properties might be due to mode of hydrothermal circulation in the clastic piles. On the basis of bulk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6905380','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6905380"><span>Selected rare earth <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in thermoelectric applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raag, V.; Borodovsky, Y.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses preliminary results on the preparation and the measurement of thermoelectric properties of various rare earth <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> of the stoichiometry R/sub 2/S/sub 3/. A preparation method that enables the rapid and predictable preparation of the <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> has been discussed, along with some preliminary results on the measurement of thermoelectric properties of these <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808... Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown, as defined in § 250.490 of this...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-504.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-604.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in zones where the presence of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol2-sec250-808.pdf"><span>30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H2S) or in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...6.9889R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanos...6.9889R"><span>Nanostructured metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for energy storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, such as iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, cobalt <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, nickel <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, manganese <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, tin <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-based LIB and SC devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25073046"><span>Nanostructured metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for energy storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu</p> <p>2014-09-07</p> <p>Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, such as iron <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, copper <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, cobalt <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, nickel <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, manganese <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, tin <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-based LIB and SC devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036424','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036424"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Reactivity Variability with Reservoir Depth in Supercritical CO2 and Aqueous Phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Long term storage of CO{sub 2} in geologic formations is currently considered the most attractive option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while continuing to utilize fossil fuels for energy production. Injected CO{sub 2} is expected to reside as a buoyant water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> supercritical fluid in contact with reservoir rock, the caprock system, and related formation waters. As was reported for the first time at the GHGT-9 conference, experiments with <span class="hlt">basalts</span> demonstrated surprisingly rapid carbonate mineral formation occurring with samples suspended in the scCO{sub 2} phase. Those experiments were limited to a few temperatures and CO{sub 2} pressures representing relatively shallow (1 km) reservoir depths. Because continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can extend to depths of 5 km or more, in this paper we extend the earlier results across a pressure-temperature range representative of these greater depths. Different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples, including well cuttings from the borehole used in a pilot-scale <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sequestration project (Eastern Washington, U.S.) and core samples from the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), were exposed to aqueous solutions in equilibrium with scCO{sub 2} and water-rich scCO{sub 2} at six different pressures and temperatures for select periods of time (30 to 180 days). Conditions corresponding to a shallow injection of CO{sub 2} (7.4 MPa, 34 C) indicate limited reactivity with <span class="hlt">basalt</span>; surface carbonate precipitates were not easily identified on post-reacted <span class="hlt">basalt</span> grains. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> exposed under identical times appeared increasingly more reacted with simulated depths. Tests, conducted at higher pressures (12.0 MPa) and temperatures (55 C), reveal a wide variety of surface precipitates forming in both fluid phases. Under shallow conditions tiny clusters of aragonite needles began forming in the wet scCO{sub 2} fluid, whereas in the CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">saturated</span> water, cation substituted calcite developed thin radiating coatings. Although these types of coatings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V22A1003M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.V22A1003M"><span>Platinum-Group Elements in <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Derived From the Icelandic Mantle Plume -Past and Present.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Momme, P.; Oskarsson, N.; Gronvold, K.; Tegner, C.; Brooks, K.; Keays, R.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Paleogene <span class="hlt">basalts</span> ( ~55Ma) derived from the ancestral Iceland mantle plume and extruded during continental rifting are exposed along the Blosseville Kyst in central East Greenland. These <span class="hlt">basalts</span> comprise three intercalated series, viz: a low-Ti, high-Ti and a very high-Ti series. The two Ti-rich series are interpreted to represent continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> formed by low degrees of partial melting (degree of melting F=3-9%) while the low-Ti series are believed to have formed by higher degrees of partial melting (F:15-25%). All three of the East Greenland <span class="hlt">basalt</span> series are enriched in the PGE, relative to normal MORB. During differentiation of the low-Ti series, Pd increase from 11 to 24 ppb whereas Pt and Ir decrease from 12 and 0.6 ppb to 3 and <0.05 ppb respectively. The primitive <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (molar Mg#60) of the dominant high-Ti series contain ~6-10 ppb Pd, ~7-10 ppb Pt and ~0.2 ppb Ir whereas the most evolved <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Mg#43) contain 25 ppb Pd, 5 ppb Pt and <0.05 ppb Ir. The PGE-rich nature of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is surprising because low degree partial melts are generally S-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> and hence strongly depleted in the PGE (cf, Keays, 1995). However, our data indicates that all of the East Greenland magmas were S-undersaturated and as they underwent differentiation, Pd behaved incompatibly while Ir and Pt behaved compatibly. Primitive Holocene Icelandic olivine tholeiites contain 120 ppm Cu, 6 ppb Pd, 4 ppb Pt and 0.2 ppb Ir while their picritic counterparts contain 74 ppm Cu, 17 ppb Pd, 7 ppb Pt and 0.3 ppb Ir. Both the olivine tholeiites and the picrites are believed to have formed by high degrees of partial melting (15-25%) which would have exhausted all of the sulphides in the mantle source region and produced S-undersaturated magmas. In Icelandic samples with 10-14wt% MgO, Cu and the PGEs vary systematically between the primitive picrite and olivine tholeiite compositions given above i.e there is an inverse correlation between Cu and the PGEs. This is best explained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NIMPA.508....6A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003NIMPA.508....6A"><span><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> logistic avalanche model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Santonico, R.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>The search for an adequate avalanche RPC working model evidenced that the simple exponential growth can describe the electron multiplication phenomena in the gas with acceptable accuracy until the external electric field is not perturbed by the growing avalanche. We present here a model in which the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> growth induced by the space charge effects is explained in a natural way by a constant coefficient non-linear differential equation, the Logistic equation, which was originally introduced to describe the evolution of a biological population in a limited resources environment. The RPCs, due to the uniform and intense field, proved to be an ideal device to test experimentally the presented model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000305','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150000305"><span>Additive Construction using <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Regolith Fines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent <span class="hlt">basalt</span> quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> regolith and comparative work with lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V12C0609M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.V12C0609M"><span>An alternative model for within plate <span class="hlt">basalts</span> generation suggested by their major elements, trace elements and Pb-Sr-Nd isotope compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mashima, H.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Based on geochemistry, the recent favor model for within-plate <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (WPB) is plumes with eclogite originally formed by inversion of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> oceanic crust into eclogite in subduction zones (e.g. Hauri, 1996). Melting experiments of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>/peridotie hybrids (Kogiso and Takahashi, 1998), however, have demonstrated that the hybrid source model could not explain major element features of WPB, such as FeO* enrichment and Al2O3 depletion compared with MORB. Melting experiments of peridotites and <span class="hlt">basalt</span>/peridotite hybrids indicate that the sources of WPB are peridotites abnormally enriched in FeO*. Such Fe-rich sources could not be formed by extraction of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt from typical peridotite or mixing of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and typical peridotite. A potential candidate for the abnormally Fe-rich source is Archean peridotitic komatiite (APK) which is enriched in FeO* compared with typical peridotite. Attractive features of the recycled APK melting model are as follows: 1) It explains why within-plate <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are FeO*-rich and Al2O3-poor relative to MORB because of large proportion of cpx in APK. 2) Moderate partial melting of APK forms LREE-enriched partial melts because of selective fusion of cpx. 3) It explains near bulk earth Nd isotope compositions because of relatively flat REE patterns of APK. 4) Archean age of APK is consistent with Pb isotope ofWPB suggesting their sources have Archean age. 5) Compositional spectrum of Archean komatiite suites ranging from peridotitic komatiite to <span class="hlt">basalts</span> explains that of WPB from silica-under <span class="hlt">saturated</span> <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to silica-oversaturated andesite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..94...77L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..94...77L"><span>Chalcophile element partitioning between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases and hydrous mantle melt: Applications to mantle melting and the formation of ore deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yuan</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Understanding the geochemical behavior of chalcophile elements in magmatic processes is hindered by the limited partition coefficients between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases and silicate melt, in particular at conditions relevant to partial melting of the hydrated, metasomatized upper mantle. In this study, the partitioning of elements Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, and Pb between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid, monosulfide solid solution (MSS), and hydrous mantle melt has been investigated at 1200 °C/1.5 GPa and oxygen fugacity ranging from FMQ-2 to FMQ+1 in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The determined partition coefficients between <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid and hydrous mantle melt are: 750-1500 for Cu; 600-1200 for Ni; 35-42 for Co; 35-53 for Pb; and 1-2 for Zn, As, and Mo. The partition coefficients between MSS and hydrous mantle melt are: 380-500 for Cu; 520-750 for Ni; ∼50 for Co; <0.5 for Zn; 0.3-6 for Pb; 0.1-2 for As; 1-2 for Mo; and >34 for Ag. The variation of the data is primarily due to differences in oxygen fugacity. These partitioning data in conjunction with previous data are applied to partial melting of the upper mantle and the formation of magmatic-hydrothermal Cu-Au deposits and magmatic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits. I show that the metasomatized arc mantle may no longer contain <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> after >10-14% melt extraction but is still capable of producing the Cu concentrations in the primitive arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and that the comparable Cu concentrations in primitive arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and in MORB do not necessarily imply similar oxidation states in their source regions. Previous models proposed for producing Cu- and/or Au-rich magmas have been reassessed, with the conclusions summarized as follows. (1) Partial melting of the oxidized (fO2 > FMQ), metasomatized arc mantle with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> exhaustion at degrees >10-14% may not generate Cu-rich, primitive arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. (2) Partial melting of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing cumulates in the root of thickened lower continental crust or lithospheric mantle does not typically generate Cu- and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.2661W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GGG....16.2661W"><span>Geology, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> geochemistry and supercritical venting at the Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Cayman Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Beebe Vent Field (BVF) is the world's deepest known hydrothermal system, at 4960 m below sea level. Located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, Caribbean, the BVF hosts high temperature (˜401°C) "black smoker" vents that build Cu, Zn and Au-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mounds and chimneys. The BVF is highly gold-rich, with Au values up to 93 ppm and an average Au:Ag ratio of 0.15. Gold precipitation is directly associated with diffuse flow through "beehive" chimneys. Significant mass-wasting of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> material at the BVF, accompanied by changes in metal content, results in metaliferous talus and sediment deposits. Situated on very thin (2-3 km thick) oceanic crust, at an ultraslow spreading centre, the hydrothermal system circulates fluids to a depth of ˜1.8 km in a basement that is likely to include a mixture of both mafic and ultramafic lithologies. We suggest hydrothermal interaction with chalcophile-bearing <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the mantle rocks, together with precipitation of Au in beehive chimney structures, has resulted in the formation of a Au-rich volcanogenic massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (VMS) deposit. With its spatial distribution of deposit materials and metal contents, the BVF represents a modern day analogue for <span class="hlt">basalt</span> hosted, Au-rich VMS systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17731364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17731364"><span>Geochemistry of apollo 15 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schnetzler, C C; Philpotts, J A; Nava, D F; Schuhmann, S; Thomas, H H</p> <p>1972-01-28</p> <p>Major and trace element concentrations have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 from the Hadley Rille area; trace element concentrations have also been determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> 15555 most closely resembles in composition the Apollo 12 olivine-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The concentrations of lithium, potassium, rubidium, barium, rare-earth elements, and zirconium in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 are the lowest, and the negative europium anomaly is the smallest, reported for lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>; this <span class="hlt">basalt</span> might be the least differentiated material yet returned from the moon. Crystallization and removal of about 6 percent of plagioclase similar to that contained in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> would account for the observed europium anomaly; if plagioclase is not on the liquidus of this <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, a multistage origin is indicated. Mineral data indicate that plagioclase and pyroxene approached quasi-equilibrium. Most of the chemical differences between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531 would be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88 percent <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, 6 percent KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus) and 6 percent plagioclase (anorthosite?).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035149','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035149"><span>Molybdenite <span class="hlt">saturation</span> in silicic magmas: Occurrence and petrological implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Audetat, A.; Dolejs, D.; Lowenstern, J. B.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We identified molybdenite (MoS2) as an accessory magmatic phase in 13 out of 27 felsic magma systems examined worldwide. The molybdenite occurs as small (<20 ??m) triangular or hexagonal platelets included in quartz phenocrysts. Laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses of melt inclusions in molybdenite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> samples reveal 1-13 ppm Mo in the melt and geochemical signatures that imply a strong link to continental rift <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-rhyolite associations. In contrast, arc-associated rhyolites are rarely molybdenite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span>, despite similar Mo concentrations. This systematic dependence on tectonic setting seems to reflect the higher oxidation state of arc magmas compared with within-plate magmas. A thermodynamic model devised to investigate the effects of T, f O2 and f S2 on molybdenite solubility reliably predicts measured Mo concentrations in molybdenite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> samples if the magmas are assumed to have been <span class="hlt">saturated</span> also in pyrrhotite. Whereas pyrrhotite microphenocrysts have been observed in some of these samples, they have not been observed from other molybdenite-bearing magmas. Based on the strong influence of f S2 on molybdenite solubility we calculate that also these latter magmas must have been at (or very close to) pyrrhotite <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. In this case the Mo concentration of molybdenite-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> melts can be used to constrain both magmatic f O2 and f S2 if temperature is known independently (e.g. by zircon <span class="hlt">saturation</span> thermometry). Our model thus permits evaluation of magmatic f S2, which is an important variable but is difficult to estimate otherwise, particularly in slowly cooled rocks. ?? The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B41F..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B41F..04L"><span>Microbial Diversity in the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group and the Context for Life in Subsurface <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavalleur, H. J.; Smith, A.; Fisk, M. R.; Colwell, F. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Large igneous provinces constitute a sizable volume of porous and fractured materials in the Earth's crust and many of these environments exist within the boundaries of survival for subsurface life. The results of microbiological studies of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and other igneous materials in subsurface settings hint at the types of microbes that dwell in these environments. We investigated the microbes in aquifers in the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group (CRBG) and also considered the microbial communities in subsurface <span class="hlt">basalts</span> more broadly to determine if there are recurrent themes in the types of microbes and the nature of diversity present in these geological systems. Bacteria and Archaea collected from five intervals in the CRBG were examined using high-throughput DNA sequencing directed at the 16S rRNA genes. The highest bacterial biomass and the highest bacterial diversity were observed in the deepest samples (>1018 meters below land surface) whereas the highest archaeal diversity was detected in the shallowest samples (<449 mbls). Microbes classified as Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria dominated the aquifers. These findings are generally consistent with earlier cultivation- and clone library-based studies performed on microbes from the CRBG and the Snake River Plain aquifer. Microbes associated with marine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are similar to those found in terrestrial settings and include Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, candidate division bacterium OP1, Euryarchaeota, and Crenarchaeota. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarities to known microbes, both <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> regions have taxa with representative physiologies likely to include hydrogen oxidation, iron and sulfur metabolism, acetogenesis, and hydrocarbon metabolism. Research on the microbiology of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rich provinces on the planet has informed our understanding of biogeochemical cycling where igneous rocks dominate. The knowledge gained in these investigations also promotes our ability to verify the remediation of contaminants</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029643','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029643"><span>Microbiology: A microbial arsenic cycle in a salt-<span class="hlt">saturated</span>, extreme environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Oremland, R.S.; Kulp, T.R.; Blum, J.S.; Hoeft, S.E.; Baesman, S.; Miller, L.G.; Stolz, J.F.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Searles Lake is a salt-<span class="hlt">saturated</span>, alkaline brine unusually rich in the toxic element arsenic. Arsenic speciation changed from arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)] with sediment depth. Incubated anoxic sediment slurries displayed dissimilatory As(V)-reductase activity that was markedly stimulated by H2 or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, whereas aerobic slurries had rapid As(III)-oxidase activity. An anaerobic, extremely haloalkaliphilic bacterium was isolated from the sediment that grew via As(V) respiration, using either lactate or <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as its electron donor. Hence, a full biogeochemical cycle of arsenic occurs in Searles Lake, driven in part by inorganic electron donors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010649','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010649"><span>Crystallization of tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in Alae Lava Lake, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Peck, D.L.; Wright, T.L.; Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>. Ferric-ferrous ratios suggest that oxidation with maximum intensity between 550??C and 610??C moved downward in the crust as it cooled; this was followed by reduction at a temperature of about 100??C. The crystallized <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is a homogeneous fine-grained rock containing on the average 48.3 percent by volume intergranular pyroxene (augite > pigeonite), 34.2 percent plagioclase laths (An60 70), 7.9 percent interstitial glass, 6.9 percent opaques (ilmenite > magnetite), 2.7 percent olivine (Fo70 80), and a trace of apatite. Chemical analyses of 18 samples, ranging from initially quenched pumice to lava cored more than a year after the eruption from the center and from near the base of the lake, show little variation from silica-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> containing 50.4 percent SiO2, 2.4 percent Na2O, and 0.54 percent K2O. Apparently there was no significant crystal settling and no appreciable vapor-phase transport of these components during the year of crystallization. However, seven samples of interstitial liquid that had been filter-pressed into gash fractures and drill holes from partly crystalline mush near the base of the crust show large differences from the bulk composition of the solidified crust-lower MgO, CaO, and Al2O3; and higher total iron, TiO2, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, and F, and, in most samples, SiO2. The minor elements Ba, Ga, Li, Y, and Yb and possibly Cu tend to be enriched in the filter-pressed liquids, and Cr and possibly Ni tend to be depleted. ?? 1966 Stabilimento Tipografico Francesco Giannini & Figli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5108836','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5108836"><span>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> loaded catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.</p> <p>1994-04-26</p> <p>A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869259','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/869259"><span>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> loaded catalyst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11201305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11201305"><span>Allyl <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> modify cell growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knowles, L M; Milner, J A</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Extensive evidence points to the ability of allyl <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> from garlic to suppress tumor proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. This antineoplastic effect is generally greater for lipid-soluble than water-soluble allyl <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Both concentration and duration of exposure can increase the antiproliferative effects of lipid- and water-soluble allyl <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. Part of their antiproliferative effects may relate to an increase in membrane fluidity and a suppression of integrin glycoprotein IIb-IIIa mediated adhesion. Alterations in cholesterol, arachidonic acid, phospholipids and/or thiols may account for these changes in membrane function. Allyl <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are also recognized for their ability to suppress cellular proliferation by blocking cells in the G2/M phase and by the induction of apoptosis. This increase in the G2/M and apoptotic cell populations correlates with depressed p34cdc2 kinase activity, increased histone acetylation, increased intracellular calcium and elevated cellular peroxide production. While impressive pre-clinical data exist about the antineoplastic effects of allyl sulfur compounds, considerably more attention needs to be given to their effects in humans. The composition of the entire diet and a host of genetic/epigenetic factors will likely determine the true benefits that might arise from allyl sulfur compounds from garlic and other Allium foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=623','SCIGOV-IRIS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris2/chemicalLanding.cfm?substance_nmbr=623"><span>p-Chlorophenyl methyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/iris">Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>p - Chlorophenyl methyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ; CASRN 123 - 09 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for N</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820044752&hterms=juan+fuca+ridge&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Djuan%2Bfuca%2Bridge','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820044752&hterms=juan+fuca+ridge&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Djuan%2Bfuca%2Bridge"><span>Total nitrogen content of deep sea <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Norris, T. L.; Schaeffer, O. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An estimate of the total nitrogen content of the earth's mantle, aimed at furnishing a further constraint for earth atmosphere origin and evolution models, was attempted through thermal neutron activation analysis via N-14(n,p)C-14 for the case of deep sea <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses from the East Pacific Rise, the Mid-Atlantic Rift, and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The increased nitrogen abundance of matrix material from the same samples as the glasses may be due to the incorporation of chemically-bound nitrogen from sea water, rather than dissolved molecular nitrogen. A discussion is presented of factors affecting observed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> nitrogen content and its interpretation in terms of mantle nitrogen abundance. A 2 ppm N lower limit is estimated for the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479566','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4479566"><span>Biogenic Mn-Oxides in Subseafloor <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Gustafsson, Håkan; Holm, Nils G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The deep biosphere of the subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is recognized as a major scientific frontier in disciplines like biology, geology, and oceanography. Recently, the presence of fungi in these environments has involved a change of view regarding diversity and ecology. Here, we describe fossilized fungal communities in vugs in subseafloor <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from a depth of 936.65 metres below seafloor at the Detroit Seamount, Pacific Ocean. These fungal communities are closely associated with botryoidal Mn oxides composed of todorokite. Analyses of the Mn oxides by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) indicate a biogenic signature. We suggest, based on mineralogical, morphological and EPR data, a biological origin of the botryoidal Mn oxides. Our results show that fungi are involved in Mn cycling at great depths in the seafloor and we introduce EPR as a means to easily identify biogenic Mn oxides in these environments. PMID:26107948</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5486834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5486834"><span>Sources of oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: radiogenic isotopic evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>White, W.M.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>Oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> can be subdivided into five distinct groupings on the basis of their Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope composition. These classes, represented by mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB) and St. Helena, Kerguelen, the Society Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, may represent different but internally heterogeneous mantle reservoirs or merely distinct groups within which chemical evolution has proceeded in a similar manner. Little systematic geographic distribution of volcanism tapping these sources is apparent. Depletion has been most important in the evolution of the MORB-type reservoirs, whereas crustal recycling has dominated the evolution of sources of the Kerguelen and Society types. Primitive mantle is identifiable in the Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotope characteristics of the Hawaiian source only. The evolution of St. Helena-type sources remains enigmatic. 33 references, 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090012290','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090012290"><span>Northwest Africa 5298: A <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Shergottite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne; Lapen, Thomas J.; Brandon, Alan; Shafer, John</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>NWA 5298 is a single 445 g meteorite found near Bir Gandouz, Morocco in March 2008 [1]. This rock has a brown exterior weathered surface instead of a fusion crust and the interior is composed of green mineral grains with interstitial dark patches containing small vesicles and shock melts [1]. This meteorite is classified as a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottite [2]. A petrologic study of this Martian meteorite is being carried out with electron microprobe analysis and soon trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Oxygen fugacity is calculated from Fe-Ti oxides pairs in the sample. The data from this study constrains the petrogenesis of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820044752&hterms=deep+sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bsea','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820044752&hterms=deep+sea&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Bsea"><span>Total nitrogen content of deep sea <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Norris, T. L.; Schaeffer, O. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An estimate of the total nitrogen content of the earth's mantle, aimed at furnishing a further constraint for earth atmosphere origin and evolution models, was attempted through thermal neutron activation analysis via N-14(n,p)C-14 for the case of deep sea <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses from the East Pacific Rise, the Mid-Atlantic Rift, and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The increased nitrogen abundance of matrix material from the same samples as the glasses may be due to the incorporation of chemically-bound nitrogen from sea water, rather than dissolved molecular nitrogen. A discussion is presented of factors affecting observed <span class="hlt">basalt</span> nitrogen content and its interpretation in terms of mantle nitrogen abundance. A 2 ppm N lower limit is estimated for the mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936965"><span>Uranium-lead isotope systematics of Mars inferred from the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> shergottite QUE 94201</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gaffney, A M; Borg, L E; Connelly, J N</p> <p>2006-12-22</p> <p> amount of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> crystallization may generate large extents of U-Pb fractionation during formation of the mantle sources of martian <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P43B1928N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P43B1928N"><span>Comparison of Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> and Gabbros with those of the Terrestrial Ocean Crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Natland, J. H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Initial studies of lunar samples returned from the Apollo and Luna missions took place before rocks of the Earth's lower ocean crust, chiefly varieties of gabbro cumulates, were widely known or understood. Continuing exploration of the ocean crust invites some new comparisons. When volcanic rocks and glass from Apollo 11 and 17 were discovered to have very high TiO2 contents (8-14%), nothing comparable was known from Earth. The high-TiO2 lunar samples were soon described as primary melts derived from considerable depths in the lunar mantle. Other lunar samples have only very low TiO2 contents (~0.2%) and very low concentrations of highly incompatible elements such as Zr and Sr. Today, dredging and drilling results indicate that oxide gabbros rich in magmatic oxides and <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and with up to 12% TiO2 comprise a significant percentage of the gabbroic portion of the ocean crust especially at slowly spreading ridges. These are very late stage differentiates, and are commonly juxtaposed by high-temperature deformation processes with more primitive olivine gabbros and troctolites having only ~0.2% TiO2 and low concentrations of Zr and other incompatible elements. The rocks are mainly adcumulates, with very low concentrations of incompatible elements set by proportions of cumulus minerals, and with little contribution from the liquids that produced them. In addition, some lunar gabbros with highly calcic plagioclase (~An93-98) are similar to gabbros and troctolites found in island arcs. All of these similarities suggest that very few lunar <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks are pristine; instead they all could be nearly complete shock fusion products produced by meteorite impact into a diverse assemblage of lunar gabbros that included both low- and high-TiO2 gabbroic facies. On this hypothesis, no lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is a primary melt derived from the Moon's mantle. Although magmatic environments on the ancient Moon and in the modern ocean crust were different in important ways, the general</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26551199"><span>Nanoparticulate mineral matter from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dust wastes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Querol, Xavier; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Moreno, Teresa; Silva, Luis F O</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been the subject of some concern recently around the world for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the mining district of Nova Prata in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Zn that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and could so present a health hazard in the urban areas around the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in typical BDW samples highlights the need to develop cleaning procedures to minimise exposure to these natural fertilizing <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dust wastes and is thus of direct relevance to both the industrial sector of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> mining and to agriculture in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834944','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834944"><span>Pb isotopic heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> phenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bryce, Julia G.; DePaolo, Donald J.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The Pb isotopic compositions of phenocrystic phases in young <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas have been investigated using the Getty-DePaolo method (Getty S. J. and DePaolo D. J. [1995] Quaternary geochronology by the U-Th-Pb method. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59, 3267 3272), which allows for the resolution of small isotopic differences. Phenocryst, matrix, and whole rock analyses were made on samples from the 17 Myr-old Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Columbia River Group, a zero-age MORB from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and a ca. 260 kyr-old tholeiite from Mount Etna. Plagioclase feldspar phenocrysts have low-(U, Th)/Pb, and in each sample the plagioclase has significantly lower 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb values than whole rock, matrix, and magnetite-rich separates. The Pb isotopic contrast between plagioclase and matrix/whole rock is found in three samples with varying grain sizes (0.5 2 cm for the Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and MORB and <1 mm for the Etna sample) from different tectonic settings, suggesting that these results are not unique. The isotopic contrasts are only slightly smaller in magnitude than the variations exhibited by whole rock samples from the region. The Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalts</span> also have Sr isotopic heterogeneity evident only in plagioclase phenocrysts, but the MORB and Etna lavas do not. The isotopic heterogeneities reflect magma mixing, and indicate that isotopically diverse magmas were mixed together just prior to eruption. The results reinforce indications from melt inclusion studies that magma source region isotopic heterogeneities have large amplitudes at short length scales, and that the isotopic variations imparted to the magmas are not entirely homogenized during segregation and transport processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5696725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5696725"><span>Lake Idaho: new perspectives through <span class="hlt">basalt</span> stratigraphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jenks, M.D.; Bonnichsen, B.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>Since the earliest geological investigations in Idaho, researchers have speculated on the existence of a large lake in the western Snake River plain. O.C. Marsh, writing in King's 1878 report on the geological exploration of the 40th parallel, suggested, based on fish paleontology, the presence of a large lake covering parts of southern Idaho and Oregon. Recent investigators of sediments and fossils have debated the size of the lake, even suggesting a series of small lakes in a broad river valley. Their mapping of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> units in the northern Bruneau River canyon suggests that a large, permanent lake indeed existed, and that toward the end of its evolution during the Pliocene may have had a highstand elevation of 3600-3800 ft. Lake margin features are preserved by the individual <span class="hlt">basalt</span> units that were changed in character as they flowed into the lake. This change from solid <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> rubble and boulders enclosed within a dark disaggregated matrix is present in successively younger units that flowed northwestward from volcanoes to the south. Stratigraphic evidence of successively younger flows, emplaced at continually higher elevations, suggests that the lake gradually filled and that the lakeshore transgressed southward. The regressive facies of the lake is preserved in the gravel sequences that are present at the mouths of present-day river canyons, whose ancestral drainages debouched into the slowly draining lake. From the undeformed lake-margin features present throughout the region, Lake Idaho apparently occupied the western Snake River plain depression, and was connected to a series of lakes in eastern Oregon. The configuration of these lakes strongly suggests that this lake system, prior to capture by the Snake River through Hells Canyon, may have drained through the present Grand Ronde River system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/834910"><span>Pb isotopic heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> phenocrysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bryce, Julia G.; DePaolo, Donald J.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The Pb isotopic compositions of phenocrystic phases in young <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas have been investigated using the Getty-DePaolo method (Getty S. J. and DePaolo D. J. [1995] Quaternary geochronology by the U-Th-Pb method. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59, 3267 3272), which allows for the resolution of small isotopic differences. Phenocryst, matrix, and whole rock analyses were made on samples from the 17 Myr-old Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Columbia River Group, a zero-age MORB from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and a ca. 260 kyr-old tholeiite from Mount Etna. Plagioclase feldspar phenocrysts have low-(U, Th)/Pb, and in each sample the plagioclase has significantly lower 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb values than whole rock, matrix, and magnetite-rich separates. The Pb isotopic contrast between plagioclase and matrix/whole rock is found in three samples with varying grain sizes (0.5 2 cm for the Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and MORB and <1 mm for the Etna sample) from different tectonic settings, suggesting that these results are not unique. The isotopic contrasts are only slightly smaller in magnitude than the variations exhibited by whole rock samples from the region. The Imnaha <span class="hlt">basalts</span> also have Sr isotopic heterogeneity evident only in plagioclase phenocrysts, but the MORB and Etna lavas do not. The isotopic heterogeneities reflect magma mixing, and indicate that isotopically diverse magmas were mixed together just prior to eruption. The results reinforce indications from melt inclusion studies that magma source region isotopic heterogeneities have large amplitudes at short length scales, and that the isotopic variations imparted to the magmas are not entirely homogenized during segregation and transport processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..116....1A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..116....1A"><span>Degassing-driven crystallisation in <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Applegarth, L. J.; Tuffen, H.; James, M. R.; Pinkerton, H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Syn-eruptive crystallisation can drastically increase magma viscosity, with profound implications for conduit dynamics, lava emplacement and volcanic hazards. There is growing evidence that crystallisation is not only cooling-driven, but can also occur almost isothermally during decompression-induced degassing on ascent from depth. Here we review field and experimental evidence for degassing-driven crystallisation in a range of magma compositions. We then present new results showing, for the first time, experimental evidence for this process in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma. Our experiments use simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-DSC-MS) to monitor degassing patterns and thermal events during heating and cooling of porphyritic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples from Mt. Etna, Italy. The partly degassed samples, which contained 0.39-0.81 wt.% total volatiles in the glass fraction, were subjected to two cycles of heating from ambient to 1250 °C. On the first heating, TGA data show that 30-60% of the total volatiles degassed slowly at < 1050 °C, and that the degassing rate increased rapidly above this temperature. DSC data indicate that this rapid increase in the degassing rate was closely followed (≤ 3.4 min) by a strongly exothermic event, which is interpreted as crystallisation. Enthalpies measured for this event suggest that up to 35% of the sample crystallises, a value supported by petrographic observations of samples quenched after the event. As neither degassing nor crystallisation was observed at high temperature during the second heating cycle we infer that the events on first heating constitute degassing-driven crystallisation. The rapidity and magnitude of the crystallisation response to degassing indicates that this process may strongly affect the rheology of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma in shallow conduits and lava flows, and thus influence the hazards posed by <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983CoMP...84..390F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983CoMP...84..390F"><span>Case studies on the origin of <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feigenson, Mark D.; Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Spera, Frank J.</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The simplified model of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> genesis described in Part I of this series, equilibrium partial melting followed by Rayleigh-type fractional crystallization, is applied to a stratigraphically controlled sequence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows from Kohala volcano. Major-element compositions were determined for 52 samples and show a time-stratigraphic progression from tholeiites through transitional <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Twenty-six of these samples were analyzed by isotope dilution for K, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba and the REE, 13 for87Sr/86Sr, and 19 for Co, Cr, Ni and V by atomic absorption. After a simple, first-order correction for the effects of fractional crystallization (involving mostly olivine and aluminous clinopyroxene), the major element concentrations cluster tightly, and the incompatible trace elements show monotonic increases in concentration as a function of stratigraphic height. The process identification plot shows that all the (fractionation corrected) melt compositions can be explained by equilibrium partial melting of compositionally identical batches of source material. The REE and Sr are fractionated because of the presence of residual clinopyroxene. Garnet may also be present but in much smaller amounts. In this respect our results differ significantly from those of Leeman et al. (1980). The calculated chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the source are nearly flat to slightly convex upward. Therefore there is no need to invoke special mechanisms, such as metasomatic REE preenrichment of the source, in order to explain the petrogenesis of the suite of lavas. Specifically, Ce concentrations ranging from 20 to 250 times chondritic are all explained by the same calculated source pattern having a chondrite-normalized ratio of Ce/Sm=0.9±0.2. However, the normalized ratio Ce/Ba≅2 shows that the source is not simply primitive mantle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029352','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029352"><span>Voluminous granitic magmas from common <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sisson, T.W.; Ratajeski, K.; Hankins, W.B.; Glazner, A.F.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Granitic-rhyolitic liquids were produced experimentally from moderately hydrous (1.7-2.3 wt% H2O) medium-to-high K <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> compositions at 700 MPa and f O2 controlled from Ni-NiO -1.3 to +4. Amount and composition of evolved liquids and coexisting mineral assemblages vary with fO2 and temperature, with melt being more evolved at higher fO2s, where coexisting mineral assemblages are more plagioclase- and Fe-Ti oxide-rich and amphibole-poor. At fO2 of Ni-NiO +1, typical for many silicic magmas, the samples produce 12-25 wt% granitic-rhyolitic liquid, amounts varying with bulk composition. Medium-to-high K <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are common in subduction-related magmatic arcs, and near-solidus true granite or rhyolite liquids can form widely, and in geologically significant quantities, by advanced crystallization-differentiation or by low-degree partial remelting of mantle-derived <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sources. Previously differentiated or weathered materials may be involved in generating specific felsic magmas, but are not required for such magmas to be voluminous or to have the K-rich granitic compositions typical of the upper continental crust. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055271&hterms=ghosts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dghosts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055271&hterms=ghosts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dghosts"><span>How thick are lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoerz, F.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055271&hterms=Ghost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGhost','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790055271&hterms=Ghost&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DGhost"><span>How thick are lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoerz, F.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770020109','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770020109"><span>Lunar sample studies. [breccias <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and anorthosites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251366','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22251366"><span>Hydrogen evolution from water through metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan</p> <p>2013-11-28</p> <p>Transition metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cluster anions M{sub 2}S{sub X}{sup −} (M = Mo and W, X = 4–6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions have ground state isomers with two bridging <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup −} isomers. In all the lowest energy H{sub 2} elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H{sub 2} elimination step involve a thiol (–SH) and a hydroxyl (–OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup −} clusters with water to liberate H{sub 2} are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M{sub 2}S{sub 6}{sup −} is highly endothermic with a considerable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839520','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839520"><span><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Zone Colloid Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>H. S. Viswanathan</p> <p>2004-10-07</p> <p>This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28700215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28700215"><span>Roles of Transport Limitations and Mineral Heterogeneity in Carbonation of Fractured <span class="hlt">Basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menefee, Anne H; Li, Peiyuan; Giammar, Daniel E; Ellis, Brian R</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> formations could enable secure long-term carbon storage by trapping injected CO2 as stable carbonates. Here, a predictive modeling framework was designed to evaluate the roles of transport limitations and mineral spatial distributions on mineral dissolution and carbonation reactions in fractured <span class="hlt">basalts</span> exposed to CO2-acidified fluids. Reactive transport models were developed in CrunchTope based on data from high-temperature, high-pressure flow-through experiments. Models isolating the effect of transport compared nine flow conditions under the same mineralogy. Heterogeneities were incorporated by segmenting an actual reacted <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sample, and these results were compared to equivalent flow conditions through randomly generated mineral distributions with the same bulk composition. While pure advective flow with shorter retention times promotes rapid initial carbonation, pure diffusion sustains mineral reactions for longer time frames and generates greater net carbonate volumes. For the same transport conditions and bulk composition, exact mineral spatial distributions do not impact the amount of carbonation but could determine the location by controlling local solution <span class="hlt">saturation</span> with respect to secondary carbonates. In combination, the results indicate that bulk mineralogy will be more significant than small-scale heterogeneities in controlling the rate and extent of CO2 mineralization, which will likely occur in diffusive zones adjacent to flow paths or in dead-end fractures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V13B0553L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V13B0553L"><span>Experimental results on decompression crystallization in an Aleutian <span class="hlt">basaltic</span>-andesite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Larsen, J. F.; Gardner, J. E.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In 1991-92, Westdahl volcano in the Aleutians erupted <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesitic magma, producing lava fountaining and ash clouds to 2 km asl, resulting in a lava flow that extended about 7 km from vent. In order to understand the magmatic ascent rates during that relatively non-explosive eruption, this study compares plagioclase and orthopyroxene microlite textures in the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to crystallization kinetics of plagioclase and pyroxene in laboratory experiments. The experiments used melt-rich <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite that was hydrated at 150 MPa, 1000° C, and an oxygen fugacity of NNO. Before decompression, the starting material was mainly water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> melt that contained a few percent of Fe-Ti oxides and pargasite. Pieces of the starting material were then decompressed rapidly to 25 MPa, and held for various times. Preliminary results show that when held at low pressure for less than 1 hour no crystallization occurred, except for some growth around existing pargasite and oxides. In runs held for about an hour both enstatite and plagioclase nucleate and grow, and are skeletal. In runs held from 4 to 24 hours, plagioclase growth dominates, as enstatite remains a minor phase. The single-step decompressions will be compared with runs using multiple steps to examine how the kinetics change. We can then compare the results with observed crystallization textures in the Westdahl lava and tephra to infer the path and rate of magma ascent during that eruption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17359262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17359262"><span>Evidence for hydrothermal Archaea within the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flanks of the East Pacific Rise.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Haymon, Rachel M; Lamontagne, Michael G; Holden, Patricia A</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Little is known about the fluids or the microbial communities present within potentially vast hydrothermal reservoirs contained in still-hot volcanic ocean crust beneath the flanks of the mid-ocean ridge. During Alvin dives in 2002, organic material attached to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was collected at low, near-ambient temperatures from an abyssal hill fault scarp in 0.5 Ma lithosphere on the western ridge flank of the East Pacific Rise. Mineral analysis by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy revealed high-temperature (> 110 degrees C) phases chalcopyrite (Cu(5)FeS(4)) and 1C pyrrhotite (Fe(1-x)S) within the fault scarp materials. A molecular survey of archaeal genes encoding 16S rRNA identified a diverse hyperthermophilic community, including groups within Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, and Korarchaeota. We propose that the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, metals and archaeal communities originated within a <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-hosted subseafloor hydrothermal habitat beneath the East Pacific Rise ridge flank and were transported to the seafloor during a recent episode of hydrothermal venting from the abyssal hill fault. Additionally, inferred metabolisms from the fault scarp community suggest that an ecologically unique high-temperature archaeal biosphere may thrive beneath the young East Pacific Rise ridge flank and that abyssal hill fault scarps may present new opportunities for sampling for this largely unexplored microbial habitat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.5421R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.5421R"><span>Biogeochemistry of dissolved hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> species and carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the western North Atlantic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radford-Knȩry, Joël; Cutter, Gregory A.</p> <p>1994-12-01</p> <p>The biogeochemistry of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> dissolved in the open ocean is a poorly understood component of the global sulfur cycle. Here, the cycling of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was examined in the western North Atlantic Ocean using specially developed sampling and analytical methods. Total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (particulate + dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>) concentrations ranged from <2-550 pmol/L; concentrations were highest in the mixed layer and decreased with depth. Significant levels (up to 19 pmol/L) of free <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (uncomplexed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>) were determined in the top 50 m of the water column. Sources of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> were examined. In particular, the rate of carbonyl <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (OCS) hydrolysis was redetermined under oceanographic conditions, and the depth distribution of OCS was examined. The patterns of near-surface enrichment (up to 150 pmol/L) and depletion at depth observed in OCS depth profiles suggest in situ production of OCS. To quantify the sources and sinks of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the mixed layer of the Sargasso Sea, a budget was constructed. The rate of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production was 5.5 pmol L-1 h-1 (OCS hydrolysis + atmospheric input), and total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal rate was 115 pmol L -1 h-1 (oxidation + particulate sinking). The significant difference between the known sources and sinks indicates that other processes are important for the cycling of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Similarities in the depth distribution of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and chlorophyll a, and results from recent laboratory experiments argue strongly in favor of biological involvement in the production of total <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the open ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V11B2780B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V11B2780B"><span>Geochemical correlation of Black Mountain <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows from surface exposures to boreholes in western Fort Irwin, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buesch, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>To help constrain groundwater modeling in the Superior Basin (SB) of the southwestern Fort Irwin National Training Center, California, three boreholes were drilled in 2010 that penetrated porphyritic olivine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows, but the age and distribution of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is unknown. The <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are interbedded with sandstone and conglomerate at depths 62-65 m in two boreholes, and 72-85 m in a third borehole (which terminated in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>), and these rocks are in the <span class="hlt">saturated</span> zone. The basin has 37 pre-2010 boreholes, and 17 are monitored for depth to water, but none were logged in a way that enabled identification of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows. The geochemistry of SB borehole cuttings derived from the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> was compared to <span class="hlt">basalts</span> exposed in outcrop throughout the region to establish possible correlations. Conventional XRF data (WD-XRF) on powdered whole-rock samples are from <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in 3 volcanic fields; Black Mountain (BM; 3.8 Ma, Oskin and Iriondo, 2004), Bicycle Mesa (BiM; 5.6 Ma, Schermer et al., 1996), and Goldstone Mesa (GM; 16 Ma, Schermer et al., 1996). Relative to the SB boreholes, BM is >8 km SW, BiM is >40 km E, and GM is >19 km ENE. On a Zn versus Sr bivariate plot, the 3 volcanic fields plot in unique clusters (some with small overlaps), which suggests there are distinctive geochemical signatures for each field. Laboratory analysis using a portable XRF (p-XRF) was performed on hand specimens and powdered samples of BM and powdered samples of SB and a set of international standards. BM WD-XRF and pXRF data are similar (with slight shifts in values due to instrumental differences), and plot in 3 sub-clusters. SB samples plot near two of the BM samples, suggesting a likely correlation. Four SB samples (two each from two boreholes) are very similar, and the fifth sample differs somewhat, which might indicate a different flow. Based on these geochemical correlations, the SB borehole <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are probably 3.4 Ma, and flowed eastward >8 km from the BM volcanic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004976','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170004976"><span>Volatiles in High-K Lunar <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Jessica J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, Ann; Boyce, Jeremy</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Chlorine is an unusual isotopic system, being essentially unfractionated ((delta)Cl-37 approximately 0 per mille ) between bulk terrestrial samples and chondritic meteorites and yet showing large variations in lunar (approximately -4 to +81 per mille), martian, and vestan (HED) samples. Among lunar samples, the volatile-bearing mineral apatite (Ca5(PO4)3[F,Cl,OH]) has been studied for volatiles in K-, REE-, and P (KREEP), very high potassium (VHK), low-Ti and high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, as well as samples from the lunar highlands. These studies revealed a positive correlation between in-situ (delta)Cl-37 measurements and bulk incompatible trace elements (ITEs) and ratios. Such trends were interpreted to originate from Cl isotopic fractionation during the degassing of metal chlorides during or shortly after the differentiation of the Moon via a magma ocean. In this study, we investigate the volatile inventories of a group of samples for which new-era volatile data have yet to be reported - the high-K (greater than 2000 ppm bulk K2O), high-Ti, trace element-rich mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. We used isotope imaging on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50L at JSC to obtain the Cl isotopic composition [((Cl-37/(35)Clsample/C-37l/(35)Clstandard)-1)×1000, to get a value in per thousand (per mille)] which ranges from approximately -2.7 +/- 2 per mille to +16.1 +/- 2 per mille (2sigma), as well as volatile abundances (F & Cl) of apatite in samples 10017, 10024 & 10049. Simply following prior models, as lunar rocks with high bulk-rock abundances of ITEs we might expect the high-K, high-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to contain apatite characterized by heavily fractionated (delta)Cl-37 values, i.e., Cl obtained from mixing between unfractionated mantle Cl (approximately 0 per mille) and the urKREEP reservoir (possibly fractionated to greater than +25 per mille.). However, the data obtained for the studied samples do not conform to either the early degassing or mixing models. Existing petrogentic models for the origin of the high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI51A2348Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMDI51A2348Y"><span>Transition Element Abundances in MORB <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, S.; Humayun, M.; Salters, V. J.; Fields, D.; Jefferson, G.; Perfit, M. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The mineralogy of the mantle sources of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is an important, but hard to constrain parameter, especially with the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> as chemical probes of major element mantle composition. Geophysical models imply that the deep mantle may have significant variations in Fe and Si relative to the ambient mantle sampled by MORB. Some petrological models of sub-ridge melting involve both pyroxenite and peridotite, implying that <span class="hlt">basalts</span> preferentially sample a pyroxenite endmember. The First-Row Transition Elements (FRTE), Ga and Ge are compatible to moderately incompatible during partial melting, and are sensitive to mineralogical variability in the mantle and thus can provide constraints on mantle source mineralogy for MORB. We have analyzed major elements, FRTE, Ga and Ge on 231 <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses from the Middle Atlantic Ridge (MAR between -23°S to 36.44°N), 30 Mid-Cayman Rise <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glasses, 12 glasses from the Siqueiros Fracture Zone (EPR), 9 glasses from the Blanco Trough, Juan de Fuca ridge, and Galapagos Spreading Centers (EPR), and 4 Indian Ocean MORB. Large spots (150 μm) were precisely (±1%) analyzed by a New Wave UP193FX excimer (193 nm) laser ablation system coupled to a high-resolution ICP-MS at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory using a high ablation rate (50 Hz) to yield blank contributions <1% for all elements, particularly Ge. The data demonstrate that the Ge/Si (6.96 x 10E-6 ± 3%, 1σ) and Fe/Mn (55 ± 2%) ratios for MORB are insensitive to fractional crystallization within the MgO range 6%-10%. MORB have Zn/Fe (9.9 x 10E-4 ± 7%), Ga/Sc (0.37-0.50), Ga/Al (2.2 x 10E-4 ± 11%) ratios, with the variations mostly due to the effects of fractional crystallization. Recent experimental determination of FRTE, Ga and Ge partition coefficients provide a framework within which to interpret these data [1]. Using these new partition coefficients, we have modeled the sensitivity of each element to mineralogical variations in the mantle source. Olivine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V43C..03R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUSM.V43C..03R"><span>Multiple Sulfur Isotopes and Sulfur/Selenium Ratios as Tracers for the Subsurface Biosphere in Altered Oceanic <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> in the Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouxel, O. J.; Ono, S.; Alt, J.; Rumble, D.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Alteration of oceanic crust by seawater is one of the most important processes controlling the global fluxes of elements and microbes likely play a significant role in this process. However, the study of the extent and nature of an active biosphere in the oceanic basement is currently limited due to technical difficulties involved in identifying indigenous microbes. Here, we report S isotope compositions of secondary <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in ~170 Ma altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from ODP Site 801 in the western Pacific to assess the potential presence of microbial sulfate reduction within the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> oceanic crust. In-situ ion microprobe and bulk rock S isotope analyses show large variations of δ34S values ranging from -45‰ to 1‰. Low δ34S values are consistent with the coupled effects of bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate and disproportionation of S-intermediate species as observed in sedimentary environments. These low and variable δ34S values, together with bulk rock S concentrations ranging from 0.02% up to 1.28% are consistent with a net addition of reduced sulfur in some sections of the crust and constitute clear evidence for microbial activity in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> ocean crust. Preliminary results of high-precision multiple-sulfur isotope analyses (33S/32S, and 36S/32S) show at least two generations of secondary pyrite in altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. One is mass- dependent with seawater sulfate, consistent with microbial sulfate reduction under low metabolic rate. Another set of data are consistent with either mixing of these sulfate-derived <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> with <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> primary <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or with partial oxidation-reprecipitation origin. Since Se substitutes for S in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, S/Se ratios coupled to S isotopes provide further constraints on the source of S (whether remobilization of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> or seawater sulfate). Bacterial sulfate reduction is expected to produce a negative relationship between δ34S and S/Se composition of altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> since the S/Se ratio of seawater (~1.6x107) differs</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986ECSS...23..451G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986ECSS...23..451G"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>, iron, manganese, and phosphate in the deep water of the Chesapeake Bay during anoxia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gavis, Jerome; Grant, Virginia</p> <p>1986-10-01</p> <p>Concentrations of dissolved oxygen and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, and of dissolved and particulate iron, manganese, and phosphate were measured as functions of salinity at a station in the Chesapeake Bay during stratification and deep water anoxia in spring and summer, 1981. The observed concentration/salinity profiles showed that oxygen was transported in a direction opposite to that of salt, while dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was transported in the same direction as salt through the anoxic water to be oxidized in oxygen consumption zones located below the steepest parts of the halocline. Both oxygen and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> were transported conservatively on 18 June. Their fluxes were 1·2 and 2 mol m -2 d -1, respectively. The oxygen flux was 30% of that stoichiometrically needed to oxidize the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> transported, suggesting that the oxygen consumption zone was advancing to shallower, less saline water, thus increasing the volume of anoxic water. Although oxygen was transported conservatively, <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> was produced as it was transported through the anoxic water on 8 July. The anoxic water was supersaturated with respect to ferrous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on 18 June, but most of the anoxic water was <span class="hlt">saturated</span> on 8 July. Precipitation of ferrous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> had little effect on the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> flux on 18 June. The manganese(II) concentration/salinity profile exhibited a maximum in the oxygen consumption zone on 18 June. On 8 July the profile was independent of salinity at high salinities. Iron(II) and manganese(II) consumed little if any oxygen in the oxygen consumption zone. Soluble reactive phosphate was transported conservatively through the anoxic water on 18 June. It was produced as it was transported on 8 July. All of the phosphate was consumed in the oxygen consumption zones by <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidizing bacteria. On 18 June its flux, estimated to be 2·8 mmol m -2 d -1, was less than 10% of that required for bacterial oxidation of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> reaching the oxygen consumption zone. The rest was oxidized chemically. The growth and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5057161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5057161"><span>Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at <span class="hlt">saturation</span> or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21662812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21662812"><span>Identification of Mineral Phases on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Surfaces by Imaging SIMS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ingram, J C; Groenewold, G S; Olson, J E; Gianotto, A K; McCurry, M O</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>A method for the identification of mineral phases on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surfaces utilizing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with imaging capability is described. The goal of this work is to establish the use of imaging SIMS for characterization of the surface of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surfaces were examined by interrogating the intact <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (heterogeneous mix of mineral phases) as well as mineral phases that have been separated from the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. Mineral separates from the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> were used to establish reference spectra for the specific mineral phases. Electron microprobe and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used as supplemental techniques for providing additional characterization of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Mineral phases that make up the composition of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> were identified from single-ion images which were statistically grouped. The statistical grouping is performed by utilizing a program that employs a generalized learning vector quantization technique. Identification of the mineral phases on the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> surface is achieved by comparing the mass spectra from the statistically grouped regions of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to the mass spectral results from the mineral separates. The results of this work illustrate the potential for using imaging SIMS to study adsorption chemistry at the top surface of heterogeneous mineral samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9988E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9988E"><span>Making rhyolite in a <span class="hlt">basalt</span> crucible</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eichelberger, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Iceland has long attracted the attention of those concerned with the origin of rhyolitic magmas and indeed of granitic continental crust, because it presents no alternative for such magmas other than deriving them from a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> source. Hydrothermally altered <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has been identified as the progenitor. The fact that rhyolite erupts as pure liquid requires a process of melt-crustal separation that is highly efficient despite the high viscosity of rhyolite melt. Volcanoes in Iceland are foci of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma injection along the divergent plate boundary. Repeated injection produces remelting, digestion, and sometimes expulsion or lateral withdrawal of material resulting in a caldera, a "crucible" holding down-dropped and interlayered lava flows, tephras, and injected sills. Once melting of this charge begins, a great deal of heat is absorbed in the phase change. Just 1% change in crystallinity per degree gives a melt-present body an effective heat capacity >5 times the subsolidus case. Temperature is thus buffered at the solidus and melt composition at rhyolite. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> inputs are episodic ("fires") so likely the resulting generation of rhyolite by melting is too. If frequent enough to offset cooling between events, rhyolite melt extractions will accumulate as a rhyolite magma reservoir rather than as discrete crystallized sills. Evidently, such magma bodies can survive multiple firings without themselves erupting, as the 1875 eruption of Askja Caldera of 0.3 km3 of rhyolite equilibrated at 2-km depth without previous leakage over a ten-millennium period and the surprise discovery of rhyolite magma at 2-km depth in Krafla suggest. Water is required for melting; otherwise melting cannot begin at a temperature lower than that of the heat source. Because the solubility of water in melt is pressure-dependent and almost zero at surface pressure, there must be a minimum depth at which <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-induced melting can occur and a rhyolite reservoir sustained. In practice, the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26925545"><span>Kinetics of sulfate reduction and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation rates in sediments of a bar-built estuary (Pescadero, California).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Richards, Chandra M; Pallud, Céline</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The bar-built Pescadero Estuary in Northern California is a major fish rearing habitat, though recently threatened by near-annual fish kill events, which occur when the estuary transitions from closed to open state. The direct and indirect effects of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> are suspected to play a role in these mortalities, but the spatial variability of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> production and its link to fish kills remains poorly understood. Using flow-through reactors containing intact littoral sediment slices, we measured potential sulfate reduction rates, kinetic parameters of microbial sulfate reduction (Rmax, the maximum sulfate reduction rate, and Km, the half-<span class="hlt">saturation</span> constant for sulfate), potential <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitation rates, and potential hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> export rates to water at four sites in the closed and open states. At all sites, the Michaelis-Menten kinetic rate equation adequately describes the utilization of sulfate by the complex resident microbial communities. We estimate that 94-96% of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> produced through sulfate reduction precipitates in the sediment and that only 4-6% is exported to water, suggesting that elevated <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations in water, which would affect fish through toxicity and oxygen consumption, cannot be responsible for fish deaths. However, the indirect effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> precipitates, which chemically deplete, contaminate, and acidify the water column during sediment re-suspension and re-oxidation in the transition from closed to open state, can be implicated in fish mortalities at Pescadero Estuary. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5888540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5888540"><span><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> melt evolution of the Hengill volcanic system, SW Iceland, and evidence for clinopyroxene assimilation in primitive tholeiitic magmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Troennes, R.G. )</p> <p>1990-09-10</p> <p>The thick oceanic crust of Iceland is formed by tholeiitic central volcanoes arranged in en echelon patterns along the 40-50 km wide rift zones. The Hengill central volcano in the southwestern rift zone has produced 25-30 km{sup 3} of hyaloclastites and lava during the last 0.11 m.y., with maximum productivity during the isostatic rebound following the degalciations 0.13 and 0.01 m.y. ago. The petrographic relations of pillow rim and hyaloclastite glass indicate that the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts were <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with olivine and plagioclase, except for the most primitive ones that were undersaturated with plagioclase. <span class="hlt">Saturation</span> with clinopyroxene was reached in some of the intermediate and evolved <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts. Corroded and partly resorbed crystals of clinopyroxene and partly disintegrated gabbro nodules with resorbed clinopyroxene indicate that selective assimilation contributed to the evolution of the most primitive melts. The intermediate and evolved <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass compositions fall along the low-pressure cotectic for mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (MORB) compositions <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene, but the primitive glasses fall well inside the low-pressure olivine + plagioclase primary phase volume. The dense picritic magmas were driven to the surface by magmatic overpressure in the mantle at an early deglaciation stage characterized by the absence of large, trapping magma chambers in the lower crust. The assimilation of clinopyroxene in these melts could proceed by direct contact with the solidified cumulate sequences and gabbro intrusions. Clinopyroxene assimilation in combination with olivine fractionation may also contribute to the chemical evolution of some of the most primitive MORB magmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....8611869M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JGR....8611869M"><span>A comparison of the magnetic properties of synthetic titanomaghemites and some oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Banerjee, Subir K.</p> <p>1981-12-01</p> <p>The variation of some magnetic properties of (1) synthetic titanomaghemites and (2) oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from DSDP site 417 D as a function of grain size and oxidation is presented. The synthesis of the initial titanomagnetite (x = 0.6) was carried out, using controlled fugacity and self-buffering techniques. Single-phase titanomaghemites were produced by heating the titanomagnetite in air at low temperatures (<350°C). The magnetic properties studied on the synthetic titanomagnetite (grain size ˜ 1 μm) show the following variations with increasing degrees of oxidation (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.6): (1) Curie temperature (Tc) increases, (2) <span class="hlt">saturation</span> magnetization (Js) at room temperature increases, (3) Js measured at 77°K decreases for z ≲ 0.3 and then increases for 0.3 < z ≲ 0.6, (4) bulk and remanent coercivities (Hc and Hr) increase slightly initially (z < 0.2) and then decrease at both room temperature and 77°K, (5) susceptibility (χ0) decreases for z ≲ 0.3 and then increases, (6) the magnetic viscosity acquisition and decay coefficients (Sa and Sd) increase and (7) the median destructive fields for an anhystretic remanent magnetization and a viscous remanent magnetization increase for z ≲ 0.3 and then decrease. These magnetic data also suggest that the synthetic titanomaghemites are pseudo-single domained (PSD) and with increasing degrees of oxidation these PSD grains become more SD-like. The <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from site 417D are divided into fine-grained pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and coarse-grained massive flows. Most of the magnetic properties measured are distinctly different between these two groups. The magnetic data indicate that the domain states of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are probably PSD. Although it is difficult to separate the effects of grain size and oxidation on the magnetic properties of these <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, it appears that grain size effects predominate. A preliminary investigation of the magnetic viscosity of the synthetic and oceanic titanomaghemites suggests that a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001831','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001831"><span>Laboratory Shock Experiments on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - Iron Sulfate Mixes at Approximately 40-50 GPa and Their Relevance to the Martian Regolith Component Present in Shergottites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Ross, D. K.; Asimow, P. D.; See, T.; Sutton, S.; Cardernas, F.; Montes, R.; Cintala, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> shergottites such as Shergotty, Zagami and EET79001 contain impact melt glass pockets that are rich in Martian atmospheric gases [1] and are known as gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses. These glasses show evidence for the presence of a Martian regolith component based on Sm and Kr isotopic studies [2]. The GRIM glasses are sometimes embedded with clusters of innumerable micron-sized iron-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs associated with minor amounts of iron sulfate particles [3, 4]. These <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs are secondary in origin and are not related to the primary igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> occurring in Martian meteorites. The material comprising these glasses arises from the highly oxidizing Martian surface and sulfur is unlikely to occur as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the Martian regoilith. Instead, sulfur is shown to occur as sulfate based on APXS and Mossbauer results obtained by the Opportunity and Spirit rovers at Meridiani and Gusev [5]. We have earlier suggested that the micron-sized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules in GRIM glasses were likely produced by shock-reduction of iron sulfate occurring in the regolith at the time when the GRIM glasses were produced by the meteoroid impact that launched the Martian meteorites into space [6]. As a result of high energy deposition by shock (approx. 40-60 GPa), the iron sulfate bearing phases are likely to melt along with other regolith components and will get reduced to immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fluid under reducing conditions. On quenching, this generates a dispersion of micron-scale <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs. The reducing agents in our case are likely to be H2 and CO which were shock-implanted from the Martian atmosphere into these glasses along with the noble gases. We conducted lab simulation experiments in the Lindhurst Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics at Caltech and the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC to test whether iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules can be produced by impact-driven reduction of iron sulfate by subjecting Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and ferric sulfate mixtures to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036318"><span>Laboratory Shock Experiments on <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> - Iron Sulfate Mixes at ~ 40 - 50 GPa and their Relevance to the Martian Reolith Component Present in Shergotties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rao, M N; Nyquist, L E; Ross, D K; Asimow, P D; See, T; Sutton, S; Cardernas, F; Montes, R; Cintala, M</p> <p>2012-03-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> shergottites such as Shergotty, Zagami and EET79001 contain impact melt glass pockets that are rich in Martian atmospheric gases and are known as gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses. These glasses show evidence for the presence of a Martian regolith component based on Sm and Kr isotopic studies. The GRIM glasses are sometimes embedded with clusters of innumerable micron-sized iron-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs associated with minor amounts of iron sulfate particles. These <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs are secondary in origin and are not related to the primary igneous <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> occurring in Martian meteorites. The material comprising these glasses arises from the highly oxidizing Martian surface and sulfur is unlikely to occur as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the Martian regoilith. Instead, sulfur is shown to occur as sulfate based on APXS and Mossbauer results obtained by the Opportunity and Spirit rovers at Meridiani and Gusev. We have earlier suggested that the micron-sized iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules in GRIM glasses were likely produced by shock-reduction of iron sulfate occurring in the regolith at the time when the GRIM glasses were produced by the meteoroid impact that launched the Martian meteorites into space. As a result of high energy deposition by shock (~ 40-60 GPa), the iron sulfate bearing phases are likely to melt along with other regolith components and will get reduced to immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fluid under reducing conditions. On quenching, this generates a dispersion of micron-scale <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> blebs. The reducing agents in our case are likely to be H<sub>2</sub> and CO which were shock-implanted from the Martian atmosphere into these glasses along with the noble gases. We conducted lab simulation experiments in the Lindhurst Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics at Caltech and the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC to test whether iron <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> globules can be produced by impact-driven reduction of iron sulfate by subjecting Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> (CRB) and ferric sulfate mixtures to shock pressures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoOD..59..227S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoOD..59..227S"><span>Geodynamic conditions of formation of massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in the Magnitogorsk Megazone, Southern Urals, and prospection criteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seravkin, I. B.; Kosarev, A. M.; Puchkov, V. N.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The zoned composition changes of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits in the major massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zone of the Southern Urals such as the Magnitogorsk Megasynclinorium are considered. The zoning is expressed as the trend of Ni-Co-Cu → Zn-Cu → Cu-Zn → Au-Ba-Pb-Cu-Zn. This trend is related to two basic factors: (1) the subduction process with the slab's eastward subsidence preconditioned the formation (from the west to the east) of the following massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> zones: accretionary prism, frontal island arc, developed island arc, inter-arc spreading zone, split back arc, and back-arc spreading; (2) the longitudinal zoning of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> paleovolcanic belts related to changes in the thickness of the crust's <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> layer and an inclination of the subducting plate in transverse blocks of the belt. The first factor affects the general paleovolcanic and metallogenic latitudinal zoning of the studied region, while the second factor defines the local meridional zoning. The composition of ore-bearing solutions is dependent on the formation depth of the subduction fluids, magma differentiation type, and the ratio of deep fluids to solutions of near-surface convective cells. The combination of the geodynamic factors expressed in the composition of ore-bearing volcanic complexes and the specific geological settings defines the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization composition and productivity criteria. The most productive structures include the frontal island-arc and inter-arc spreading zones and within them, the central-type volcanic edifices whose <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are referred to as the island-arc tholeiite series and are characterized by the minimum TiO2 and Zr content and low La/Yb ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoMP..171...77W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoMP..171...77W"><span>Formation of orthopyroxenite by reaction between peridotite and hydrous <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melt: an experimental study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chunguang; Liang, Yan; Dygert, Nick; Xu, Wenliang</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The consequences of hydrous <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts and peridotite interaction were examined experimentally in Au-Pd, Pt, and graphite capsules using the reaction couple method. Reactions between a hydrous <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite (4 wt% H2O) and dunite or lherzolite in an Au-Pd capsule at 1 GPa and 1200 °C produce a melt-bearing orthopyroxenite-dunite sequence. Reactions between a hydrous ferro-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> and lherzolite in Pt or Au-Pd capsules at 0.8-2 GPa and 1250-1385 °C produce a melt-bearing orthopyroxenite-harzburgite sequence. Reactions between the ferro-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> and lherzolite in graphite capsules (not designed to retain water) result in a melt-bearing dunite-harzburgite sequence at 1 GPa and a melt-bearing harzburgite-lherzolite sequence at 2 GPa. The orthopyroxenite from the hydrous reaction experiments has a high porosity, and it is separated by a sharp lithological interface from the dunite or harzburgite. Orthopyroxenes in the orthopyroxenite are large in size with resorbed olivine inclusions. Formation of the high-porosity orthopyroxenite in the hydrous melt-rock reaction experiments is determined by the liquidus phase relation of the interface reacting melt and reaction kinetics. Reaction between orthopyroxene-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> hydrous melt and olivine at melt-rock interface produces orthopyroxenite. Water infiltration induces hydrous melting of the lherzolite, producing a dunite or an orthopyroxene-depleted harzburgite. Efficient diffusive exchange between the partial melt and the hydrous reacting melt promotes orthopyroxene-oversaturation around the melt-rock interfacial region. The simplified experiments reveal end-member processes for understanding the formation of orthopyroxenite in the upper mantle. The presence of orthopyroxenites in mantle samples is a strong indication of hydrous melt and peridotite interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1984/4304/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1984/4304/report.pdf"><span>Geochemical controls on dissolved sodium in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> aquifers of the Columbia Plateau, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hearn, P.P.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Drost, B.W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Miocene <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> aquifers of the Columbia Plateau are the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, and municipal use in Washington State. Irrigation with groundwaters with relatively high sodium concentrations has been cause for concern in recent years, because of the tendency of such waters to reduce soil permeability. Chemical reactions involving groundwater and the <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are the primary mechanisms responsible for the input of sodium to groundwater in the plateau. This conclusion is supported by the sequence of secondary alteration products found and by progressive changes in groundwater chemistry with depth and position along regional flow paths. Upgradient and shallow groundwaters have low sodium concentrations and sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's), and are predominantly calcium sodium bicarbonate waters. Groundwaters from deeper and downgradient locations have higher sodium concentrations and SAR 's and are predominantly sodium bicarbonate water. Volcanic glass and cryptocrystalline matrix are the major sources of groundwater sodium, and are dissolved by a combination of silicate hydrolysis and dissolution by carbonic acid. Magnesium, iron, and calcium are removed from solution by the formation of an iron magnesium smectite, calcite , and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The addition of sodium, silicon, and potassium by dissolution of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> exceeds their removal by the precipitation of secondary minerals, and their concentrations increase in the initial stages of this process. In later stages, these continued increases produce a water <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with clinoptilolite and silica phases, and these begin to precipitate. While the timing of these processes is unclear, the mineralogy of secondary alteration and estimated cooling rates of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows suggest that observed alteration products formed primarily at low temperature, under conditions similar to those existing at the present time. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17741173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17741173"><span>Hotspots, <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the evolution of the mantle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, D L</p> <p>1981-07-03</p> <p>The trace element concentration patterns of continental and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are complementary. The relative sizes of the source regions for these fundamentally different <span class="hlt">basalt</span> types can be estimated from the trace element enrichment-depletion patterns. Their combined volume occupies most of the mantle above the 670 kilometer discontinuity. The source regions separated as a result of early mantle differentiation and crystal fractionation from the resulting melt. The mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> source evolved from an eclogite cumulate that lost its late-stage enriched fluids at various times to the shallower mantle and continental crust. The mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> source is rich in garnet and clinopyroxene, whereas the continental and ocean island <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source is a garnet peridotite that has experienced secondary enrichment. These relationships are consistent with the evolution of a terrestrial magma ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890049130&hterms=dickinson&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddickinson','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890049130&hterms=dickinson&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddickinson"><span>Germanium abundances in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span> - Evidence of mantle metasomatism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dickinson, T.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Bild, R. W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>To fill in gaps in the present Ge database, mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were analyzed for Ge and other elements by RNAA and INAA. Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 landing sites are rather uniform in Ge abundance, but Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and KREEP are enriched in Ge by factors of up to 300 compared to typical mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. These Ge enrichments are not associated with other siderophile element enrichments and thus are not due to differences in the amount of metal segregated during core formation. Based on crystal-chemical and interelement variations, it does not appear that the observed Ge enrichments are due to silicate liquid immiscibility. KREEP <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source regions may have been metasomatized, and Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmas may have become enriched in Ge by interacting with these metasomatized areas. The presence of volatile- and Ge-rich regions in the moon suggest that the moon was never totally molten.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790048527&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dluna','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790048527&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dluna"><span>Trace element composition of Luna 24 Crisium VLT <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Haskin, L. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The origins of the individual particles analyzed from the Luna 24 core and the information they provide on the trace-element composition of Mare Crisium <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are considered. Previous analyses of several Luna 24 soil fragments are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1) the average trace-element concentrations for 12 VLT <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fragments are the best available estimates for bulk samples of Crisium VLT <span class="hlt">basalt</span>; (2) there is weak evidence that the average Crisium <span class="hlt">basalt</span> might have a small positive Eu anomaly relative to chondritic matter; (3) the soils contain components from sources other than the Crisium VLT <span class="hlt">basalt</span>; and (4) there is no convincing information in concentrations of rare-earth elements, Co, Sc, FeO, or Na2O among the analyzed fragments to indicate more than one parent <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MinDe..41..771W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MinDe..41..771W"><span>Genesis of the Permian Baimazhai magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit, Yunnan, SW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Christina Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The ~260 Ma-old Baimazhai Ni-Cu-(PGE) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposit in the Jinping region, Yunnan, SW China, is hosted in a small mafic-ultramafic intrusion, which intruded Ordovician sandstone and slate. The intrusion is concentric with lens shape, about 530 m long, 190 m wide and 24 to 64 m thick, trends 296°, and dips 22°NE. The massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore body forms the core of the intrusion and is surrounded by variably mineralized orthopyroxenite, websterite and barren gabbro. The proportion of gabbro, websterite, orthopyroxenite and massive ore is approximately 30, 30, 20 and 20 vol.%, respectively. Magmatic pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite make up more than 90% of the massive ores. The massive ores contain high Ni (1.6 to 4.2 wt%) and Cu (0.4 to 6.5 wt%) and low ∑PGE contents (85 to 524 ppb). They have Pd/Ir ratios ranging from 6.7 to 530, Pd/Pt ratios from 0.7 to 2.6 and Cu/(Pd×1,000) ratios from 31 to 400, which are comparable with those of the silicate rocks [Pd/Ir = 4 to 183, Pd/Pt = 0.7 to 3.5, and Cu/(Pd×1,000) = 100 to 400]. Similar Pd/Pt and Cu/Pd ratios of the silicate rocks and massive ores throughout the intrusion indicate a single <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> segregation event. Excess <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melt segregation resulted from intensive crustal contamination that formed Si-rich and Mg-rich <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas in a deep-seated staging chamber before magma emplacement. The immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts and the silicate melts were eventually evacuated from the staging magma chamber by compressive forces. Flow differentiation under high velocity concentrated the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts toward the middle of the magma flow, and consequently, formed a massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore body in the central part of the intrusion. Low concentrations of PGEs and general absence of platinum-group minerals in the massive ores may have resulted from a relatively large mass fraction of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> melts (e.g. R-factor = ~70) in Baimazhai compared with other intrusions elsewhere, such as Noril’sk-Talnakh with a R-factor of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12296708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12296708"><span>Rhenium(IV) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanotubes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brorson, Michael; Hansen, Thomas W; Jacobsen, Claus J H</p> <p>2002-10-02</p> <p>Rhenium(IV) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, ReS(2), has been prepared with nanotubular morphology by carbon nanotube templating. A multiwall carbon nanotube material was impregnated with solutions of NH(4)ReO(4) or ReCl(5), followed by drying and <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> with H(2)S at 1000 degrees C. The composite material synthesized was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Like previously described MS(2) nanotube compounds, ReS(2) has a layered structure consisting of S-M-S layers. Re atoms in ordinary ReS(2) are octahedrally coordinated with S, and tetranuclear metal clusters are present as a consequence of metal-metal bonds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000223&hterms=solute+solvent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsolute%2Bsolvent','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000223&hterms=solute+solvent&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dsolute%2Bsolvent"><span>Apparatus Makes Precisely <span class="hlt">Saturated</span> Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pusey, Marc L.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Simple laboratory apparatus establishes equilibrium conditions of temperature and concentration in solutions for use in precise measurements of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> conditions. With equipment typical measurement of <span class="hlt">saturation</span> concentration of protein in solution established and measured within about 24 hours. Precisely <span class="hlt">saturated</span> solution made by passing solvent or solution slowly along column packed with solute at precisely controlled temperature. If necessary, flow stopped for experimentally determined interval to allow equilibrium to be established in column.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001390','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001390"><span>Vesicles, water, and sulfur in Reykjanes Ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.; Schilling, J.-G.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Dredge hauls of fresh submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> collected from the axis of the Reykjanes Ridge (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) south of Iceland were taken aboard R/ V TRIDENT in 1967 and 1971. The samples show systematic changes as the water depth of collection (and eruption) decreases: radially elongate vesicles and concentric zones of vesicles appear at about 700 m depth and are conspicuous to shallow water; the smoothed volume percent of vesicles increases from 5% at 1000 m, 10% at 700 m, to 16% at 500 m, and the scatter in degree of vesicularity increases in shallower water; specific gravity decreases from 2.7??0.1 at 1000 m to 2.3??0.3 at 100 m. Bulk sulfur content for the outer 2 cm averages 843 ppm up to a depth of 200 m, then drops off rapidly in shallower water owing to degassing. Sulfur content below 200 m is independent of depth (or geographic position), and the melt is apparently <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with sulfur, but the excess cannot escape the lava unless another vehicle carries it out. Only shallower than 200 m, where intense vesiculation of other gases occurs can excess sulfur be lost from the lava erupting on the sea floor. H2O+110?? averages about 0.35 percent and H2O+150?? about 0.25 percent, and both apparently decrease in water shallower than 200 m as a result of degassing. H2O+ (below 200 m) decreases with distance from Iceland or increasing depth, presumably as a result of either adsorption of water on the surface of shallower, more vesicular rocks; or more likely due to the presence of the Iceland hot mantle plume supplying undifferentiated primordial material, relative to lavas of the Reykjanes Ridge supplied from the low velocity layer already depleted in volatiles and large lithophile elements. The H2O+110??/S ratio of lava erupting below 200 m water depth ranges from 3 to 5 which is comparable to reliable gas analyses from oceanic <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanoes. ?? 1973 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5024619','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5024619"><span>Marine diagenesis of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moammar, M.O.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>An attempt is made to discuss the artificial and natural oxidation and hydrolysis of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> upon interaction with normal seawater. Synthetic and natural ferrosphalerite particles used in kinetic oxidation and hydrolysis studies in seawater develop dense, crystalline coatings consisting of ordered and ferrimagnetic delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH. Due to the formation of this reactive diffusion barrier, the release of Zn into solution decreases rapidly, and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> oxidation is reduced to a low rate determined by the diffusion of oxygen through the oxyhydroxide film. This also acts as an efficient solvent for ions such as Zn/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and possibly Cd/sup 2 +/, which contribute to the stabilization of the delta-FeOOH structure. The oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> occurs in many seafloor spreading areas, such as 21/sup 0/N on the East Pacific Ridge. In these areas the old surface of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys are found to be covered by an orange stain, and sediment near the base of nonactive vents is also found to consist of what has been referred to as amorphous iron oxide and hydroxide. This thesis also discusses the exceedingly low solubility of zinc in seawater, from delta-(Fe, Zn)OOH and the analogous phase (zinc-ferrihydroxide) and the zinc exchange minerals, 10-A manganate and montmorillonite. The concentrations of all four are of the same magnitude (16, 36.4, and 12 nM, respectively) as the zinc concentration in deep ocean water (approx. 10 nM), which suggests that manganates and montmorillonite with iron oxyhydroxides control zinc concentration in the deep ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321792"><span><span class="hlt">Saturated</span> fats: what dietary intake?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of <span class="hlt">saturated</span> fatty acids are optimal?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V32B..01Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V32B..01Z"><span>Hydrothermal Alteration in Submarine <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Rocks from the Reykjanes Geothermal Field, Iceland. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zierenberg, R. A.; Schiffman, P.; Fowler, A. P.; Marks, N.; Fridleifsson, G.; Elders, W. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is preparing to drill to 4-5 km in the Reykjanes Geothermal Field to sample geothermal fluids at supercritical temperature and pressure for power generation. The Reykjanes geothermal field is the on-land extension of the Reykjanes Ridge spreading center. The upper 1-2 kilometers drilled at Reykjanes are submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> sediments, hyalloclastites, and breccias, with an increasing proportion of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> intrusive rocks below 2 km depth. Geothermal fluids are evolved seawater with a composition similar to mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Zn- and Cu-rich <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> scale, locally enriched in Au and Ag, are deposited in production pipes. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits are compositionally and isotopically similar to seafloor massive <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. In anticipation of deeper drilling, we have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of drill cuttings from a 3 km deep well (RN-17). The depth zoning of alteration minerals is similar to that described from other Icelandic geothermal fields, and is comparable to observed seafloor metamorphic gradients in ODP drill holes and ophiolites. Chlorite-epidote alteration occurs at depths >400 m and passes downhole through epidote-actinolite alteration and into amphibole facies (hornblende-calcic plagioclase) alteration below 2.5 km. Local zones of high temperature (>800°C), granoblastic-textured, pyroxene hornfels, are interpreted to form by contact metamorphism during dike/sill emplacement. Similar granoblasically altered <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were recovered from the base of the sheeted dikes in IODP Hole 1256D. Downhole compositional variations of drill cuttings, collected every 50 m, suggest that rocks below ~ 2 km are little altered. Whole-rock oxygen isotope profiles are consistent with low water/rock ratios, but suggest that early stages of hydrothermal alteration included meteoric water-derived fluids. Strontium isotope profiles indicate more extensive exchange with seawater-derived fluids</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988STIN...8917801G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988STIN...8917801G"><span>Metal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> for battery applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guidotti, Ronald A.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>A number of metal <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> can be used in batteries as a cathode (reducible) material as part of an electrochemical couple to provide energy. There are a number of physical and chemical characteristics that can be evaluated for screening potential candidates for use in batteries. These include: cell potential vs. Li, thermal and chemical stability, electrical conductivity, allotropic form (phase), reaction kinetics during discharge, type of discharge mechanism, and material rechargeability. These are reviewed in general, with emphasis on <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> of copper, iron, and molybdenum which are currently being used as cathodes in Li and Li-alloy batteries. The presence of impurities can adversely impact performance when naturally occurring <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals are used for battery applications. Sandia National Laboratories uses natural pyrite (FeS2) for its high-temperature, thermally activated Li(Si)/FeS2 batteries. The purification and processing procedures for the FeS2 involves both chemical and physical methods. Flotation was found to yield comparable results as HF leaching for removal of silica, but without the negative health and environmental concerns associated with this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23252645"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-driven microbial electrosynthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Yanming; Ebrahim, Ali; Feist, Adam M; Embree, Mallory; Zhang, Tian; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten</p> <p>2013-01-02</p> <p>Microbial electrosynthesis, the conversion of carbon dioxide to organic molecules using electricity, has recently been demonstrated for acetogenic microorganisms, such as Sporomusa ovata. The energy for reduction of carbon dioxide originates from the hydrolysis of water on the anode, requiring a sufficiently low potential. Here we evaluate the use of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as an electron source for microbial electrosynthesis. Abiotically oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on the anode yields two electrons. The oxidation product, elemental sulfur, can be further oxidized to sulfate by Desulfobulbus propionicus, generating six additional electrons in the process. The eight electrons generated from the combined abiotic and biotic steps were used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate on a graphite cathode by Sporomusa ovata at a rate of 24.8 mmol/day · m(2). Using a strain of Desulfuromonas as biocatalyst on the anode resulted in an acetate production rate of 49.9 mmol/day · m(2), with a Coulombic efficiency of over 90%. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can serve effectively as an alternative electron donor for microbial electrosynthesis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1211138"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-Driven Microbial Electrosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gong, YM; Ebrahim, A; Feist, AM; Embree, M; Zhang, T; Lovley, D; Zengler, K</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Microbial electrosynthesis, the conversion of carbon dioxide to organic molecules using electricity, has recently been demonstrated for acetogenic microorganisms, such as Sporomusa ovata. The energy for reduction of carbon dioxide originates from the hydrolysis of water on the anode, requiring a sufficiently low potential. Here we evaluate the use of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> as an electron source for microbial electrosynthesis. Abiotically oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on the anode yields two electrons. The oxidation product, elemental sulfur, can be further oxidized to sulfate by Desulfobulbus propionicus, generating six additional electrons in the process. The eight electrons generated from the combined abiotic and biotic steps were used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate on a graphite cathode by Sporomusa ovata at a rate of 24.8 mmol/day.m(2). Using a strain of Desulfuromonas as biocatalyst on the anode resulted in an acetate production rate of 49.9 mmol/day.m(2), with a Coulombic efficiency of over 90%. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> can serve effectively as an alternative electron donor for microbial electrosynthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.119..319P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.119..319P"><span>Helium isotope ratios in Easter microplate <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poreda, R. J.; Schilling, J. G.; Craig, H.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>He-3/He-4 ratios in Easter Microplate <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glasses show clear evidence of the effects of a mantle plume. The East Rift of the microplate between 26 and 28 deg S, identified by La/Sm, Sr and Pb isotopes and ridge crest elevation as the region of maximum plume influence, has He-3/He-4 ratios spanning the entire range from 7.5 to 11.7 R(sub A). The Easter Microplate is the only section of the entire East Pacific Rise that is associated with a known `hotspot' track (mantle plume) and has elevated He-3/He-4 ratios. Although most of the West Rift <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain MORB helium (8.0 - 8.7 (R sub A)), the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> closest to the East Rift has an elevated He-3/He-4 ratio (11.3 R(sub A)), consistent with a significant plume component. The diversity in isotopic signatures also indicates that homogenization of isotopic anomalies does not occur, even in this region of `super-fast' spreading. The overall He-3/He-4-Pb-206/Pb-204 and He-3/He-4-Sr-87/Sr-86 trends have positive correlations, although the high between the He and Sr isotope distribution is modeled in the context of a plume source-migrating ridge sink. During channeling of the plume toward the ridge, helium if preferentially lost from the center of the channeled plume, resulting in lower He/Pb and He/Sr concentration ratios in the high He-3/He-4 component. Mixing trajectories in He-Sr isotopic space between a LILE depleted asthenosphere and a variably degassed plume component provide a reasonably good fit to the data and may explain the isotope systematics of plume-ridge interactions in the context of modern theories of plume dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V31F..06G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V31F..06G"><span>Products of a Subglacial Flood <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorny, C. F.; White, J. D. L.; Gudmundsson, M. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Snæbýlisheiði unit, SE Iceland, is a ca. 26 km³ elongate, flat-topped ridge of volcaniclastic debris coupled with and intruded by coherent <span class="hlt">basalt</span> stretching over 34 km from the eruption site perpendicular to the rift fissure source. It formed from a single subglacial flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruption during a recent glaciation, and its elongation reflects glacial control on dispersal via the hydraulic potential gradient at the glacier's base, which drove towards the glacier terminus the meltwater+debris formed during the eruption by quenching and fragmentation. High magma discharge and outgassing drove segregation of magma into down-flow propagating intrusions. Edifice growth was mediated by the extent of ice melting, extent and efficiency of meltwater+debris drainage, and hydraulic gradients locally favoring meltwater accumulation. Eruption style reflected magma flux, edifice stability, and accessibility of water to the vent area via flooding or infiltration. Deposits reflect these competing factors in their chaotic internal organization and stratigraphy, limited lithofacies continuity, and diverse particle populations from multiple source vents. Linear growth of the ridge down-gradient from the eruption site was driven primarily by propagation and continuous fragmentation of shoaling intrusions that formed an interconnected intrusive complex with extensive peperites. Advance was along gently meandering and locally bifurcating sub-ice conduits within hyaloclastite with sheet-lobe levees and lobate fingered intrusions. Irregular dikes, apophyses, horns, and tendrils extended from the main body and generated voluminous lapilli tuff and contorticlasts while providing additional heat to the system. Prolonged transport and deposition of debris produced complexly bedded volcaniclastic deposits derived from and intruded by the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sheet. The bedding and depositional features of volcaniclastic debris and relationship to their adjacent intrusions suggest transport and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035315&hterms=binder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbinder','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035315&hterms=binder&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbinder"><span>Mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Binder, A. B.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Various types of mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source region and mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720034603&hterms=atomic+absorption+spectrophotometry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Datomic%2Babsorption%2Bspectrophotometry','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720034603&hterms=atomic+absorption+spectrophotometry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Datomic%2Babsorption%2Bspectrophotometry"><span>Geochemistry of Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schnetzler, C. C.; Philpotts, J. A.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Thomas, H. H.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Data are presented on major and trace element concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 from the Hadley Rille area, as well as on trace element concentrations determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. Most of the chemical differences between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531 could be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88% <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, 6% KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus), and 6% plagioclase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001527','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70001527"><span>An estimate of the juvenile sulfur content of <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.; Fabbi, Brent P.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Sulfur analyses by X-ray fluorescence give an average content of 107 ppm for 9 samples of fresh subaerially-erupted oceanic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and 680 ppm for 38 samples of submarine erupted <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. This difference is the result of retention of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> quenched on the sea floor and loss of sulfur in <span class="hlt">basalt</span> by degassing at the surface. The outer glassy part of submarine erupted <span class="hlt">basalt</span> contains 800??150 ppm sulfur, and this amount is regarded as an estimate of the juvenile sulfur content of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt from the mantle. The slower cooled interiors of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillows are depleted relative to the rims owing to degassing and escape through surface fractures. Available samples of deep-sea <span class="hlt">basalts</span> do not indicate a difference in original sulfur content between low-K tholeiite, Hawaiian tholeiite, and alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The H2O/S ratio of analyzed volcanic gases is generally lower than the H2O/S ratio of gases presumed lost from surface lavas as determined by chemical differences between pillow rims and surface lavas. This enrichment of volcanic gases in sulfur relative to water may result from a greater degassing of sulfur relative to water from shallow intrusive bodies beneath the volcano. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720034603&hterms=nava&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnava','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720034603&hterms=nava&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnava"><span>Geochemistry of Apollo 15 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schnetzler, C. C.; Philpotts, J. A.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Thomas, H. H.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Data are presented on major and trace element concentrations determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 from the Hadley Rille area, as well as on trace element concentrations determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. Most of the chemical differences between <span class="hlt">basalt</span> 15555 and soil 15531 could be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88% <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, 6% KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus), and 6% plagioclase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770051883&hterms=pearson+correlation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpearson%2Bcorrelation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770051883&hterms=pearson+correlation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dpearson%2Bcorrelation"><span>Variations in chemical composition of Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Butler, J. C.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Chemical analyses of 30 different Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were examined to evaluate the effects of closure on the pearson moment correlation coefficient. It is shown possible to describe the Apollo 15 mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in terms of an opaque, an olivine/pyroxene, an anorthite, and a KREEP component, if significant correlations are identified using the expected correlations as null values. Using Q-mode cluster analysis and nonlinear mapping, it is possible to recognize three groups of the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, groups 1 and 2 belonging to the olivine normative <span class="hlt">basalt</span> cluster and group 3 to the quartz normative cluster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812912M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812912M"><span>Quantifying glassy and crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> partitioning in the oceanic crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Rachael; Ménez, Bénédicte</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The upper layers of the oceanic crust are predominately <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rock, some of which hosts microbial life. Current studies of microbial life within the ocean crust mainly focus on the sedimentary rock fraction, or those organisms found within glassy <span class="hlt">basalts</span> while the potential habitability of crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are poorly explored. Recently, there has been recognition that microbial life develops within fractures and grain boundaries of crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, therefore estimations of total biomass within the oceanic crust may be largely under evaluated. A deeper understanding of the bulk composition and fractionation of rocks within the oceanic crust is required before more accurate estimations of biomass can be made. To augment our understanding of glassy and crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> within the oceanic crust we created two end-member models describing <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fractionation: a pillow <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with massive, or sheet, flows crust and a pillow <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with sheeted dike crust. Using known measurements of massive flow thickness, dike thickness, chilled margin thickness, pillow lava size, and pillow lava glass thickness, we have calculated the percentage of glassy versus crystalline <span class="hlt">basalts</span> within the oceanic crust for each model. These models aid our understanding of textural fractionation within the oceanic crust, and can be applied with bioenergetics models to better constrain deep biomass estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790048514&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dluna','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790048514&hterms=luna&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dluna"><span>On the origin of Luna 24 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ryder, G.; Marvin, U. B.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Analyses of fine-grained very low titanium (VLT) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the Luna 24 drill core suggest that a single homogeneous magma is represented by the sample. In particular, the small variation in MgO contents of the fine-grained <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, together with the tight clustering of the compositions of brown glasses (which may be pyroclastic equivalents of the VLT <span class="hlt">basalt</span>), provides evidence for the single-magma hypothesis. The high-Mg component in the soil samples, though not obviously explainable in petrographic terms, may be derived from material similar to olivine vitrophyre and its degraded products, or from some other high-Mg VLT <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997CoMP..127..176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997CoMP..127..176K"><span>Thermochemistry of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids. I. the system O-S-Fe at 1 bar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kress, Victor</p> <p></p> <p>Recrystallized globules representing former immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids are found in a variety of igneous environments. Relatively little is known about the physical properties and thermochemistry of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids, despite their importance in igneous systems. This study presents results of a series of experiments designed to calibrate a thermodynamic model for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquids in the system O-S-Fe at one atmosphere pressure. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> liquids were equilibrated under controlled oxygen and sulfur fugacities at temperatures between 1100 and 1350° C in equilibrium with a silica mineral and a silicate melt. Experiments were quenched in a high-speed double-roller ``splat'' quencher in order to assure that measured compositions were as close to equilibrium liquid values as possible. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> liquids are not stable in equilibrium with a silica-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> silicate melt at log10(fO2) > FMQ-1 at 1250°C and log10(fS2)=-3. Iron content of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> changes little with variations in oxygen and sulfur fugacity at a given temperature. Consequently, oxygen and sulfur contents are inversely correlated in these liquids. Sulfur is present entirely as <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Iron appears to be present in both its ferric and ferrous states. Data from this study were combined with data compiled from the literature to calibrate an asymmetric regular solution thermodynamic mixing model for O-S-Fe liquids. This model reproduces miscibility gaps and data from this study quite well, but exhibits minor but systematic errors at the O-Fe binary. The observed inverse correlation between sulfur and oxygen is reflected in the predicted free-energy surface by a sharp energy valley running along a line of constant Fe content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006BGD.....3..273E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006BGD.....3..273E"><span>Microbial colonization and alteration of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the vast abundance of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830065154&hterms=Nomenclature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNomenclature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830065154&hterms=Nomenclature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNomenclature"><span>The nomenclature of polymict <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> achondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delaney, J. S.; Prinz, M.; Harlow, G. E.; Takeda, H.; Nehru, C. E.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The system of nomenclature for <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> achondrite meteorites is discussed, and new classification criteria are proposed. Under the new system, all achondrites are divided intno the broad groupings 'monomict' and 'polymict' by the number of lithologies present. The monomicts are classified structurally as brecciated or unbreccciated and as eucrites, diogenites, or cumulate eucrites. The polymicts are classified using an arbitrary mineral-chemical standard based on the percentage content of diogenite (magnesium orthopyroxenite): diogenites have more than 90 percent, eucrites have less than 10 percent, and all other polymicts area howardites. Tables listing all known achondrites by classification are provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009641','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730009641"><span>Plagioclase mineralogy of olivine alkaline <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hoffer, J. M.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A geological and mineralogical study of the Potrillo volcanics is reported. The investigation consisted first of field mapping to establish and identify the different rock types and volcanic features in order to determine the geological history. Next, samples were collected and analyzed petrographically to determine suitable rocks from the various stratigraphic units for study of plagioclase. Samples selected for further study were crushed and the plagioclase extracted for the determination of composition and structural state. These results were then related to the petrology and crystallization of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V54A..04D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.V54A..04D"><span>Water in Mantle Sources of Oceanic <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, J. E.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>This talk will review estimates of water partitioning during subduction as determined by studies of mantle- derived melts. A major uncertainty in the earth's water cycle is the effect of subduction and recycling of hydrated lithosphere on deep mantle water concentrations. The problem with quantifying the variablility of mantle volatiles is that their concentrations are easily modified by shallow crystallization and degassing processes. Careful examination of volatile data from submarine <span class="hlt">basalts</span> is required to select only those that have not degassed water. For example, even <span class="hlt">basalts</span> collected deep on a submarine rift zone are not immune because <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> volcanoes that have breached the sea surface are like champagne bottles; once the cork is popped, the entire bottle goes flat (e.g., Dixon et al., 1991). Once degassing effects have been eliminated, mantle water concentrations show systematic variations. Mantle sources for mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain about 120 ppm water, with the most depleted MORB end-member having about 60 ppm. Source regions for mantle plumes are wetter than MORB sources. The wettest mantle is found in plumes dominated by the "common mantle plume component" (FOZO; 700 to 800 ppm H2O, H2O /Ce=210 to 300). Mantle sources for plumes enriched in recycled lithosphere (EM1, EM2, LOMU, and HIMU) have about half as much water (300 to 400 ppm H2O) and lower ratios of water to similarly incompatible elements (H2O/Ce<=100). High H2O /Ce in FOZO plumes cannot be derived from recycled lithosphere; therefore, a significant amount of water must be juvenile, left over from planetary accretion. Thus, dehydration during subduction effectively partitions water into the exosphere (mantle wedge, crust, ocean, atmosphere) resulting in time-integrated depletion of water relative to other incompatible elements in recycled (deeply subducted) lithosphere and sediments and, ultimately, the majority of the mantle. These results are consistent with a global water cycle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.460..201P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.460..201P"><span>Atmospheric outgassing and native-iron formation during carbonaceous sediment-<span class="hlt">basalt</span> melt interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pernet-Fisher, John F.; Day, James M. D.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Ryabov, Victor V.; Taylor, Lawrence A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Organic carbon-rich sediment assimilation by <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas leads to enhanced emission of greenhouse gases during continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions. A collateral effect of these interactions is the generation of low oxygen fugacities (fO2) (below the iron-wüstite [IW] buffer curve) during magmatic crystallization, resulting in the precipitation of native-iron. The occurrence of native-iron bearing terrestrial <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocks are rare, having been identified at three locations: Siberia, West Greenland, and Central Germany. We report the first combined study of Re-Os isotopes, highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re), and trace-element abundances for these three occurrences, in addition to host sediments at West Greenland. To quantify the amount of crustal assimilation experienced by the magmas, we present combined crystallization and assimilation models, together with fractional crystallization models, to assess how relative abundances of the HSE have been modified during crystallization. The radiogenic osmium isotopic compositions (γOsinitial +15 to +193) of mafic igneous samples are consistent with assimilation of old high Re/Os crustal contaminants with radiogenic 187Os/188Os, whereas the HSE inter-element fractionations (Pd/Os 2 to >10,000) suggest that some Siberian samples underwent an early stage of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal. Metalliferous samples from the Siberian intrusions of Khungtukun and Dzhaltul (associated with the Siberian flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>) yield internal 187Re-187Os ages of 266 ± 83Ma and 249 ± 50Ma, respectively, reflecting late-Permian emplacement ages. These results imply that crustal assimilation took place prior to crystallization of native-Fe. In contrast, metalliferous samples from Disko Island and Bühl (associated with the West Greenland flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and the Central European Volcanic Province, respectively) have trends in 187Re/188Os-187Os/188Os space corresponding to apparent ages older than their reported crystallization ages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016996','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016996"><span>East Mariana Basin tholeiites: Cretaceous intraplate <span class="hlt">basalts</span> or rift <span class="hlt">basalts</span> related to the Ontong Java plume?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Castillo, P.R.; Pringle, M.S.; Carlson, R.W.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Studies of seafloor magnetic anomaly patterns suggest the presence of Jurassic oceanic crust in a large area in the western Pacific that includes the East Mariana, Nauru and Pigafetta Basins. Sampling of the igneous crust in this area by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) allows direct evaluation of the age and petrogenesis of this crust. ODP Leg 129 drilled a 51 m sequence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillows and massive flows in the central East Mariana Basin. 40Ar 39Ar ages determined in this study for two Leg 129 <span class="hlt">basalts</span> average 114.6 ?? 3.2 Ma. This age is in agreement with the Albian-late Aptian paleontologic age of the overlying sediments, but is distinctively younger than the Jurassic age predicted by magnetic anomaly patterns in the basin. Compositionally, the East Mariana Basin <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are uniformly low-K tholeiites that are depleted in highly incompatible elements compared to moderately incompatible ones, which is typical of mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (MORB) erupted near hotspots. The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the tholeiites ( 87Sr 86Srinit = 0.70360-0.70374; 143Nd 144Ndinit = 0.512769-0.512790; 206Pb 204Pbmeas = 18.355-18.386) also overlap with some Indian Ocean Ridge MORB, although they are distinct from the isotopic compositions of Jurassic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> drilled in the Pigafetta Basin, the oldest Pacific MORB. The isotopic compositions of the East Mariana Basin tholeiites are also similar to those of intraplate <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and in particular, to the isotopic signature of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the nearby Ontong Java and Manihiki Plateaus. The East Mariana Basin tholeiites also share many petrologic and isotopic characteristics with the oceanic basement drilled in the Nauru Basin at DSDP Site 462. In addition, the new 110.8 ?? 1.0 Ma 40Ar 39Ar age for two flows from the bottom of Site 462 in the Nauru Basin is indistinguishable from the age of the East Mariana Basin flows. Thus, while magnetic anomaly patterns predict that the igneous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA064595','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA064595"><span>The Triboluminescence of Zinc Cadmium <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1978-11-01</p> <p>W£rA0fe4 5^5 /KD-AtW Sis TECHNICAL REPORT ARBRL-TR-02124 THE TRIBOLUMINESCENCE OF ZINC CADMIUM <span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> Carmen M. Cialella TECHNICAL James...THE TRIBOLUMINESCENCE OF ZINC CADMIUM <span class="hlt">SULFIDE</span> READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...and tested. This report presents subsequent efforts to determine the light output of the TL phosphor. Zinc Cadmium <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> (ZnCdS] as a function of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DPPUI2004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002APS..DPPUI2004K"><span><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of Zonal Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Eun-Jin</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Zonal flows (ZF) are generated by drift wave (DW) turbulence and then regulate it near marginality by shear suppression. Since collisions damp ZF while ZF suppress DW, the amplitude of DW turbulence (i.e. turbulent transport) is, in turn, proportional to collisionality. A key question is then what happens away from marginality, namely what is the <span class="hlt">saturation</span> mechanism of ZF in that regime? This raises the interesting physical question of how ZF interact with mne 0, poloidally non-axisymmetric modes [1], both linearly and non linearly. We investigate this issue by exploring the nonlinear excitation of GKH modes by modulational instability in the background of finite amplitude of DW turbulence, as well as the linear inflection-type instability of ZF. In a simple model with cold ions, we show that ZF can grow faster than the linear GKH for γ/ω<p/k, and that nonlinear excitation of GKH modes can be comparable to their linear generation. Here, γ and ω are the growth rate and frequency of DW, and p and k are the characteristic wavenumbers of ZF and DW. These findings imply that the linear analysis of GKH may not always be valid and also that there may be no clear distinction between secondary (ZF) and tertiary mode (GKH). The effect of finite ion temperature fluctuations is incorporated in a simple toroidal ion temperature gradient model, within which both zonal flow and temperature are generated by modulational instability. The phase between the two is calculated self-consistently and shown to be positive. Furthermore, the correction to nonlinear generation of GKH modes appears to be small. [1] We refer to these low mne 0 modes as Generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) modes, since they will appear as mne 0 distortions of a shear layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459..340M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26PSL.459..340M"><span>Using 40Ar/39Ar ages of intercalated silicic tuffs to date flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: Precise ages for Steens <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Member of the Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahood, Gail A.; Benson, Thomas R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>To establish causality between flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions and extinction events and global environmental effects recorded by isotopic excursions in marine sediments, highly accurate and precise ages for the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are required. But flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are intrinsically difficult to date. We illustrate how 40Ar/39Ar feldspar ages for silicic tuffs intercalated with and overlying sections of Steens <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>, the earliest lavas of the Middle Miocene Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group in the northwestern United States, provide high-precision ages that, for the first time, make it possible to resolve age differences with stratigraphic position within a section of these flood lavas. The stratigraphically lowest rhyolitic tuff, a fall deposit, yielded an age of 16.592 ± ± 0.028 Ma (FCs = 28.02 Ma), and the uppermost, the alkali rhyolite ignimbrite Tuff of Oregon Canyon, is 16.468 ± ± 0.014 Ma. The argon and stratigraphic data indicate that Steens <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> eruptions occurred from ∼16.64 to 16.43 Ma in the southern end of its distribution. We estimate that the Steens Mountain geomagnetic reversal occurred at 16.496 ± ± 0.028 Ma (±0.18 Ma total error). Our estimates of the timing for initiation of volcanism and volumetric eruptive rates do not seem to support volcanic forcing by the initial stages of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group eruptions as an explanation for the abrupt warming and carbonate dissolution at the beginning of the Miocene Climatic Optimum.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012939','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012939"><span>Crystal Stratigraphy of Two <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> 65703,9-13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/82779"><span>Sensitized photooxidation of dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brewer, T.F.; Curtis, J.G.; Marchand, E.A.; Adams, V.D.; Middlebrooks, E.J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>A byproduct of the enhanced recovery of petroleum is flood water that is often contaminated with soluble <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>. The ability of methylene blue (MB) and riboflavin (RF) to sensitize dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> for photooxidation was investigated. Both MB and RF were found to be effective sensitizers for the oxidation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in water. MB-dosed batch reactors consistently reduced initial <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations of 100 mg/l to less than 10--15 mg/l in less than one hour under artificial lighting (91% sunlight corrected fluorescent tubes) at a pH = 10 and MB = 1mg/l. Preliminary experiments have shown approximately 80--85% of the removed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is accounted for as accumulated sulfate. RF is also effective at enhancing the removal of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, but experiments similar to those conducted for NM revealed that RF-dosed reactors required approximately 2--3 times longer to achieve <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal comparable to MB (1mg/l), even with an RF concentration of 20 mg/l. The primary product in RF-sensitized photooxidation of dissolved <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> is also sulfate, with approximately 75-80% of removed <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> recovered as sulfate. First order plots of experimental data yield reaction rate constants of k = 0.0097 min{sup {minus}1} for RF, and k = 0.0273 min{sup {minus}1} for MB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23425191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23425191"><span><span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> mechanism for zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> on their solubility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Michel, F Marc; Brown, Gordon E; Lowry, Gregory V</p> <p>2013-03-19</p> <p>Environmental transformations of nanoparticles (NPs) affect their properties and toxicity potential. <span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> is an important transformation process affecting the fate of NPs containing metal cations with an affinity for <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Here, the extent and mechanism of <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of ZnO NPs were investigated, and the properties of resulting products were carefully characterized. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that transformation of ZnO to ZnS occurs readily at ambient temperature in the presence of inorganic <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. The extent of <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> depends on <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentration, and close to 100% conversion can be obtained in 5 days given sufficient addition of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed formation of primarily ZnS NPs smaller than 5 nm, indicating that <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of ZnO NPs occurs by a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism. The solubility of partially <span class="hlt">sulfidized</span> ZnO NPs is controlled by the remaining ZnO core and not quenched by a ZnS shell formed as was observed for partially <span class="hlt">sulfidized</span> Ag NPs. <span class="hlt">Sulfidation</span> also led to NP aggregation and a decrease of surface charge. These changes suggest that <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> of ZnO NPs alters the behavior, fate, and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment. The reactivity and fate of the resulting <5 nm ZnS particles remains to be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3539P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3539P"><span>Induced Polarization Responses of the Specimen with <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Ore Minerals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S.; Sung, N. H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Basic data of the physical properties of the rocks is required to effectively interpret geologic structures and mineralized zones in study areas from the geophysical data in the field of subsurface investigations and mineral resources explorations. In this study, the spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement system in the laboratory was constructed to obtain the IP characteristics of the specimen with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ore minerals. The SIP measurement system consists of lab transmitter for electrical current transmission, and GDP-32 for current receiver. The SIP system employs 14 steps of frequencies from 0.123 to 1,024 Hz, and uses copper sulfate solution as an electrolyte. The SIP data for system verification was acquired using a measurement system of parallel circuit with fixed resistance and condenser. This measured data was in good agreement with Cole-Cole model data. First of all, the experiment on the SIP response was conducted in the laboratory with the mixture of glass beads and pyrite powders for ore grade assessment using characteristics of IP response of the rocks. The results show that the phase difference of IP response to the frequency is nearly proportional to the weight content of pyrite, and that the dominant frequency of the IP response varies with the size of the pyrite powder. Subsequently, the specimens used for SIP measurement are slate and limestone which were taken from drilling cores and outcrops of skarn ore deposits. All specimens are cylindrical in shape, with a diameter of 5 cm and a length of 10 cm. When measuring SIP of water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> specimens, the specimen surface is kept dry, tap water is put into the bottom of sample holder and a lid is closed. It is drawn that the SIP characteristics of the rocks show the phase difference depends on the amount of the <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals. The phase difference did not occur with frequencies applied in the absence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> minerals in the rock specimens. On the contrary, the rock specimens containing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001453','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/15001453"><span>Emplacement of Columbia River flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reidel, Stephen P. )</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/304238','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/304238"><span>Emplacement of Columbia River flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reidel, S.P.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012369','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012369"><span>Hafnium isotope variations in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Patchett, P.J.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Routine low-blank chemistry and 0.01-0.04% precision on the ratio 176Hf/177Hf allows study of Hf isotopic variations, generated by beta --decay of 176Lu, in volcanic rocks derived from the suboceanic mantle. Normalized to 176Hf/177Hf = 0.7325, 176Hf/177Hf ranges 0.2828-0.2835, based on 24 <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples. 176Hf/177Hf is positively correlated with 143Nd/144Nd, and negatively correlated with 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb. Along the Iceland-Reykjanes ridge traverse, 176Hf/177Hf increases southwards. The coherence of Hf, Nd and Sr isotopes in the oceanic mantle allows an approximate bulk Earth 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28295 to be inferred from the bulk Earth 143Nd/144Nd. This requires the bulk Earth Lu/Hf to be 0.25, similar to that of the Juvinas eucrite. 60% of the Hf isotopic variation in oceanic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> occurs among mid-ocean ridge samples. Lu-Hf fractionation probably decouples from Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr fractionation in very depleted source regions, with high Lu/Hf, and consequent high 176Hf/177Hf ratios developing in mantle residual from partial melting. (Authors' abstract) -T.R.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3657818','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3657818"><span>Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wetzel, Diane T.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Hauri, Erik H.; Saal, Alberto E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential. PMID:23569260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009942','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770009942"><span>The photometry of flat, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weaver, W. R.; Meador, W. E.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A photometer was developed and successfully operated to obtain photometric measurements on several flat, particulate surfaces of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> for coplanar scattering geometries. The test materials were two size ranges each of two different <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with significantly different albedos. The measurements include a range of phase angles from 30 to 80 degrees and were obtained by varying the angles of incidence and emission such that the phase angle remained constant. The data were used elsewhere in the verification of the Meador-Weaver photometric function and are presented here in the form of Minnaert plots. In this form the data offered the first support for the accuracy of the Meador-Weaver photometric function because of a deviation of the data from a straight line trend at larger departures from the mirror point geometry. This trend is predicted by the Meador-Weaver function but not by the Minnaert function. The failure of photometric data to support the Minnaert function was not evident in earlier measurements because of the restriction of planetary data to small departures from the mirror point geometry and to small values of the phase angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005104','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930005104"><span>Is Ishtar Terra a thickened <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arkani-Hamed, Jafar</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The mountain belts of Ishtar Terra and the surrounding tesserae are interpreted as compressional regions. The gravity and surface topography of western Ishtar Terra suggest a thick crust of 60-110 km that results from crustal thickening through tectonic processes. Underthrusting was proposed for the regions along Danu Montes and Itzpapalotl Tessera. Crustal thickening was suggested for the entire Ishtar Terra. In this study, three lithospheric models with total thicknesses of 40.75 and 120 km and initial crustal thicknesses of 3.9 and 18 km are examined. These models could be produced by partial melting and chemical differentiation in the upper mantle of a colder, an Earth-like, and a hotter Venus having temperatures of respectively 1300 C, 1400 C, and 1500 C at the base of their thermal boundary layers associated with mantle convection. The effects of <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-granulite-eclogite transformation (BGET) on the surface topography of a thickening <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust is investigated adopting the experimental phase diagram and density variations through the phase transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069064"><span>Identifying recycled ash in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pompilio, Massimo</p> <p>2014-07-28</p> <p>Deposits of mid-intensity <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> explosive eruptions are characterized by the coexistence of different types of juvenile clasts, which show a large variability of external properties and texture, reflecting alternatively the effects of primary processes related to magma storage or ascent, or of syn-eruptive modifications occurred during or immediately after their ejection. If fragments fall back within the crater area before being re-ejected during the ensuing activity, they are subject to thermally- and chemically-induced alterations. These 'recycled' clasts can be considered as cognate lithic for the eruption/explosion they derive. Their exact identification has consequences for a correct interpretation of eruption dynamics, with important implications for hazard assessment. On ash erupted during selected <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions (at Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvius, Gaua-Vanuatu), we have identified a set of characteristics that can be associated with the occurrence of intra-crater recycling processes, based also on the comparison with results of reheating experiments performed on primary juvenile material, at variable temperature and under different redox conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E5851D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E5851D"><span>Identifying recycled ash in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pompilio, Massimo</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Deposits of mid-intensity <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> explosive eruptions are characterized by the coexistence of different types of juvenile clasts, which show a large variability of external properties and texture, reflecting alternatively the effects of primary processes related to magma storage or ascent, or of syn-eruptive modifications occurred during or immediately after their ejection. If fragments fall back within the crater area before being re-ejected during the ensuing activity, they are subject to thermally- and chemically-induced alterations. These `recycled' clasts can be considered as cognate lithic for the eruption/explosion they derive. Their exact identification has consequences for a correct interpretation of eruption dynamics, with important implications for hazard assessment. On ash erupted during selected <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions (at Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvius, Gaua-Vanuatu), we have identified a set of characteristics that can be associated with the occurrence of intra-crater recycling processes, based also on the comparison with results of reheating experiments performed on primary juvenile material, at variable temperature and under different redox conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5376177','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5376177"><span>Identifying recycled ash in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Cioni, Raffaello; Pompilio, Massimo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Deposits of mid-intensity <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> explosive eruptions are characterized by the coexistence of different types of juvenile clasts, which show a large variability of external properties and texture, reflecting alternatively the effects of primary processes related to magma storage or ascent, or of syn-eruptive modifications occurred during or immediately after their ejection. If fragments fall back within the crater area before being re-ejected during the ensuing activity, they are subject to thermally- and chemically-induced alterations. These ‘recycled' clasts can be considered as cognate lithic for the eruption/explosion they derive. Their exact identification has consequences for a correct interpretation of eruption dynamics, with important implications for hazard assessment. On ash erupted during selected <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eruptions (at Stromboli, Etna, Vesuvius, Gaua-Vanuatu), we have identified a set of characteristics that can be associated with the occurrence of intra-crater recycling processes, based also on the comparison with results of reheating experiments performed on primary juvenile material, at variable temperature and under different redox conditions. PMID:25069064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23569260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23569260"><span>Degassing of reduced carbon from planetary <span class="hlt">basalts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wetzel, Diane T; Rutherford, Malcolm J; Jacobsen, Steven D; Hauri, Erik H; Saal, Alberto E</p> <p>2013-05-14</p> <p>Degassing of planetary interiors through surface volcanism plays an important role in the evolution of planetary bodies and atmospheres. On Earth, carbon dioxide and water are the primary volatile species in magmas. However, little is known about the speciation and degassing of carbon in magmas formed on other planets (i.e., Moon, Mars, Mercury), where the mantle oxidation state [oxygen fugacity (fO2)] is different from that of the Earth. Using experiments on a lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> composition, we confirm that carbon dissolves as carbonate at an fO2 higher than -0.55 relative to the iron wustite oxygen buffer (IW-0.55), whereas at a lower fO2, we discover that carbon is present mainly as iron pentacarbonyl and in smaller amounts as methane in the melt. The transition of carbon speciation in mantle-derived melts at fO2 less than IW-0.55 is associated with a decrease in carbon solubility by a factor of 2. Thus, the fO2 controls carbon speciation and solubility in mantle-derived melts even more than previous data indicate, and the degassing of reduced carbon from Fe-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on planetary bodies would produce methane-bearing, CO-rich early atmospheres with a strong greenhouse potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V23A..02Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.V23A..02Y"><span>Lithium Isotope Systematics in Azores <span class="hlt">Basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, H.; Widom, E.; Qiu, L.; Rudnick, R.; Gelinas, A.; Franca, Z.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the Azores archipelago and MORB from the nearby Azores Platform exhibit extreme chemical and isotopic variations attributed to the influence of a heterogeneous mantle plume, with compositions ranging from depleted mantle (DMM) to strong HIMU, EMI and EMII signatures. In order to assess the utility of Li isotopes as a mantle source tracer and to better constrain the origin of heterogeneous mantle beneath the Azores, we have analyzed Li isotopes in a suite of young, fresh, MgO-rich <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from São Miguel and three Central Group islands including Pico, Faial and Terceira. Despite large variations in radiogenic isotope signatures (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 19.3 to 20.1), δ7Li varies only slightly (3.1-4.7‰), and is within the range for global and North Atlantic MORB [1, 2]. More extreme δ7Li values such as those reported previously for some EMII, EMI and HIMU ocean island <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (-17‰ to +10‰; [3-5]) were not observed. Nevertheless, <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Central Group islands with EMI-type signatures are, on average, slightly heavier in δ7Li than the São Miguel samples, and they exhibit positive correlations with 87Sr/86Sr and negative correlations with 206Pb/204Pb, Nd, and Hf isotopes. Li isotopes do not correlate with indices of fractionation such as MgO, suggesting that the δ7Li correlations with radiogenic isotopes may represent subtle variations in mantle source signatures. Positive and negative correlations of δ7Li with 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb, respectively, and relatively unradiogenic Os (187Os/188Os = 0.1244-0.1269), may reflect old, slab-fluid metasomatized mantle beneath the Central Group islands. In contrast, δ7Li signatures in the São Miguel <span class="hlt">basalts</span> do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. Rather, δ7Li is essentially constant despite extremely high 87Sr/86Sr and 206Pb/204Pb and low ΔɛHf signatures that have been attributed to 3.5 Ga recycled E-MORB or evolved oceanic crust [6; 7]. This suggests either that the São Miguel source</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V11D2794H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V11D2794H"><span>The geochemical characteristics of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> and acidic volcanics around the Myojin depression in the Izu arc, Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haraguchi, S.; Tamaki, K.; Kato, Y.; Machida, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Around the Myojin Depression, westside of the Myojin-sho caldera in the Izu arc, seamounts are circular distributed and hydrothermal activity with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposition are found from the Baiyonneise Caldera, one of seamounts at the northern side. Some knoll chains distribute in the eastside of the Myojin Depression, and connect between these knolls. This circulator distribution of seamounts and connected knoll chains considered to the dykes are similar to the geographical features of the Kuroko Depositions in the Hokuroku Region, Northwest Japan (Tanahashi et al., 2008). Hydrothermal activities are also found from the other rifts (Urabe and Kusakabe 1990). Based on these observations, the cruise KT09-12 by R/V Tansei-Maru, Ocean Research Institute (ORI), University of Tokyo, investigated in the Myojin Rift. During the cruise, <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> to dacitic volcanic rocks and some acidic plutonic rocks were recovered by dredge system. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these rock samples with sample dredged by the cruise MW9507 by R/V MOANA WAVE, and consider the association with hydrothermal activities and depositions. Dredges during the cruise KT09-12 were obtained at the Daini-Beiyonneise Knoll at the northern side, Daisan-Beiyonneise Knoll at the southern side, and the Dragonborn Hill, small knoll chains, at the southeastern side of the depression. Many volcanic rocks are <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and recovered mainly from the Dragonborn Hill. Andesite and dacite was recovered from the Daini- and the Daini-Bayonneise Knoll. Tonalites were recovered from the Daisan-Bayonneise Knoll. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the Dragonborn Hill show less than 50% of SiO2 and more than 6 wt% and 0.88 wt% of MgO and TiO2 content. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> from the rift zone show depleted in the volcanic front (VF) side and enriched in the reararc (RA) side. The Dragonborn Hill is distributed near the VF, and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show depleted geochemical characteristics. However, these characteristics are different from the <span class="hlt">basalts</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023387','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023387"><span>Density of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55 ?? 0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01 ?? 0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67 ?? 0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89 ?? 0.17 and 2.97 ?? 0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JVGR..112..221M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JVGR..112..221M"><span>Density of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> core from Hilo drill hole, Hawaii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, James G.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Density measurements of 1600 samples of core from 889 to 3097 m depth below sea level in the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program hole near Hilo, Hawaii show marked differences between the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> rock types and help define stratigraphy in the hole. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> densities of subaerial lava flows (occurring above 1079 m depth) have the broadest range because of the large density variation within a single lava flow. Water-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> densities commonly range from 2.0 to 3.0 with an average of 2.55±0.24 g/cc. Dikes and sills range from 2.8 to 3.1 g/cc). Densities of hyaloclastite commonly range from 2.3 to 2.7, with an overall average of about 2.5 g/cc. The low-density of most hyaloclastite is due primarily to palagonitization of abundant glass and presence of secondary minerals in the interstices between fragments. Four principal zones of pillow lava, separated by hyaloclastite, occur in the drill core. The shallowest (1983-2136 m) is paradoxically the densest, averaging 3.01±0.10 g/cc. The second (2234-2470 m) is decidedly the lightest, averaging 2.67±0.13 g/cc. The third (2640-2790 m) and fourth (2918-bottom at 3097 m) are high, averaging 2.89±0.17 and 2.97±0.08 g/cc, respectively. The first pillow zone includes degassed pillows i.e. lava erupted on land that flowed into the sea. These pillows are poor in vesicles, because the subaerial, one-atmosphere vesicles were compressed when the flow descended to deeper water and higher pressure. The second (low-density, non-degassed) pillow zone is the most vesicle-rich, apparently because it was erupted subaqueously at a shallow depth. The higher densities of the third and fourth zones result from a low vesicularity of only a few percent and an olivine content averaging more than 5% for the third zone and about 10% for the fourth zone. The uppermost hyaloclastite extending about 400 m below the bottom of the subaerial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is poorly cemented and absorbs up to 6 wt% of water when immersed. Progressing downward the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009840','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009840"><span>Submarine <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the Revillagigedo Islands region, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moore, J.G.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Ocean-floor dredging and submarine photography in the Revillagigedo region off the west coast of Mexico reveal that the dominant exposed rock of the submarine part of the large island-forming volcanoes (Roca Partida and San Benedicto) is a uniform alkali pillow <span class="hlt">basalt</span>; more siliceous rocks are exposed on the upper, subaerial parts of the volcanoes. <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> dredged from smaller seamounts along the Clarion fracture zone south of the Revillagigedo Islands are tholeiitic pillow <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Pillows of alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are more vesicular than Hawaiian tholeiitic pillows collected from the same depths. This difference probably reflects a higher original volatile content of the alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. Manganese-iron oxide nodules common in several dredge hauls generally contain nucleii of rhyolitic pumice or <span class="hlt">basalt</span> pillow fragments. The pumice floated to its present site from subaerial eruptions, became waterlogged and sank, and was then coated with manganese-iron oxides. The thickness of palagonite rinds on the glassy pillow fragments is proportional to the thickness of manganese-iron oxide layers, and both are a measure of the age of the nodule. Both oldest <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (10-100 m.y.) and youngest (less than 1 m.y.) are along the Clarion fracture zone, whereas <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Roca Partida and San Benedicto volcanoes are of intermediate age. ?? 1970.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo2014.3081B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo2014.3081B"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Weathering and the Volatile Budget of Early Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. L.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> weathering on Earth consumes CO2 and water and may have affected terrestrial climate. I apply a mass balance derived from terrestrial data to examine the effect surficial <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering may have had on the CO2 budget of early Mars.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593427','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6593427"><span>Experimental hydrothermal geochemistry: <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glass-sea water reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pohl, D.C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> glass alteration at high temperatures, the effect on sea water chemistry, the mass balance of the oceans, as well as to document the potential of sea water to leach ore-forming quantities of iron, manganese, zinc, and copper from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> glass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA552757','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA552757"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Woven Fabrics for Military Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>or gray, fine-grained rock classified in the family of igneous rocks , formed by cooling of molten lava. It is commonly found in the Earth’s crust...Acronyms 18 Distribution List 19 iv List of Figures Figure 1. <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> rock ...help in acquiring the info within. vi INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1. Introduction <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> rock (figure 1) is a black</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012642','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012642"><span>Vesicularity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> erupted at Reykjanes Ridge crest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Duffield, W.A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Average vesicularity of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> drilled at three sites on the west flank of the Reykjanes Ridge increases with decreasing age. This change apparently records concomitant decrease in water depth at the ridge crest where the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> was erupted and suggests substantial upward growth of the crest during the past 35 Myr. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6495577','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6495577"><span>Germanium abundances in lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span>: Evidence of mantle metasomatism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickinson, T.; Taylor, G.J.; Keil, T.K.; Bild, R.W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>To fill in gaps in the present Ge data base, mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were analyzed for Ge and other elements by RNAA and INAA. Mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from Apollo 11, 12, 15, 17 landing sites are rather uniform in Ge abundance, but Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and KREEP are enriched in Ge by factors of up to 300 compared to typical mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. These Ge enrichments are not associated with other siderophile element enrichments and, thus, are not due to differences in the amount of metal segregated during core formation. Based on crystal-chemical and inter-element variations, it does not appear that the observed Ge enrichments are due to silicate liquid immiscibility. Elemental ratios in Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, green and orange glass, average <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and KREEP suggest that incorporation of late accreting material into the source regions or interaction of the magmas with primitive undifferentiated material is not a likely cause for the observed Ge enrichments. We speculate that the most plausible explanation for these Ge enrichments is complexing and concentration of Ge by F, Cl or S in volatile phases. In this manner, the KREEP <span class="hlt">basalt</span> source regions may have been metasomatized and Apollo 14 aluminous mare <span class="hlt">basalt</span> magmas may have become enriched in Ge by interacting with these metasomatized areas. The presence of volatile- and Ge-rich regions in the Moon suggests that the Moon was never totally molten. 71 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6391B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6391B"><span><span class="hlt">Basalt</span>-Trachybasalt Fractionation in Gale Crater, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bridges, J. C.; Edwards, P. H.; Filiberto, J.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Gasda, P.; Wiens, R.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A set of igneous float rocks in Gale Crater have been analysed by ChemCam. They are <span class="hlt">basalt</span>-trachybasalts, 47 to 53 ± 5 wt% SiO2 and formed by ol-dominated crystal fractionation from an Adirondack type <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, in magmatism with tholeiitic affinities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5375875"><span>Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turner, D.A.</p> <p>1981-12-04</p> <p>This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described. (DMC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS13A1718Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS13A1718Y"><span>Sub-seafloor bacterial community structures within massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits at the Southern Mariana Trough</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamagishi, A.; Kato, S.; Moriya, O.; Urabe, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Yet-uncharacterized sub-seafloor bacterial communities within massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits important for ocean elemental flux were investigated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Shallow sub-seafloor drilling was performed in a deep-sea hydrothermal field (called Pika site) of the Southern Mariana Trough (SMT). The borehole length was 4.252 m and the length of the core sample obtained was 2,920 mm (¬68.7% recovery). The core sample mainly consisted of pyrite (FeS2), sphalerite (ZnS) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), and contained barite (BaSO4) as minor components. Three subsamples (upper, middle and lower) of the core sample were picked up from different depth points (0.77, 1.14, 2.37 mbsf). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis was performed for the three subsamples. The community structures based on the detected clones were clearly different from one another. The dominant clone detected in each subsample was related to Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Ignavibacteria, or Nitrospirae, respectively. Many clones detected from the sub-seafloor massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits were similar to those from <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys of inactive vents or <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> lavas on the seafloor including SMT and other areas. Comparative analysis revealed the commonality and difference of the community structures with those in surrounding seafloor environments depending on the sampling depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/946362"><span>Synthesis and Optical Properties of <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Nanoparticles Prepared in Dimethylsulfoxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, Yuebin; Ma, Lun; Zhang, Xing; Joly, Alan G.; Liu, Zuli; Chen, Wei</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Many methods have been reported for the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles by the reaction of metallic salts with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chemical sources in aqueous solutions or organic solvents. Here, we report the formation of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) by boiling metallic salts without <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sources. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sources are generated from the boiling of DMSO and react with metallic salts to form <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles. In this method DMSO functions as a solvent and a <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> source as well as a stabilizer for the formation of the nanoparticles. The recipe is simple and economical making <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles formed in this way readily available for many potential applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol31-sec425-03.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol31-sec425-03.pdf"><span>40 CFR 425.03 - <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> analytical methods and applicability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... Provisions § 425.03 <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration... the potassium ferricyanide titration method for the determination of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in wastewaters...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5306867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5306867"><span>Hydrothermal interactions of cesium and strontium phases from spent unreprocessed fuel with <span class="hlt">basalt</span> phases and <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Komarneni, S.; Scheetz, B.E.; McCarthy, G.J.; Coons, W.E.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p>This investigation is a segment of an extensive research program aimed at investigating the feasibility of long-term, subsurface storage of commercial nuclear waste. Specifically, it is anticipated that the waste will be housed in a repository mined from the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> formations which lie beneath the Hanford Site. The elements monitored during the present experiments were Cs and Sr. These two elements represent significant biohazards if released from a repository and are the major heat producing radionuclides present in commercial radioactive waste. Several Cs phases and/or solutions were reacted with either isolated <span class="hlt">basalt</span> phases or bulk-rock <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, and the resulting solids and solutions were analyzed. The hydrothermal reactivity of SrZrO/sub 3/, which is believed to be a probable host for Sr in SFE was investigated. While so far no evidence exists which indicates that Sr is present in a water soluble phase in spent fuel elements (SFE), detailed investigation of a potential hazard is warranted. This investigation has determined that some Cs compounds likely to be stable components of spent fuel (i.e., CsOH, Cs/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/, Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/) have significant hydrothermal solubilities. These solubilities are greatly decreased in the presence of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> and/or <span class="hlt">basalt</span> minerals. The decrease in the amount of Cs in solution results from reactions which form pollucite and/or CsAlSiO/sub 4/, with the production of pollucite exceeding that of CsAlSiO/sub 4/. Dissolution of ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ implies solubilizing a uranium species to an undetermined extent. The production of schoepite (UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O) during some experiments containing <span class="hlt">basalt</span> phases, indicates a tendency to oxidize U/sup 4 +/ to U/sup 6 +/. When diopside (nominally CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and ..beta..-Cs/sub 2/U/sub 2/O/sub 7/ were hydrothermally reacted, at 300/sup 0/C both UO/sub 2/ and UO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O were produced. Results of experiments on SrZrO/sub 3/ show it to be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22340247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22340247"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> and vascular relaxation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Yan; Tang, Chao-Shu; DU, Jun-Bao; Jin, Hong-Fang</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H(2)S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved. The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>" and "vascular relaxation". Articles describing the role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected. H(2)S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone. The vasomodulatory effects of H(2)S depend on factors including concentration, species and tissue type. The H(2)S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings. The expression of K(ATP) channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings. H(2)S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Downregulation of the endogenous H(2)S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The vasorelaxant effects of H(2)S have been shown to be mediated by activation of K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H(2)S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation. H(2)S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000141','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19710000141"><span><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> current spikes eliminated in <span class="hlt">saturable</span> core transformers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schwarz, F. C.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Unsaturating composite magnetic core transformer, consisting of two separate parallel cores designed so impending core <span class="hlt">saturation</span> causes signal generation, terminates high current spike in converter primary circuit. Simplified waveform, demonstrates transformer effectiveness in eliminating current spikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909425','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909425"><span>Molybdenum <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/carbide catalysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda</p> <p>2007-05-29</p> <p>The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5292166','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5292166"><span>Lithium-cupric <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuesta, A.J.; Bump, D.D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Lithium cells have become the primary power source for cardiac pacemakers due to their reliability and longevity at low current drain rates. A lithium-cupric <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> cell was developed which makes maximum use of the shape of a pacemaker's battery compartment. The cell has a stable voltage throughout 90% of its lifetime. It then drops to a second stable voltage before depletion. The voltage drop creates a small decrease in pacemaker rate, which alerts the physician to replace the pacemaker. No loss of capacity due to self-discharge as been seen to date, and cells have proven to be safe under extreme conditions. 2 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175980','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1175980"><span>Preparation of amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sieves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.</p> <p>2006-11-07</p> <p>The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117664"><span>Medical Functions of Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olas, Beata</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H(2)S) is a gasomediator synthesized from L- and D-cysteine in various tissues. It is involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes. H(2)S exhibits antiatherosclerotic, vasodilator, and proangiogenic properties, and protects the kidney and heart from damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury. H(2)S donors may be natural or synthetic, and may be used for the safe treatment of a wide range of diseases. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the therapeutic function of H(2)S.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17794034"><span>Origin of High-Alumina <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamilton, W</p> <p>1964-10-30</p> <p>The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina <span class="hlt">basalt</span> differs from tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060009026','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060009026"><span>Ibitira: A <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> achondrite from a distinct parent asteroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mittlefehldt, David W.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>I have done detailed petrologic study of Ibitira, nominally classified as a <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrite. The Fe/Mn ratio of Ibitira pyroxenes with <10 mole % wollastonite component is 36.4 0.4, and is well-resolved from those of five <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrites studied for comparison; 31.2-32.2. Data for the latter completely overlap. Ibitira pyroxenes have lower Fe/Mg than the <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrite pyroxenes. Thus, the higher Fe/Mn ratio does not reflect a simple difference in oxidation state. Ibitira also has an oxygen isotopic composition, alkali element contents and a Ti/Hf ratio that distinguish it from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> eucrites. These differences support derivation from a distinct parent asteroid. Ibitira is the first recognized representative of the fifth known asteroidal <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1023145"><span>Use and Features of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Formations for Geologic Sequestration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Extrusive lava flows of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, <span class="hlt">basalt</span> is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with <span class="hlt">basalt</span> samples from Washington state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26672315"><span>[Determination of Total Iron and Fe2+ in <span class="hlt">Basalt</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jian-xun; Chen, Mei-rong; Jian, Zheng-guo; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhi-shen</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basalt</span> is the raw material of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fiber. The content of FeO and Fe2O3 has a great impact on the properties of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> fibers. ICP-OES and dichromate method were used to test total Fe and Fe(2+) in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. Suitable instrument parameters and analysis lines of Fe were chosen for ICP-OES. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ICP-OES is 2.2%, and the recovery is in the range of 98%~101%. The method shows simple, rapid and highly accurate for determination of total Fe and Fe(2+) in <span class="hlt">basalt</span>. The RSD of ICP-OES and dichromate method is 0.42% and 1.4%, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010817','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010817"><span>Composition of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.</p> <p>1964-01-01</p> <p>Studies of volcanic rocks in dredge hauls from the submerged parts of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggest that it consists largely of tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with low values of K, Ti, and P. In contrast, the volcanic islands which form the elevated caps on the Ridge are built of alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> with high values of Ti, Fe3+, P, Na, and K. This distinct correlation between the form of the volcanic structures, elevation above the sea floor, and composition suggests that the islands of alkali <span class="hlt">basalt</span> are derived from a parent tholeiitic magma by differentiation in shallow reservoirs. The volume of low-potassium tholeiites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and elsewhere in the oceans appears to be many times that of the alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> exposed on oceanic islands. Tholeiitic <span class="hlt">basalts</span> with about 0.2 K2O appear to be the primary and predominant magma erupted on the oceanic floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840043296&hterms=Lutetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLutetium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840043296&hterms=Lutetium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DLutetium"><span>Lu-Hf constraints on the evolution of lunar <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fujimaki, H.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>It is shown that a cumulate-remelting model best explains the recently acquired data on the Lu-Hf systematics of lunar mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span>. The model is constructed using Lu and Hf concentration data and is strengthened by Hf isotopic evidence of Unruh et al. (1984). It is shown that the similarity in MgO/FeO ratios and Cr2O3 content in high-Ti and low-Ti <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are not important constraints on lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> petrogenesis. The model demonstrates that even the very low Ti or green glass samples are remelting products of a cumulate formed after at least 80-90 percent of the lunar magma ocean had solidified. In the model, all the mare <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and green glasses were derived from 100-150 km depth in the lunar mantle. The Lu-Hf systematics of KREEP <span class="hlt">basalts</span> clearly indicate that they would be the final residual liquid of the lunar magma ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI14A..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMDI14A..04L"><span>Constraints on the origin of Os-isotope disequilibrium in included and interstitial <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in mantle peridotites: Implications for the interpretation of Os-isotope signatures in MORB and Abyssal Peridotites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lassiter, J. C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The use of isotope variations in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> to probe the composition and evolution of the mantle is predicated on the assumption of local (i.e., grain-scale) isotopic equilibrium during mantle melting (Hofmann & Hart, 1978). However, several studies report Os-isotope disequilibrium in distinct populations of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in some peridotites. In principle, grain-scale isotopic heterogeneity could reflect variable radiogenic ingrowth in ancient <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> with variable Re/Os, or partial re-equilibration of low-Re/Os <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> with high-Re/Os silicate phases along grain boundaries during mantle melting (e.g., Alard et al., 2005). Both cases require that <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> fail to maintain isotopic equilibrium with neighboring phases over geologically long ( Ga) time scales. The preservation of Os-isotope disequilibrium in peridotites has been ascribed to the armoring effect of low-[Os] silicates, which limit diffusive exchange between isolated Os-rich phases. This raises the prospect that peridotite-derived melts may not inherit the Os-isotope composition of their source. The timescale required for diffusive equilibration between separate <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> grains or between Os-rich <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and Os-poor silicates is a function of average <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> size and spacing, Os diffusivity in armoring silicate minerals, and Os partitioning between silicate and <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> phases. For typical <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> abundances and sizes in mantle peridotites, neighboring <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> are expected to re-equilibrate in less than a few 10s of m.y. at adiabatic mantle temperatures, even for very high (>106) <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>/silicate KD values. Maintenance of disequilibrium requires very large <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (>100 um) separated by several mm and diffusion rates (D < 10-20 m2/s) slower than for most other elements in olivine. Equilibration timescales between <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and surrounding silicates are similar, so that large-scale isotopic disequilibrium between <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> and silicates is also unlikely within the convecting mantle. Instead, observed grain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045633&hterms=Basalts+primitive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBasalts%2Bprimitive','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045633&hterms=Basalts+primitive&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DBasalts%2Bprimitive"><span>Phase relations of a high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span> from the Aleutian Island arc - Implications for primary island arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and high-Al <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gust, D. A.; Perfit, M. R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An experimental investigation of a primitive high-Mg <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, MK-15, collected from lava flows of the Unalaska Island in the Aleutian Island arc has been conducted in order to study primary and parental island arc <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the development of island arc magmas. The results suggest a model in which high-Al <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are generated by moderate amounts of crystal fractionation from more primitive (high Mg/Mg + Fe, lower Al2O3) <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magmas near the arc crust-mantle boundary. Somewhere between 20-30 depth, significant amounts of clinopyroxene and olivine, with lesser amounts of spinel and possibly amphibole, fractionate, forming layer of olivine-clinopyroxenite at the base of the arc crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087409&hterms=Cyanobacteria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCyanobacteria','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087409&hterms=Cyanobacteria&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCyanobacteria"><span>Variation in <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> tolerance of photosystem II in phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria from <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> habitats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, Scott R.; Bebout, Brad M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Physiological and molecular phylogenetic approaches were used to investigate variation among 12 cyanobacterial strains in their tolerance of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>, an inhibitor of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria from <span class="hlt">sulfidic</span> habitats were found to be phylogenetically diverse and exhibited an approximately 50-fold variation in photosystem II performance in the presence of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>. Whereas the degree of tolerance was positively correlated with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> levels in the environment, a strain's phenotype could not be predicted from the tolerance of its closest relatives. These observations suggest that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> tolerance is a dynamic trait primarily shaped by environmental variation. Despite differences in absolute tolerance, similarities among strains in the effects of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> on chlorophyll fluorescence induction indicated a common mode of toxicity. Based on similarities with treatments known to disrupt the oxygen-evolving complex, it was concluded that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> toxicity resulted from inhibition of the donor side of photosystem II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.139..508D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.139..508D"><span>Impact of organic carbon on weathering and chemical denudation of granular <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dontsova, Katerina; Zaharescu, Dragos; Henderson, Whitney; Verghese, Sarah; Perdrial, Nicolas; Hunt, Edward; Chorover, Jon</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Bench-scale experiments were conducted to determine rates and patterns of coupled organic matter infusion and weathering in a San Francisco volcanic field (Flagstaff, AZ) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> sample under experimentally-modeled biotic and abiotic condition and to inform larger-scale collaborative studies at the landscape evolution observatory (LEO), Biosphere 2 (Tucson, AZ), where the same <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> media is being used in a synthetic hillslope experiment. We postulated that mineral transformations depend significantly on the presence of organic carbon compounds including dissolved natural organic matter (DOM), with organic C simultaneously imprinting the chemical and mineralogical properties of primary and secondary solids undergoing incongruent dissolution. The present work reports on solute releases from Flagstaff <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (FB) along laboratory-controlled gradients in DOM type and concentration. Loamy sand textured FB was subjected to flow-through, <span class="hlt">saturated</span> column dissolution experiments using influent solutions with and without DOM compounds. Solutions included Ponderosa pine forest soil O-horizon extracts at three target concentrations: 7, 35, and 70 mg L-1 C, malic acid (MA) solutions at 7, 35, 70, and 140 mg L-1 C, and a control without DOM but having comparable inorganic solution composition. Chemical denudation rates for FB dissolution products were calculated from the concentration difference between outflow and inflow solutions. In addition, changes in the composition of the solid phase over the course of the experiment were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and selective dissolution (SE). Column experiments supported dissolution rates derived from the literature and indicated a potentially strong effect of plant-derived organic ligands on mineral dissolution congruency and secondary phase precipitation. Both malic acid and DOM enhanced <span class="hlt">basalt</span> dissolution, with malic acid having larger effect on per unit C basis. The largest relative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V43D2883S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V43D2883S"><span>Megacrystic Clinopyroxene <span class="hlt">Basalts</span> Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated <span class="hlt">basalts</span> (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These <span class="hlt">basalts</span> contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/770743"><span>Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Steiger, Michael; Long, Jane C.S.; Wood, Tom; Jacobsen, Janet; Lore, Jason; Zawislanski, Peter T.</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured <span class="hlt">basalt</span> vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the <span class="hlt">saturation</span>-desaturation behavior of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the <span class="hlt">basalt</span> matrix occurs. Fractures that are <span class="hlt">saturated</span> early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447703','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6447703"><span>Catalyst and process for oxidizing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hass, R.H.; Ward, J.W.</p> <p>1984-04-24</p> <p>Catalysts comprising bismuth and vanadium components are highly active and stable, especially in the presence of water vapor, for oxidizing hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to sulfur or SO/sub 2/. Such catalysts have been found to be especially active for the conversion of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to sulfur by reaction with oxygen or SO/sub 2/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323222','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323222"><span>Ammonia and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> removal using biochar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Reducing ammonia and hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is highly toxic at elev...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26790358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26790358"><span>The role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in burns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akter, Farhana</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is a novel gasotransmitter that has been shown to play a major role in regulating vascular tone. However, the role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in inflammation, sepsis and burns has only recently been studied. In animal studies, hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> has been shown to play a role in both promoting and inhibiting inflammation. Understanding the role of H2S in sepsis and shock is particularly important due to the high mortality associated with both conditions. In animal sepsis models, hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> appears to increase survival. Severe burns are associated with an inflammatory response that causes increased permeability and edema. Currently, there are few studies that have examined the exact role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in burns. However, the role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in inflammation enables us to hypothesize its role in burns. This review highlights the role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in the mechanisms of action underlying inflammation, wound healing and sepsis as well as examining the potential role of hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> in burns. The authors of this article hope that this review will stimulate research to discover the exact role of this fascinating molecule in burns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADD013692','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADD013692"><span>Ferrous and <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span> Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>chromium contaminants and the precipitation of heavy metal contaminants from contaminated electroplating wastewater. The wastewater is first adjusted...to a pH of from about 8 to 10 and then treated with sodium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> to provide <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ions to effect precipitation of heavy metal contaminants followed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012001','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890012001"><span>Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions, comet showers, and mass extinction events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A chronology of initiation dates of the major continental flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> episodes has been established from compilation of published K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> flows and related basic intrusions. The dating is therefore independent of the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic time scales, and the estimated errors of the inititation dates are approximately + or - 4 pct. There are 11 distinct episodes of continental flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> known during the past 250 Myr. The data show that flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> episodes are generally relatively brief geologic events, with intermittent eruptions during peak output periods lasting ony 2 to 3 Myr or less. Statistical analyses suggest that these episodes may have occurred quasi-periodically with a mean cycle time of 32 + or - 1 Myr. The initiation dates of the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are close to the estimated dates of marine mass extinctions and impact-crater clusters. Although a purely internal forcing might be argued for the flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism, quasi-periodic comet impacts may be the trigger for both the flood <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and the extinctions. Impact cratering models suggest that large-body impactors lead to deep initial cratering, and therefore may cause mantle disturbances and initiate mantle plume activity. The flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> episodes commonly mark the initiation or jump of a mantle hotspot, and are often followed by continental rifting and separation. Evidence from dynamical studies of impacts, occurrences of craters and hotspots, and the geochemistry of boundary layers is synthesized to provide a possible model of impact-generated volcanism. Flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptions may themselves have severe effects on climate, and possibly on life. Impacts might, as a result, have led to mass extinctions through direct atmospheric disturbances, and/or indirectly through prolonged flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......562S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......562S"><span>Rheological evolution of planetary <span class="hlt">basalts</span> during cooling and crystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sehlke, Alexander</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> lavas cover large portions of the surface of the Earth and other planets and moons. Planetary <span class="hlt">basalts</span> are compositionally different from terrestrial <span class="hlt">basalts</span>, and show a variety of unique large-scale lava flow morphologies unobserved on Earth. They are usually assumed to be much more fluid than <span class="hlt">basalts</span> on Earth, such as Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, but their rheology is largely unknown. I synthesized several synthetic silicate melts representing igneous rock compositions of Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Io and Vesta. I measured their viscosity, as well as several terrestrial lavas including Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basalt</span>, by concentric cylinder and parallel plate viscometry. Planetary melts cover a wide range of viscosity at their liquidus, overlapping with terrestrial <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> melts. I derived a new viscosity model that is based on the Adam-Gibbs theory of structural relaxation, predicting these viscosities much more accurately than previously published viscosity models. During crystallization, the rheological behavior changes from Newtonian to pseudoplastic. Combining rheology experiments with field observations, the rheological conditions of the pahoehoe to `a`a morphological transition for Hawaiian <span class="hlt">basalt</span> were determined in strain rate-viscosity space. This transition occurs at temperatures around 1185+/-15°C. For Mercurian lavas, this transition is predicted to occur at higher temperatures around 1250+/-30°C. We find that the rheology of these lavas is broadly similar to terrestrial ones, suggesting that the large smooth volcanic plains observed on Mercury's northern hemisphere are due to flood <span class="hlt">basalt</span> volcanism rather than unusually fluid lavas. We also show that KREEP lavas, a type of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> associated with sinuous rilles on the lunar surface, is more likely to form rilles through levee construction, as the high and rapidly increasing viscosity prohibits sufficient thermo-mechanical erosion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980007460','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980007460"><span>Chemical Weathering Kinetics of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> on Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fegley, Bruce, Jr.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project was to experimentally measure the kinetics for chemical weathering reactions involving <span class="hlt">basalt</span> on Venus. The thermochemical reactions being studied are important for the CO2 atmosphere-lithosphere cycle on Venus and for the atmosphere-surface reactions controlling the oxidation state of the surface of Venus. These reactions include the formation of carbonate and scapolite minerals, and the oxidation of Fe-bearing minerals. These experiments and calculations are important for interpreting results from the Pioneer Venus, Magellan, Galileo flyby, Venera, and Vega missions to Venus, for interpreting results from Earth-based telescopic observations, and for the design of new Discovery class (e.g., VESAT) and New Millennium missions to Venus such as geochemical landers making in situ elemental and mineralogical analyses, and orbiters, probes and balloons making spectroscopic observations of the sub-cloud atmosphere of Venus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007554&hterms=room+lunar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Droom%2Blunar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007554&hterms=room+lunar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Droom%2Blunar"><span>Cold press sintering of simulated lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Altemir, D. A.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In order to predict the conditions for which the lunar regolith may be adequately sintered, experiments were conducted in which samples of simulated lunar <span class="hlt">basalt</span> (MLS-1) were pressed at high pressures and then heated in an electric furnace. This sintering process may be referred to as cold press sintering since the material is pressed at room temperature. Although test articles were produced which possessed compressive strengths comparable to that of terrestrial concrete, the cold press sintering process requires very high press pressures and sintering temperatures in order to achieve that strength. Additionally, the prospect of poor internal heat transfer adversely affecting the quality of sintered lunar material is a major concern. Therefore, it is concluded that cold press sintering will most likely be undesirable for the production of lunar construction materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100008444','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100008444"><span>Molybdenum Valence in <span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> Silicate Melts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018214','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018214"><span>Vesiculation of <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma during eruption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mangan, Margaret T.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Newman, Sally</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Vesicle size distributions in vent lavas from the Pu'u'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea volcano are used to estimate nucleation and growth rates of H2O-rich gas bubbles in <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> magma nearing the earth's surface (≤120 m depth). By using well-constrained estimates for the depth of volatile exsolution and magma ascent rate, nucleation rates of 35.9 events ⋅ cm-3 ⋅ s-1 and growth rates of 3.2 x 10-4cm/s are determined directly from size-distribution data. The results are consistent with diffusion-controlled growth as predicted by a parabolic growth law. This empirical approach is not subject to the limitations inherent in classical nucleation and growth theory and provides the first direct measurement of vesiculation kinetics in natural settings. In addition, perturbations in the measured size distributions are used to examine bubble escape, accumulation, and coalescence prior to the eruption of magma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JMMM..321.3311T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JMMM..321.3311T"><span>Synthesis of magnetic rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composite nanoparticles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Naimei; Tu, Weixia</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles are associated with magnetic iron oxide through coprecipitation of iron salts with tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Sizes of the formed magnetic rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composite particles are in the range 5.5-12.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays spectra demonstrate the coexistence of Fe 3O 4 and ReS 2 in the composite particle, which confirm the formation of the magnetic rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> composite nanoparticles. The association of rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with iron oxide not only keeps electronic state and composition of the rhenium <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nanoparticles, but also introduces magnetism with the level of 24.1 emu g -1 at 14 kOe. Surface modification with monocarboxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-COOH) has the role of deaggregating the composite nanoparticles to be with average hydrodynamic size of 27.3 nm and improving the dispersion and the stability of the composite nanoparticles in water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5103090','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5103090"><span>Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> pollution in wastewater treatment facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>AlDhowalia, K.H. )</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Litho.105...12S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Litho.105...12S"><span>PGE geochemistry and Re Os dating of massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores from the Baimazhai Cu Ni deposit, Yunnan province, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Shengwei; Sun, Weidong; Shi, Guiyong; Sun, Yali; Xiong, Dexin; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The Baimazhai deposit in Yunnan Province is one of the largest Cu-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> deposits hosted in mafic-ultramafic intrusions in China. Concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) in massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores and host rocks from Baimazhai were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following nickel <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> fire assay pre-concentration. The results show that the total PGE (ΣPGE) are quite low, decreasing gradually from central massive ores (78.2-556 ppb) to olivine pyroxenite (0.472-67.0 ppb), gabbro (0.847 ppb) and, websterite (0.76-0.809). The intruded lamprophyre dykes also show low ΣPGE (2.98-4.07 ppb). The ΣPGE exhibit obvious positive correlations with Au, Ni and Cu contents. Primitive mantle normalized PGE patterns of the massive Cu-Ni ores are of the Pt-Pd type with relatively steep and trough-like patterns, which are similar to those of the host rocks. In addition, the Pt/Pd and Cu/Pd ratios of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores are similar to those of olivine pyroxenite, gabbro and websterite. These characteristics suggest that <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> in the massive ores are of magmatic origin, co-genetic with their host rocks. The relatively high Pt/Pd ratios of the Baimazhai massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores (averaging 0.83) and their host rocks imply that the Baimazhai <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> formed in a single <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> event, but not through multiple <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> injections. High Ir contents (0.77-5.52 ppb, averaging 2.35 ppb) and dramatically variable Pd/Ir ratios (4.76-296, averaging 138) of the massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores suggest that the Baimazhai <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores might have suffered significant late stage hydrothermal alteration. The Baimazhai massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> ores yield a Re-Os isochron age of 259 ± 20 Ma (MSWD = 0.025), which is the same as the major eruption stage of the Emeishan large igneous province and the Baimazhai intrusion, further supporting their magmatic origin. The initial 187Os/ 188Os value of 0.456 ± 0.026 indicates that crustal contamination has played</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006266','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20006266"><span>Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd in <span class="hlt">basalts</span> and komatiites: New constraints for the geochemical behavior of the platinum-group elements in the mantle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rehkaemper, M.; Halliday, A.N.; Fitton, J.G.; Lee, D.C.; Wieneke, M.; Arndt, N.T.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>The concentrations of the platinum-group elements (PGE) Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd were determined in 18 mantle-derived <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from a variety of tectonic settings and six komatiites from three locations. All analyses were performed using isotope dilution, Carius tube digestion, and the precise technique of multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multiple analyses of two samples indicate external reproducibilities, based upon separate dissolutions, or approximately 2--9% in the ppt to ppb concentration range. Mid-ocean ridge <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Kolbeinsey Ridge, tholeiites from Iceland and alkali <span class="hlt">basalts</span> from the Cameroon Line define three individual samples suites that are characterized by distinct major, trace, and platinum-group element systematics. All three-sample suites display correlations of the PGE with MgO, Ni, and Cr. The new analytical results are employed to constrain the geochemical behavior of the PGE during the formation and differentiation of mantle-derived melts. The PGE are inferred to be compatible in <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> during partial melting with <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-silicate melt partition coefficients of {approximately}1 x 10{sup 4}. The fractionated PGE patterns of mantle melts re a consequence of the incompatibility of Pd in nonsulfide phases, whereas Ir and Ru must be compatible in at least one other mantle phase. Model calculations indicate that PGE alloys or spinel may be responsible for the higher compatibility of the latter elements during partial melting. It is further demonstrated that the shape of the melting regime has a profound effect on the PGE systematics of mantle magmas. The systematic trends of the three samples suites in plots of PGE against Ni and Cr are the results of magma differentiation processes that involve fractional crystallization of silicate minerals and the concurrent segregation of an immiscible <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> liquid. The behavior of the PGE during magma fractionation indicates that the segregated <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> probably equilibrate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.144..505S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.144..505S"><span>Helium isotope ratios in Ethiopian Rift <span class="hlt">basalts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scarsi, P.; Craig, H.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Helium isotope ratios were measured in olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts from <span class="hlt">basalts</span> of the Ethiopian Rift Valley and Afar Depression between 6° and 15°N and 37° and 43°E. 3He/4He ratios range from 6 to 17 times the atmospheric value (RA = 1.4 × 10-6), that is, from ratios less than typical MORB (depleted mantle) helium (R/RA= 8 ± 1) to ratios similar to high-3He hotspots and to the Yellowstone hotspot (R/RA= 16.5). The high 3He/4He ratios occur all along the Ethiopian Rift and well up into the Afar Depression, with a maximum value of 17.0 RA at 8°N in the Rift Axis and a high value of 14.2 RA in the central Tat'Ali sector of the Afar Depression. The ratios decrease to MORB-like values near the edge of the Red Sea, and to sub-MORB ratios (5-6 RA) at the northern end of the Rift (Zula Peninsula) and at the southern end, at lakes Abaya and Chamo. The Ethiopian Rift provides the only continental hotspot terrain in which helium isotope ratios can be compared in detail between volcanic lavas and associated geothermal and volcanic gases, a primary motivation for this work. Comparison with our previously measured ratios in fluids and gases (range 2-15 RA) shows excellent agreement in the areas sampled for both lavas and fluids, and indicates that high-temperature volcanic fluids can be used for establishing helium isotope signatures in such terrains. The high-3He values in both fluids and <span class="hlt">basalts</span> show that a Primitive Mantle (PM) component is required and that a Lower Mantle High-3He plume is strongly involved as a driving force in the rifting process of the East African Rift System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeCoA..67..185K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeCoA..67..185K"><span>Isotope geochemistry of caliche developed on <span class="hlt">basalt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knauth, L. Paul; Brilli, Mauro; Klonowski, Stan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Enormous variations in oxygen and carbon isotopes occur in caliche developed on < 3 Ma <span class="hlt">basalts</span> in 3 volcanic fields in Arizona, significantly extending the range of δ 18O and δ 13C observed in terrestrial caliche. Within each volcanic field, δ 18O is broadly co-variant with δ 13C and increases as δ 13C increases. The most 18O and 13C enriched samples are for subaerial calcite developed on pinnacles, knobs, and flow lobes that protrude above tephra and soil. The most 18O and 13C depleted samples are for pedogenic carbonate developed in soil atmospheres. The pedogenic caliche has δ 18O fixed by normal precipitation in local meteoric waters at ambient temperatures and has low δ 13C characteristic of microbial soil CO 2. Subaerial caliche has formed from 18O-rich evapoconcentrated meteoric waters that dried out on surfaces after local rains. The associated 13C enrichment is due either to removal of 12C by photosynthesizers in the evaporating drops or to kinetic isotope effects associated with evaporation. Caliche on <span class="hlt">basalt</span> lava flows thus initially forms with the isotopic signature of evaporation and is subsequently over-layered during burial by calcite carrying the isotopic signature of the soil environment. The large change in carbon isotope composition in subsequent soil calcite defines an isotopic biosignature that should have developed in martian examples if Mars had a "warm, wet" early period and photosynthesizing microbes were present in the early soils. The approach can be similarly applied to terrestrial Precambrian paleocaliche in the search for the earliest record of life on land. Large variations reported for δ 18O of carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001 do not necessarily require high temperatures, playa lakes, or flood runoff if the carbonate is an example of altered martian caliche.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V51A3040B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V51A3040B"><span>Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying <span class="hlt">basalt</span> weathering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly <span class="hlt">basaltic</span>, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017626','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017626"><span>Vapor <span class="hlt">saturation</span> and accumulation in magmas of the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gerlach, Terrance M.; Westrich, Henry R.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Finnegan, David L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, provided an opportunity to compare petrologic estimates of SO2 and Cl emissions with estimates of SO2 emissions based on remote sensing data and estimates of Cl emissions based on plume sampling. In this study, we measure the sulfur and chlorine contents of melt inclusions and matrix glasses in the eruption products to determine petrologic estimates of SO2 and Cl emissions. We compare the results with emission estimates based on COSPEC and TOMS data for SO2 and data for Cl/SO2 in plume samples. For the explosive vent clearing period (December 14–22, 1989), the petrologic estimate for SO2 emission is 21,000 tons, or ~12% of a TOMS estimate of 175,000 tons. For the dome growth period (December 22, 1989 to mid-June 1990), the petrologic estimate for SO2 emission is 18,000 tons, or ~3% of COSPEC-based estimates of 572,000–680,000 tons. The petrologic estimates give a total SO2 emission of only 39,000 tons compared to an integrated TOMS/COSPEC emission estimate of ~1,000,000 tons for the whole eruption, including quiescent degassing after mid-June 1990. Petrologic estimates also appear to underestimate Cl emissions, but apparent HCl scavenging in the plume complicates Cl emission comparisons. Several potential sources of ‘excess sulfur’ often invoked to explain petrologic SO2 deficits are concluded to be unlikely for the 1989–1990 Redoubt eruption — e.g., breakdown of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span>, breakdown of anhydrite, release of SO2 from a hydrothermal system, degassing of commingled infusions of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> in the magma chamber, and syn-eruptive degassing of sulfur from melt present in non-erupted magma. Leakage and/or diffusion of sulfur from melt inclusions do not provide convincing explanations for the petrologic SO2 deficits either. The main cause of low petrologic estimates for SO2 is that melt inclusions do not represent the total sulfur content of the Redoubt magmas, which were vapor-<span class="hlt">saturated</span> magmas carrying most of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V13C2614D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V13C2614D"><span>Geologic Mapping of <span class="hlt">Basalt</span> Flows: Implications for Petrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Grove, T. L.; Champion, D. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Basaltic</span> lava flows can display a variety of compositional signatures that hold clues to P, T, and composition of the mantle from which they originated. Compositional variation within <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows records individual histories of mantle and crustal processes. At the Cascades rear-arc Newberry and Medicine Lake volcanoes, detailed geologic mapping of compositionally-zoned <span class="hlt">basalts</span> indicates clearly that "drive-through" sampling of such lava flows would fail to capture the full geochemical story. For these flows, the internal stratigraphy captures the eruptive sequence that took place as the magma reservoir was tapped. Given a range of composition, or exposures of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> that have different compositions, how does one know whether different eruptions have occurred, or whether a single compositionally-zoned eruption took place? Geologic mapping today goes well beyond traditional approaches using petrography and morphology. In addition to those basic tools, iterative use of multiple chemical analyses and, most critically, paleomagnetic sampling are essential to identifying individual <span class="hlt">basalt</span> eruptive events. At Medicine Lake volcano in N. CA, 4 compositionally-zoned <span class="hlt">basalt</span> flows have been documented (see Donnelly-Nolan, 2011, USGS map SIM 2927): (1) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Black Crater and Ross Chimneys; this very small eruptive event produced 0.001 km3 of lava that covers 0.4 km2. SiO2 content increased from 48.3 to 50.6% as the eruption progressed; composition also correlates with latitude; (2) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Giant Crater, 200-sq-km postglacial <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> that is characterized by strong variation in a variety of elements (e.g. 47.7-53.2% SiO2, 0.07-1.1% K2O) [Baker et al. 1991 JGR; Donnelly-Nolan et al. 1991 JGR]; (3) <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Mammoth Crater, 250-sq-km <span class="hlt">basaltic</span> andesite to <span class="hlt">basalt</span> also having strong SiO2 variation (48.2-56.0%), but in addition a lobe enriched in FeO and TiO2; (4) 300-sq-km <span class="hlt">basalt</span> of Yellowjacket Butte displays limited SiO2 variation, but linear variation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P51A1725L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P51A1725L"><span>Silicate <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span> and chemical differences between enstatite chondrites and Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehner, S. W.; Petaev, M. I.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>-sensitive material and contains minor elements such as Na, Ca, Mg, or Fe, which also occur in the adjacent minerals. Its high S content and vesicular nature point to formation by quenching of a high-temperature melt <span class="hlt">saturated</span> with a gaseous phase. The porous silica occurs in ~50% of chondrules [12], metal-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span> nodules, and as inter-chondrule clasts, suggesting it is a good tracer of silicate <span class="hlt">sulfidation</span>. Refs: [1] Javoy M. (1995) GRL 22: 2219-2222. [2] Javoy M. et al. (2010) EPSL 293: 259-268. [3] Kaminski E. & Javoy M. (2013) EPSL 365: 97-107. [4] Jacobsen S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2344. [5] Weisberg M.K. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 6556-6569. [6] Lehner S.W. et al. (2013) GCA 101: 34-56. [7] Simon S.B. et al. (2013) LPSC 44: #2270. [8] Lehner S.W. et al. (2012) LPSC 43: #2252. [9] Shahar A. et al. (2011) GCA 75: 7688-7697. [10] Kempl J. et al. (2013) EPSL 368: 61-68. [11] Fitoussi C. & Bourdon B. (2012) Science 335: 1477-1480. [12] Piani L. et al. (2013) MetSoc 76: # 5178.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..381Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MinDe..49..381Y"><span>Re-Os isotope and platinum-group element geochemistry of the Pobei Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-bearing mafic-ultramafic complex in the northeastern part of the Tarim Craton</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Sheng-Hong; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Lightfoot, Peter C.; Xu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Christina Yan; Jiang, Chang-Yi; Qu, Wen-Jun</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A number of mafic-ultramafic intrusions that host Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization occur in the northeastern Tarim Craton and the eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China). The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-mineralized Pobei mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the northeastern part of the Tarim Craton. The complex is composed of gabbro and olivine gabbro, cut by dunite, wehrlite, and melatroctolite of the Poyi and Poshi intrusions. Disseminated Ni-Cu <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization is present towards the base of the ultramafic bodies. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mineralization is typically low grade (<0.5 wt.% Ni and <2 wt.% S) with low platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations (<24.5 ppb Pt and <69 ppb Pd); the abundance of Cu in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is 1-8 wt.%, and Ni abundance in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> is typically >4 wt.%. Samples from the Pobei complex have ɛNd (at 280 Ma) values up to +8.1, consistent with the derivation of the magma from an asthenospheric mantle source. Fo 89.5 mol.% olivine from the ultramafic bodies is consistent with a primitive parental magma. <span class="hlt">Sulfide</span>-bearing dunite and wehrlite have high Cu/Pd ratios ranging from 24,000 to 218,000, indicating a magma that evolved under conditions of <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span>. The grades of Ni, Cu, and PGE in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> show a strong positive correlation. A model for these variations is proposed where the mantle source of the Pobei magma retained ~0.033 wt.% <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> during the production of a PGE-depleted parental magma. The parental magma migrated from the mantle to the crust and underwent further S <span class="hlt">saturation</span> to generate the observed mineralization along with its high Cu/Pd ratio at an R-factor varying from 100 to 1,200. The mineralization at Poshi and Poyi has very high γOs (at 280 Ma) values (+30 to +292) that are negatively correlated with the abundance of Os in 100 % <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> (5.81-271 ppb) and positively correlated with the Re/Os ratios; this indicates that <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> <span class="hlt">saturation</span> was triggered by the assimilation of crustal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> with both high γOs and Re</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035661','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035661"><span>Landsliding in partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>[1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is <span class="hlt">saturated</span> and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially <span class="hlt">saturated</span> earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880020278&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880020278&hterms=Pyrites&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPyrites"><span>Weathering of <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Pyrrhotite-pentlandite assemblages in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks may have contributed significantly to the chemical weathering reactions that produce degradation products in the Martian regolith. By analogy and terrestrial processes, a model is proposed whereby supergene alteration of these primary Fe-Ni <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> on Mars has generated secondary <span class="hlt">sulfides</span> (e.g., pyrite) below the water table and produced acidic groundwater containing high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Ni, and sulfate ions. The low pH solutions also initiated weathering reactions of igneous feldspars and ferromagnesian silicates to form clay silicate and ferric oxyhydroxide phases. Near-surface oxidation and hydrolysis of ferric sulfato-and hydroxo-complex ions and sols formed gossan above the water table consisting of poorly crystalline hydrated ferric sulfates (e.g., jarosite), oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite), and silica (opal). Underlying groundwater, now permafrost contains hydroxo sulfato complexes of Fe, Al, Mg, Ni, which may be stabilized in frozen acidic solutions beneath the surface of Mars. Sublimation of permafrost may replenish colloidal ferric oxides, sulfates, and phyllosilicates during dust storms on Mars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5067396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5067396"><span>Space-time relations of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-sulfate-silica deposits at the northern Cleft Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koski, R.A.; Smith, V.K. ); Embley, R.W. ); Jonasson, I.R. ); Kadko, D.C. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science)</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Submersible investigations along the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicate that a newly erupted sheet flow and two recent megaplume events are spatially related to a NNE-trending fissure system that is now the locus for active hydrothermal venting and deposition of massive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mounds and chimneys. Samples from active high-temperature vent sites located east and north of the sheet flow terrain include zoned Cu-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich chimneys (Type 1), bulbous anhydrite-rich chimneys (Type 2), and columnar Zn-<span class="hlt">sulfide</span>-rich chimneys (Type 3). Type 1 chimneys with large open channelways result from the focused discharge of fluid at temperatures between 310 and 328 C from the Monolith <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mound. Type 2 chimneys are constructed on the Monolith and Fountain mounds where discharge of fluid at temperatures between 293 and 315 C is diffuse and sluggish. Type 3 chimneys, characterized by twisting narrow channelways, are deposited from focused and relatively low-temperature fluid discharging directly from <span class="hlt">basalt</span> substrate. Inactive <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> chimneys (Type 4) located within 100 m of the fissure system have bulk compositions, mineral assemblages, colloform and bacteroidal textures, and oxygen isotope characteristics consistent with low-temperature (< 250 C ) deposition from less robust vents. Field relations and [sup 210]Pb ages (> 100 years) indicate that the Type 4 chimneys formed prior to the sheet flow eruption. The <span class="hlt">sulfide</span> mounds and Type 1 and Type 2 chimneys at the Monolith and Fountain vents, however, are an expression of the same magmatic event that caused the sheet flow eruption and megaplume events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNS42A..03V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMNS42A..03V"><span>Laboratory measurements of <span class="hlt">basalts</span> electrical resistivity under deep oceanic crustal conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Violay, M. E.; Gibert, B.; Azais, P.; Pezard, P. A.; Flovenz, O. G.; Asmundsson, R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>For sixty years, electrical resistivity soundings have been used to explore geothermal resources in Iceland. They have generally revealed two zones of high electrical conductivity, one at shallow depths (Flovenz et al., 1985) and another at 10-30 km depth (Beblo and Björnsson, 1978). The interpretation of these conductive zones in terms of composition and in-situ physical conditions is often ambiguous, as various parameters can explain these observations like temperature, partial melting, change in minerals and type of pore fluid. Accurate interpretations of resistivity data needed for geothermal exploration require laboratory measurements of electrical conductivities performed on rock samples at different conditions. We present here a method to measure electrical conductivity of rocks under deep crustal conditions for oceanic crustal rock, i.e. at temperatures up to 600°C, confining pressures up to 200 MPa and pore fluid pressures up to 50 MPa. The method has been developed in a internally heated, gas pressure apparatus (Paterson press). Electrical conductivity is measured on large cylindrical samples (15 to 22 mm in diameter and 10 to 15 mm in length) in a two parallel electrodes geometry. Such experiments require that the fluid <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sample is sleeved in an impermeable and deformable jacket serving to separate the confining pressure medium (high pressure argon) from the pore fluid <span class="hlt">saturated</span> sample. At temperature above 200°C a metal sleeve must be used, although it induces high leakage currents that could affect electrical measurements. The leakage currents are reduced using addition of 2 guard-ring parallel electrodes (Glover, 1995). The electrical impedance of <span class="hlt">basalt</span> has been measured over a frequency range from 10 -1 to 106 Hertz. Five different types of low porosity <span class="hlt">basalts</span> were selected to cover a range in alteration grade, from albitic to granulite facies. Application of this method will provide data on electrical conductivity of fresh and altered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/935042','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/935042"><span><span class="hlt">Saturation</span> of CVD Diamond Detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lucile S. Dauffy; Richard A. Lerche; Greg J. Schmid; Jeffrey A. Koch; Christopher Silbernagel</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a